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AA/AA-L Series

MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Altec Industries, Inc. reserves the right to improve models and change specifications without notice.

Altec Industries, Inc.


Utility Equipment and Bodies Since 1929
Copyright 2003 by Altec Industries, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be used or reproduced by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher. Making copies of any part of this publication for any purpose other than personal use is a violation of United States copyright laws. Manual Part Number 749-20151

Preface
This unit is the result of Altecs advanced technology and quality awareness in design, engineering, and manufacturing. At the time of delivery from the factory, this unit met or exceeded all applicable requirements of the American National Standards Institute. All information, illustrations, and specifications contained within this manual are based on the latest product information available at the time of publication. It is essential that all personnel involved in the use and/or care of this unit read and understand the Operators Manual. Given reasonable care and operation, according to the guidelines set forth in the manuals provided, this unit will provide many years of excellent service before requiring major maintenance. The scope of this manual is limited to periodic maintenance. It does not cover methods that may be required to inspect and repair major damage to the unit. Impacts to and excessive forces on the hydraulic utility equipment, through vehicular accidents, rollovers, excessive loading, and the like, may result in structural damage not obvious during a visual inspection. If the hydraulic utility equipment is subjected to such impacts or forces, a qualified person may need to perform additional testing such as acoustic emissions, magnuflux or ultrasonic testing as applicable. If structural damage is suspected or found, contact Altec for additional instructions.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from component failure. Continued use of a mobile unit with hidden damage could lead to component failure. Never alter or modify this unit in any way that might affect the structural integrity or operational characteristics without the specific written approval of Altec Industries, Inc. Unauthorized alterations or modifications will void the warranty. Of greater concern, is the possibility that unauthorized modification could adversely affect the safe operation of this unit, resulting in personal injury and/or property damage.

Danger
Death or serious injury will result from unprotected contact with energized conductors. Non-insulated units have no dielectric rating. Maintain safe clearances, as defined by federal, state, and local authorities, and your employer, from energized conductors. No unit can provide absolute safety when in proximity to energized conductors. No unit is designed or intended to replace or supersede any protective device or safe work practice relating to work in proximity to energized conductors. When in proximity to energized conductors, this unit shall only be used by trained personnel using their companys accepted work methods, safety procedures, and protective equipment. Training manuals are available from a variety of sources. Set-up requirements, work procedures, and safety precautions for each particular situation are the responsibility of the personnel involved in the use and/or care of this unit.

7-04

Section 1 Introduction
About This Manual
This manual provides instruction to safely inspect, repair, troubleshoot, and test the unit. Charts and figures are provided to support the text. Because options vary from one model to another, some figures may only be a representation of what is actually on the unit. Knowledge of the information in this manual combined with proper skills and training in hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical systems, provide a basis for safely maintaining the unit. Read and understand the applicable procedure before beginning. Carefully follow each procedure. Contact the following organizations for additional information. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) A92.2 for aerial devices American Public Power Association (Safety Manual for an Electric Utility) American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) American Welding Society (AWS) Canadian Standards Association (CSA) European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Fluid Power Society (FPS) Hydraulic Tool Manufacturers Association (HTMA) International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Dealers, installers, owners, users, operators, rentors, lessors, and lessees must comply with the appropriate sections of the applicable ANSI standard. The Appendix contains reference items to help maintain the unit. A glossary of industry terms is provided for your convenience. This glossary provides an understanding of the industry terms and phrases used in Altec manuals. Throughout the manual, the term unit is used to describe the Altec device, subbase, outriggers, and the associated interface with the vehicle. Additional copies of this manual may be ordered through your Altec representative. Supply the model and serial number found on the serial number placard and the manual part number from the front cover to assure that the correct manual will be supplied. This symbol is used throughout this manual to indicate danger, warning, and caution instructions. These instructions must be followed to reduce the likelihood of personal injury and/or property damage. The terms danger, warning, and caution represent varying degrees of personal injury and/or property damage that could result if the preventive instructions are not followed. The following paragraphs from ANSI publications explain each term. Danger Indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. This signal word is to be limited to the most extreme situations. Warning Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury. Caution Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury. It may also be used to alert against unsafe practices. The term attention is used to alert personnel of special information to assist in the maintenance of the unit or instructions that must be followed to prevent the possibility of damage to structures, components, or other property.

Section 1 Introduction 1

Section 2 Unit Specifications


General Specifications
This unit is available as an insulated model with articulating stacked booms. The upper boom does not travel overcenter. The platform floor is automatically maintained in a parallel position with the turntable during movement of the booms. Unit height specifications are based on 36-inch (91.4 cm) frame height. Figure 2.1 provides general unit specifications. The basic structural components are the outriggers, pedestal, turntable, lower boom, and upper boom. The steel structures are manufactured in the form of a closed box or tubular construction. This structural style resists torsional loading, as well as tension, compression, and bending loads. Careful consideration has been given to the design and manufacturing process to minimize the possibility of fatigue cracks. The insulated boom structural components are made of fiberglass. The inner fiberglass surface is impregnated with a wax compound providing a smooth surface for moisture to bead. The outer surface has a smooth gelcoat finish to protect the fiberglass. The nonconductive components, when properly maintained, clean, and dry, will meet the dielectric requirements of ANSI in effect at the time of unit manufacture. The ratings of the unit must be known and understood by its users. Only qualified operators who are fully trained and proficient shall use this unit near energized conductors. Personnel using this equipment must be familiar with the hazards of contact with energized conductors, for the protection of themselves, their coworkers and the public. The nature of electrical hazards is described in the Operators Manual. Personnel using this equipment on or near energized conductors must be familiar with these hazards for their own protection. AA500/500L 44.3 (13.5 m) 43.3 (13.2 m) 49.3 (15.0 m) 48.3 (14.7 m) 26.6 (8.1 m) 26.6 (8.1 m) 11.4 (3.5 m) 11.2 (3.4 m) 16 (406 mm) 450 lb (204.1 kg) 700 lb (317.5 kg) 350 lb (158.7 kg) 700 lb (317.5 kg) 600 lb (272.1 kg) 1,500 lb (680.3 kg) 0 to 153 -2 to 100 -2 to 96 Continuous Figure 2.1 Unit Specifications Section 2 Unit Specifications 3 AA600/600L 51.3 (15.6 m) 50.3 (15.3 m) 56.3 (17.2 m) 55.3 (16.9 m) 31.6 (9.6 m) 31.4 (9.6 m) 11.1 (3.4 m) 15.9 (4.8 m) 24 (609 mm) 450 lb (204.1 kg) 700 lb (317.5 kg) 350 lb (158.7 kg) 700 lb (317.5 kg) 600 lb (272.1 kg) 1,500 lb (680.3 kg) 0 to 153 -2 to 100 -2 to 96 Continuous

Item Ground to bottom of platform End-mounted platform Side-mounted platform(s) Working height End-mounted platform Side-mounted platform(s) Maximum reach from centerline of rotation to platform rim End-mounted platform Side-mounted hydraulic rotating platform(s) Stowed travel height, approximate Minimum upper boom isolation gap Fiberglass lower boom insert isolation gap Platform capacity1 End-mounted, one-man End-mounted, two-man Side-mounted, single one-man Side-mounted, two one-man Side-mounted, two one-man (with rotators) Maximum material handling capacity Upper boom articulation Lower boom articulation (personnel handling) Lower boom articulation (material handling) Rotation
1

Refer to capacity placards.

Component Identification
Upper Controls

Upper Boom Tip Upper Boom Platform Elbow

Sheaves/ Leveling Cables (Inside Booms) Upper Boom Pin

Platform Rotation Cylinder(s) Winch

Upper Controls

Jib Upper Boom Weldments Link Pins Upper Boom Cylinder/ Compensating Links Lower Boom Jib Cylinder Platform(s)

Upper Boom Rest Lower Controls Turntable Rotation Gearbox Lower Boom Cylinder Rotation Bearing

Lower Boom Rest

Pedestal (Below Turntable)

Outrigger Controls Outrigger

4 Section 2 Unit Specifications

Section 3 Safety
Safety Instructions
It is essential that all personnel involved in the use and/ or care of this unit read and understand the Operators and Maintenance Manuals. Safety alerts throughout the manuals highlight situations in which accidents can occur. Pay special attention to all safety alerts. The safety information in this manual applies only to the maintenance of this unit. Although procedures have been written to protect the mechanic and other personnel, there is no safety system to account for human error or negligence. emergency and first aid procedures, waste disposal methods, and spill or leak procedures. Report hazardous conditions. General Maintenance Information Remove the pressure in a hydraulic circuit before disconnecting its components. Use lifting devices of suitable capacity to support and handle components. Use a test block to adjust the relief setting on counterbalance holding valves. Be aware of your surroundings. Fully open all shutoff valves after servicing the unit. Complete the required procedures before returning the unit to operation.

Danger
Death or serious injury will result from unprotected contact with energized conductors. This unit does not provide protection from contact with or proximity to an electrically charged conductor when you are in contact with or proximity to another conductor or any grounded device, material, or equipment. Maintain safe clearances from energized conductors.

Disclaimer of Liability
Altec Industries, Inc. will not be liable for unauthorized alterations or modifications of the unit. Altec Industries, Inc. will not be liable for improper or abusive operation of the unit. Do not alter or modify this unit in any way that might affect its structural integrity, dielectric integrity, or operational characteristics without specific written approval from Altec Industries, Inc. Unauthorized alterations or modifications will void the warranty. However, of a greater concern is the possibility that unauthorized changes could adversely affect the units operation that could endanger personnel and/or damage property. Altec will not be responsible for unauthorized alterations or modifications that cause death, serious injury, and/or property damage. Altec Industries, Inc. assumes no liability for any personal injury and/or property damage related to the use of this manual when performing testing, operating, maintenance and/or repair procedures on this Altec unit.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from careless or improper use of the unit. The mechanic bears ultimate responsibility for following all regulations and safety rules of their employer and/or any state or federal law. Maintenance personnel must be trained in safe service procedures. Work practices may expose maintenance personnel to hazardous materials. Before using any chemical, read and understand the manufacturers label and the material safety data sheet (MSDS). These sheets explain

Attention

Section 3 Safety 5

Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection


Proper unit maintenance will reduce downtime, lower operating and repair costs and extend equipment life. Safety alone justifies a preventive maintenance program. This type of program is less expensive than making major repairs. This section contains information on properly inspecting the hydraulic system, structures, individual unit components, and lubrication. Use the Lubrication Chart and Diagram in this section when lubricating the unit. A Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist is provided in the Appendix. Use this checklist when performing routine maintenance and inspections to insure no areas are overlooked. Keep permanent, written and dated records of all service performed on the unit. Routine maintenance is performed on different components of the unit at different times (refer to the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist in the Appendix). More frequent maintenance may be necessary if the unit is operated under severe conditions. In addition to the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist recommendations, follow these recommendations on new units. Measure the turntable tilt before using a new unit. Change the return line filter after the first 15 to 25 PTO hours. Gearbox manufacturers recommend an initial oil change after the first 15 to 25 PTO hours. will tend to flatten along the loaded side. Since the seal material is synthetic, its elasticity is limited and it may not resume its original shape completely. At best, there will be some failure to seal well for a short period of time after putting the equipment back into use. At worst, the seal will never resume its original shape and will have to be replaced.

Protective Measures

If it is known that equipment will be stored for a month or more, some steps should be taken to preserve the equipment. 1. The best preservative is to fully cycle (operate) the equipment once weekly if even for a short time. 2. Coat exposed ferrous (iron or steel) bare metal surfaces with a light grease or heavy oil compatible with system hydraulic oil. This includes cylinder rods, shafts, gears, linkages, and unpainted parts. 3. Top off fluid reservoirs to allow as little air space as possible, to limit the effects of condensation. Remove excess oil before operating to limit the chance of overflow when cylinders are cycled. 4. Cover or wrap exposed rubber or neoprene parts with an ultraviolet resistant covering to shield the parts from sun exposure. 5. Unplug electrical connectors and apply a dielectric grease or an aerosol product designed for protecting electrical connectors. Plug the connector back together. 6. Cover switch panels and control panels to prevent direct intrusion of rain or moisture, while allowing air to circulate over the panel. 7. Cover personnel platforms to prevent the accumulation of water in the platform. 8. Shield fiberglass components from the sun and other elements, if stored outside.

Equipment Storage
Mobile hydraulic equipment needs maintenance when stored, or not used, for extensive periods of time. Depending upon the climate, lack of use may begin to have a negative effect in as little as two weeks. Storage for a period of several months will almost certainly produce some deterioration of the equipment. Rust will form on unprotected ferrous metal surfaces very quickly and water will collect inside unit structures. In dry climates, gaskets will begin to shrink during long periods of non-use, and lubricants will lose their ability to provide lubrication. In cold climates, condensation may occur in fluid reservoirs and other components. Even when protective measures have been taken prior to storage, some degradation of performance must be expected when the equipment is put back into use. One of the most noticeable effects of prolonged periods of non-use is seal deformation. By its nature, hydraulic equipment generally has a number of heavy, cylindrical actuators. As these components are allowed to rest in one position for a period of time, the seals on the piston

Hydraulic System
Warning
Death or serious injury can result if the recommended hydraulic oil is not used. Use of other fluids in the hydraulic system can affect the insulating capability of the unit. Only use hydraulic oil as recommended. Other fluids added to the hydraulic system can increase compoSection 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 7

Attention

nent wear and affect the lubricating characteristics of the oil. Maintaining the hydraulic system is critical to the proper operation of the unit. Using the proper type of oil helps to prevent many hydraulic system problems. Maintaining hydraulic system cleanliness is essential to prevent component damage and assure proper unit operation. Check the oil level in the reservoir with the vehicle level, the booms stowed, and all cylinders retracted. Under these conditions, the proper oil level is approximately three inches from the top of the reservoir. Use the Full and Add marks on the filler breather cap dipstick to determine the oil level. The reservoir contains 15 gallons of hydraulic oil when filled to the Full mark.

micron filter element that cleans the air as it enters the hydraulic system. The fill hole wire 30-mesh strainer basket filters large particles when oil this poured into the reservoir. Reservoir Cover Filler Breather Cap

Return Line Inlet

Suction Line Outlet

Cleanliness Precautions

Contamination can ruin any hydraulic system. It is very important that no contaminants enter the system. Dirt, water, and air are examples of hydraulic system contaminants. Contaminants can enter the hydraulic system during maintenance procedures, such as when filling the reservoir, changing filters, changing components, or performing other service procedures. The following precautions will help protect the cleanliness of the hydraulic system. Filter new oil through a 10-micron filter as it is added to the reservoir. Clean hydraulic connections before opening them. Plug or cap ports and lines opened for service. Keep replacement hoses, tubes, and other components plugged while stored. Clean the components before installation. Clean the reservoir and return line filter covers before removing. Clean the filler breather cap before removal. Replace the access cover after servicing the reservoir. Clean the quick disconnect couplers before connecting. Do not spray water on the reservoir filler breather cap. This could force contaminants into the reservoir.

Figure 4.1 Reservoir Replace the filler breather cap every two years. If the unit is operated in an extremely dusty environment, it may be necessary to replace the filler breather cap more often. Remove the flush out (or replace) the strainer basket any time it has collected dirt or other contaminants. Flush the strainer basket when the hydraulic oil is changed. Suction Strainer Hydraulic oil leaving the reservoir through the suction line, on its way to the pump, passes through a suction strainer (refer to Figure 4.2). The suction strainer is located outside of the reservoir and contains a 150micron wire mesh screen. Although the screen may be cleaned, it is also available as a service part. Suction Line Shutoff Valve

Reservoir

Filtration

The unit is equipped with a complete filtration system. When properly maintained, this system will reduce contamination of the hydraulic system. The filtration system must be serviced regularly to be effective. Filler Breather Cap and Strainer Basket The filler breather cap is located on top of the reservoir (refer to Figure 4.1). The cap allows air to flow in and out of the reservoir as the oil level changes. It contains a 108 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

Housing Drain Plug Figure 4.2 Suction Strainer It is important to clean the screen regularly. Clean it whenever the hydraulic oil is changed. Oil will not flow into the pump fast enough if the screen becomes clogged.

If the pump does not receive sufficient oil flow, pump damage will result. Use the following procedure to remove, clean, and install the suction strainer. 1. Close the shutoff valve located between the reservoir and the suction strainer. 2. If required, remove the drain plug on the bottom of the suction strainer housing and drain the oil into a suitable container. 3. Remove the cap screws, lock washers, and suction strainer housing. 4. Remove the screen from the suction strainer housing.

In Line Filter

Sense Line Pump Figure 4.3 In-Line Filter (AA-L Units Only) On AA units, a 64-micron in-line filter is installed between the unloading valve and the accumulator. This type of filter is screwed into a break in the hydraulic line and has an arrow on the side of the cartridge to indicate the direction of oil flow. In-line filter cartridges should be cleaned or changed as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Return Line Filter The return line filter is a 10-micron filter that cleans the oil as it enters the reservoir. It is located in the return line connected to the reservoir (refer to Figure 4.4). The return line filter cartridge is a spin-on type. It resembles an automotive filter. Particles trapped by the return line filter are collected in the filter cartridge. Reservoir

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from improper use of solvents. Follow the manufacturers label for proper use and disposal.

Caution
Injury can result from airborne particles entering the eyes. Wear appropriate safety equipment. 5. Flush the screen with solvent and blow it dry with an air hose from the inside of the screen to the outside. The screen can be removed and cleaned in this manner no more than four times, then it must be replaced. 6. Flush the suction strainer housing and blow it dry with an air hose. 7. Inspect the O-ring on the suction strainer housing for cuts, nicks, and deterioration. Replace the O-ring if it is damaged. Lubricate the O-ring with hydraulic oil before assembling the suction strainer. 8. Install the screen in the suction strainer housing. Install the housing on the suction strainer head with cap screws and lock washers. 9. If required, install the drain plug. 10. Open the shutoff valve. In-Line Filters On AA-L units, a 64-micron metal screen in-line filter is used in the pump sense line (refer to Figure 4.3) and the pilot line of the outrigger signal valve.

Return Line Shutoff Valve

Filter Cartridge Figure 4.4 Return Line Filter The return line filter is equipped with a bypass valve. The bypass valve opens when there is a pressure drop of 25 psi (1.72 bars) or more across the filter cartridge. When the valve is open, oil flows directly into the reservoir. This prevents the cartridge from collapsing during cold oil start-ups or if the filter is clogged. If the filter becomes clogged, oil will flow directly into the reservoir through the bypass valve. The lack of oil filtration will eventually cause serious damage to hydraulic components. Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 9

During the initial break-in period of a new unit, the hydraulic components will deposit break-in wear particles in the return line filter cartridge. Change the return line cartridge after the first 15 to 25 PTO hours. Change the cartridge at the interval recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. The return line filter cartridge is a spin-on type. Although this filter resembles an automotive filter, it should be replaced with a genuine Altec replacement part. Other filters may screw into the filter housing, but they may not have the same micron rating or bypass characteristics.

in the hydraulic system can affect the insulating capability of the unit. Only use hydraulic oil as recommended. Other fluids added to the hydraulic system can increase component wear and affect the lubricating characteristics of the oil. Only use oils meeting the viscosity rating for military specification MIL-5606 in extremely cold climates. These oils have fewer antiwear characteristics and are not recommended for full time use. Figure 4.5 shows hydraulic oil recommendations for different temperatures. Most companies can supply equivalent oils. The oil selected for the hydraulic system depends on the temperature during unit operation.

Attention

Oil Specifications

Use high quality oil in the hydraulic system. The hydraulic oil should contain rust, oxidation, and corrosion inhibitors, and antifoam and antiwear additives. Hydraulic oils used in insulated equipment must possess high demulsibility. This means the oil will expel water. This allows the oil to separate from the water in the reservoir. These oils must pass the ASTM D877 test for dielectric breakdown voltage of insulating oils at 25 kilovolts or higher for new oil. Hydraulic oil is classified by viscosity. The viscosity of the hydraulic oil changes with the temperature. The higher the viscosity index of the oil, the less the viscosity will change as the temperature changes. Multiviscosity oil contains additives, which increase the viscosity index. Multiviscosity oils should have high shear stability to maintain oil performance by avoiding excessive change in viscosity. The ability of hydraulic oil to provide adequate fluid at low temperatures is measured by its pour point. If the pour point is not low enough, oil will not flow into the pump at a fast enough rate when the pump is operated at low temperatures to prevent cavitation. This will cause cavitation, which can very quickly destroy the pump.

Oil Condition

An important part of hydraulic system preventive maintenance includes checking the condition of the hydraulic oil. Periodic laboratory analysis is the most accurate method for determining the condition of the hydraulic oil and determining when it should be changed. Visually inspect the oil to help check its condition. A hydraulic oil supplier should be able to do this testing or recommend a test laboratory. The laboratory should provide the following information. Particle count Trace element analysis (component wear, outside contaminants, and oil additive concentrations) Viscosity test Water content test Dielectric strength test Before taking a sample of oil, operate the unit to circulate the oil. Warm it to operating temperature. It is better to take the sample from the middle level of the reservoir. This can be done using a clean hand pump, such as a disposable syringe and a piece of plastic tubing. If this is All Weather Oil 90 SSU (20.2 cSt) 43 SSU (5.0 cSt) -55F (-48C) Warm Weather Oil 150 SSU (30 cSt) 46 SSU (5.5 cSt) -30F (-34C)

Warning
Death or serious injury can result if the recommended hydraulic oil is not used. Use of other fluids Specification Ambient temperature range Viscosity @ 100F (38C) Viscosity @ 210F (99C) Pour point Maximum oil temperature Cold Weather Oil 85 SSU (17 cSt) 35 SSU (4.5 cSt) -80F (-62C) 160F (71C)

-50 to 60F (-46 to 16C) -10 to 90F (-23 to 32C) 40F (4C) and above

Minimum pump start-up temperature -15F (-26C) Figure 4.5 Hydraulic Oil Viscosity Recommendations 10 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

not available, the sample can be drained from the bottom of the reservoir. Allow several quarts of oil to flow out before collecting the sample. This will remove any dirt and water that has collected in the reservoir. If the laboratory has not provided a sample container, use a wide mouth, screw top, clear glass container. Clean it with hot water and detergent. Rinse it thoroughly and let it air dry before putting oil into it. Once the report is received, compare it to previous oil analysis reports for the same unit. This information provides trends toward deterioration of the oil. It may give early warnings of a problem developing within hydraulic system components. Change the oil if the sample has any of the characteristics listed in Figure 4.6. If making a visual inspection, compare the sample of oil to a sample of new oil of the same type. Also, compare it to previous samples taken from the same unit. Look for the signs of oil deterioration listed in Figure 4.6. There are portable fluid contamination level detector kits available allow for rapid, on-the-spot analysis of the hydraulic systems condition. Contact your nearest Altec representative for further details. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that occurs when air reacts with various compounds in the oil. This chemical reaction produces varnishes that bake onto hot surfaces. These oxidation products are acidic and tend to attack metal surfaces. This can cause damage to parts in pumps, motors, and valves. High operating temperatures will increase the rate of oxidation of the oil. The presence of water or air in the hydraulic oil also causes oxidation. The presence of water may cause rust and corrosion. It also reduces the dielectric capability of the oil. Condition Dark color Cloudiness or milky appearance Rancid or burned odor Increase in viscosity Decrease in viscosity Separation of water or other fluids from the oil Foreign particles or other visible contamination

If laboratory analysis or visual inspection indicate that the oil is deteriorating prematurely, determine the cause of the problem and correct it.

Changing Oil and Flushing the System

Properly maintained, the filtration system greatly extends the useful life of the hydraulic oil. However, the oil will eventually need to be replaced due to contaminants that form during normal operation of the unit. It is impossible to recommend an exact time interval for oil changes due to varying conditions of unit use. Use the following guidelines to determine if the hydraulic oil should be changed. Change the oil at least once a year. If a hydraulic component fails and contaminates the system with metallic particles, change the component and the oil immediately. In climates where there is a wide variation in operating temperatures between summer and winter months, change to the appropriate weight oil each spring and fall. Replace the return line filter cartridge, in-line filter, and filler breather cap every time the hydraulic oil is changed. Also, clean or replace the suction strainer. A significant quantity of oil remains in the cylinders and lines of the hydraulic system when the reservoir is drained. Flush the system when the oil is changed. This is especially important if the system is heavily contaminated with metal particles. If the oil is heavily contaminated with water, it may be necessary to change the oil and flush the system. Follow the instructions in this section under Water Removal. The following equipment and supplies are needed to properly flush the hydraulic system.

Attention

Possible Cause Oxidation; contamination Presence of water or wax Oxidation Oxidation; addition of improper fluids; presence of water Addition of improper fluids; additive deterioration Presence of water; addition of improper fluids Contamination; emulsion of water with oil additives

Figure 4.6 Hydraulic Oil Conditions Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 11

Hydraulic oil of the proper grade 25 gallons (95 liters) for a 15 gallon (57 liter) reservoir Two return line filter elements Clean, lint-free rags Reservoir gasket Filler breather cap (if component has not been replaced within one year)

8. If hydraulic component failure has contaminated the system, change the return line filter and clean the suction strainer.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result if the recommended hydraulic oil is not used. Use of other fluids in the hydraulic system can affect the insulating capability of the unit. Only use hydraulic oil as recommended. Other fluids added to the hydraulic system can increase component wear and affect the lubricating characteristics of the oil. 9. For a 15-gallon (57 liter) reservoir, add 9 gallons (34 liters) of new hydraulic oil of the proper grade to the reservoir. Filter the oil through a 10-micron filter as it is put into the reservoir. Damage to the pump or return line filter can result if the unit is operated with either or both of the shutoff valves closed. Fully open the shutoff valves before engaging the PTO. 10. If the new oil was not filtered as it was put into the reservoir, allow the new oil to circulate through the tool circuit for 15 minutes. To do this, connect an open center tool or service hose to the tool circuit. 11. Using a slow engine speed and the lower controls, cycle all the cylinders and the rotation motor to flush the contaminated oil from the lines and components of the hydraulic system. 12. Drain the reservoir again. 13. Change the return line filter cartridge and clean the suction line strainer. 14. For a 15-gallon (57 liter) reservoir, fill the reservoir to the full mark on the dipstick with new hydraulic oil. Make sure the oil is the proper grade. Filter the oil through oil 10-micron filter as it is put into the reservoir. 15. If the new oil was not filtered as it was put into the reservoir, circulate the oil through the tool circuit as described in step 10. 16. Change the return line filter cartridge after approximately 25 hours.

Caution
Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. Use the following steps to flush the hydraulic system. 1. If the oil is being changed because of contamination from hydraulic component failure, go to step 2. Otherwise, operate the unit to circulate the oil and warm it to operating temperature. This will allow as much of the impurities as possible to drain off in suspension. 2. Drain the oil reservoir completely. 3. Wipe off the top of the reservoir, reservoir cover, and filler breather cap. 4. Remove the strainer basket. If the filler breather cap and strainer basket have not been replaced in one year or are damaged, replace them when reassembling the reservoir in step 7. 5. Remove the reservoir cover from the top of the reservoir (refer to Figure 4.1).

Attention

Attention

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from improper use of solvents. Follow the manufacturers label for proper use and disposal. 6. Inspect the inside of the reservoir. If sludge or other contamination is found, clean the reservoir using solvent and lint-free rags. Disconnect the return and pump suction lines from the sides of the reservoir to prevent contamination while cleaning. This will keep dirt and solvent out of the return and suction lines. Reconnect the return and suction lines immediately after cleaning. 7. Install the strainer basket and filler breather cap. Check the reservoir cover O-ring. If it is not in good condition, use a new one. Install the reservoir cover.

12 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

Water Removal If the hydraulic system was heavily contaminated with water, special water removal filtration may be necessary. An oil supplier or a qualified laboratory can determine whether water has caused excessive oil oxidation or additive deterioration. If analysis shows oil deterioration beyond an acceptable level, drain the reservoir and flush the system. Use a water removal cartridge during the flushing process to remove any residual water from the system. When the flushing process is complete, replace the water removal filter cartridge with a regular cartridge. If the condition of the oil is acceptable except for the water content, allow time for it to separate from the oil. Then drain the water off the bottom of the reservoir. Circulate the oil inside the reservoir through a separate water removal filter cartridge. This may require two or more water removal filter cartridges, depending on the amount of water content. The cartridges capacity is approximately one cup of water. Once the cartridge has accumulated this amount of water, it needs to be replaced. Change the water removal cartridge and minimum of every other day. Continue this process until the water content in the oil is reduced to an acceptable level. The preferred method of determining the water content in the oil is laboratory testing. Another method is a dielectric test. Once the water content has been reduced to an acceptable level, replace the cartridge with a new return line filter cartridge.

If the unit is not used, or is stored for any length of time, apply fresh lubricant at all points shown on the Lubrication Chart and Diagram. This will help prevent corrosion during the idle period. Outriggers Pin connections on the outriggers are made with zinc plated pins coated with anti-seize compound to prevent corrosion. These connections do not require additional lubrication unless they are disassembled. Use the following procedure to lubricate the inner legs of A-frame outriggers. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Engage the PTO and extend the outrigger legs. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. Wipe the exposed inner leg surfaces to remove any dirt, moisture, etc. 3. Wipe on a coating of moly grease. 4. Start the engine and engage the PTO. Retract and extend the outrigger legs several times to spread the grease evenly on the surface. 5. Extend the outrigger legs and wipe off the excess grease to prevent buildup of dust and other particles. 6. Retract the outrigger legs. Bearings Self-lubricating bearings and oil impregnated bronze bushings require no lubrication. Please refer to the section on bearings for more information on self-lubricating bearings. Self-lubricating bearings are used at the lower boom pivot pin, large leveling sheaves, upper boom drive linkage pivot pins, elbow (or upper boom pivot) pin, and platform rotator(s). Oil impregnated bronze bushings are used on the rest of the idler sheaves and upper control linkage. Spherical bearings are used at the mounting points of the upper and lower boom cylinders and at both ends of the steel compensating linkage. All spherical bearings require periodic lubrication. If they are not greased properly, the normal usable life of the bearing will be greatly reduced. These bearings can produce enough twisting force on the mounting pins to break the pin retainers and make removal very difficult if they are not properly lubricated. Rotation Bearing The rotation bearing ball path is lubricated through a grease fitting located on the front of the turntable. Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 13

Lubrication
Proper lubrication will extend the life of the equipment and help to avoid maintenance problems. The interval between lubrications depends on the amount of use and the conditions the unit is operated in. Lubricate the unit as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Operation in extremely dusty, sandy, or rainy environments will require more frequent lubrication. The Lubrication Chart and Diagram identifies each component, type of lubricant, and method of application. Any brand of lubricant that meets or exceeds the specifications of the products listed is acceptable. There are four distinct intervals of lubrication. Select the appropriate interval and lubricate the components identified by the symbol(s). Always wipe grease fittings clean before and after greasing to keep contaminants from entering the points of lubrication. To avoid bearing damage, use manually operated grease guns. Air-driven grease guns may have enough force to cause bearing damage.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from being trapped between moving components. Maintain a safe distance while components are in motion. Do not lubricate while operating the unit. Stop turntable movement before lubricating. Rotate the turntable slowly through at least two complete 360-degree revolutions, stopping periodically to lubricate. Operate the manual grease gun at each stop until a small amount of excess grease appears around the seal. Rotation Gear Teeth Apply an open face gear lubricant to the rotation gear and pinion teeth.

The overall life expectancy of a gearbox may be extended by regularly draining and refilling the oil. The best time to drain a gearbox is right after it has been operating. At this time, the oil is warm and the wear particles are suspended in the oil. Change the oil at the interval recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. If a gearbox is overheated and the oil smells burned, change the oil immediately. Change the oil if it becomes diluted with hydraulic oil from a leaking seal. Wipe the gearbox clean before removing the plug from the fill or check hole. Do not overfill the gearbox with oil. Overfilling will cause the gearbox to leak. Tighten the plugs securely after checking or filling. Clean excess oil from the gearbox to prevent dirt buildup. The top bearing on the rotation gearbox requires periodic lubrication. Three to five pumps with a manually operated grease gun is enough to adequately lubricate the bearing. The oil should be level with the bottom of the fill hole. Winch Gearbox The winch gearbox has a vent plug that must be kept free of paint and dirt. The vent prevents excessive pressure buildup inside the gearbox as the oil expands during operation. Remove the plug to check the oil. If low, fill to the plug level with SAE 140 worm gear oil. Leveling Cables

Caution
Injury can result from contact with pinion and rotation bearing gear teeth. Keep hands clear. Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. Remove the pinion cover from the turntable to lubricate the rotation gear teeth. Replace the cover after the lubrication has been completed.

Lubricate the leveling cables after using a high pressure washer or chemical degreasers. The cables for the leveling system require lubrication with a wire rope lubricant. Do not allow the cables to run dry. Lubricate both the upper and lower turnbuckles with a light lubricant. Control Levers The connecting link pivot points of the single handle control, outrigger, jib tilt, winch, and platform leveling, rotate, and tilt controls require lubrication. Use a generalpurpose spray lubricant on the linkage. Single Handle Control Use a small amount of general purpose spray lubricant on the control linkage pivot points. Wipe off the isolating links and any excess lubricant. Isolating links must be clean and dry. Valve Spools Use a small amount of general-purpose spray lubricant on the exposed surfaces of the valve spools as needed to keep the spools operating smoothly. Operate the valves control lever to spread the lubricant on the spool. Wipe off any excess lubricant.
3-04

Attention

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from being trapped between moving components. Maintain a safe distance while components are in motion. Do not lubricate the gear teeth while operating the unit. Stop turntable movement before lubricating. Rotate the turntable slowly through a complete 360 degree revolution. Rotation Gearbox The need to add oil regularly to the rotation or winch gearbox is a sign of leakage. Determine the cause of the leak and correct it. If the leak is ignored, the low oil level could damage the internal components of the gearbox. If the oil level appears to be increasing, this could be a sign of an internal hydraulic leak from a defective motor shaft seal.

14 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

Lubrication Chart and Diagram


Service items identified by the symbol(s) at the appropriate level. 85 hours/1 month 500 hours/6 months 1,000 hours/1 year 2,000 hours/2 year

If disassembled

Letter A C G

Lubricant Anti-Seize Compound Extreme pressure lubricant that prevents seizure, corrosion, rust, and galvanic pitting. Chassis Grease Multipurpose lithium base grease with good water resistance, rust inhibition, oxidation stability, and extreme pressure properties. Open Face Gear Lubricant Spray lubricant that penetrates and adheres with good water resistance, is unaffected by temperature extremes, and has extreme pressure properties. Moly Grease Multipurpose lithium base grease with molybdenum disulfide additive, good water resistance, rust inhibition, oxidation stability, and extreme pressure properties.

Application Method Brush Grease gun Spray

Brush/grease gun

R S W

Chain and Wire Rope Lubricant Penetrating, cleaning, nongumming protective spray; must minimize friction and eliminate rust. General Purpose Spray Lubricant SAE 140 Worm Gear Oil AGMA Grade 7 compounded or 7EP, must be noncorrosive to bronze.

Spray Spray Pour

Inner Leg Outer Surface


M A M

Cylinder and Shoe Pins A Modified A-Frame Outriggers

A-Frame Outriggers Winch Drum Shaft/Keys

Outrigger Control Levers Lower Tools Control Lever

Rotation Gearbox Top Bearing Vent and Fill Plug

W Change Oil

W Oil Level W Drain Plug on Bottom

Winch Gearbox

Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 15

Control Lever Linkage (Material Handling Units Only) Input Shaft Splines

Hydraulic Pump (AA Units Only)

Hydraulic Pump (AA-L Units Only)


C Spherical Bearing

Compensating Link Compensating Link Spherical Bearing C

Compensating Link (AA/AA-L 600 Units) Compensating Link (AA/AA-L 500 Units) Cylindrical Spherical Bearings C

Upper Boom Cylinder Spherical Bearings

Platform Tilt and Rotator Pin(s)


A

Platform Shaft

Lower Boom Cylinder Spherical Bearings C

A Gearbox Eccentric Ring C

Rotation Bearing Ball Race


R

G Bearing Gear Teeth

Rotation Pinion and

16 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

Structures
The structural components of the unit are identified in the Component Identification in Section 2. The unit has been designed to meet or exceed the ANSI specifications for vehicle-mounted rotating and elevating aerial devices. Regular inspection of the welds and structures is required to insure that components maintain their strength. Periodic cleaning of the structures is also recommended. This will prevent damage that can occur from dirt accumulation.

Welds

All welds on the unit are originally applied in conformance to AWS standards. Every weld on the unit is important and should be periodically inspected.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from improper use of solvents. Follow the manufacturers label for proper use and disposal. If paint has lifted off the weld, or if rust is found, a closer inspection is required. Remove any loose paint or rust with a wire brush. Clean the area with a solvent such as acetone. Closely inspect the area for cracks in the welds. Dye penetration and magnetic particle testing are relatively simple processes that may be used to verify or disprove a suspected problem. Visual inspections can be very effective if conducted properly. Clean the area to be inspected. Look for visible cracks in the weld and at the weld to parent material joint. Use a bright light to provide adequate visibility of the inspection area. Pay close attention to welds that are located where changes in cross section take place and near the attachment points of highly loaded components. To assist in the inspection of the welds on the unit, Figure 4.7 illustrates these areas. If any cracks or unacceptable conditions are discovered, report them to your Altec representative. Any welds added in the field should be done by qualified personnel and also conform to AWS standards. After doing repair work on the unit, such as weld repair, some testing of the unit may be required. Refer to section 6 for information on repairing mechanical components.

Caution
Injury can result from slipping and falling. Use care and the handles and steps provided. Periodic inspection of the structures is recommended to be certain there is no deformation, abnormal wear, or abrasion, interference between moving parts, or cracking of the welds on structural members. Inspect the structures and welds at the interval recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.

Cleaning

Accumulated dirt can damage the unit and cause it to malfunction. Dirt buildup also accelerates wear on the components.

Caution
Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. Keep the platform clean of debris. The weight of the operator and the debris may overload the platform. If a pressure washer or steam cleaner is used to clean the unit, be careful where the spray is directed. Do not direct the spray where the cleaning liquid might get into electrical components, such as electrical connections, switches, and lights. Even though all electrical components on the unit are designed for all weather use, it is possible for water pressure from the nozzle to push a seal out of position. Do not direct the spray at the filler breather cap of the reservoir. The high pressure can force water and cleaning liquid into the reservoir and contaminate the hydraulic oil. Refer to Fiberglass and Plastic Components in this section for information on cleaning the fiberglass components.

Fasteners
A variety of fasteners are used on the unit. Different fasteners have different inspection and installation requirements depending on their use and design. This section explains different fasteners used on the unit, torque specifications, and use of thread locking, antiseize compounds, and lockwiring techniques. The standard grade of fastener used on the unit is a zinc plated, SAE Grade 5, steel cap screw. SAE Grade 8 cap screws, or special high strength cap screws, are used in highly loaded areas. A variety of other fasteners such as socket head, flat countersunk head, and button head cap screws are also used on the unit. Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 17

3-04

Boom Tip

Pin Bosses (Inside and Outside of Upper and Lower Boom Weldments)

Upper Boom Weldment

Upper Boom Cylinder Attachment

Lower Boom Weldment

Lower Boom Cylinder Attachment

Pin Bosses Pedestal and Turntable Bearing Mounting Plates

Figure 4.7 Weld Inspection Areas Check all fasteners for tightness at the interval recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Figure 4.8 represents general locations of fasteners to inspect. When inspecting fasteners, pay particular attention to the following fasteners. Subbase fasteners Outrigger attachment fasteners Rotation bearing mounting cap screws Rotation gearbox mounting cap screws Lower boom insulator attachment cap screws Upper boom base end attachment cap screws Boom tip attachment cap screws Winch mounting cap screws Platform mounting cap screws All pin retainer cap screws and develop the required clamping force. The torque values on the chart are for dry (not lubricated) threads unless otherwise noted. A properly installed cap screw applies a clamping force equal to or greater than the load applied to it. A cap screw installed at less than the recommended torque value does not provide enough clamping force. The cap screw may fatigue, causing it to loosen or fail. If the cap screw is torqued beyond the recommended torque value, the elastic range of the cap screw may be exceeded. This will result in premature failure of the cap screw. When checking fastener torque value, check at 90 percent of the original value. For example, if the torque value for a cap screw is 100 foot-pounds (135.6 Nm), check the cap screw for tightness at 90 foot-pounds (122 Nm). Certain types of fasteners or fasteners used in special applications often require torque values that differ from common torque charts. Refer to Figure 4.9 non-typical fastener torque values used on this unit.

Refer to Torque Values in the Appendix as a guide to determine the proper cap screw torque value. The proper value is necessary to overcome the friction of the threads

18 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

Boom Tip Attachment Cap Screws

Insulator Attachment Cap Screws Insulator Attachment Cap Screws

Platform Mounting Cap Screws

Pin Lug Retaining Cap Screws

Rotation Gearbox Mounting Cap Screws Rotation Bearing Mounting Cap Screws

Pin Retaining Rings Figure 4.8 Fasteners Fasteners Platform mounting cap screws Upper boom base end attachment cap screws Boom tip attachment cap screws Figure 4.9 Torque Values Foot-Pounds (Nm) 55 (75) 70 (95) 70 (95) Snug Twists With no Slack Snug Loop Around Head

Lower boom insulator attachment cap screws 142 (193)

Methods of Lockwiring

Drilled head cap screws retained by lockwires are used at certain locations on the unit. Refer to Figure 4.10 for an example of proper lockwiring. The turnbuckles used in the leveling system are also lockwired. The technique used to lockwire the turnbuckles are covered in Section 6 under Leveling System. If any lockwire is found broken or damaged during inspection, the wires must be replaced. If the lockwire is cut off to remove a fastener, they must be replaced.

Pigtail Retaining Plate Forged Pin Retainer Figure 4.10 Lockwiring Use a relatively soft, aircraft-type safety wire for lockwiring. The following types are acceptable. Stainless steel safety wire Alloy 305, 0.043 (10.922 mm) diameter Zinc coated carbon steel wire MS20995F41, 0.041 (10.414 mm) diameter

Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 19

Use only new wire for lockwiring. Before lockwiring, make sure the cap screws are tightened to the proper torque value. Do not loosen cap screws or torque them beyond specified values to try to improve the location of the holes in the cap screw heads. Handle the wire carefully during installation. Make sure it does not become kinked, nicked or flattened. Avoid pulling the wire around sharp corners. Also avoid twisting it excessively or gripping it tightly with pliers. Use pliers with smooth, flat jaw surfaces. This type of pliers will minimize nicking of the wire. Special wire twister pliers are available from tool manufacturers. These pliers make it much easier to neatly and effectively lockwire. Lockwiring Procedure 1. Install the lockwire so it keeps the fastener from turning counterclockwise. 2. Twist the wires between the anchor point and the fastener so there is no slack. Twist the wire tightly enough to secure the part. Do not over twist or the wire will become brittle or stressed. 3. Install and twist the lockwire so the loop around the cap screw head is snug and does not come off and leave a slack loop. 4. Cut the wire off straight with wire cutters. 5. Make a pigtail of three to six twists at the end of the wiring. Bend the end of the pigtail back or under. This will prevent the sharp wire ends from being a potential cause of injury or a snag point. Inspection Marks Nuts or cap screws with locking patch element used in combination with inspection marks are used at specific locations on the unit that are visible to the operator during daily inspections. If any inspection marks are found to be cracked or broken during inspection, the original mark must be totally removed. The fastener torque must be checked (if no damage is evident) or the fastener replaced and torqued (if damage is evident), and the inspection mark reapplied. The inspection lacquer (refer to Service Tools and Supplies in the Appendix) should not be used after the expiration date printed on the container.

Attention

Use the following procedure to apply a new inspection mark. 1. Remove the majority of the original inspection mark by chipping it off with a chisel or other cutting method. Do not damage the surface on the nut, fastener, washer, and part or structure being attached to.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from improper use of solvents. Follow the manufacturers label for proper use and disposal. 2. Be sure the cleaning operation is performed in a wellventilated area. Remove the remaining residue using inspection lacquer cleaner (refer to Service Tools and Supplies in the Appendix). Apply the cleaner to a rag and completely remove the inspection stripe. 3. Properly torque the fastener. 4. Clean the area where the inspection stripe is to be applied with a soft clean cloth and acetone. 5. Start at the center of the cap screw and apply a 1/32 to 1/16 thick stripe of inspection lacquer to the head of the cap screw, across the washer, and onto the surface of the parent material. The stripe should extend 1/8 to 1/4 onto the parent material. 6. The stripe must be continuous across the surfaces. If it is not, remove the stripe with cleaner and reapply the inspection lacquer properly. Thread Locking Adhesives and Anti-Seize Compounds Anaerobic thread locking adhesives work in the absence of air. When a fastener is removed, it must be thoroughly cleaned and the adhesive must be applied before reinstalling. Properly torque the fastener before the adhesive cures, which occurs within 15 minutes of application. Apply medium strength anaerobic thread locking adhesive on the threads of the following fasteners and connections to provide additional security against loosening. All pin retaining cap screws Rotation gearbox mounting cap screws

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from improper use of solvents. Follow the manufacturers label for proper use and disposal.

20 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

Caution
Injury can result from airborne particles entering the eyes. Wear appropriate safety equipment. If the threads of the fasteners and the tapped hole are not clean and free of grease and oil, the effectiveness of the thread-locking adhesive will be reduced. Clean the threads of the fasteners and the tapped holes with solvent and blow dry with compressed air before applying the threadlocking adhesive. For optimum thread locking, follow the manufacturers label for proper use and disposal. Anti-seize compound may be used to prevent rust and corrosion from forming on the metal-to-metal contact areas between a connecting pin and its boss. It is also recommended for certain fasteners to reduce friction during torquing to increase clamping load. Apply antiseize compound to the following components. Platform pin Outrigger cylinder and shoe pins Pump output shaft splines Rotation gearbox mounting cap screws Rotation drive adjustment eccentric ring Winch drum shaft/keys/set screws/line anchor

Insufficient or uneven cap screw tightness can contribute to reduced life of the bearing.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. Only use Altec supplied cap screws and washers to mount the rotation bearing. Use an accurate 3/4 drive click-type manual torque wrench for the inspection of these cap screws. Torque the cap screws by a smooth pull on the torque wrench without jerking. Do not overtighten the cap screws. Visual Inspection Procedure Perform this visual inspection procedure as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Visually inspect all rotation bearing cap screws looking for any evidence that a cap screw is loose. Check for loose washers under the heads of the cap screws by trying to turn each washer by hand. If movement is indicated, all the cap screws must be retorqued using the Retorquing Procedure. Annual Torque Inspection Procedure Perform this inspection as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Randomly select four to five cap screws on both the outer and inner race of the rotation bearing. Select cap screws that are evenly spaced around the cap screw pattern and accessible with a torque wrench without the removal of major components. Remove and discard the protective caps from these cap screws. Check the selected cap screws to be sure they are torqued to 295 foot-pounds (396.6 Nm) or 90 percent of the normal installation torque of 325 foot-pounds (440.7 Nm). An accurate torque wrench, calibrated on a regular basis, must be used. If one or more of these cap screws turns before the wrench clicks, it will be necessary to check the torque on all the cap screws as described under Retorquing Procedure in this section. If the rotation bearing is replaced or removed, the same inspection intervals must be followed. Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 21

Attention

The area on which the anti-seize is applied must be clean and dry for the anti-seize to be effective. Proper application of the anti-seize will make future disassembly of the component much easier. Chrome pins used with self-lubricating bearings require special attention. Apply anti-seize compound to the surface of the pin only where the pin and steel pin bosses make contact. This pin installation procedure is described in this section under Pin and Pin Retainers. Special high-strength 3/4 cap screws are used to secure the rotation bearing to the pedestal and the turntable. These cap screws are coated with a dry film lubricant and have a patch lock material permanently bonded to the threads. They are torqued to 325 foot-pounds (441 Nm). Plastic caps are installed over the heads to help identify the fasteners. Placards alerting personnel of the torque value are attached to the pedestal weldment by each access hole. These cap screws require special inspection procedures. If a rotation bearing cap screw is removed, it must be replaced with a new cap screw. Contact your Altec representative for replacement rotation bearing cap screws.

Rotation Bearing Cap Screws

Retorquing Procedure Perform this procedure on the entire bearing race (outer, inner, or both) if any cap screws were found loose at the visual or annual inspections. If all the cap screws have been removed from one or both races of the rotation bearing, refer to Section 6 under Rotation System for the installation and torquing procedure. Some components may need to be removed to make the rotation bearing cap screws accessible for retorquing. Use the following procedure to retorque the cap screws. Understand the entire procedure before starting the retorquing procedure. 1. Remove and discard the remaining protective plastic caps from the cap screw heads on the outer race of the rotation bearing. 2. If any cap screws are replaced, look at the hole in the washer. Notice that it has a more rounded edge on one side. Install the washer with the rounded edges toward the cap screw head. Reinstall the cap screw and washer into the bearing and torque the cap screw to 325 foot-pounds (441 Nm). 3. Retorquing should be done according to the appropriate pattern shown in Figure 4.11. 4. Begin with cap screw number 1 and torque it to 325 foot-pounds (441 Nm). 5. Continue around the pattern, torquing each cap screw to 325 foot-pounds (441 Nm). 6. Retorque all cap screws to 325 foot-pounds (441 Nm) again, beginning at number 1. Go around in a circular pattern instead of in the numbered order. 7 1 9

7. Repeat steps 1 through 6 on the inner race of the rotation bearing.

Rotation Gearbox Mounting Cap Screws

Special 5/8 cap screws are used to secure the rotation gearbox to the turntable. The torque value for the cap screws is 225 foot-pounds (305 Nm). The cap screws require special inspection procedures. Insufficient or uneven cap screw tightness can contribute to reduced life of the gearbox.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. Only use Altec supplied cap screws and washers to install the rotation gearbox. Use an accurate 3/4 drive click-type manual torque wrench for the inspection of these cap screws. Torque the cap screws by a smooth pull on the torque wrench without jerking. Do not overtighten the cap screws. Visual Inspection Procedure Perform this visual inspection procedure as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Visually inspect all rotation gearbox cap screws, looking for any evidence that a cap screw is loose. Check for 9 4 7 12 2 8 3 10 5

Attention

3 Grease Fitting

11

13

5 Loading Plug 1 11

6 14 Gearbox Location 10

Inner Race

12

* Unused Holes

Outer Race

Figure 4.11 Rotation Bearing Cap Screw Torque Patterns 22 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

loose washers under the heads of the cap screws by trying to turn each washer by hand. If movement is indicated, retorque all the cap screws. Annual Torque Inspection Procedure Check the cap screws to be sure they are torqued to 203 foot-pounds (284 Nm) or 90 percent of the normal installation torque of 225 foot-pounds (305 Nm). Use a regularly calibrated, accurate torque wrench. If one or more of these cap screws turns before the wrench clicks, retorque all the cap screws to 225 foot-pounds (305 Nm). If the rotation gearbox is replaced or removed, follow the same inspection intervals. Stem

Lockwire

Lock Washers

Cylinder Eye

Forged Pin Retainer Retaining Ring

Retaining Ring

Pins and Pin Retainers


A variety of different types of pins and pin retainers are used on the unit. The type of pin or pin retainer depends on the particular application. Chrome plated pins are used in critical areas, such as the lower boom pivot pin. Chrome plating prevents rust and provides long wear for pins used was self-lubricating bearings. Use a dead blow hammer to remove or install pins. Striking the pin with a steel hammer may distort the pin or close the retaining ring groove. This may make pin installation difficult or cause the retaining ring to come out of its groove. Inspect all pivot and mounting pins regularly at the interval recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. When a pin is removed, inspect the chrome for signs of wear. Install a new pin if the chrome has become flaked, cracked, or galled. Proper lubrication protects pins from corrosion and excessive wear. However, pins used with self-lubricating bearings must not be lubricated. Refer to Bearings in this section for more information. Forged Pin Retainers Forged pin retainers are used to retain the majority of the pins on the unit. They retain the pivot pins on the lower and upper boom cylinders and the fiberglass portion of the compensating link. A forged pin retaining system is illustrated in Figure 4.12. During inspection, look for bent or broken stems. A pin or broken stem may indicate that the bearing within the joint is worn out. Also, it to pin binds within the joint and tries to turn, the stem could bend or break. This may indicate a lack of lubrication. Make sure the cap screw through the eye of the pin retainer is secure.

Figure 4.12 Forged Pin Retaining System If a forged pin retainer is damaged, determine the cause of the damage. Lubricate or take the connection apart and replace the necessary parts. Retaining Rings Retaining rings are used as a backup retaining system for some pins and as the primary retaining system for other pins. When inspecting retaining rings, check that they are properly installed and undamaged. Figure 4.12 illustrates how retaining rings are used as a backup retainer on the lower boom cylinder pivot pins. If the forged pin retainer should fail or fallout, the retaining rings will hold the pin in place. However, they will not prevent the pin from rotating. Immediately determine the cause of the problem and replace and/or repair the necessary parts. Install retaining rings with the sharp edge out (refer to Figure 4.13). This makes it more difficult for the retaining ring to come off to pin if the pin is being forced out the other side.

Sharp Edge

Section A-A Figure 4.13 Retaining Ring

Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 23

Flange and Lug Pin Retainers A flange and lug retaining system is used to secure the elbow pin. This system is also used to secure the links for the upper boom drive mechanism to the lower and upper booms and the lower boom to the turntable (refer to Figure 4.14). Rollpin Bearing Retaining Plate

First Boss Pin Bearing

Second Boss

Weld

Pin Anti-Seize Compound End Plate Lockwire Pivot Tube Figure 4.15 Pin Installation Into Self-Lubricating Bearings Use the following procedure to properly install the pin. 1. Slide the pin through the first boss and through the bearing until it reaches the second boss. 2. Apply an anti-seize compound to the second pin boss and pin surface that is still exposed. 3. Slide the pin completely into the second pin boss and install the appropriate retaining system.

Figure 4.14 Flange and Lug Pin Retaining Systems The elbow pin has a flange, or end plate, welded to one end. There is a slot in the flange. Once the pin is installed, a 3/8 x 11/2 cap screw and spacer tube or rollpin is inserted through the slot of the flange and into a hole in the weldment. The cap screw and spacer tube, or rollpin keep the pin from turning. A lug is installed over the other end of the pin. The lug is retained by two 3/8 x 1 cap screws. The cap screws are lockwired (refer to Figure 4.14). The elbow pin has an eccentric bushing installed on both ends of the pin. The eccentric ring is used to align the upper boom with the upper boom rest. Before this pin assembly is disassembled, mark the eccentric bushing so it can be put back in the same position to maintain alignment. The pins that secure the two links for the upper boom drive mechanism and the lower boom also use a flange and lug retaining system (refer to Figure 4.14). On these pins, the rollpin is inserted into a groove or hole in the flange and into the weldment. When inspecting these pins, check for cracking of the flange weld. Make sure the rollpin and/or cap screw and spacer tube is intact. Make sure the two 3/8 x 1 cap screws through the lug are tight and properly lockwired. These conditions are signs the bearings are binding the pin.

Bearings
Different types of bearings are used on the unit. The type of bearing used depends on the particular application.

Spherical Bearings

Spherical bearings are used on both ends of the lower and upper boom cylinders. Self-aligning bearings such as these are used in areas where perfect alignment is difficult to maintain. This type of bearing allows the component to follow the movements of the structure, without applying a side load to the internal components of the cylinder. Periodic lubrication of these bearings is required. Lubrication prevents the inner rim that maintains the alignment from seizing to the outer rim of the bearing. Refer to Lubrication in this section for a description of how to properly lubricate these bearings.

Self-Lubricating Bearings

Pin Installation Into Self-Lubricating Bearings

Self-lubricating bearings are used at the mounting points of the following components. Boom pivot pins Elbow pin Link pivot pins Platform pin

When installing a pin into a self-lubricating bearing, only lubricate the area where the pin and boss make contact (refer to Figure 4.15). 24 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

Self-lubricating bearings are designed for long life. Under normal use, this type of bearing will provide many years of service with virtually no maintenance. These bearings resist impact and shock loads, and abrasive contaminants. Self-lubricating bearings are made with a braided cord liner containing Teflon fibers. The liner is bonded to the outer shell of the bearing with epoxy resin. The epoxy resin has self-lubricating filler added to it. A chromeplated pin is used with this bearing. The inside diameter of a self-lubricating bearing is contains Teflon fibers. Once a pin is installed in the bearing, some of the Teflon transfers to the pin surface and provides lubrication. Applying anti-seize compound to the entire surface of the pin will prevent the Teflon from transferring. This may shorten bearing life. Replace these bearings if the components are disassembled for other purposes. Replacement of this type of bearing due to wear is not a normal consideration. If it is desirable to measure the bearing to determine when it is worn, several factors must be considered. The only accurate way to measure bearing wear is to keep a record of the clearance between the chrome pin and the bearing. Place the magnetic base of a dial indicator in a position that allows the clearance between the pin and the bearing to be measured while under load. Take an initial measurement when the unit is new. This will provide a reference point. Monitor the change in bearing clearance with subsequent measurements. For self-lubricating bearings, clearance wear on the bearing of 0.005 (1.27 mm) a may suggest that the bearing needs to be replaced. This figure takes into account only the wear of the bearing. For through the course of time, there may also be pin and pin boss wear. An overall change in the clearance between the pin and the bearing of 0.020 (5.08 mm) or more indicates the pin and bearing both need to be replaced. Replacement The following steps describe how to remove and install self-lubricating bearings. 1. Drive out the old bearing. If this is not possible, remove it with a die grinder, cut point chisel, or hacksaw blade (refer to Figure 4.16). Be careful not to damage the inside diameter of the bearing boss. 2. Use a screwdriver and needle nose pliers to collapse the bearing and pull it out of the bearing boss.

Removal Tool

Bearing Removal Driver Installation

Figure 4.16 Replacement of Self-Lubricating Bearings 3. Clean the bearing boss. Do not remove any metal from the boss surface. If metal is removed, the new bearing may not fit properly in the boss. 4. Place the new bearing on a bearing driver. Line it up with the bearing boss and drive the bearing into place using a dead blow hammer. An old pin may be used as a driver (refer to Figure 4.15). 5. Inspect the pin before installing it into the bearing. Install a new pin if the chrome is flaked, cracked, or galled. 6. Slide the pin through the first boss and through the bearing until it reaches the second pin boss. 7. Apply an anti-seize compound to the second pin boss and pin surface that is still exposed (refer to Figure 4.15). 8. Slide the pin through the second pin boss and install the appropriate pin retaining system. 9. On pins equipped with the flange and lug pin retaining system, add or subtract machine bushings (refer to Figure 4.17) to obtain 0.0 to 0.80 (2.03 mm) pin play (end clearance). Measure Clearance Here Lug Pin Machine Bushing Bearing

Figure 4.17 Machine Bushings Clearance

Rotation Bearing

The turntable rotates on a shear ball bearing called the rotation bearing. The inner race is mounted to the turntable. The outer race of is mounted to the pedestal. The outer race has gear teeth that mesh with the rotation pinion. The bearing provides for very low torque rotation. Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 25

Monitoring Bearing Wear The internal bearing clearance will increase slightly during the break-in period. It should then remain essentially constant for many years if the bearing is properly lubricated and not overloaded. As the bearing raceway begins to wear, the clearance will increase. It should increase steadily at first and accelerate toward the end of bearing life. An increase in bearing clearance is one of the signs of bearing wear. Periodic bearing tilt measurements will help determine when bearing replacement is necessary. Perform bearing inspection and turntable tilt measurements as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. More frequent inspections are required when the total increase in turntable tilt measurement reaches 0.050 (1.27 mm). An initial turntable tilt measurement should be taken when the unit is delivered. This will provide a baseline for future bearing tilt measurements. Future periodic bearing tilt measurements will be compared to this baseline to determine how much the bearing tilt has increased since the initial (new bearing) measurement. The greatest portion of the measured turntable tilt results from structural deflection rather than bearing internal clearance. It is important that the deflection be held constant by using the same measurement procedure each time. Keep a maintenance log to monitor the bearing inspections and turntable tilt measurements during the life of the unit. Bearing Replacement Criteria The rotation bearing must be inspected and evaluated. Altec recommends that the bearing inspection procedure include the following. Monitor the trend of turntable tilt measurements Bearing inspections and turntable tilt measurements can be used to determine when a bearing should be replaced. Generally, an increase in turntable tilt of 0.065 (1.65 mm) above the initial tilt measurement indicates that the bearing may be reaching the end of its useful life. Other factors related to the condition of the bearing must also be considered. Determine if the increase in the turntable tilt measurements has been steady or if it shows a trend of accelerated wear (refer to Figure 4.18). Example 1 shows a steady increase in wear, which is normal. Example 2 shows an accelerated increase in wear, which indicates bearing replacement may be necessary. If the tilt measurement has reached 0.065 (1.65 mm) above the initial (new bearing) tilt measurement, and periodic measurements show a trend of accelerated wear, replace the bearing. 26 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

340 Hour/4 Month Inspections Example 1 1 0.112 (2.84 mm) 2 3 0.114 (2.89 mm) 0.116 (2.95 mm)

Example 2 0.110 (2.79 mm) 0.114 (2.89 mm) 0.122 (3.10 mm)

Figure 4.18 Turntable Tilt Measurements Because the major portion of the measured turntable tilt results from structural deflection, the total tilt measurement varies from model to model. For example, overall turntable tilt measurements approaching 0.200 (5.08 mm) are not uncommon on some models, even on bearings that have not reached the end of their usable life. Severely worn bearings could have a measured turntable tilt as much as 0.500 (12.7 mm) or more in addition to other prominent symptoms of wear such as unusual noise and roughness. Therefore, the total turntable tilt measurement itself should not be used to gauge a bearings remaining useful life. The change in turntable tilt and the trend toward accelerated wear is more important than the total tilt measurement itself. Evaluate the feel of the unit If there is no trend toward accelerated wear, consider the feel of the unit during load reversals. Operators may notice an increase in the tilting or rocking of the turntable. Check for rotation bearing noise and roughness Determine whether there is any presence of roughness or noise in the rotation bearing during rotation. Severely worn bearings commonly exhibit grinding, snapping, and popping noises during rotation. These noises may indicate the bearing has broken ball spacers, split ball bearings, or excessive galling, the presence of which would require immediate bearing replacement. Broken or improperly torqued bearing fasteners or a warped mounting surface might also cause popping or clicking noises. A check of the fastener torque and the rotation bearing grease purged during lubrication will usually determine if bearing noise is due to internal or external problems. Inspect the condition of the purged bearing grease Grease from a well worn, poorly maintained, or damaged bearing will typically contain fairly large rust or metal particles, instead of metal dust specks which might be found in any bearing.Fairly large rust or metal particles indicate the bearing has reached an accelerated wear condition and immediate bearing replacement is required. The presence of rust indicates inadequate lubrication. Rust is commonly indicated by extremely dirty grease. This situation must be corrected to optimize the performance of the

new bearing.Always check the purged bearing grease during each inspection and turntable tilt measurement procedure even if there is no presence of roughness, noise in the bearing, or significant change in the turntable tilt measurement. One or more of these evaluation criteria should detect the need for rotation bearing replacement long before there is any threat of failure. By maintaining proper rotation bearing lubrication and avoiding overload conditions, the replacement rotation bearing should provide many years of service. Bearing Inspection and Turntable Tilt Measurement Use the following procedure to inspect the rotation bearing and measure the turntable tilt. 1. Position the unit on a level surface where the booms can be elevated and rotated. Apply the parking brake and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 2. Move the booms to a position near maximum side reach. The exact boom position is not critical. 3. Slowly rotate the turntable 360 degrees using the lower controls while checking for roughness or noise in the rotation bearing. Repeat this step using the upper controls since roughness may be felt more accurately from the platform. 4. Record in the maintenance log whether unusual noise or roughness was encountered. 5. Rotate the turntable to the position that will be used for the turntable tilt measurement. If the aerial device is normally operated within a particular zone of rotation, the tilt should be measured with the turntable rotated to the center of the zone. For consistent measurement, always use the same rotational position with no load in the platform each time the tilt measurement is done. 6. Record the rotational position selected in the maintenance log. 7. Position the booms as shown in Figure 4.19. For reference, this position is called Position A. 8. Attach the magnetic base of the dial indicator to the pedestal, positioning the pointer at either the front or rear of the turntable. The pointer of the dial indicator should be positioned against the underside of the turntable base plate, as close as possible to the bearing gear cover. C Figure 4.19 Position A Figure 4.20 shows three possible positions for the dial indicator pointer. Any one of these positions may be used. It may be difficult to position the dial indicator and pointer in some zones of rotation without interference with the turntable or pedestal. In this case, position the dial indicator and pointer to the area as close as possible to the recommended position. Once a correct indicator pointer position is chosen, it is very important that the same pointer position is used for each subsequent tilt measurement.

Pinion Gear Cover

Rotation Bearing Gear Cover

Figure 4.20 Pointer Positions 9. Record the position of the pointer in the maintenance log where the tilt measurements are recorded. Some inspectors prefer to permanently mark the location where the dial indicator pointer contacts the bearing base plate to ensure that subsequent measurements are made in exactly the same spot. 10. Set the dial indicator at zero with the booms in Position A (refer to Figure 4.19). 11. Move the booms to Position B without rotating the turntable (refer to Figure 4.21). Record the indicator reading in the maintenance log.

Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 27

16. Refer to Bearing Replacement Criteria in this section to determine if bearing replacement is required.

Cylinders
Inspect all boom and outrigger cylinders as follows at the interval recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from cylinder failure. Do not operate a cylinder that has a dented barrel or a damaged rod. Figure 4.21 Position B 12. Repeat steps 10 and 11 two more times to obtain an accurate reading. 13. Remove the dial indicator to prevent accidental damage. Metal particles may be in the grease. Use a putty knife to collect and wipe the grease. 14. Stow the booms and lubricate the bearing to purge some grease for inspection. 15. Inspect the purged grease as follows. a. Wipe some of the purged bearing grease, which should be visible around the inside ring of the bearing, on a piece of clean white or light-colored paper. b. Smear the grease on the paper into a very thin layer for inspection using a straight edge such as a putty knife. c. Using a bright light, look for metal particles that are larger than normal specks of metal dust. Normally, particles large enough to be concerned about will be felt as a rough spot when smearing the grease. The smaller insignificant particles will not normally be felt under the straight edge. d. Also, look for signs of rust that would indicate poor lubrication. e. Record information about the condition of the purged grease in the maintenance log. 1. Visually inspect the cylinder for leaks, loose or missing pin retainers, broken bearings, bent rods, and dents in the rod or barrel. 2. Check for proper operation of the cylinder holding valves as follows. a. Position the boom or outrigger so a load is applied to the cylinder to put pressure against the holding valves. Disengage the PTO. b. Fully shift the control lever for the function operated by the cylinder. Momentarily hold the control lever in this position to allow oil to flow from the holding valve to the reservoir. c. If the cylinder does not move, the extend holding valve is operating properly. If the cylinder retracts slowly, the holding valve may be leaking. Determine the cause of the problem and correct it before operating the unit.

Attention

Hydraulic Lines
Hydraulic hoses and tubes transmit hydraulic oil throughout the hydraulic system. Inspect all hoses and tubes as follows at the interval recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. 1. Check the hoses and tubes for wear and/or physical damage. 2. Make sure the hoses are properly routed to avoid sharp edges, kinking, and scuffing. Inspect the tubes for dents or other damage that may restrict oil flow. 3. Make sure the hoses and tubes are held firmly in their support brackets.

28 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

Single Handle Control and Control Handle Covers


Inspect and dielectric test the insulated single handle control, if so equipped, as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Keep the green insulated single handle control clean, dry, in good condition, and periodically tested to maintain its limited dielectric properties. Wipe any contaminants or moisture from the surface of the control handle assembly and the insulating linkages with a clean dry cloth. Replace any damaged components with replacement parts from your Altec representative and perform a dielectric test on the control. Inspect the rubber control valve handle covers as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Keep the rubber control valve handle covers in place and in good condition. Replace damaged covers with replacement parts from your Altec representative.

contaminants, such as dust particles and water, can cause tracking, providing a path to ground or possible dielectric failure. Search for signs of looseness or movement at the bond areas (fiberglass-to-fiberglass and fiberglass-to-steel connections) at the ends of the booms, lower boom insulator, and compensating link insulator. If the fasteners are properly tightened and the chemical bonds are good, it is unlikely damage will be found. If a chemical bond has failed and the unit is operated using the mechanical backup fasteners, cracks or elongation of the holes may develop around the fasteners. The fasteners will then begin to show frictional wear. Other fiberglass and plastic components have a variety of mechanical fasteners that require inspection. Leveling Rods Leveling rods should be inspected at the interval recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. The leveling rod to end fitting connection is made by forming a cone made of resin on the end of the rod inside the end fitting. A black line is placed on the rod next to the metal end fitting. This line serves as a visual aid during inspection. If the line has moved from the end fitting more than 1/8 (3.175 mm), closer inspection is required to determine if the leveling rod is pulling out of its fitting and will require replacement. Check the rods for scratches, signs of rubbing, cleanliness, or any other possible damage or wear such as nicks. No nicks are acceptable. Rods are not repairable and must be replaced if they show signs of cracks or nicks. Inspect the entire length of each leveling rod for wear marks. Wear marks will have a dull appearance. This dull area may show a flat worn into the round surface of the rod (refer to Figure 4.23). Wear Mark

Atmospheric Vents
Atmospheric vents (refer to Figure 4.22) are located at the boom tip/platform area. Inspect these vents as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. On Category A units these vents must also be tested for proper operation. An atmospheric vent testing kit may be obtained from your local Altec representative (refer to Service Tools and Supplies in the Appendix).

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-6

Figure 4.22 Atmospheric Vent

Fiberglass and Plastic Components


The fiberglass components are covered with gelcoat to protect the fiberglass and resin composite. The gelcoat contains ultraviolet inhibitors to retard the effect of ultraviolet light on the fiberglass. With minimal care, the sealing and ultraviolet properties of the fiberglass can be maintained for many years. The following sections include information on the cleaning and repair of fiberglass and plastic components. Inspect the fiberglass components for cleanliness and any visible damage such as scratched, cracked, or chipped gelcoat. Surface irregularities can trap dirt and contaminants, which over time may reduce the dielectric properties of the fiberglass. Of particular concern, are irregularities running lengthwise on the boom. Trapped
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Rod

Dial Caliper Figure 4.23 Leveling Rod Wear Mark The cause of the wear must be determined and corrected. Generally, the rod contacting a steel edge causes wear marks. Wear marks are not usually caused by the Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 29

inside diameter of the fiberglass boom. Make sure that all the metal edges have no burrs. Should a significant wear flat area or several wear flat areas be discovered along the length of a leveling rod, contact your Altec representative. The recommended method for determining an accurate measurement of the wear is to use a dial caliper. Use the following procedure to determine an accurate measurement of leveling rod wear. 1. Measure an unworn section of the leveling rod to establish its true diameter. 2. Measure the wear groove. Use the deepest portion of the groove in the wear mark for this measurement. Subtract the measurement found in step 1 from this measurement. This difference is the depth of the wear groove. These measurements are an invaluable tool for assisting your Altec division or distributor in determining the allowable wear standards for the leveling rod(s) in question. When wear measurements are reported, one possible outcome is that the rod(s) may need to be inspected more often to ensure that the wear marks do not continue to increase in size. The other possibility, of course, is that the amount of wear reported is excessive and the rod(s) must be replaced before the unit can be safely placed back in service. Normal operation and maintenance should minimize the possibility of wear or scratches on the leveling rods. Small wear marks need to be documented, their possible cause(s) corrected, and they need to be rechecked at subsequent inspections to make sure they do not increase in size. Replacement of the leveling rods is explained in Section 6 under Leveling System. Testing and adjustment of the leveling system is explained in Section 8 under Leveling System.

gent. The interior of the lower boom insulator and upper boom may be washed using a mop or with low-pressure water in a garden sprayer. The boom and insulator exterior may be washed with low-pressure water. Rinsing with clean water will remove any detergent residue. Elevate the booms to a vertical position for draining and drying. Allow the booms to dry thoroughly before operating the unit.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from improper use of solvents. Follow the manufacturers label for proper use and disposal. Do not coat a fiberglass surface with any product that will reduce its dielectric characteristics or cause surface flashover. Do not use petroleum-based products to clean the fiberglass components. Petroleum-based products will leave an oily residue that attracts dust. Do not use steel wool to clean fiberglass components. Retained metallic particles can provide a conductive path. Surface flashover occurs when a substance causes an arcing of electricity between two points on the boom. If this occurs, the dielectric integrity of the boom can be permanently damaged. When using a power buffer to polish fiberglass, do not damage or overheat the gelcoat surface. After the exterior surfaces are clean and dry, polish them with Formula Five Clean N Glaze. For best results, polish fiberglass surfaces by hand.

Attention

Attention

Plastic

Cleaning

Keep fiberglass and plastic components clean and in good condition to preserve the dielectric properties and appearance. Clean all components passing through the boom fiberglass sections. Do not spray water from a high pressure washer directly at hydraulic components. The lower boom insulator, upper boom, and fiberglass components may be washed with water and mild deter30 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

Plastic covers on the unit are covered with an acrylic surface to protect the plastic from damage from ultraviolet damage. Use a pressure washer and mild detergent to clean plastic covers. Rinse with clean water to remove any detergent residue. Using solvents (such as acetone, MEK, or lacquer thinner) can damage plastic covers. Use only isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) to clean plastic covers. In some situations, pressure washing may not remove all of the contaminants from plastic covers. Use isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol to clean this type of contamination. After the covers are clean and dry, hand polish using an automotive type wax.
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Attention

Attention

Determining the Degree of Boom Damage

Minor damage (scratches on the boom, boom tip, and control covers) is repairable. If no fiberglass cloth fibers are cut or damaged, determine if the scratch or nick affects only the gelcoat or if it is through to the resin. To do this, look at the color at the bottom of the scratch. If the color is white, the damage is on the surface. This damage is minor and can be sanded out as described under Surface Damage in this section. If the fiberglass is damaged past the gelcoat and shows up black, and/or the fiberglass cloth fibers are damaged, contact Altec before any repairs are started. If the color at the bottom of the scratch or nick is dark, and there is no visible damage to the layers of fiberglass cloth, the damage is through the gelcoat and just into the resin. This requires a more thorough repair of the gelcoat and is described under Gelcoat in this section. Any time there is doubt regarding the extent of the damage to the fiberglass link, lower boom, or upper boom insulators, use the following steps to accurately describe the damage before calling Altec. 1. Identify the quadrant with the damage (refer to Figure 4.24). If the damaged area is on a line between quadrants, switch to the clock method (example the damage is at the three oclock position).

4. When calling Altec Engineering to describe the damage, be sure to explain where you are in relation to the unit (example curb side of the unit, facing the base end of the upper boom in the rest). If a boom has several damaged or cut inner fiberglass cloth layers; it may not be repairable. At this point, the booms strength may be reduced to the extent that repairs will not restore the booms strength. If such damage is discovered, do not attempt any repairs until an Altec representative has been contacted. He or she can evaluate the affect of the damage on the structural integrity of the boom and determine if the damage is repairable or if the boom must be replaced. If it is determined that the extent and location of the damage will not reduce the safety factor of the boom, it may be acceptable to repair the damaged area with gelcoat to seal it and place the unit back into service. If the top rim, mounting flange or bottom of the fiberglass platform is damaged, do not repair the platform. For information on repairable platform damage, refer to Platform in this section.

Attention

Repair

Repair procedures for all of the fiberglass components on the unit are described in the following text. Surface Damage Minor scratches in the surface of the gelcoat may be easily repaired. If the bottom of the scratch is the same color as the gelcoat pigment, repair according to the following instructions.

Quadrant 1

Caution
Injury can result from airborne particles entering the eyes and lungs. Wear appropriate safety equipment.

Quadrant 4

Quadrant 2

Quadrant 3 Figure 4.24 Boom Damage Location 2. Identify the exact area along the booms length (or the lower boom insulator) where the damage is. Measure from the base end of the boom to the damage site [example 3 10 (116.8 cm) from the base end of the upper boom]. 3. Define the type, size, and cause of the damage [example 2 (5.08 cm) long x 1 (2.54 cm) wide x 1 /8 (0.3175 cm) deep gouge caused by a chain saw].
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1. Use a dual acting sander with 320-grit sandpaper to sand the scratched area. Move the sander to sand around the circumference of the boom. Do not sand lengthwise on the boom. 2. When the scratch has almost disappeared, sand by hand with 600 grit wet or dry sandpaper until the scratch is no longer visible. 3. Use Formula Five Clean N Glaze to polish the area. Gelcoat An Altec gelcoat repair kit (refer to Service Tools and Supplies in the Appendix) will be needed to repair the gelcoat. Any scratch that is dark at the bottom is through the gelcoat and into the resin beneath. Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 31

In order for gelcoat repairs to cure properly, the following special temperature considerations must be understood. The highest quality gelcoat repairs are accomplished indoors in a heated and well-ventilated area. The gelcoat can be burned during the warming process. Continually move the heat gun or paint stripper during warming. If the unit has been outside, and the temperature is less than 70 degrees Fahrenheit (21 degrees Celsius), or if this is a field repair, the boom area must be warmed before proceeding. Warm the fiberglass using a heat gun until it is warm to the touch. It will take approximately 40 minutes to do this. A paint stripper gun will provide a faster method. Do not concentrate the heat of the gun in one specific area for any length of time. If the outside temperature is less than 60 degrees Fahrenheit (15.6 degrees Celsius), a field gelcoat repair is not suggested. Makeshift tents over the repair area will not hold sufficient heat, preventing proper curing.

5. The Altec gelcoat repair kit contains a can of resin, a can of fumed silica powder, and a bottle of hardener. Refer to the material safety data sheet included with the kit for the special precautions and recommendations for use with this product. Mix the resin, powder, and hardener according to the kit instructions. 6. Apply the mixture to the damaged area with a plastic spatula. Work the spatula back and forth to remove any air bubbles. Build up the area so it is slightly above the boom surface. The mixture will shrink slightly as it cures. 7. When the area has cured, sand the area by hand with 600 grit wet or dry sandpaper. Sand until the patch is no longer visible. 8. Use Formula Five Clean N Glaze to polish the area. Platform The first step in successful platform repair is to analyze the damage and determine the cause. Cracks in the gelcoat or outer surface of the platform are easily repaired. Damage to the fiberglass structure can be more serious and should be carefully evaluated before repairing the platform. Structural components of the platform include the rim, mounting ribs, platform sides, and the bottom (refer to Figure 4.25). The rim supports the sides of the platform in the same way that a basketball hoop supports a net. The structural integrity of the platform rim is critical in determining whether or not the platform can be successfully repaired. Rim Mounting Ribs

Attention

Caution
Injury can result from airborne particles entering the eyes and lungs. Wear appropriate safety equipment. Use the following procedure to repair the gelcoat. 1. Use a die grinder to widen the scratch to 1/8 (3 mm). Do not grind into the fiberglass cloth. 2. Inspect the scratch. Make sure that no fiberglass cloth is cut. If the fiberglass cloth is cut, contact your Altec representative. If no fiberglass cloth is damaged, bevel the edges of the 1/8 (3 mm) cut to about 45 degrees. 3. Lightly sand the damaged area by hand to roughen it up. This will help the resin bond to the surface.

Sides Figure 4.25 Platform The platform bottom and the side, with the mounting ribs, are substantially thicker than the other three sides. The mounting ribs are the areas where the platform mounting bracket fastens to the platform. These factors must be considered when determining whether a successful repair can be made on the platform bottom or mounting rib side.
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Warning
Death or serious injury can result from improper use of solvents. Follow the manufacturers label for proper use and disposal. 4. Use a solvent such as acetone to clean the area and remove any dust.

32 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

Altec cannot determine if the platform is repairable in the field. Evaluate the platform and determine whether or not it can be repaired and safely used for future service. Altec does not recommend that repairs be made to a platform that has the following damage. Cracks through the fiberglass of the mounting ribs Cracks through the fiberglass of the rim A hole through the floor or mounting rib side of the platform Altec only assumes responsibility for platform repairs performed by Altec personnel.

4. Clean the area thoroughly with solvent. 5. While wearing rubber gloves, mix the approximate amount of polyester resin and catalyst according to the directions in the gelcoat repair kit. 6. While wearing rubber gloves, saturate the fiberglass cloth with the mixed resin and apply it to the damaged area. Work the area to squeeze out any trapped air bubbles. 7. After the resin has set up completely, grind off any rough areas or high spots. 8. Mix an additional cup of resin and catalyst according to the directions in the gelcoat repair kit and apply smoothly to completely cover the affected area. 9. Sand the area with a dual acting sander and 320 grit sandpaper. Do not coat a fiberglass surface with any product that will reduce its dielectric characteristics or cause surface flashover. 10. Paint the area to match the platform. Do not apply metallic paint to the platform. Damage to the gelcoat layer may be repaired using the instructions that accompany the gelcoat repair kit. This kit may be ordered from your Altec representative. The gelcoat provides a protective layer of ultraviolet inhibitors. The gelcoat layer has no inherent strength. Before making any repair, the structural integrity of the platform and the safety of the operator must be kept in mind. Contact your Altec representative for specific repair information for a particular situation. Covers The procedures described for platform repairs may also be used for repairs on the various fiberglass boom tip covers and upper control covers.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from contact with energized conductors. Do not operate the unit with a hole in the platform or liner. The following items are required to perform a field repair of the platform or the fiberglass boom tip covers. A circular grinder with 24 grit sandpaper A dual acting sander with 320 grit sandpaper Cleaning solvent (acetone) Fiberglass cloth or mat Gelcoat repair kit Good quality rubber gloves Dust mask Safety glasses Nonmetallic spray paint (white to match the platform)

Attention

Use the following procedure as a guide in making a quality field repair. 1. Outline the damage with a box that is one inch wider on all sides of the damaged area. Example If the damage is 1 (2.54 cm) x 3 (7.62 cm), the box would be 3 (7.62 cm) x 5 (12.7 cm).

Caution
Injury can result from airborne particles entering the eyes and lungs. Wear appropriate safety equipment. 2. While wearing safety glasses and a dust mask for breathing protection, grind the area within the box to a depth of approximately 1/8 (3 mm) 3. Cut strips of fiberglass cloth to fit the box area.

Platform Leveling
The leveling system functions to maintain the floor of the platform parallel to the turntable. This is a positive, mechanical system operated through cables, insulated rods, sheaves, etc. The two principle parts of the leveling system are identified as the leveling cables and leveling rods. Each of the cables is anchored at the turntable and at the platform sheave. Because of the geometric arrangement, movement of the booms results in movement of the platform. Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 33

Caution
Death or serious injury can result from improper use of solvents. Follow the manufacturers label for proper use and disposal.
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The leveling cables are 1/2 in diameter. In the insulated section of the upper and lower booms, the leveling cable is connected to a 3/4 fiberglass insulator rod to preserve the dielectric integrity of the insulated components. Threaded end terminals on the leveling cables are mechanically swaged onto the wire rope. Turnbuckles are provided in the upper boom and in the lower boom for proper adjustment for the entire leveling system. Leveling cables and insulator rods are thoroughly tested before they are installed in the unit. Movement of the booms and the subsequent movement of the leveling cable system are transmitted to the platform through the keyed shaft at the elbow and through the keyed platform shaft. Cable Inspection Cable wires move in relationship to other wires under operating conditions. Two of the operating conditions with which the cable inspector must be concerned are listed below. The movement of wires against each other as the cable is loaded and unloaded. The flexibility and bending of the cable, strands, and wires as the cable passes over sheaves. Inspection is an important part of satisfactory cable life, as well as the safety and reliability of the cable. Likewise, lubrication plays a very important part in extending cable life by reducing internal wear as the wires move in relationship to each other. While the platform leveling system is designed with a safety factor several times greater than the rated loads applied to the platform, periodic inspection and lubrication must be performed, as with any other part of the unit. Adjustment of the cables may be required after extended periods of operation. Specific inspection of leveling cables must be performed at interval recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.

Caution
Injury can result from handling wire rope. Wear appropriate safety equipment. Feeling the cable by hand with a soft cloth will expose broken wires. If four or more broken wires are found, the cable should be replaced. If broken wires are found, but not enough to cause replacement, it will be necessary to perform more frequent inspections. Any time there is doubt in the mind of the inspector concerning the safety of a cable, it should be changed. Wear of the cables will be greatest at those places where the cables are contacting the sheaves. While operating the unit during the inspection, observe the sheaves for freedom of movement. It is extremely important that all idler sheaves turn as the cable moves. Evidence of a frozen or slipping sheave would be a very shiny groove. As the cable slips, it wipes the lubrication off. During the inspection, lubricate the cables with a good quality chain and cable lube. The general condition of the leveling system components, including leveling rods, boom interiors, control lines, hydraulic hoses, leakage monitor wires, etc., should be noted. Boom interiors should be inspected for hydraulic leaks and the accumulation of trash or other foreign material, particularly units used in tree trimming activity. Cables should also be inspected for rust even if they are galvanized. Tree sap, etc., may act as an acid which may produce rust. The aerial device booms must be placed in three different positions to perform a thorough inspection of the leveling system. Inspect the cables for all the items mentioned previously and those mentioned in the following procedure. 1. With the booms stored, inspect the cables and sheave grooves at the turntable and elbow for evidence of scuffing. 2. Make sure the cables or rods do not touch anything. 3. Make sure the cable keepers are in place. 4. Reach inside the upper boom at the platform through the side access holes at the boom tip and inspect for scuffing. Pay particular attention to the cable that comes off the top of the sheave.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. In order to perform a thorough inspection, all covers must be removed from the booms. Look for broken wires.

34 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

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5. Reach into the boom past the idler sheaves and inspect for scuffing. 6. From the stored position, raise the lower boom to a vertical position to expose a new length of cable. 7. Inspect the cables at the turntable and boom tip for evidence of scuffing. 8. Use another aerial platform to inspect the cables at the elbow for scuffing. 9. Have someone raise the upper boom and inspect for cables riding on each other. 10. If cables are riding on each other, use a screwdriver to pry them back in place on the cast sheaves. 11. Place the lower boom in a horizontal position and unfold the upper boom. 12. Reach inside the upper boom and inspect the cables for scuffing and riding on each other. 13. If cables are riding on each other, use a screwdriver to pry them back in place on the cast sheaves. Lubricate the leveling cables after using a high pressure washer or chemical degreasers.

Knots can reduce line strength. A winch line should never have a knot tied in it. Follow the instructions of the line manufacturer when splicing a synthetic winch line. A properly completed spice is a strong and efficient means of attachment. Rotate the winch line end-for-end on a periodic basis. This will vary the high stress and wear points, extending the useful life of the line. This is not possible if a closed thimble is spliced into the lifting eye. When inspecting the winch line, use the following guidelines to determine the condition of the line. A few damaged strands spaced out along the length of the line are acceptable. List the location of the damaged strands in the report. Check the strands carefully in future inspections. To determine wear, compare an individual strand in an area where it is exposed and subjected to wear with an area of the same strand where it has been protected from wear. If individual cover strands have worn to within 50 percent of their original bulk over an extended area of the line, replace the line. If half of the cover strands are cut at a given point, replace the line or cut out the damaged section and splice the line back together. Replace a spliced line if it does not meet the length requirements under Line in Section 6. If a damaged section is removed near the eye of the line, put in a new eye splice. Use a standard end-forend splice to rejoin the line in other areas. Wash the line with mild detergent and warm water. Strong cleaning agents or bleaches may be harmful to the line and must not be used. Rinse the line thoroughly after washing it. Squeeze out the water by placing the line under tension. Then allow the line to air dry.

Attention

Winch Line
Inspect the winch line at the interval recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result when the synthetic winch line contacts an energized conductor and the ground. Do not allow the winch line to contact an energized conductor. The synthetic winch line is not to be considered an insulator. Contact between an energized conductor and the ground may result when the winch line is extended to the ground. Normal wear gradually reduces the strength of the synthetic winch line. The entire length of the line must be inspected at the interval recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Keep a permanent, written, and dated report of the lines condition and any corrective action taken during the line inspection on file.

Accident Prevention Signs


This unit was equipped with accident prevention signs at the time of manufacture. If any of these are lost or become illegible, obtain replacements from your Altec representative. The location, part numbers, and descriptions of all placards are listed in the Parts Manual. Refer to the Accident Prevention Signs Diagram for examples of the placards and their locations. Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 35

3-04

Accident Prevention Signs Diagram

10

6 9

3 4 7 9 14 14 10
On Units With End-Mounted Platforms, Apply One of Each Item Above Platform Step

15

10

Street Side

Rear Side

Both Sides Both Sides

3 4 7 8 9 10
On Units With Side-Mounted Platforms, Apply One of Each Item Above Platform Step

11 1
Center

Both Sides

Item 2 and 7 6 and 8 12 and 13 36 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

Information Used on units with material handling Used on units without material handling Located in the platform area
3-04

5
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 37

7
38 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

10

11

12

670-40454 C

13
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 39

3-04

15

14

40 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

3-04

Section 5 Hydraulic System


Full Pressure (AA Units Only)
AA units have a closed center, full pressure hydraulic system. This type of system has a low demand on the pump when there is no demand on the hydraulic system. The hydraulic system uses a fixed displacement vane pump that produces 8 gpm (30.32 l/min) and a 16-gallon (60.64-liter) cylindrical accumulator equipped with a freefloating piston. Operation of the pump is explained in this section under Pump (AA units only). The accumulator is precharged to 900 psi (62 bar). When the pump is loaded, the pump output opens a check valve between the pump and the accumulator to fill the accumulator with a reserve supply of hydraulic oil until the pressure reaches the preset maximum system pressure of 2,150 psi (148.2 bar). When both the main system and accumulator are fully pressurized, the unloading valve diverts all of the pumps output to the reservoir. When the pump is unloaded, the check valve closes to allow the accumulator to maintain the systems pressure until the unit is operated. Pressurized oil in the accumulator is used to operate the unit until the pressure decreases to 1,750 psi (120.6 bar). The unloading valve then directs the pump output back into the closed system to help power the unit. If the units operation continues, the accumulator assists the pump in supplying oil until the accumulators supply of oil is depleted or the systems pressure begins to rise. At this point, the pump will supply all of the oil required to power the unit. When the units operation is slowed or stopped, the pump remains loaded until the accumulator is refilled and the system is fully pressurized. When the unloading valve unloads the pump, the pressure at the output of the pump decreases to a very low amount. If the pump stops operating, the reserve supply of oil in the accumulator can be used to lower the unit. the output of the pump to increase flow until the full system pressure is reached. The pump responds to changes in the pressure signal to vary the flow required to maintain the system pressure. If more than one function is used, the pump will respond to the total flow requirement to maintain system pressure. When the interlock trigger is pressed and the single handle control is moved, several things begin to happen. A pilot signal is sent to shift the blocking valve cartridge in the combination valve to allow flow between the pump and the lower control valve. A pilot signal is also sent to the appropriate pilot valve in the lower control valve to hydraulically shift the valve spool that operates the function selected. Shifting the valve spool opens a work port that directs the output of the pump to extend or retract an actuator to move the load. Connecting the pump output to a work port causes a reduction in pressure due to the movement of the load. The pump outlet pressure is sent from the combination valve connection back through the sense line as a signal to the pump. The pressure change signal causes the differential pressure spool in the compensator to call for the pump to increase flow to try to maintain the 350 psi (24.1 bar) pressure differential that previously existed when all the functions were at idle. The continued change in the pressure differential causes the pump outlet pressure to increase until the preset maximum system pressure of 2,250 psi (155.2 bar) is reached. Then the compensator begins to regulate the amount of flow to maintain the compensated pressure. The pump will continue to produce the flow required to operate the function at full system pressure until the single handle control is returned to neutral. Releasing the upper control dumps the pilot pressure and returns the valve spool in the lower control valve to the center off position. This cuts off the signal to the pump, which causes the pressure in the sense line to drop to zero, and idle conditions to be restored. Hydraulic schematic drawings are an important tool in understanding the operation of a hydraulic systems. The symbols identify the flow paths and operation of the components in the system. A thorough understanding of these symbols can reduce downtime and increase the accuracy of diagnosing malfunctions. The Appendix identifies basic hydraulic schematic symbols and contains the unit schematics and individual component schematics.

Full Pressure (AA-L Units Only)


AA-L units have a closed-center, full pressure hydraulic system. The hydraulic system uses a variable displacement piston pump that can produce 14.25 gpm (54 l/min). Operation of the pump is explained in this section under Pump (AA-L units only). When the engine and the pump are running with all functions idle, the system is pressurized to approximately 350 psi (24.1 bar). When a function is operated, the pump compensator receives a pressure signal from

Section 5 Hydraulic System 41

Oil Reservoir
The reservoir (refer to Figure 5.1) is vented and has a capacity of 15 gallons (57 liters). Filler Breather Cap

decreases to 1,750 psi (120.6 bar), the unloading valve directs all the pump output into the main system. When the unloading valve senses that the pressure in the main system has increased 2,150 psi (148.2 bar), the unloading valve redirects the output of the pump back to the reservoir. The throttle cylinder increases the rpm of engine to provide increased flow when the unloading valve directs the pump output into the main system. The engine idle settings are the only flow adjustment for the pump. The adjustment procedure is described in Section 8 under Pump Flow (AA units only).

Pump (AA-L Units Only)


The hydraulic pump (refer to Figure 5.3) is a variable displacement, pressure compensated piston type pump. It has four hydraulic connections: inlet, pressure, drain, and signal (sense). Two different size pumps may be installed, depending on the transmission selected. The pump is factory set to deliver 2,250 psi (155.2 bar) with a maximum system flow rate of 14.5 gpm (54.9 l/min). Figure 5.1 Oil Reservoir A filler breather cap is located on top of the fill hole of the reservoir. The cap contains a filter that cleans the air as it enters the hydraulic system. A strainer basket in the fill hole keeps large particles from entering the reservoir when oil is poured into it. An external 10-micron return line filter with a replaceable spin-on cartridge, a 150micron wire mesh suction strainer, and two shutoff valves are located in the lines adjacent to the reservoir. Refer to Section 4 under Filtration for more information on filters. Drive Shaft Compensator

Pump (AA Units Only)


The hydraulic pump (refer to Figure 5.2) is a vane type pump. It has two hydraulic connections: inlet and pressure. Either a left or right hand rotation pump may be installed, depending on the transmission selected. The pump is factory set to deliver a maximum system flow rate of 8 gpm (30.32 l/min).

Figure 5.3 Pump The preset minimum or standby limit pressure at idle is approximately 350 psi (24.1 bar). At idle with the pump destroked, only enough flow [approximately 0.8 gpm (3.03 l/min)] is produced to overcome the internal leakage of the system with all the spool valves in their closed center position. When a function is operated, the compensator cartridge senses the reduced pressure at the pump outlet, moves the swash plate, and strokes the pump to increase the flow until the preset maximum or system limit pressure of 2,250 psi (155.2 bar) is reached. The compensator reduces the pump displacement to adjust the flow and maintain the compensated pressure. Both the standby and system limit pressures can be adjusted. The procedures are described in Section 8 under Pump Flow (AA-L units only). The throttle cylinder increases the rpm of non-electronic engines to provide increased flow when the pump is stroked. The engine idle settings are adjustable. The adjustment procedure is described in Section 8 under Pump Flow (AA-L units only).Electronic engines are sent

Figure 5.2 Pump The minimum pump outlet pressure is very low when all the pumps output is directed to return to the reservoir and the engine is at low idle speed. When one or more functions are operated and the main system pressure 42 Section 5 Hydraulic System

an electrical signal from a pressure switch to increase the RPM of the engine. The engine presets are adjustable.

Valve Cover

Pump Maintenance

In case of catastrophic pump failure, the hydraulic system must be flushed. This procedure is described in Section 4 under Changing Oil and Flushing the System. Flushing the hydraulic system will remove most of the metallic components from the system. The shutoff valves in both the return and suction lines must be completely opened before engaging the PTO. Failure to do so will cause serious damage to the pump. Before servicing the pump, close the shutoff valve in the suction line between the reservoir and the pump. Closing this shutoff valve allows the pump to be serviced or removed without draining the reservoir. When service is completed, open the shutoff valve before operating the unit.

Figure 5.5 Accumulator The accumulator is precharged to 900 psi (62 bar) with dry nitrogen gas. This precharge moves the piston to the opposite end of the housing from the gas charging valve. When the pump output builds the oil pressure above the initial precharge pressure the oil begins to enter the accumulator, push back the piston, and increase the gas pressure. As long as the oil pressure remains above the initial gas precharge pressure, the piston is held in suspension somewhere in the accumulator between the nitrogen and oil pressure chambers. The free floating piston will move back and forth in response to changing pressure differentials. The action of the pump in response to the position of the unloading valve, check valve, and blocking valves provides oil to be stored under pressure in the accumulator until it is needed to operate the unit. When the unit is operated, the accumulator provides a cushioning action, and smooths out and extends the cycling time of the unloading valve. Refer to Section 8 under Accumulator for troubleshooting and servicing information.

Attention

Secondary Stowage System DC Pump


The secondary stowage system DC pump and motor assembly (refer to Figure 5.4) has two hydraulic connections: inlet and outlet. This assembly has an internal check valve and an internal 2,500 psi (172.4 bar) pressure relief valve. The pump is a fixed displacement pump with output less than 1.5 gpm (5.68 l/min) on AA units and less than 2.5 gpm (9.47 l/min) on AA-L units. The motor receives its 12-volt DC power from the vehicle battery.

Rotary Joint
The rotary joint (refer to Figure 5.6) is a multi-port swivel that permits continuous rotation of the turntable without twisting the hydraulic hoses. The rotary joint assembly consists of a housing, core, seals, and wear rings. The housing contains ports for pressure (P), return (T), and sense (S).

Motor

Pump Figure 5.4 Secondary Stowage System DC Pump

Accumulator (AA Units Only)


The accumulator (refer to Figure 5.5) is a 16-gallon (60.64-liter) piston type with a free floating piston. The piston can move from one end of the cylindrical housing to the other depending upon the pressures applied to it. The accumulator is mounted in the pedestal frame to ease access for servicing.

Figure 5.6 Rotary Joint The inner core of the rotary joint is fastened to a mounting plate that is fastened to the pedestal. The outer housing is driven with a drive pin. As the turntable is rotated, the outer housing of the rotary joint rotates with the turntable. Hydraulic fittings on the rotary joint are the SAE straight thread type. Section 5 Hydraulic System 43

Valves
When describing hydraulic valves, position identifies the number of operating positions of the valve spool. A two-position blocking valve has two operating positions, open and closed. The word way identifies the number of ports in a valve section. A four-way control valve has four ports. One port is for a pressure connection, one is for a return line connection, and the other two ports are the working ports. Pressure Relief Valve Cartridge

Outrigger Control Valve (Material Handling Units)

On material handling units, the outrigger control valve (refer to Figure 5.7) is located on the tailshelf and used to operate the outriggers on the street side of the unit. The valve spools consists of two, three-position, four-way valves. The three positions of the valve spools are Extend, Neutral, and Retract. The four connections are pressure, return, and work ports A and B. All the valve spools are spring loaded to the center Neutral position and operated by a manual control lever. To prevent unwanted pressure buildup in the work ports in neutral, the valve spools are closed-center, closed-port types with 0.04 gpm (0.15 l/min) bleed-off orifices.

Figure 5.8 Outrigger Control Valve The relief valve is set to 2,550 psi (224 bar) to serve as a backup in case the hydraulic system is momentarily over pressurized.

Outrigger/Tool Control Valve (Material Handling Units)

The outrigger/tool control valve (refer to Figure 5.9) is used on units with material handling. The outrigger/tool control valve is located on the tailshelf and used to operate the outriggers on the curb side of the vehicle and the tailshelf tool circuit. The valve consists of three, threeposition, four-way valves and one pressure relief valve cartridge.

Pressure Relief Valve Cartridge Figure 5.7 Outrigger Control Valve

Outrigger Control Valve (Personnel Handling Units)

Figure 5.9 Outrigger/Tool Control Valve The outrigger valve spools are identical to those used in the outrigger control valve used on material handling units. The tools control valve spool is detented in the On position and spring loaded to neutral from the opposite position. Moving the control lever in the direction opposite to the detented position will pressurize the return line. The relief valve is set to 2,550 psi (224 bar) to serve as a backup in case the hydraulic system is momentarily over pressurized.

On personnel handling units, the outrigger control valve (refer to Figure 5.8) is located on the tailshelf and used to operate the units primary outriggers. The valve spools consists of two, three-position, four-way valves and one relief valve cartridge. The outrigger valve spools are identical to those used in the outrigger control valve used on material handling units, except for the pressure relief valve.

44 Section 5 Hydraulic System

3-04

Outrigger Interlock Valve

The outrigger interlock valve (refer to Figure 5.10) is a normally open, two-position, two-way, solenoid operated, poppet valve located in the pressure line below the rotary joint. On AA units, this valve blocks flow from going above rotation to prevent the operation of the aerial device when the outriggers are not extended. On AA-L units, this valve dumps sense line signal pressure from above rotation and prevents the signal from reaching the pump compensator to prevent the operation of the aerial device when the outriggers are not extended. Figure 5.11 Outrigger Signal Valve When the outrigger or lower tool circuit controls are not being operated, oil flow from the power beyond from the outriggers is restricted by a 0.4 gpm (1.5 l/min) orifice which causes the valve spool in the signal valve to shift to allow signal pressure from the aerial device above rotation to reach the pump. When the outrigger or tool circuit controls are operated, the power beyond pressure drops below the 160 psi (11 bar) required to allow the spring tension to shift the valve spool open and provide signal pressure to stroke the pump from the outrigger tools section of the machine.

Figure 5.10 Outrigger Interlock Valve Electrical switches are located on each outrigger leg and connected in series with each other. Lowering the outriggers closes the switches and applies 12 volts to the solenoid on the outrigger interlock valve. On AA units, this action shifts the valve spool to the Open position to allow oil to flow to the units control valves. On AA-L units, this action shifts the valve spool to the closed position to divert sense line oil to flow to the units pump compensator. Raising the outriggers removes power from the outrigger interlock valve to allow spring tension to shift the valve spool back again. On AA units, this action closes the valve to prevent system flow from reaching above rotation. On AA-L units, this action opens the valve to divert sense line oil back to the reservoir. Both methods prevent the aerial device from being operated with the outriggers retracted.

Tool Pressure Reducing Valve (AA-L Units Only)

On units equipped with the material handling package, tool pressure reducing valves are used to regulate the pressure supplied to the tool systems. The upper tools valve is located in the combination valve on the turntable. The pressure reducing valve for the outriggers and lower tool circuit (refer to Figure 5.12) is located between the pump and the Outrigger/Tool Control Valve.

Outrigger Signal Valve (AA-L Units Only)

The outrigger signal valve (refer to Figure 5.11) is a twoposition, three-way, pilot operated valve. The signal valve is located in the pedestal between the pump and the rotary joint. This valve routes signal pressure to the pump compensator to stroke the pump when the outriggers or tool circuit controls are activated. While using the outriggers or tailshelf tool circuit, some of the pumps flow is also directed through a pressure reducing valve that limits the pressure at the outriggers and tool outlet to 2,000 psi (138 bar).

Figure 5.12 Tool Pressure Reducing Valve The tool pressure reducing valves are used to maintain the tool system pressure at 2,000 psi (138.0 bar). Refer to Section 8 under Tool Pressure Reducing Valve for troubleshooting and adjustment procedures.

Section 5 Hydraulic System 45

Unloading Valve (AA Units Only)

The unloading valve (refer to Figure 5.13) regulates the pressure in the accumulator and the hydraulic system between the loading pressure of 1,750 psi (120.6 bar) and the unloading pressure of 2,150 psi (148.2 bar), depending on the demand for oil flow to operate the unit. The valve also allows the pump to produce minimal flow and remain at standby pressure in an unloaded condition until it is needed to power the unit or recharge the accumulator. The unloading valve is located in the pedestal next to the accumulator.

When the unit is shut down, the unloading valve will gradually shift to the Load position as the system pressure decreases below 1,750 psi (120.6 bar) over time. When the pump begins to operate, the system will recharge until the pressure builds up to 2,150 psi (148.2 bar). Then the unloading valve will shift back to the Unload position. Refer to Section 8 under Unloading Valve (AA units only) for troubleshooting and adjustment procedures. The unloading valve contains a check valve to prevent backflow from the accumulator during the unload cycle. The check valve requires no attention or adjustment.

Outlet Line (to System)

Combination Valve (AA-L Units Only)

Tank Line

Inlet Line (From Pump) Figure 5.13 Unloading Valve The control portion of the unloading valve senses the system pressure. The two positions of the valve are known as Load and Unload. The valve changes position in response to changes in the system pressure relative to the load and unload pressure settings. When the valve is in the Load position, it directs full pump flow to increase the system pressure. When the valve in the Unload position, it directs the pump flow at idle to return to the reservoir. Tool System Pressure Reducing Valve Tool System Flow Control Valve Main System Blocking Interlock Valve Top View Pilot Pressure Reducing Valve

The combination valve (refer to Figure 5.14) combines several different functions in one multipurpose valve block. The valve functions as a manifold single point connection that determines the needs for hydraulic power and directs the pump to provide the power required. It also directs power to the purge circuit, lower control valve, and upper tool system. The combination valve block is located next to the lower control valve on the side of the turntable to allow easy access to the purge/upper/ lower control selector valve. The combination valve consists of several valve cartridges combined into one valve block. The components in the combination valve are as follows. Main system blocking interlock valve Purge/upper/lower control selector valve Pilot pressure reducing valve Tool system flow control and tool system pressure reducing valve Signal shuttle valve Tool signal valve Check Valve Cartridge

Tool Signal Valve Signal Shuttle Valve Flow Control Valve Side View

Purge/Upper/Lower Control Selector Valve

System Pressure Test Port

Figure 5.14 Combination Valve

46 Section 5 Hydraulic System

Main System Blocking Interlock Valve (AA-L Units Only)

The blocking valve cartridge (refer to Figure 5.14) is a two-position, three-way valve which directs oil flow away from the lower control valve to the hydraulic tool system. The valve prevents oil from entering the lower control valve until the operator actuates it. The purpose of the main system-blocking valve is to prevent unintentional platform movement. The blocking valve is a spring-offset valve. When the control selector valve on the turntable is in the Upper Control position, engaging the interlock trigger on the single handle control shifs the blocking valve. It may also be opened from the turntable by turning the control selector valve to the Lower Control position. In either case, the blocking valve is shifted by hydraulic pilot pressure from the control system. Releasing the interlock trigger or turning the control selector valve shifts the blocking valve to the tools position. The blocking valve does not have control over the outrigger hydraulic system. Do not operate the unit if the interlock system is not working properly. If the booms or turntable can be operated with the control selector valve in the Purge position or Upper Control position (without engaging the single handle control interlock trigger)from the lower control levers, determine the cause and take the unit out of service until the problem is corrected.

Pilot Pressure Reducing Valve (AA-L Units Only)

This valve cartridge (refer to Figure 5.14) regulates the upper control system pilot pressure to 350 psi (24.1 bar). Refer to Section 8 under Combination Valve (AA-L units only) for troubleshooting and adjustment procedures.

Tool System Flow Control and Pressure Reducing Valve (AA-L Units Only)

The upper tool system consists of a flow control valve, a pressure reducing valve, a check valve, and a tool signal control valve (refer to Figure 5.14). The flow control valve regulates the upper tool system flow to provide from 4.0 (14.6 l/min) to 8.0 gpm (30.3 l/min) depending on the cartridge installed. The pressure reducing valve limits the tool system pressure to 2,000 psi (138 bar), The check valve prevents reverse flow in the tool pressure line. The tool signal control valve directs the pump to respond to the required tool system flow and pressure. Refer to Section 8 under Combination Valve (AA-L units only) for troubleshooting and adjustment procedures.

Signal Shuttle Valve (AA-L Units Only)

The shuttle valve (refer to Figure 5.14) determines whether the upper tool system or the lower control valve requires flow or pressure and sends the highest pressure requirement signal to the pump.

Tool Signal Valve (AA-L Units Only)

Purge/Upper/Lower Control Selector Valve (AA-L Units Only)

The tool signal valve (refer to Figure 5.14) allows a sense signal to stroke the pump when the platform rotation, jib tilt, or upper tools functions are operated.

The control selector valve (refer to Figure 5.14) is operated with a small control knob located next to the lower control valve on the side of the turntable. When the unit is operating and the control selector valve is in the Purge position, air is purged from the upper control system lines. Selecting the control selector valve to the Lower Control position shifts the blocking valve, brings the pump up to full system pressure, and allows the boom positioning functions to be operated with the lower controls. When the control selector valve is positioned in the Upper Control position, all of the boom positioning functions can be operated using the single handle control. The purge position can be selected at any time. No control is available from the platform or the lower control valve when the upper control system is being purged. Selecting the Purge position forces 2.5 gpm (9.4 l/min) of oil from the combination valve into the pilot valves of the lower control valve. Check valves allow the oil flow to reverse from the lower control valve up to the platform to bleed any trapped air up to the system high point and back to the reservoir. Return the control selector to the Upper control position when purging is complete to allow the unit to be operated from the upper controls.

Main System Pressure Reducing Valve (AA Units Only)

The main system pressure reducing valve (refer to Figure 5.15) is set to limit the pressure entering the main system to no higher than 1,750 psi (120.6 bar). This provides smooth movement and reasonably constant rates of movement while the accumulator and system pressure varies between 1,750 psi (120.6 bar) and 2,150 psi (148.2 bar). The main system pressure reducing valve is located inside the turntable on the side opposite the lower control valve. At start-up or under conditions of extended operation, the pressure in the main system may drop below the setting of the unloading valve and pressure reducing valve for short periods of time. As the unit movement is slowed or stopped, the main system will restore itself to a pressure of 1,750 (120.6 bar) psi even though the unloading valve will build up the accumulator pressure to 2,150 psi (148.2 bar). Refer to Section 8 under Main System Pressure Reducing Valve for troubleshooting and adjustment procedures. Section 5 Hydraulic System 47

Figure 5.15 Main System Pressure Reducing Valve

Figure 5.17 Lower/Purge/Upper Control Selector Valve

Lower Control Valve (AA Units Only)

Main System Blocking Valve (AA Units Only)

The main system blocking valve (refer to Figure 5.16) prevents accidental movement of the platform which might result from unintentional bumping of the controls. The blocking valve is a spring offset, two-position, twoway, normally closed, pilot operated valve that is located in the turntable. The valve functions as a control interlock to block oil from entering the lower control valve until it is opened. The valve opens when the interlock trigger is pressed at the platform or when the control selector valve held in the Lower Control position.

The pilot operated lower control valve assembly (refer to Figure 5.18) is made up of several components. These include check valves in the pilot circuits, two pressure reducing valves, and three spool valves. The pressure reducing valves are used to limit pressure in the turntable rotation circuits to 1,200 psi (82.7 bar). The pilot circuits are used to operate the lower control valve from the platform. The lower control valve can also be operated manually with the control levers on the valve. The manual controls override the pilot operated controls. The lower control valve is located on the side of the turntable.

Rotation CW/CCW Upper Boom Unfold/Fold Lower Boom Down/Up

Figure 5.16 Main System Blocking Valve

Figure 5.18 Lower Control Valve (AA Units Only)

Lower/Purge/Upper Control Selector Valve (AA Units Only)

Lower Control Valve (AA-L Units Only)

The control selector valve (refer to Figure 5.17) is used to select either the lower or upper controls to operate the unit or to select the Purge position to remove any air in the upper control valve lines. The control selector valve is a three-position, four way, manually operated valve. The valve must be held in the Lower Control position to override the upper controls, open the blocking valve, and operate the unit with the control levers on the lower control valve. The valve is detented in the Upper Control position to supply pilot oil to the upper controls interlock valve.

The pilot operated lower control valve assembly (refer to Figure 5.19) is made up of several components. These include check valves in the pilot circuits and three spool valves. The pilot circuits are used to operate the lower control valve from the platform. The lower control valve can also be operated manually with the control levers on the valve. The manual controls override the pilot operated controls. The manual controls override the pilot operated controls. The lower control valve is located on the side of the turntable. Refer to Section 8 under Lower Control Valve (AA-L units only) for troubleshooting and adjustment procedures.

48 Section 5 Hydraulic System

Rotation CW/CCW Upper Boom Unfold/Fold Lower Boom Down/Up

Refer to Section 8 under Upper Controls Interlock Trigger Adjustment for the mechanical linkage adjustment procedure. Set Screws (for Adjusting Mechanical Linkage)

Figure 5.19 Lower Control Valve

Spool Valves

The three spool valves in the lower control valve assembly are used to direct the hydraulic oil flow to operate the lower boom, upper boom, and turntable rotation functions. The spool valves are three-position, four-way, closed center, closed port valves.

Figure 5.21 Upper Controls Interlock Valve

Upper Control Valve

Lower Winch Valve (Material Handling Units Only)

The lower winch valve (refer to Figure 5.20) is used on units with material handling. The lower winch valve controls the operation of the boom tip winch functions from the turntable. The spool valve is a three-position, four-way, manually operated valve.

The upper control valve (refer to Figure 5.22) houses six variable pressure reducing valves which are mechanically linked to the single handle control. The valves are paired together in three segments to meter the pilot oil used to remotely control the lower control valve. The upper control valve and its mechanical linkage are part of the single handle control assembly at the platform.

Interlock Trigger

Upper Control Valve Interlock Valve Figure 5.20 Lower Winch Valve Figure 5.22 Upper Control Valve Engaging the interlock trigger provides pilot oil to the upper control valve. Moving the single handle control varies the mechanical force applied to the internal spring pack of one or more of the variable pressure reducing valves in the upper control valve. As the mechanical force is applied and a spring is compressed, a pressure reducing valve spool is moved, and the pilot oil output from the upper control valve is metered. This changes the pilot oil pressure applied to one side of a lower control valve spool. The change in pressure induces the spool to move a proportionate amount to supply main system oil Section 5 Hydraulic System 49

Upper Controls Interlock Valve

The upper controls interlock valve (refer to Figure 5.21) prevents accidental movement of the platform. The interlock valve is a spring offset, two-position, three-way, mechanically operated valve that is part of the single handle control assembly. The interlock valve blocks pilot oil from entering the upper control valve until the interlock trigger is engaged. On AA units, opening the interlock valve also pilot opens the main system blocking valve.

3-04

to operate a function. Refer to Section 8 under Upper Control Valve for troubleshooting and adjustment procedures.

Tool Valve (Side to End Mounted Platform and Pedestal Tools)

Jib/Winch/Rotate Valve (Material Handling Units Only)

The jib/winch/rotate valve (refer to Figure 5.23) is used on units with a side to end mounted platform. The jib/ winch/rotate valve controls the operation of the jib tilt, winch, and platform rotation functions. The spool valves are all three-position, four-way, manually operated valves.

A separate upper tools valve (refer to Figure 5.25) is used on units with a side to end mounted platform. This same valve may also be used on units with a pedestal mounted tools circuit. The tool spool valve is a two-position, four way, manually operated valve.

Figure 5.25 Tool Valve Figure 5.23 Jib/Winch/Rotate Valve

Tool Valve (End Mounted Platform)

Jib/Winch/Tool Valve (Material Handling Units Only)

The jib/winch/tool valve (refer to Figure 5.24) is used on units with side mounted platforms and 94 degree rotators. The jib/winch/tool valve controls the operation of the jib tilt, winch, and upper tools functions. The jib and winch spool valves are three-position, four-way, spring centered to neutral, manually operated valves. The upper tools spool valve is a three-position, four-way, manually operated valve that is detented in the On and Reverse Flow positions.

A dual upper tools valve (refer to Figure 5.26) is used on units with an end mounted platform. Both tool spool valves are manually operated and detented in the On position.

Figure 5.26 Tool Valve

Platform Rotator

Figure 5.24 Jib/Winch/Tool Valve

A separate platform rotator valve (refer to Figure 5.27) is used on units with side mounted platforms and 94 degree rotators. The valve assembly contains a three position, four way valve spool, a counterbalance valve and a pilot operated check valve. The valve spool is spring centered to neutral and manually operated.

50 Section 5 Hydraulic System

Counterbalance Valve Cartridge

Pilot Operated Check Valve Cartridge Figure 5.27 Platform Rotator

Low Pressure Relief Valve Cartridge Figure 5.29 Lower Boom Stow Valve The lower boom stow valve is mechanically activated when the lower boom contacts a plunger on the valve. Lowering the boom onto the plunger, presses it down and opens a port to the internal low-pressure relief valve inside the boom stow valve. The relief valve limits the pressure that can be applied to the lower boom as it is lowered into the boom rest. The lower boom stow valve is located in the hydraulic plumbing between the lower control valve and the rod end of the lower boom cylinder. Refer to Section 8 under Lower Boom Stow Valve for troubleshooting and adjustment procedures.

Relief Valves

Relief valves (refer to Figure 5.28) limit the maximum pressure in a hydraulic circuit. This unit uses a variable displacement pump. The system pressure is adjusted at the pump. Therefore, if there are any pressure relief valves in the main pressure line, they must be adjusted at least 250 psi (17.2 bar) above system pressure. This insures that the relief valves stay closed and do not vent high pressure to the reservoir and create excessive heat in the hydraulic system. Pressure Relief Valve Cartridge Outrigger Control Valve (Personnel Handling Units)

Outrigger/Tool Control Valve (Material Handling Units)

Holding Valves

Figure 5.28 Relief Valve Various relief valve settings are indicated on the Hydraulic System Schematic in the Appendix.

The unit uses holding valves to insure that various actuators hold their position. Holding valves trap hydraulic oil inside an actuator to prevent movement when the actuator is not being operated. Holding valves also prevent actuator movement in the event of a hydraulic line failure. The holding valves used in this unit consist of pilot operated check valves and counterbalance valves. Pilot Operated Check Valves Pilot operated check valves are used to block flow out of the following actuators. Outrigger cylinders Jib tilt Platform rotator Pilot operated check valves allow free flow into the actuator and block the return flow. These valves have an internal piston that allows them to be hydraulically opened to allow flow out of the actuator. Pilot operated check valves may be installed in pairs or installed in combination with a thermal relief valve. The outrigger cylinder holding valves use a pilot operated check valve on one side and a thermal relief valve with a manual override on the other side. This combination allows for thermal expansion of the oil in the cylinder and

Lower Boom Stow Valve

The lower boom stow valve assembly (refer to Figure 5.29) prevents excessive hydraulic pressure from being applied to the lower boom when it is being stowed. The lower boom stow valve is a two-position, two-way valve, with a low-pressure relief valve. The valve is located on the outside of the turntable on the side opposite the lower control valve.

Section 5 Hydraulic System 51

manual retraction without opening the system to the atmosphere. All pilot operated check valves are crossported. Oil sent to one side of the actuator is used to pilot open the check valve on the other side of the actuator. Counterbalance Valves Counterbalance valves are used to block the flow out of the lower and upper boom cylinders on all units and the platform rotator cylinder on units with 94-degree rotators. A counterbalance valve is a combination of a check valve and a relief valve. The check valve allows free flow into the function and blocks the flow from coming back out. The relief valve function can be pilot operated to allow flow out of the function. It also allows the valve to relieve excess pressure and prevents damage from thermal expansion of the oil. The counterbalance valves are installed in pairs and are cross-ported. Oil sent to one side of the actuator is used to pilot open the counterbalance valve on the other side of the actuator.

Low oil level in the reservoir. This can cause a whirlpool at the suction line opening, which sucks air into the system along with the oil. Leaking connections in the suction line between the reservoir and the pump. Return line outlet is located above the oil level in the reservoir. This causes turbulence as the return oil stream discharges above the surface of the oil. Air circulating through the pump can cause unit malfunctions or pump damage. Determine the cause and repair the problem. An air leak in the suction line can occur even if there is no oil leakage when the system is shut down. A leak in the suction line can often be located by slowly squirting clean hydraulic oil around each connection in the suction line while the pump runs at normal operating speed. A suction leak will suck oil in, and the pump may temporarily run quietly as the oil seals the air leak. The leak can then be eliminated. When aeration occurs, the oil in the reservoir is likely to become foamy. The pump may also become noisy.

Attention

Cavitation and Aeration


Cavitation and aeration are two problems that can cause pump damage. Pump cavitation occurs when inlet oil does not entirely fill the cavities that open during the intake part of the pumping cycle and the pump tries to draw a vacuum. The characteristic sound of cavitation is a high pitched scream. This sound increases with the degree of cavitation and increased flow. The following items are possible causes of cavitation. Excessive pump operating speed Clogged suction filter Excessive oil viscosity (thickness) Restrictions or sharp bends in hoses Excessive inlet hose length Pump inlet too high above reservoir level Shutoff valve in suction line not fully open

Air Bleeding
The presence of air in the hydraulic system will cause abnormal operation, noise, and damage to the pump. The presence of air in the hydraulic system can usually be traced to one of the following. If the oil level in the reservoir gets too low, the pump suction can cause a whirlpool to form in the reservoir which will allow air to be sucked into the system. A leak in the plumbing between the reservoir and the pump can suck air even though it will not leak out when the system is shut down. These leaks may be found by filling a pump type oil can with clean hydraulic oil and squirting oil slowly at each connection in the suction line with the pump operating at normal operating speed. A suction leak will suck the oil in. Make sure the oil can and the suction line connections are clean before using this method. Be sure to also check the connection at the attachment to the pump for leaks. Loose connections in the pressure system will normally leak externally during unit operation, but can suck air into the system after the unit is shut down as the oil tries to find its way to the low points of the system.

Cavitation can quickly destroy the pump. If signs of pump cavitation are noticed, determine the cause and promptly repair the problem. If pump cavitation is due to excessive oil viscosity caused by cold temperatures, allow the oil to warm up before operating the unit. Aeration occurs when air bubbles are introduced into the hydraulic oil and carried along as the oil flows through the pump. Aeration can be caused by the following conditions. 52 Section 5 Hydraulic System

Attention

Hydraulic lines which have been taken loose during maintenance operations will contain air until it is purged out of the system. Air circulating through the pump can cause unit malfunctions or pump damage. Determine the cause and repair the problem. Air entering the system, due to low oil levels or leaks in the suction line, will cause the most problems and should be corrected immediately. Air may be purged from the hydraulic system by extending and retracting each hydraulic cylinder five or six times. Use the lower controls to purge the air from the system before operating the upper controls.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh. Do not use hands or other body parts to check hydraulic lines and fittings for leaks. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. If a connection is properly tightened but continues to leak, disassemble the connection. Seal the necessary parts and/or replace the part that is the source of the leak. Worn or damaged parts can also cause leaks. For example, scratched cylinder rods or a worn or scratched output shaft on a hydraulic motor can cause leaks. Such conditions must be repaired or replaced. A new seal should also be installed. An internal leak allows pressurized hydraulic oil to escape to the reservoir or another hydraulic circuit. Most hydraulic components have a small amount of internal leakage due to machining tolerances. Internal leaks can cause a variety of problems in a hydraulic system. Internal leaks in a cylinder can cause drifting or malfunction of a cylinder. Internal leaks in a rotary joint will cause functions to slow down and/or fail to build pressure. Replacing the seals in the leaking component will usually stop the internal leaks. Leakage past a holding valve in a cylinder can cause drifting or malfunction of the cylinder. Replacing the holding valves in the component may stop the leak. However, some types of damage, such as scoring of the inside of a cylinder barrel, require more extensive repair.

Attention

Pilot System

Air trapped in the pilot operated upper control system would have the same effect as air trapped in an automobile braking system. Air bubbles compress as pressure is applied to the oil causing a spongy feeling in the control system. This condition may lead to hesitancy in the control system or poor metering of the control functions as the single handle control is moved. Placing the control selector valve in the Purge position will automatically and continuously purge the upper control valve lines until the control selector is returned to the detented Upper Control position. The purging system may be used to warm up the upper control system in cold weather conditions if the fluid in the reservoir is warm. The purging procedure is the same as explained above except that several minutes may be required in extremely cold weather.

Leakage
If components and connections are installed properly, leaks can be kept to a minimum. Small external leaks are usually easy to find because dust will collect on the hydraulic oil film. External leakage is the escape of hydraulic oil outside the hydraulic system. Improperly tightened fittings are a primary cause of external leakage. Keep all hydraulic connections tight to prevent external oil leaks. Follow the torque and tightening specifications explained under Fittings and Valve Cartridges in this section to properly tighten hydraulic fittings.

Heat Generation
Heat is the result of pressurized fluid escaping to the reservoir. Most hydraulic components have a small internal leak due to machining tolerances. This type of leak generates a small amount of heat that is taken into account when the component is designed.

Section 5 Hydraulic System 53

Large internal leaks in the system may be caused by internal housing cracks, defective relief valves, or leaking seals. This type of leak allows a large volume of pressurized oil to return to reservoir creating excessive heat in the hydraulic system. Continuous operation with excessive heat will damage the hydraulic oil, seals, and O-rings throughout the system. The following conditions cause heat generation. Excessive pump speed Worn or defective pump Defective relief valve cartridges Contaminated spool in a control valve Low hydraulic oil level Improper hydraulic oil Internal component leakage

When replacing a hose, use one that is the same size, length, and pressure rating. If the hose size is doubled, four times the amount of oil will flow at the same pressure. If the hose size is decreased, the flow in the circuit will decrease and back pressure will increase. The increase in back pressure will cause heat to build up in the system.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled movement. Purge the air from the actuator before operating the unit. Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. After removing a hydraulic line from a cylinder, do not operate the unit from the upper controls until all air is purged from the cylinder after the hydraulic lines are reinstalled. The presence of air in the cylinder can cause inadvertent retraction or extension of the cylinder, resulting in death or serious injury. The control selector valve should not be placed in the Purge position longer than a minute to purge the air from the upper control valve lines.

Refer to Section 8 under Hydraulic System for information about troubleshooting specific components for internal leaks.

Hydraulic Lines
Hydraulic lines provide a passageway for fluid flow between components in the hydraulic system. Fluid is transmitted through the lines from the pump to the actuator to operate the unit. A variety of lines may be used on the unit depending on the specific application. The lines may be conductive or nonconductive rubber hoses, flexible plastic, or rigid steel tube. Most hoses have a lay line on them. The lay line contains the following information. Manufacturers name Manufacturers part number SAE rating Working pressure Burst pressure (sometimes) Nonconductive appears on nonconductive hoses

Caution
Injury can result from airborne particles entering the eyes and lungs. Wear appropriate safety equipment. Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. Remove all pressure from a hydraulic circuit before disconnecting lines or fittings.

The hoses transport hydraulic oil between the turntable and the boom tip.

Danger
Death or serious injury can result from unprotected contact with energized conductors. Never replace a nonconductive hose with a conductive hose. The hoses at the turntable, in the booms, and at the platform(s) are non-pin perforated, nonconductive, thermoplastic hoses. Replace the hoses with hoses of the same type.

54 Section 5 Hydraulic System

Mark all hydraulic line fittings before disconnecting them to ease installation later. Place a container under the hoses to catch the hydraulic oil. Cap or plug all open ports, hoses, and fittings to prevent contamination. Warranty will be denied on components returned to Altec if ports are not plugged and cylinder rods are not retracted. Properly torque all connections. Refer to the Torque and Tightening Procedures in this section. The hoses in the upper boom are positioned and supported by hose separators. Four clamps are used to secure the hose bundle in the lower boom. These components allow the hoses to be securely positioned and keep them from rubbing against one another. They also make the hoses easier to service. The hoses in the hose bundle have connectors at the elbow. They are not full-length lines. When service requires removal, there is an option of removing the complete system or separating the hose lines at the elbow end of the upper boom. After completing a procedure, check the oil level in the hydraulic oil reservoir and add oil if necessary.

4. Move the control selector valve to the Upper Control position, press the interlock trigger, and move the single handle control in each direction several times. On units with material handling, also shift the control levers for the winch, jib, and upper tool circuit in both directions several times. 5. Remove the access cover from both sides of the turntable. 6. Mark the hoses to ease installation and use a liquid container to catch the spilled hydraulic oil when the hoses are disconnected. 7. Note the routing of the hoses through the turntable before removal to ease installation. 8. Disconnect the extend and retract hoses from the lower control valve and lower boom cylinder. Remove the hoses from the turntable. Cap or plug all open ports. Installation Use the following procedure to install the lower boom cylinder hoses. 1. Route the extend and retract hoses through the turntable. The hoses must be oriented the same way during installation as they were before they were removed. 2. Connect the hoses to the lower control valve in the turntable and upper boom cylinder. 3. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and lower the outriggers. 4. Operate each function from the lower controls several times to purge any air from the cylinder. While operating the cylinder, check for leaks and proper operation. 5. If all the functions operated properly, repeat step 4 using the upper controls. 6. Stow the unit, raise the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 7. Install the access covers on the turntable.

Lower Boom Cylinder Hoses

The lower boom cylinder hoses run from the lower control valve to the base end of the lower boom cylinder. Removal Use the following procedure to remove the lower boom cylinder hoses. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. If the unit has a hydraulic tilted end mounted platform, wrap a sling under the platform and lift up slightly with a hoist to support the platform. 3. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control levers in both directions several times.

Upper Boom Cylinder Hoses

The upper boom cylinder hoses run from the lower control valve to the base of the upper boom cylinder. These hoses must be removed before the upper controls hoses can be removed from the lower boom.

Section 5 Hydraulic System 55

Removal Use the following procedure to remove the upper boom cylinder hoses. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. If the unit has a hydraulically tilted (or dumped) end mounted platform, wrap a sling under the platform and lift up slightly with a hoist to support the platform. 3. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by rotating the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control levers in both directions several times. 4. Move the control selector valve to the Upper Control position, press the interlock trigger, and move the single handle control in each direction several times. On units with material handling, also shift the control levers for the winch, jib, and upper tool circuit in both directions several times. 5. Remove the access cover from the curb side of the turntable. 6. Mark the hoses to ease installation and use a liquid container to catch the spilled hydraulic oil when the hoses are disconnected. 7. Note the routing of the hoses through the turntable before removal to ease installation. 8. Disconnect the extend, retract, and pilot hoses from the lower control valve in the turntable and upper boom cylinder. Cap or plug all open ports. 9. Remove the cap screw and clamp securing the hoses to the rear of the turntable (refer to Figure 5.30). 10. Remove the compensating linkage from the lower boom. Refer to Section 5 under Compensating Linkage for further instructions. 11. Note the routing of the hoses on the compensating link before removal to ease installation.

12. Remove the cable ties, hose guides, and pressure, tank, and pilot hoses from the compensating links. Installation Use the following procedure to install the upper boom cylinder hoses. 1. Install the hose guides and the pressure, tank, and pilot hoses on the compensating links with cable ties (refer to Figure 5.30). The hoses must be oriented the same way during installation as they were before they were removed. 2. Install the compensating linkage in the lower boom. Refer to Section 5 under Compensating Linkage for further instructions. 3. Connect the hoses to the lower control valve in the turntable and upper boom cylinder. 4. Secure the hoses to the rear of the turntable with the cap screw and clamp. Clamps must secure the hoses tightly, no sliding through the clamps is allowable. 5. Remove the sling and hoist from the platform. 6. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and lower the outriggers. 7. Operate each function from the lower controls several times to purge any air from the cylinders. While operating the cylinders, check for leaks and proper operation. 8. Make sure that the base end of the lower boom does not rub the upper boom cylinder hoses during lower boom movement. 9. If all the functions operated properly, repeat step 7 using the upper controls. 10. Stow the unit, raise the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 11. Install the access covers on the turntable.

Upper Controls Pilot Hoses

The upper controls pilot hoses and pressure, return, are routed from the lower control valve to the upper controls at the platform. On units with material handling, hoses are also routed from the lower winch valve to the upper boom tip mounted winch. On units with remote engine start/stop, an air line is also routed with the upper controls pilot hoses.

56 Section 5 Hydraulic System

Cable Tie, Hose Guide

Cable Ties

Cable Tie

Compensating Link (AA/AA-L 500 Units Only) Cable Tie, Hose Guide Hoses

Hoses

Hose Guide Installed at 45 Degree Angle

Fiberglass Compensating Link Section Cable Ties

Cap Screw, Clamp Access Cover

Section D D (AA/AA-L 500 Units Only) Pilot Hose Tank Hose Pressure Hose Section B B (AA/AA-L 600/650 Units Only)

Hoses

Section A A

Section C C Figure 5.30 Upper Boom Cylinder Hoses

Removal Use the following procedure to remove the upper controls pilot hoses. 1. Remove the access covers from the turntable, booms, elbow, and platform. 2. Remove the upper boom cylinder hoses. Refer to Upper Boom Cylinder Hoses in this Section for further instructions. 3. Mark the hoses to ease installation and use a liquid container to catch the spilled hydraulic oil when the hoses are disconnected. 4. Note the routing of the hoses through the turntable and booms before removal to ease installation. 5. Disconnect the upper controls pilot hoses, air line, and pressure, return, and winch hoses starting with

the hoses at the lower control valve and lower winch valve. Cap or plug all open ports. 6. Remove the clamps from the hoses in the lower boom. 7. Cut the cable ties and remove hoses from the hose separators in the lower boom. 8. Loosen the nuts and lock washers on the hook weldments in the lower boom. 9. Pull the hoses and air line through the turntable, lower boom, and out the elbow end. 10. Disconnect the upper controls pilot hoses, air line, and pressure, return, and winch hoses at the platform. Cap or plug all open ports. 11. Remove the clamp from the hoses at the upper boom tip. Section 5 Hydraulic System 57

12. Remove the leakage monitor wires and clamps from the hoses and fiberglass rod at the elbow end of the upper boom (refer to Figure 5.31). 13. Remove the cable tie and adjustable clamp from the hoses at the elbow end of the upper boom. 14. Loosen the jam nuts, remove the cap screws, and pull the fiberglass rod and hoses through the upper boom and out the elbow end. 15. If required, cut the cable ties and remove the hoses and air line from the hose separators on the fiberglass rod. Clamps

Installation Use the following procedure to install the upper controls pilot hoses. 1. If required, install the upper controls pilot hoses, air line, and pressure, return, and winch hoses on the hose separators attached to the fiberglass rod with cable ties. The hoses and air line must be oriented the same way during installation as they were before they were removed. The return hose must be located on the bottom of the bundle. 2. Install the cable ties six inches on either side of the hose separators. Clamp

Adjustable Clamp

Mounting Bracket

Fiberglass Rod

Upper Boom Elbow End

Adjustable Clamp Upper Controls Pilot Hoses Mounting Bracket Fiberglass Rod Lower Winch Valve Pressure Hose

Leakage Monitor Wire

Nut

Pressure Hose Screw Clamp Hose Lower Winch Valve Tank Tank Hose Sense Hose Section A A (End View) Figure 5.31 Leakage Monitor Wires

Hose Clamp Detail

58 Section 5 Hydraulic System

3. Insert the fiberglass rod and hoses through the elbow and into upper boom. 4. Install the fiberglass rod on the brackets inside the upper boom with cap screws. Tighten the jam nuts on the ends of the fiberglass rods. 5. Use the marks made during the removal procedure to connect the upper controls pilot hoses, air line, and pressure, return, and winch hoses at the platform. 6. Install the clamp on the hoses at the upper boom tip. Clamps must secure the hoses tightly. No sliding through the clamps is allowable. 7. Install the adjustable clamp and cable ties on the hoses at the elbow end of the upper boom. The hose separators for the winch lines, control bundle, and pressure and return lines are located respectively approximately 14 feet (4.26 meters), 15 feet (4.57 meters) and 16 feet ( 4.87 meters) from the bulkhead in the upper boom. 8. Install the clamps and leakage monitor wires on the hoses and fiberglass rod at the elbow end of the upper boom (refer to Figure 5.31). 9. Insert the hoses and air line through the elbow end of the lower boom and into the turntable. Observe the following guidelines while routing the hoses. a. The hoses at the elbow should make the biggest radius possible. b. The hoses must touch the elbow pivot pin bushing and lower boom end weldment. c. When the booms are stowed, the hose bundle inside the base end of the lower boom should be below the top of the compensating link. 10. Use the marks made during the removal procedure to connect the hoses and air line to the lower control valve, lower winch valve, and air switch respectively. 11. Install the hoses on the hose separators in the lower boom with cable ties. 12. Install the clamps on the hoses in the lower boom. The hoses in the lower boom must be straight and tight between the clamps. 13. Tighten the nuts and lock washers on and hook weldments in the lower boom.

14. Install the upper boom cylinder hoses. Refer to Upper Boom Cylinder Hoses in this Section for further instructions. 15. Install the access covers on the turntable, elbow, and booms. 16. Perform a dielectric test as described in Section 9.

Fittings and Valve Cartridges


Most hydraulic ports and fittings are SAE straight thread O-ring or 37 degree flared JIC straight thread. These types of fittings provide a good seal. They also resist vibration. Use the proper torque and tightening specifications when installing a hydraulic fitting to reduce the likelihood of leaks in the system. Caps and plugs should be used during the handling and storage of hydraulic components to prevent damage to sealing surfaces and fitting threads. When installing a valve cartridge into a valve body, it must be tightened to the proper torque value. Tightening the cartridge less than the specified torque value may lead to leakage. Tightening the cartridge more than the specified torque value can damage the valve, valve body or bind internal parts. A damaged valve may not function properly.

Torque and Tightening Procedures

Over torquing a component can distort the part and cause leakage. When a leaking fitting is found, first check to see if it is tight. If it is not tight, torque it to the proper value. If the fitting will not stay tight, then it will need to be replaced. If it is tight, stop the unit, determine the cause of the leak and take corrective action. When making a connection that uses a swivel nut, use one wrench to hold the hose, tube, or fitting and another wrench to turn the nut. This is necessary to prevent damage to the sealing surface of the JIC connections. The following instructions describe proper torque and tightening procedures for various types of hydraulic fittings.

Caution
Death or serious injury can result from improper use of solvents. Follow the manufacturers label for proper use and disposal. Tapered Pipe Thread Fittings 1. Clean the male threads of the fitting with a cleaning solvent.

Section 5 Hydraulic System 59

2. Apply pipe sealant to the male threads of the fitting, being careful not to get sealant on the first two male threads. Apply enough sealant so a ring of sealant forms on the outside of the connection when the threads are tightened into the mating body. 3. Screw the fitting into the mating part and finger tighten. 4. Turn the fitting with a wrench the appropriate turns from finger tight (T.F.F.T.), taking the final position of the tube end into consideration. 5. Follow the sealant manufacturers directions for cure time. The ring of sealant described in step 2 will not completely harden due to its exposure to air. SAE O-Ring Fittings With Self Locking Nuts 1. Lubricate the O-ring and threads with hydraulic oil or light grease, such as petroleum jelly. 2. Screw the fitting into the SAE straight thread boss until the backup washer bottoms on the boss face with the O-ring squeezed into the boss cavity. 3. Unscrew the fitting (maximum of one full turn) to align the fitting with the mating part. 4. Tighten the self locking nut with a wrench and torque to the proper value for the size and material (stainless steel or steel) so the backup washer contacts the boss face. SAE O-Ring Fittings Without Self Locking Nuts 1. Lubricate the O-ring and threads with hydraulic oil or light grease, such as petroleum jelly. 2. Turn the fitting in full length until finger tight. 3. Tighten the fitting with a wrench to the proper value. Tube and JIC Fittings 1. Clean the male threads of the fitting with a cleaning solvent. 2. Tighten the nut finger tight until it bottoms out on the flare seat. 3. Use a felt tip pen or marker to mark a line lengthwise on the nut and extend it onto the adapter body. Refer to Torque Values in the Appendix for more information. 4. Determine the proper number of hex flats the nut must be turned with a wrench. Using a wrench to hold the adapter body, rotate the nut with another wrench the proper number of hex flats. 60 Section 5 Hydraulic System

5. Use the marks to count the proper number of hex flats to turn the nut. The marks also serve as a visual indicator that the fitting has been properly tightened. Compression Fittings 1. Cut the tubing to length, allowing for bend, equipment movement, etc. 2. Fit the brass insert into the nylon pilot tubing with the flanged end out. The insert should fit snug in the pilot tubing. The color-coded 5/16 (7.94 mm) outer diameter tubing requires the use of an insert. 3. With the threaded end of the compression nut facing the fitting body, slide the nut onto the nylon tubing, followed by the compression sleeve. To prevent damaging the nut and threads, do not overtighten compression fittings. 4. Insert the tubing into the fitting body. Making sure the tubing rests firmly on the shoulder of the fitting, hand tighten the compression nut. Tighten the compression nut the proper number of turns. Refer to Torque Values in the Appendix for more information. Four-Bolt Split Flange Assembly SAE Code 61 [3,000 psi (206 bar)] 1. Clean the sealing surface of any burrs, scratches, or foreign particles. 2. Lubricate the O-ring with hydraulic oil. 3. Position the flange and clamp halves. Put the bolts with the lock washers in place (refer to Figure 5.32) and hand tighten the bolts. Flange Clamping Bolt Lock Washer

Attention

Split Clamp Half

O-Ring Figure 5.32 Four-Bolt Flange Assembly 4. Follow the pattern in Figure 5.33 to torque the bolts in place.

Platform rotation Platform tilt Jib tilt All the cylinders used on the unit (with the exception the upper boom cylinder) are double-acting cylinders. The upper boom cylinder is a single acting cylinder. Holding valves are often used to maintain cylinder position if there is hydraulic line failure. The outrigger and lower boom cylinders use counterbalance holding valves. The upper boom, jib tilt, and platform rotate cylinders use pilot-operated check valves. The holding valves may be installed in cavities machined directly into the cylinders. They may also be installed in a valve block in the hydraulic lines connected to the cylinder or directly mounted on the cylinder. All cylinder rods are chrome plated to prevent rust and corrosion. The chrome plating also provides a smooth surface for the end gland bearing and seal.

Figure 5.33 Four-Bolt Flange Torque Pattern 5. Use small increments to torque the bolts. Valve Cartridges 1. Clean the male threads of the cartridge with a cleaning solvent. 2. Lubricate the threads and O-ring with hydraulic oil. 3. Turn the cartridge in until it is finger tight. 4. Tighten the cartridge with a wrench to the proper value. Refer to Torque Values in the Appendix for more information.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled movement. Use a sling and hoist of adequate capacity. Death or serious injury can result from cylinder failure. Do not operate a cylinder that has a dented barrel or a damaged rod. Death or serious injury can result from cylinder failure. Never reuse a self-locking piston nut or retention device. Death or serious injury can result from cylinder failure. Properly install and torque a piston nut or gland retention device. Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh. Properly cap or connect hydraulic lines before operating the unit. Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately.

Engine Throttle Control


Depending on the chassis used for the unit, an engine throttle control may be used. As the pump flow is directed into the hydraulic system, pressure rises in the pump outlet. A 200 (13.8 bar) to 300 psi (20.6 bar) rise in pressure will cause the throttle cylinder to be extended. The rod end of the cylinder is connected to the throttle linkage, causing the engine to speed up to the adjusted rpm. When the signal being sent to the pump bleeds off, the pump outlet pressure will decrease allowing the throttle cylinder to be retracted by its internal spring. The engine speed will then return to idle. The oil flow for the aerial device should be 8 gpm (30.32 l/min). The pump is capable of producing a larger flow rate. Because of the lower operating speed of 750 rpm, the pump is limited to 8 gpm (30.32 l/min).

Cylinders
Hydraulic cylinders are used to operate the following components and functions. Outriggers Lower boom Upper boom

Section 5 Hydraulic System 61

Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled movement. Purge the air from the actuator before operating the unit. Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled movement. Properly support the component before loosening fasteners and removing components.

Mark all hydraulic line fittings before disconnecting them to ease installation later. Place a container under the hoses to catch the hydraulic oil. Cap or plug all open ports, hoses, and fittings to prevent contamination. Warranty will be denied on components returned to Altec if ports are not plugged and cylinder rods are not retracted. Properly torque all connections and cap screws. Refer to Torque and Tightening Procedures in this section. After completing a procedure, check the oil level in the hydraulic oil reservoir and add oil if necessary. After replacing a major component, such as a lift cylinder, perform a structural test as described in Section 9.

Caution
Injury can result from airborne particles entering the eyes and lungs. Wear appropriate safety equipment. Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Pinch points exist at both ends of the cylinder. Be extremely careful when removing or installing cylinders. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. Never install a cylinder with side pressure on the rod. Do not operate a cylinder if the cylinder barrel is dented or if the rod is damaged. Altec does not recommend repairing cylinders in the field. Most repairs require cylinder disassembly which should be done in a clean, properly equipped shop. The Parts Manual contains a drawing of each cylinder. The drawing lists the Altec part numbers for the seal kits and provides torque specifications for piston nuts and end glands. Hydraulic cylinder piston nuts and end glands must be torqued to the proper values at assembly. Many piston nuts and end glands have retention devices, such as cotter pins and set screws. These retention devices must be installed properly. If the internal size tolerance of the cylinder barrel is exceeded, the piston seal could be pushed out when the cylinder is put under a load. This will cause cylinder failure. After reconnecting a hydraulic line from any cylinder, extend and retract the cylinder five to six times to purge the air out of the cylinder and to check for hydraulic leaks.

Radial Outrigger Cylinder

Removal Use the following procedure to remove the radial outrigger cylinder. 1. Position the unit on a level surface. Apply the parking brake, chock the wheels, start the engine and engage the PTO. 2. Lower the outrigger until it just makes contact with the ground. Use a sling and hoist to support the cylinder. 3. Remove the cap screw, forged pin retainer, and pin from the rod end of the outrigger cylinder, leg, and folding shoe (refer to Figure 5.34). Cap Screw, Forged Pin Retainer Base End

Rod End

Cap Screw, Forged Pin Retainer Figure 5.34 Radial Outrigger Cylinder 4. Carefully retract the cylinder to prevent the rod from being scratched during the removal procedure. When the cylinder is fully retracted, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine.

62 Section 5 Hydraulic System

5. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control levers in both directions several times. c. Release any pressure in the hoses connected to the outrigger cylinder by shifting the outrigger control lever for the cylinder in both directions several times. 6. Disconnect the extend and retract hoses from the fittings on the counterbalance valve block on the base end of the cylinder. 7. Remove the cap screw and forged pin retainer from the pin connecting the base end of the cylinder to the radial outrigger frame weldment. 8. Make sure the outrigger cylinder is properly secured before removing the pin. On some units, it may be necessary to use a puller threaded into a 1/2 -13 UNC tapped hole in the end of the pin to remove it. 9. Use the sling and hoist to carefully lift the cylinder out of the weldment and lower it to the ground. Installation Use the following procedure to install the radial outrigger cylinder. 1. Move the hydraulic fittings from the old cylinder to the new one. 2. Apply anti-seize compound to the cylinder pins, pin bores, and the frame, leg, and shoe weldment bosses. 3. Support the cylinder with the sling and hoist and lift it into position above the outrigger frame weldment. Carefully guide the base end of the cylinder into the weldment. 4. Align the hole in the base end of the cylinder with the bearings in the weldment and insert the pin (refer to Figure 5.34). 5. Install the forged pin retainer and cap screw to secure the pin. 6. Connect the retract and extend hoses to the fittings on the counterbalance valve housing.

7. Reposition the sling and hoist to properly support the cylinder, start the engine, and engage the PTO. 8. Make sure the outrigger leg and folding shoe bearings are in place before proceeding further. 9. Careful extend the outrigger cylinder without scratching the rod, until the hole in the rod end is aligned with the bearings in the outrigger leg and folding shoe. 10. Insert the pin through the outrigger shoe, leg, and cylinder rod. 11. Install the forged pin retainer and cap screw to secure the pin. 12. Extend and retract the outrigger leg five to six times to purge any air in the cylinder while checking for hydraulic leaks and proper operation. 13. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9.

A-Frame Outrigger Cylinder

The removal and installation of A-frame outrigger cylinders may be done from the top or bottom of the cylinder leg. Depending on the mounting and body style of the unit, one method may be easier than the other. Removal from the Top Use the following procedure to remove the A-frame outrigger cylinder from the top. 1. Position the unit on a level surface. Apply the parking brake, chock the wheels, start the engine, and engage the PTO. Extend the outrigger until it is near the ground. 2. Remove the access cover from the top of the outrigger outer leg (refer to Figure 5.35). 3. Remove the retaining rings from the pin connecting the cylinder rod end to the outrigger inner leg and shoe. 4. Carefully retract the cylinder to prevent the rod from being scratched during the removal procedure. When the cylinder is fully retracted, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 5. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever.

Section 5 Hydraulic System 63

Pin and Retaining Rings Base End

Pin and Retaining Rings Base End

Rod End

Outrigger Cylinder Pin and Retaining Rings Modified A-Frame

Outrigger Cylinder

Rod End Pin and Retaining Rings

A-Frame

Figure 5.35 A-Frame Outrigger Cylinder b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control levers in both directions several times. c. Release any pressure in the hoses connected to the outrigger cylinder by shifting the outrigger control lever for the cylinder in both directions several times. 6. Disconnect the extend and retract hoses from the fittings on the counterbalance valve block on the base end of the cylinder. 7. Use a sling and hoist to support the base end of the cylinder. 8. Remove the retaining rings from the pin connecting the cylinder to the outrigger outer leg weldment. 9. Remove the pin and use the sling and hoist to carefully lift the cylinder out of the weldment and lower it to the ground. Installation from the Top Use the following procedure to install the A-frame outrigger cylinder from the top. 1. Move the hydraulic fittings from the old cylinder to the new one. Install the sling on the new cylinder and connect it to the hoist. 2. Apply anti-seize compound to the cylinder pins, pin bores, and the inner and outer leg and shoe weldment bosses. 64 Section 5 Hydraulic System 3. Support the cylinder with the sling and hoist and lift it into position above the outrigger frame weldment. Carefully guide the rod end of the cylinder into the weldment. 4. Align the hole in the base end of the cylinder with the bearings in the weldment and insert the pin (refer to Figure 5.35). 5. Center the pin, install the retaining rings, and remove the sling and hoist. 6. Connect the retract and extend hoses to the fittings on the counterbalance valve housing. 7. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and make sure the outrigger leg and shoe bearings are in place. 8. Carefully extend the outrigger cylinder until the hole in the rod end is aligned with the bearings in the outrigger inner leg and shoe. 9. Insert the pin through the outrigger leg, shoe, and cylinder rod. Center the pin and install the retaining rings. 10. Extend and retract the outrigger leg five to six times to purge any air in the cylinder while checking for hydraulic leaks and proper operation. 11. Install the access cover on the top of the outrigger and perform a structural test as described in Section 9.

Removal from the Bottom Use the following procedure to remove the A-frame outrigger cylinder from the bottom. 1. Position the unit on a hoist, the edge of a loading dock or over a hole deep enough to allow the assembly to be removed. 2. Apply the parking brake, chock the wheels, start the engine, and engage the PTO. Make sure the outrigger is fully retracted, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 3. Support the shoe end of the outrigger inner leg with a sling and hoist. 4. Remove the access cover from the top of the outrigger outer leg (refer to Figure 5.35). 5. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control levers in both directions several times. c. Release any pressure in the hoses connected to the cylinder by shifting the outrigger control lever for the outrigger cylinder in both directions several times. 6. Disconnect the extend and retract hoses from the fittings on the counterbalance valve block on the base end of the cylinder. 7. Remove the retaining rings from the pin connecting the cylinder to the outrigger outer leg weldment. 8. Remove the pin and use the sling and hoist to carefully lower the outrigger inner leg and cylinder out of the weldment. 9. Lower the inner leg to the ground and remove the sling and hoist. 10. Remove the retaining rings from the pin connecting the cylinder rod end to the outrigger leg and shoe. 11. Remove the cylinder from the inner leg.

Installation from the Bottom Use the following procedure to install the A-frame outrigger cylinder from the bottom. 1. Move the hydraulic fittings from the old cylinder to the new one. Install the sling on the new cylinder and connect it to the hoist. 2. Apply anti-seize compound to the cylinder pins, pin bores, and the inner and outer leg and shoe weldment bosses. 3. Slide the cylinder into the outrigger inner leg until the hole in the rod end is aligned with the bearings in the outrigger inner leg and shoe. 4. Insert the pin through the outrigger leg, shoe, and cylinder rod. Center the pin and install the retaining rings (refer to Figure 5.35). 5. Use a sling and hoist to support the outrigger inner leg and insert it into the outer leg weldment. 6. Raise the outrigger inner leg until the hole in the cylinder base end is aligned with the bearings in the outrigger outer leg weldment. 7. Center the pin, install the retaining rings, and remove the sling and hoist. 8. Connect the retract and extend hoses to the fittings on the counterbalance valve housing. 9. Extend and retract the outrigger leg five to six times to purge any air in the cylinder while checking for hydraulic leaks and proper operation. 10. Install the access cover on the top of the outrigger and perform a structural test as described in Section 9.

Lower Boom Cylinder

Removal Use the following procedure to remove the lower boom cylinder. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. Make sure the lower boom is in the rest, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 2. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system.

Section 5 Hydraulic System 65

a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control levers in both directions several times. 3. Use a sling and hoist to support the lower boom cylinder. 4. Disconnect the extend and retract hoses from the base end of the cylinder. 5. At the cylinder rod end, remove the lockwire, cap screw, lock washer, and forged pin retainer (refer to Figure 5.36). 6. Make sure the cylinder is properly supported. Remove the retaining rings and pin from the rod end of the cylinder. 7. At the cylinder base end, remove the lockwire, cap screw, lock washer, and forged pin retainer. 8. Make sure the cylinder is properly supported. Remove the retaining rings and pin from the base end of the cylinder. 9. Use the sling and hoist to carefully lower the cylinder to a stable-working surface. Installation Use the following procedure to install the lower boom cylinder.

1. Remove the fittings from the old lower boom cylinder and install the components on the new cylinder. 2. Secure the sling around the cylinder barrel. 3. Lift the cylinder into position with the sling and hoist, align the base end of the cylinder with the cylinder mount on the turntable, and insert the pin. 4. Center the pin and install the retaining rings. 5. Insert the forged pin retainer through the cylinder pin and install the cap screw and lock washer. Properly torque the cap screw and secure with lockwire. 6. Connect the hydraulic hoses to the cylinder. 7. Reposition the sling and hoist and raise the cylinder into position to extend the rod. 8. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and operate the cylinder until the hole in the cylinder rod is aligned with the mounting holes in the lower boom and insert the pin. 9. Center the pin, install the retaining rings, and remove the sling and hoist. 10. Insert the forged pin retainer through the cylinder pin and install the cap screw and lock washer. Properly torque the cap screw and secure with lockwire. 11. Use the lower controls to raise and lower the lower boom five or six times to purge any air in the cylinder while checking for leaks and proper operation. 12. Disengage the PTO, turn off the engine, and perform a structural test as described in Section 9.

Lower Boom Cylinder Figure 5.36 Lower Boom Cylinder 66 Section 5 Hydraulic System

Upper Boom Cylinder

Removal Use the following procedure to remove the upper boom cylinder. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 2. Raise the upper boom approximately 10 feet (3.04 meters) above the rest to provide enough room to allow removal of the cylinder, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 3. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control levers in both directions several times. 4. Use one sling and hoist to support the upper boom near the platform and another to support the upper boom cylinder. 5. Convert the upper boom cylinder to a double-acting cylinder as follows. a. Create two three-foot (one-meter) extension hoses with fittings to allow the upper boom cylinder to be fully retracted when the hoses are properly connected. b. Remove the access covers from the sides of the turntable. c. Disconnect the pilot hose from the upper boom fold (A) port on the lower control valve (refer to Figure 5.37). d. Pull the pilot hose out through the access hole on the curb side of the turntable. e. Disconnect the upper boom cylinder tank hose from the return line tee fitting above the rotary joint. Cap the return line tee fitting. f. Pull the tank hose out through the access hole on the curb side of the turntable

Union Connection Tee Connection

Cap End

Figure 5.37 Upper Boom Cylinder Conversion Connections g. Connect one of the three-foot (one-meter) extension hoses through the access hole on the curb side of the turntable to the upper boom fold (A) port on the lower control valve. h. Using a tee fitting, connect the other end of the three-foot (one-meter) extension hose to the pilot and tank hoses. i. Disconnect the pressure hose from the upper boom unfold (B) port on the lower control valve and pull the end of it out of the access hole. j. Using a union fitting, connect the other three-foot (one-meter) extension hose to the end of the pressure hose and the upper boom unfold (B) port on the lower control valve. 6. Remove the access covers from the sides of the lower boom to reveal the slide blocks used to support the upper boom cylinder to compensating link connection (refer to Figure 5.38). 7. Cut the cable ties securing the pressure, pilot, and tank hoses to the compensating link. 8. At the rear of the turntable, remove the lockwire, cap screws, lock washers, lug, bushing, and pin that connect the compensating link to the turntable. 9. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and use the lower controls to retract the upper boom cylinder until the slide blocks are lined up with the access holes on the side of the lower boom. Section 5 Hydraulic System 67

Upper Boom Cylinder Rod End Cap Screw, Lock Washer, Lug, Bushing Upper Link Pin Stepped Pin

Compensating Link

Slide Block

Cap Screw, Lock Washer, Upper Track Extender

Lower Link Section A A Upper Boom Link Upper Boom Cylinder

Upper Boom Cylinder Base End Section B B

Lower Boom Link (Chamfered Side) Figure 5.38 Upper Boom Cylinder 10. Remove the cap screws, lock washers, and upper track extenders through the access holes in the sides of the lower boom. 11. Remove the slide blocks from both sides of the stepped pin. 12. Remove the stepped pin from the compensating link and the base end of the upper boom cylinder. 13. Fully retract the cylinder while guiding the hoses inside the lower boom. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 14. Disconnect the pressure, pilot, and tank hoses from the cylinder. 15. Support the lower and upper links and the rod end of the upper boom cylinder during disassembly. Remove the lockwire, cap screws, lock washers, lug, bushing, and pin from the upper and lower boom links and cylinder rod end. 16. Use the sling and hoist to remove the cylinder and lower it to a stable-working surface. Installation Use the following procedure to install the upper boom cylinder. 1. Remove the fittings from the old upper boom cylinder and install the components on the new cylinder. 2. Secure the sling around the cylinder barrel. 3. Lift the cylinder into position with sling the hoist, align the hole in the rod end of the cylinder with the holes in the lower and upper boom links, and insert the pin (refer to Figure 5.38). Make sure that the chamfered side of the lower boom link is toward the lower boom to prevent damage to the unit. 4. Install the bushing and lug on the end of the pin with cap screws and lock washers. Tighten the cap screws and secure with lockwire. 5. Connect the pressure, pilot, and tank hoses to the cylinder. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 6. Hydraulically extend the cylinder until the hole in the base end is aligned with the holes in the compensating link and insert the stepped pin.

68 Section 5 Hydraulic System

7. Center the stepped pin and install the slide blocks through the access holes in the sides of the lower boom. 8. Install the upper track extenders with cap screws and lock washers. 9. Use the lower controls to extend the cylinder until the holes in the compensating link are aligned with the hole in the turntable and insert the pin. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 10. Install the bushing and lug on the end of the pin with cap screws and lock washers. Tighten the cap screws and secure with lockwire. 11. Secure the pressure, pilot, and tank hoses to the compensating link with cable ties. 12. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control levers in both directions several times. 13. Convert the upper boom cylinder back to a singleacting cylinder as follows. a. Disconnect the three-foot (one-meter) extension hose and union fitting from the pressure hose and the lower control valve upper boom unfold (B) port (refer to Figure 5.38). Remove the extension hose from the turntable. b. Connect the pressure hose to the upper boom unfold (B) port. c. Disconnect the other three-foot (one-meter) extension hose from the tee connection and the lower control valve upper boom fold (A) port. Remove the extension hose from the turntable. d. Disconnect the tee fitting from the pilot and tank hoses. Remove the tee fitting from the turntable. e. Connect the pilot hose to the upper boom fold (A) port. f. Uncap the tee fitting above the rotary joint and connect the tank hose to the fitting.

14. Remove the slings and hoists from the upper boom cylinder and upper boom. 15. Use the lower controls to raise and lower the upper boom five or six times to purge any air in the cylinder while checking for leaks and proper operation. 16. Disengage the PTO, turn off the engine, and install the access covers on the sides of the lower boom and turntable. 17. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9.

Jib Tilt Cylinder

The jib tilt cylinder is used on units with material handling. Removal Use the following procedure to remove the jib tilt cylinder. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control levers in both directions several times. c. Release any pressure in the hoses connected to the jib tilt cylinder by shifting the jib tilt control lever in both directions several times. 3. Use a sling and hoist to support the jib. 4. Disconnect the extend and retract hoses from the cylinder. 5. Remove the lockwire, cap screws, lock washers, forged pin retainers, retaining rings, and pins from both ends of the cylinder and lower the cylinder to the ground. Installation Use the following procedure to install the jib tilt cylinder. 1. Carefully remove the hydraulic tube, fittings, and the pilot operated check valves from the old cylinder and install them on the new cylinder.

Section 5 Hydraulic System 69

2. Align the holes in the ends of the cylinder with the holes in the mounting brackets on the jib and upper boom and insert the pins. 3. Install the retaining rings and forged pin retainers on the pins. Install the cap screws and lock washers on the forged pin retainers and secure with lockwire. 4. Connect the extend and retract hoses to the cylinder. 5. Remove the sling and hoist from the jib. 6. Start the engine and engage the PTO. Raise and lower the jib several times to purge any air from the cylinder while checking for leaks and proper operation. 7. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9.

5. Disconnect the extend and retract hoses from the cylinder (refer to Figure 5.39). 6. On units with a side to end-mounted platform, remove the lockwire, cap screws, lock washers, forged pin retainers, and pins from both ends of the cylinder and lower the cylinder to the ground. 7. On the curb side of units with side-mounted platforms, remove the rollpin and pin from the rod end of the cylinder. Remove the lockwire, cap screw, lock washer, forged pin retainer, and pin from the base end and lower the cylinder to the ground. 8. On the non-control side of units with side-mounted platforms, remove the lockwire, cap screw, lock washer, forged pin retainer, and lug pin from the rod end of the cylinder. Remove the lockwire, cap screw, lock washer, forged pin retainer, and pin from the rod end and lower the cylinder to the ground. Installation Use the following procedure to install the platform rotator cylinder. 1. Carefully remove the hydraulic tube, fittings, and pilot operated check valves from the old cylinder and install them on the new cylinder. 2. Align the holes in the ends of the cylinder with the holes in the mounting brackets on the platform and upper boom and insert the pins (refer to Figure 5.39). 3. On the non-control side of units with side-mounted platforms, install the cylinder as follows. a. Align the hole in the base end of the cylinder with the holes in the mounting bracket, install the pin, forged pin retainer, cap screw, and lock washer. Tighten the cap screw and secure with lockwire. b. Align the hole in the rod end of the cylinder with the holes in the weldment, install the lug pin, forged pin retainer, cap screw, and lock washer. Tighten the cap screw and secure with lockwire. 4. On the curb side of units with side-mounted platforms, install the cylinder as follows. Align the hole in the base end of the cylinder with the holes in the mounting bracket, install the pin, forged pin retainer, cap screw, and lock washer. Tighten the cap screw and secure with lockwire. 5. Align the hole in the base end of the cylinder with the holes in the mounting bracket and install the pin.

Platform Rotator Cylinder

Platform rotator cylinders are used on side-mounted platforms with 94-degree rotators and side to end-mounted platforms. Removal Use the following procedure to remove the platform rotator cylinder. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control levers in both directions several times. c. Release any pressure in the hoses connected to the platform rotator cylinder by shifting the appropriate platform rotator control lever in both directions several times. 3. Use a sling and hoist to prevent platform movement when the platform rotator cylinder is removed. 4. On units with a side to end-mounted platform or units with a curb side side-mounted platform, remove the cylinder hose cover.

70 Section 5 Hydraulic System

Pin Cap Screw, Lock Washer, Forged Pin Retainer Cap Screw, Lock Washer, Forged Pin Retainer Pin

Rollpin, Pin

Cylinder Side-Mounted Platform (Upper Control Side) Cap Screw, Lock Washer, Forged Pin Retainer

Pin Cap Screw, Lock Washer, Forged Pin Retainer Side-to-End Mounted Platform

Lug Pin

Cylinder

Pin

Cap Screw, Lock Washer, Forged Pin Retainer

Side-Mounted Platform Figure 5.39 Platform Rotator Cylinder Align the hole in the pin with the holes in the bracket and install the rollpin. 6. On units with a side to end-mounted platform, align the holes in the cylinder ends with the holes in the mounting brackets and install the pins, forged pin retainers, cap screws, and lock washers. Tighten the cap screws and secure with lockwire. 7. Connect the extend and retract hoses to the cylinder. 8. Remove the sling and hoist from the platform. 9. Start the engine and engage the PTO. Rotate the platform in a clockwise and counterclockwise direction several times to purge any air from the cylinder while checking for leaks and proper operation. 10. On units with a side to end-mounted platform or units with a curb side side-mounted platform, install the cylinder hose cover. 11. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9.

Section 5 Hydraulic System 71

Section 6 Mechanical Systems


A mechanical system consists of the unit components arranged so the motion of one mechanically moves the other. Examples of mechanical components are the rotation bearing, rotation gearbox, and the booms. Mechanical components may be moved by each other or by hydraulic cylinders. When welding on the unit, a welding ground clamp must be attached to the same structure on which the welding is being performed. This is necessary to prevent electrical current from being sent through components. Electrical current can damage components such as the rotation bearing, rotary joint, wire braid hoses, and hydraulic cylinders. Electrical current flowing through a component can be very intense, causing serious internal damage to the component. Use the following list of safety procedures when servicing the unit. 1. Select a work site large enough to operate the required functions. 2. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Check the hydraulic oil level. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 5. Mark all hydraulic hose fittings before disconnecting them to ease installation later. Place a clean liquid container under the hoses to catch the hydraulic oil. Cap or plug all open ports immediately. 6. After reconnecting a hydraulic line, operate the controls in the system five to six times to purge the air out of the system and to check for hydraulic leaks. 7. Properly torque all connections and cap screws. Refer to Section 5 under Torque and Tightening Procedures. 8. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9 after replacing a major component. Hydraulic cylinders, pivot pins, rotation bearing, and leveling system components are examples of items that require testing after installation. 9. Perform a dielectric test as described in Section 9 after any component is installed that could affect the dielectric integrity of the unit.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled movement. Use a sling and hoist of adequate capacity. 3. Use a hoist to safely support heavy components before loosening the fasteners on that component.

Rotary Joint/Slip Ring Assembly


The rotary joint permits continuous rotation of the turntable without twisting the hydraulic hoses in the pedestal and turntable (refer to Figure 6.1).

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 4. Never loosen or remove a pressurized hose or fitting. T Cap Screw, Lock Washer Pedestal S Slip Ring

Rotary Joint Drive Pin Mounting Plate

Figure 6.1 Rotary Joint/Slip Ring Assembly Section 6 Mechanical Systems 73

The inner core of the rotary joint is bolted to the stationary pedestal. The outer housing rotates with the turntable, driven by a drive pin on the side of the housing. The electrical slip ring is mounted above the rotary joint. The outer portion of the slip ring is connected to the outer housing of the rotary joint with long cap screws. Wiring from above rotation is connected to the outer portion of the slip ring. The wiring bundle extending from the bottom center of the slip ring is fed through the top center of the rotary joint and out the bottom to connect to the wiring below rotation. Hydraulic fittings used in the rotary joint are the SAE straight thread type. Pipe fittings will not fit these threads and should never be used. Do not allow debris to accumulate around the rotary joint and slip ring. Debris could damage the hydraulic hoses connected to the rotary joint. Removal Use the following procedure to remove the rotary joint and slip ring assembly. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control levers in both directions several times. 3. Close the two shutoff valves at the hydraulic reservoir. 4. Remove the access panels from the sides of the pedestal and the turntable on the side opposite the lower control valve. 5. Inside the turntable, disconnect the lower and upper boom cylinder hydraulic lines from the lower control valve. Cap all open lines and ports. 6. Move the lines to the rear of the turntable to ease access to the slip ring and rotary joint assembly. 7. Remove the slip ring from the unit. Refer to Section 7 under Slip Ring for the removal procedure.

8. Disconnect the tank, pressure, and sense lines from the sides of the rotary joint. Cap all open lines and ports. 9. Remove the cap screws and lock washers that fasten the rotary joint mounting plate to the pedestal. Remove the rotary joint through the access hole in the side of the turntable. Installation Use the following procedure to install the rotary joint and slip ring assembly. 1. Remove the hydraulic fittings from the old rotary joint and install them on the new rotary joint. 2. Install the rotary joint through the access hole in the side of the turntable. Secure the rotary joint mounting plate to the pedestal with cap screws and lock washers. 3. Connect the tank, pressure, and sense lines to the sides of the rotary joint. 4. Install the slip ring on the unit. Refer to Section 7 under Slip Ring for the installation procedure. 5. Route and connect the lower and upper boom cylinder hydraulic lines to the lower control valve. 6. Inside the pedestal, connect the tank, pressure, and sense lines from the bottom of the rotary joint. Cap all open lines and ports. Damage to the pump or return line filter can result if the unit is operated with either or both of the shutoff valves closed. Fully open the shutoff valves before engaging the PTO. 7. Open the two shutoff valves at the reservoir. 8. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and use the lower controls to operate each function through five or six cycles to purge any air that may have entered the system. Check for leaks and proper operation. 9. Stow the unit, raise the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 10. Install the access panels on the sides of the turntable and pedestal.

Attention

74 Section 6 Mechanical Systems

Rotation System
The turntable rotates on a shear ball bearing, referred to as the rotation bearing. The bearing inner race is fastened to the turntable. The bearing outer race is fastened to the pedestal. Gear teeth cut into the outside surface of the outer race engage the teeth on the rotation gearbox pinion gear. A worm type rotation gearbox mounted on the rear of the turntable is used to rotate the unit. A hydraulic motor drives the gearbox. The pinion gear meshes with the teeth on the worm gear inside the gearbox. When the turntable rotation function is operated, oil flows through the hydraulic motor under pressure to rotate the output shaft in the direction selected (clockwise or counterclockwise). The shaft powers the worm gear, which in turn drives the pinion gear. As the pinion gear rotates against the outer race of the rotation bearing, the turntable rotates. The worm gear is self-locking, to make sure that the turntable will remain in position when hydraulic pressure is not being applied to the hydraulic motor.

engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, remove the pressure by holding the control selector valve in the Purge position before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control levers in both directions several times. 3. Remove the rotation gearbox. Refer to Rotation Gearbox in this section for the removal procedure. 4. Remove the rotary joint and slip ring assembly. Refer to Rotary Joint/Slip Ring in this section for the removal procedure. 5. Disconnect and remove the grease line from the turntable and rotation bearing. Note the placement of the grease fitting on the inner race so that the new bearing can be positioned the same way when it is installed. 6. Support the turntable and booms (if still attached) to prevent them from accidentally coming off of the pedestal after the cap screws are removed. Remove the inner race cap screws and washers. The cap screws are accessible from the turntable side of the rotation bearing. 7. Use a hoist (or other lifting device) to lift the turntable from the rotation bearing and place it on a firm surface. Remove the sling and hoist from the turntable. 8. Remove the cap screws and washers from the outer race of the rotation bearing. These cap screws are accessible from inside the pedestal. 9. Using a sling and hoist, lift the rotation bearing off the pedestal and place it on a firm surface. Remove the sling and hoist from the rotation bearing. Installation Use the following procedure to install the rotation bearing.

Rotation Bearing

The rotation bearing provides for very low torque rotation. The bearing should provide many years of service if properly maintained. A grease tube is connected to the inner race of the rotation bearing and the grease fitting on the control side of the turntable. Lubricate the bearing race, the gear teeth on the outer race, and the rotation gearbox pinion gear at the interval recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Procedures for measuring the turntable tilt and inspecting the rotation bearing cap screws are found in Section 4 under Rotation Bearing. Removal Use the following procedure to remove the rotation bearing. Components need to be removed to access the rotation bearing cap screws. This procedure must be performed by mechanics trained in this procedure.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled movement. Properly support the component before loosening fasteners and removing hydraulic components. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine,

Caution
Death or serious injury can result from improper use of solvents. Follow the manufacturers label for proper use and disposal. Section 6 Mechanical Systems 75

1. Scrape and sand any paint from the pedestal and turntable weldments where the cap screws will be seated. Clean the weldments with a cloth and solvent to remove any dirt or grease. 2. Use a sling and hoist to position the new rotation bearing on top of the pedestal. Locate the high tooth (marked by yellow or blue paint) in the proper position (refer to Figure 6.2). Align the mounting holes in the rotation bearing outer race with the mating cap screw holes in the pedestal. Remove the sling and hoist. Reservoir

3. Remove the grease fitting from the old rotation bearing and install it in the new bearing. Only use Altec supplied cap screws and washers to mount the rotation bearing. 4. Look at the hole in the washer. Notice that it has a more rounded edge on one side of the washer. Install the washer with the rounded edge toward the cap screw head. Start a cap screw by hand through the pedestal weldment and into the outer race the bearing. Install the remainder of the cap screws in the outer race of the bearing from the pedestal side. Do not torque the cap screws until all of them have been installed in the outer race. Use an accurate 3/4 drive click-type manual torque wrench for the installation of the rotation bearing cap screws. Torque the cap screws by a smooth pull on the torque wrench without jerking. Do not overtighten the cap screws. Insufficient or uneven cap screw tightness can also contribute to reduced life of the rotation bearing. 5. Torque the cap screws in three phases. First, torque the cap screws to 165 foot-pounds (224 Nm) using the alternating star pattern shown in Figure 6.3. For the second phase, set the torque wrench to 325 footpounds (441 Nm). Follow the same alternating star pattern. For the last phase, keep the torque wrench set for 325 foot-pounds (441 Nm). Torque each cap screw using a circular pattern starting with cap screw number one. 9 4 7 12 2 8 5 3 10

Attention

Attention

Accumulator (AA Units Only) High Tooth Location

Figure 6.2 High Tooth Location

11

13

5 Loading Plug 1

Grease Fitting

11 6 14 Gearbox Location 10 2 8 12 4 * Unused Holes

Inner Race

Outer Race

Figure 6.3 Rotation Bearing Cap Screw Torque Patterns

76 Section 6 Mechanical Systems

6. Rotate the inner race to position the grease fitting as shown in Figure 6.3. 7. Use a sling and hoist (or other lifting device) to position the turntable on top of the rotation bearing. Align the turntable mounting holes with the mating cap screw holes in the bearing. 8. Install the washers on the cap screws in the same manner used in step 4. Install the cap screws by hand through the turntable side into the rotation bearing inner race. Do not torque the cap screws until all of them have been installed in the inner race. 9. Torque the cap screws in three phases using the same torque values used in step 5. Follow the alternating star pattern shown in Figure 6.3. 10. Install the protective plastic caps (provided in the rotation bearing replacement kit) over all the rotation bearing cap screw heads. The caps serve as a reminder to check the torque of the cap screws as described in Section 4 under Rotation Bearing. 11. Connect the grease tube to the turntable and rotation bearing inner race. 12. Lubricate the rotation bearing raceway and gear teeth. 13. Install the rotary joint and slip ring assembly. Refer to Rotary Joint/Slip Ring in this section for the installation procedure. 14. Install the rotation gearbox. Refer to Rotation Gearbox in this section for the installation procedure. 15. Adjust the backlash between the rotation pinion and rotation bearing gear teeth as described in Section 8 under Rotation Gearbox. 16. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and use the lower controls to operate each function through five or six cycles to purge any air that may have entered the system. Check for leaks and proper operation. 17. Stow the unit, raise the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 18. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9. 19. The rotation bearing cap screws must be inspected at the interval recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Use the initial torque inspection procedure as described in Section 4 under Rotation Bearing.

Rotation Gearbox

If it has been determined that the rotation gearbox needs to be serviced or replaced, read and understand the complete procedure before starting. Removal Use the following procedure to remove the rotation gearbox. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled movement. Secure the booms before removing the rotation gearbox. 2. Secure the boom with a strap so the turntable cannot rotate when the gearbox is removed.

Caution
Injury can result from contact with pinion and rotation bearing gear teeth. Keep hands clear. Injury can result from airborne particles entering the eyes. Wear appropriate safety equipment. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. Wear eye protection while adjusting the eccentric ring to prevent particles of metal or dirt from entering the eyes. 3. Remove the pinion cover and loosen the cap screws and lock washers securing the stop bar, eccentric ring, and rotation gearbox (refer to Figure 6.4). 4. Engage a suitable bar or drift pin, preferably of a soft material such as brass in a drive slot of the eccentric ring. 5. Rotate the eccentric ring using light blows from a hammer against a bar or drift pin. Rotate the eccentric ring to position the gearbox the maximum distance from the rotation bearing gear teeth.

Section 6 Mechanical Systems 77

Cap Screw, Lock Washer

Rotation Gearbox

surface of the eccentric ring and boss. Install the eccentric ring in a position so that adjusting 1/4 turn one way will produce full adjustment and 1/4 turn the other way will completely loosen the gearbox. 3. Use a sling and hoist to lift the rotation gearbox into position on the rear of the turntable. The sling may be tied together to form a basket under the gearbox. 4. Install the cap screws and lock washers loosely on the rotation gearbox (refer to Figure 6.4). 5. Rotate the eccentric ring until the pinion gear meshes with the teeth on the outer race of the rotation bearing. Leave enough play between the teeth for backlash adjustment. 6. Install the cap screw and lock washer loosely to hold the lock bar in place. 7. Connect the hoses to the rotation motor. 8. Remove the strap(s) used to secure the boom. 9. Adjust the backlash between the rotation pinion and rotation bearing gear teeth as described in Section 8 under Rotation Gearbox. 10. Install the pinion cover. 11. Position the unit on a level surface where there is sufficient clearance for full boom movement. Apply the parking brake and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 12. Use the lower controls to operate each function through five or six cycles to purge any air that may have entered the system. Check for leaks and proper operation. 13. Operate the unit through all boom angles and rotation from the upper controls while checking for smoothness of rotation. 14. Stow the unit, raise the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine.

Rotation Motor

Eccentric Ring Cap Screw, Lock Washer

Pinion Cover

AA-L Unit Shown, AA Unit is Similar Figure 6.4 Rotation Gearbox 6. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the rotation control lever in both directions several times. 7. Disconnect the rotation motor hydraulic hoses. Plug or cap the openings. 8. Remove the rotation gearbox and lock bar mounting cap screws and lock washers. 9. Use a sling and hoist to lift the gearbox out of the turntable and lower it to the ground. The sling may be tied together to form a basket under the gearbox. If a replacement gearbox is not readily available, make certain the booms are secured so they do not swing freely. Installation Use the following procedure to install the rotation gearbox. 1. Position the boom and hoist as instructed during the removal procedure. 2. Clean the mounting surface and eccentric ring. Apply anti-seize compound to the inside and outside

Leveling System
One type of leveling cable must be replaced at least every 5 years or 5,000 hours, whichever comes first. The other, newer type, of leveling cable must be replaced at least every 8 years or 8,000 hours, whichever comes first. The newer type is recognized by yellow paint on the end coupling of the cable. This requirement is based on

78 Section 6 Mechanical Systems

normal use, proper care, regular inspection, and lubrication. If the unit is operated under severe conditions, or not properly serviced, replace cables, leveling rods, or sheaves more frequently. This emphasizes the need to perform regular inspections as instructed in this manual. Before any attempt is made to remove, install, or adjust the leveling cables or rods, study Figure 6.5 thoroughly. It is very important that the correct procedures be followed to assure proper routing of cables for the safety of operation. Several inspections will be required during the replacement of cables. It is strongly recommended that all replacement parts be genuine Altec parts. Substitution of inferior parts can lead to dangerous conditions. Operation The leveling system functions to maintain the floor of the platform parallel to the turntable. This is a positive, mechanical system operated by cables, insulated rods, sheaves, etc. The two principal parts of the leveling system are identified as the leveling cables and leveling rods. The lower boom cable is anchored to the lower boom pivot pin sheave. The upper boom cable is anchored to the upper boom pivot pin sheave. Because of the geometric arrangement, movement of the booms results in movement of the platform. The leveling cables are 1/2 in diameter. In the insulated section of the upper and lower booms, the leveling cable is connected to a 3/4 fiberglass insulator rod to preserve the dielectric integrity of the insulated components. Threaded ends on the leveling cables are mechanically swaged onto the wire rope. Turnbuckles are provided in the lower boom for proper adjustment of the entire leveling system. Leveling cables and insulator rods are thoroughly tested before they are installed in the unit. Cable Idler Sheaves

Movement of the booms and the subsequent movement of the leveling cable and rod system is transmitted to the platform through sheaves at the elbow and through the keyed platform shaft. Removal Use the following procedure to remove the platform leveling cables. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. Use a sling and hoist to support the platform(s) and relieve the strain on the leveling cables.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. 3. Remove all the appropriate upper and lower boom access panels and the flexible shroud at the elbow end of the upper boom to gain access to the leveling system. 4. At the elbow end of the upper boom, disconnect the current leakage monitoring bonding wires from the upper and lower leveling rods (refer to Figure 6.6).

A Leveling Sheave

L.H.

Rod

R.H.

Lug

Cable Guide

Upper Boom R.H.

L.H.

Cable

Idlers

Split Sheave Turntable

Elbow Rod

L.H.

Jam Nut Lower Boom

Turnbuckle Anchor Ends

Section A A

Section B B Figure 6.5 Leveling System Assembly

Section 6 Mechanical Systems 79

Clamps

Adjustable Clamp

Clamp

Mounting Bracket

Fiberglass Rod

Upper Boom Elbow End

Adjustable Clamp Upper Controls Pilot Hoses Mounting Bracket Fiberglass Rod Lower Winch Valve Pressure Hose

Leakage Monitor Wire

Nut

Pressure Hose Screw Clamp Hose Lower Winch Valve Tank Tank Hose Tools/Power Beyond Hose Section A A (End View) Figure 6.6 Leakage Monitor Wires

Hose Clamp Detail

5. At the elbow, remove the cable keepers and cable guide block in the lower boom. 6. At the large access hole above the lower boom cylinder rod end pin, remove the lockwire from the upper and lower leveling cable turnbuckles (refer to Figure 6.7). Use wrenches to support and position the rod and chain ends while turning the turnbuckle to prevent damage. 7. Loosen the jam nuts and disconnect the turnbuckles from the upper and lower leveling rods and cables. Use three wrenches to prevent the leveling rods from 80 Section 6 Mechanical Systems

twisting while disconnecting the turnbuckles. Lay the rods in the lower boom.

Caution
Injury can result from handling wire rope. Wear appropriate safety equipment. 8. At the elbow end of the lower boom, pull the leveling cables out until the upper and lower leveling rod/ cable connections are accessible (refer to Figure 6.8). 9. Disconnect the cables from the leveling rods and pull the rods completely out of the lower boom elbow end.

Attention

R.H. Thread

L.H. Thread

Section A-A Figure 6.7 Turnbuckle Connection

Section B-B

L.H. Thread

R.H. Thread

Section C-C

Section D-D

Figure 6.8 Leveling Rod/Cable Connection 10. Note the location of the left and right hand threads on the terminals at the ends of the leveling rods during removal to ease correct orientation during reassembly (refer to Figure 6.5). The lower boom leveling rods are not interchangeable with the upper boom leveling rods. 11. Unwrap the cables from the large leveling sheave and pull the ends of the cables out of the lower boom elbow end. 12. It is not necessary to remove the platform(s) and boom tip weldment to replace the leveling cables. If the boom tip weldment needs to be removed for other repairs, complete the following procedure. If just the leveling cables need to be removed, go to step 13. a. Remove the platform(s). Refer to Platform in this section for the removal procedure. b. Remove the cap screws that secure the upper boom tip weldment to the fiberglass upper boom. c. Use a sling and hoist to carefully pull the boom tip weldment out of the upper boom. It may be necessary to pause long enough reposition the location of the sling (choker strap) during the removal procedure to keep the weight of the boom tip weldment balanced. d. When there is enough clearance between the boom tip weldment and the fiberglass upper boom, pull the platform leveling cable out until the boom tip cable to leveling rod connections are exposed. e. Remove the lockwire, loosen the jam nuts, and disconnect the upper and lower leveling rods from the cable. f. Use the sling and hoist to lower the boom tip weldment to the ground. Remove the sling and hoist. Section 6 Mechanical Systems 81

g. At the boom tip weldment, remove the lockwire and cap screws from the split sheave. Use a screwdriver to pry the split sheave apart and remove the cable lug and cable lug spacers from between the two halves of the sheave. Remove the platform leveling cable. h. Note the location of the cable lug spacers during removal to ease assembly. Take care not to lose the cable lug spacers. i. At the elbow, pull the cables and upper and lower leveling rods completely out of the upper boom. j. Note the location of the left and right hand threads on the terminals at the ends of the leveling rods during removal to ease correct orientation during reassembly (refer to Figure 6.5). The upper boom leveling rods are not interchangeable with the lower boom leveling rods. Keep the longer upper boom leveling rods separate from the lower boom leveling rods. 13. Use a sling and hoist to raise the upper boom about one foot above the rest. 14. Use the sling and hoist supporting the platform(s) to pivot the bottom of the platform(s) towards the elbow until level with the upper boom. Secure the platform(s) with blocks in this position. 15. At the boom tip weldment, remove the lockwire and cap screws from the split sheave. Use a screwdriver to pry the split sheave apart and remove the cable lug and cable lug spacers from between the two halves of the sheave. Separate the platform leveling cable from the split sheave. 16. Note the location of the cable lug spacers during removal to ease assembly. Take care not to lose the cable lug spacers. 17. Inside the boom tip weldment on the left side (or lower controls side), remove the cable keeper. 18. Loosen the right side cable keeper on the top of the idler sheave just enough to get the platform leveling cable off the sheave. 19. Reach inside the boom tip weldment, grasp the cable, and pull it out of the boom tip until the cable and upper leveling rod connection is exposed. Lay the upper leveling rod in the idler sheave on the left side under the platform leveling and mounting shaft.

20. Remove the lockwire and loosen the jam nut at the cable to leveling rod connection. Disconnect the platform leveling cable from the upper leveling rod. 21. Cut a piece of twine (or rope) long enough to extend several feet out both ends of the upper boom to ease installation of the leveling rods. 22. Tie one end of the piece of twine to the platform leveling and mounting shaft or other suitable place and the other end to the upper leveling rod. Slide the leveling rod back inside the boom. 23. At the elbow end of the upper boom, pull the cable and upper leveling rod out of the upper boom. Untie the twine from the leveling rod. 24. At the boom tip weldment, unwrap the platform leveling cable and lay it flat inside the boom tip. 25. At the elbow end of the upper boom, pull the cable and lower leveling rod out of the upper boom. 26. Remove the lockwire and loosen the jam nuts at the cable to leveling rod connections. Disconnect the cables from the leveling rods. 27. Note the location of the left and right hand threads on the terminals at the ends of the leveling rods during removal to ease correct orientation during reassembly (refer to Figure 6.5). The upper boom leveling rods are not interchangeable with the lower boom leveling rods. Keep the longer upper boom leveling rods separate from the lower boom leveling rods. 28. At the turntable, remove the access panel opposite the control side to gain access to the anchor ends of the upper and lower leveling cables. 29. Remove the lockwire, cap screw, lock washer, forged pin retainer, and pin to disconnect the anchor ends of the leveling cables (refer to Figure 6.5). 30. At the large access hole above the lower boom cylinder rod end pin, pull the cables completely out of the lower boom. 31. After removing the leveling system, complete the following procedure. a. Inspect the leveling rods for severe scratches, signs of rubbing, cleanliness, and any other possible damage or wear. Inspect the terminals at the ends of the leveling rods for secure attachment and condition.

82 Section 6 Mechanical Systems

b. Replace any leveling rods that show any signs of cracks, damage, or wear. c. Clean all the leveling rods before reusing them to avoid degrading their dielectric strength. d. At the tip of the upper boom and the base end of the lower boom, replace the idler sheaves, bearings, and pins. New idler sheaves, bearings, and pins are furnished with the leveling cable replacement kit. Lockwire all the cap screws used to install the idler sheaves. e. Inspect the other idler and leveling sheaves for signs of surface scuffing where they contact the cables. Make sure that all the sheaves turn freely without excessive looseness in the bearing. f. Replace any sheaves that show signs of surface scuffing, excessive looseness, or do not turn freely. g. Replace the leveling sheaves at the elbow if they have any broken flanges or show excessive wear. h. Replace the shaft bearings if they show signs of excessive wear. i. Inspect all the cable keepers for wear, damage, and deformation. Never reuse a cable keeper which is not in good condition. Installation Before installing the leveling system, carefully study the illustrations of the leveling system assembly (refer to Figure 6.5). Use the following procedure to install the platform leveling cables.

2. Measure the length of thread used to connect the old leveling cables to the turnbuckles. Set the jam nuts on the ends of the new leveling cables accordingly. 3. At the large access hole above the lower boom cylinder rod end pin, slide the upper and lower leveling cables into the lower boom toward the turntable anchor end first. 4. Route the anchor end of the shorter lower leveling cable around the front side (or lower boom cylinder mount side) of the turntable (refer to Figure 6.5). Route the anchor end of the longer upper leveling cable around the rear side (or compensating link mount side) of the turntable. 5. Align the anchor ends of the leveling cables inside the turntable and insert the pin. Install the forged pin retainer, cap screw, and lock washer. Tighten and lockwire the cap screw. 6. Install the cable guides at the idler sheaves in the base end of the lower boom. 7. Install the access panel on the side of the turntable. 8. Measure the length of thread used to connect the old elbow end and platform leveling cables to the lower and upper boom leveling rods. Set the jam nuts on the ends of the new leveling cables accordingly. 9. If the platform(s) and boom tip weldment were removed, install the leveling cables in the upper boom as follows. If just the leveling cables need to be installed, go to step 9. a. Connect the upper elbow end leveling cables to the lower and upper leveling rods while these components are outside the upper boom. Screw the cable end fitting threads on the leveling rods at least 11/4 (31.75 mm). Tighten the jam nuts against the leveling rod ends and lockwire (refer to Figure 6.8). b. At the elbow end of the upper boom, insert the ends of the leveling rods into the boom. Feed the leveling rods and cables into the boom until the ends of the leveling rods protrude out the left side (or lower controls side) of the fiberglass boom tip. c. Wrap the platform leveling cable around the platform leveling shaft inside the boom tip weldment. d. Position the split sheave halves on the platform leveling shaft and install the cap screws loosely.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. 1. Spray the new leveling cables with wire rope lubricant before installation. Wipe them with a clean cloth to remove excessive lubricant. The lubricant must not be allowed to dry on fiberglass surfaces because dirt can collect and reduce the dielectric strength of the fiberglass. Avoid getting dirt or grit on the cable.

Section 6 Mechanical Systems 83

Wrap the cable on the split sheave and properly position the drive lug and lug spacers (refer to Figure 6.5). Torque the cap screws to 75 footpounds (101.7 Nm). e. Use wire ties to temporarily keep the cable properly wrapped. The cable ends should almost be of equal length when the lug on the split sheave is positioned properly for platform installation. f. Use a sling and hoist to carefully lift the boom tip weldment into position near the tip of the fiberglass boom. It may be necessary to pause long enough reposition the location of the sling (choker strap) during the installation procedure to keep the weight of the boom tip weldment balanced. g. Route the end of the platform leveling cable that connects to the lower leveling rod under the idler sheave on the left side (or lower controls side) as shown in Figure 6.5. Install the cable keeper to keep the cable in place. h. Route the end of the platform leveling cable that connects to the upper leveling over the idler sheave and under the keeper on the right side as shown in Figure 6.5. Tighten the cable keeper. g. Pull the ends of the cables around the left side of the idler sheaves until it they protrude from the boom tip. h. Connect the ends of the cable to the lower and upper leveling rods. Screw the cable end fitting threads on the leveling rods at least 11/4 (3.175 cm). Tighten the jam nuts against the leveling rod ends and lockwire (refer to Figure 6.8). i. Use the sling and hoist to position the boom tip weldment on the fiberglass boom. Secure the weldment to the boom tip with cap screws. Torque the cap screws to 30 foot-pounds (40.68 Nm). j. Use the sling and hoist to install the platform(s) on the platform leveling shaft. Refer to Platform in this section for the installation procedure. If required, use the sling and hoist to support the platform(s) in the level position. k. Go to step 23 to continue the installation procedure. 10. Connect the platform leveling and lower elbow end leveling cables to the lower leveling rod while these components are outside the upper boom. Screw the cable end fitting threads on the leveling rod at least 84 Section 6 Mechanical Systems

11/4 (3.175 cm). Tighten the jam nuts against the leveling rod ends and lockwire (refer to Figure 6.8). 11. Tie the end of the twine extending from the elbow end of the upper boom to the loose end of the platform leveling cable. 12. At the upper boom tip weldment, use the twine to pull the platform leveling cable and lower leveling rod into position inside the fiberglass boom. 13. Position the cable under the idler sheave on the left side and over the platform leveling shaft. Pull the end of the leveling cable out of the boom tip to expose the drive lug on the cable. Untie the twine from the end of the cable. 14. Inside the boom tip on the left side (or lower controls side), install the cable keeper to keep the cable in place. 15. Feed the loose end of the twine back down the right side of the upper boom until it can be pulled out of the elbow end. 16. Connect the upper elbow end leveling cable to the upper leveling rod while these components are outside the upper boom. Screw the cable end fitting threads on the leveling rod at least 11/4 (3.175 cm). Tighten the jam nut against the leveling rod end and lockwire (refer to Figure 6.8). 17. At the elbow end of the upper boom, tie the end of the twine to the loose end of the upper leveling rod. 18. At the tip of the upper boom, use the twine to pull the upper leveling rod through the inside of the upper boom. Pull the end of the leveling rod past the idler sheave on the right side of the boom and under the platform leveling shaft until the end of the leveling rod is accessible. 19. At the tip of the upper boom, wrap the platform leveling cable around the platform leveling shaft as shown in Figure 6.5 and connect the cable to the upper leveling rod. Screw the cable end fitting threads on the leveling rod at least 11/4 (3.175 cm). Tighten the jam nut and lockwire. 20. Slide the upper leveling rod back into the upper boom. Place the platform leveling cable over the idler sheave on the right side while sliding the cable under the keeper. Tighten the cable keeper. 21. Position the split sheave halves on the platform leveling shaft and install the cap screws loosely.

Wrap the cable on the split sheave and properly position the drive lug and lug spacers. Tighten and lockwire the cap screws. 22. Use the sling and hoist to raise the platform(s) and remove the blocks to allow the platform(s) to return to the level position. If required, use the sling and hoist to support the platform(s) in the level position. 23. At the elbow end of the upper boom, position the upper and lower elbow end leveling cables on the upper and lower idler sheaves (refer to Figure 6.9) and install the keepers. Make sure the cables and upper and lower leveling rods are not crossed inside the upper boom. 24. Wrap the upper and lower elbow end leveling cables around the large leveling sheave as shown in Figure 6.5. 25. Slide the lower boom leveling rods partially into the lower boom. Connect the upper and lower elbow end leveling cables to the leveling rods. Screw the cable end fitting threads on the leveling rod at least 11/4 (3.175 cm). Tighten the jam nuts and lockwire the connections (refer to Figure 6.7). 26. Slide the leveling rods into the lower boom while guiding the upper and lower elbow end leveling cables into position.

27. Install the cable keepers and cable guide block in the lower boom at the elbow. Use wrenches to support and position the rod and chain ends while turning the turnbuckle to prevent damage. 28. At the large access hole above the lower boom cylinder rod end pin, connect the leveling rods to the upper and lower leveling cables with turnbuckles. Make sure the cables are properly routed over the idler sheaves in the base end of the lower boom (refer to Figure 6.9) and the upper and lower leveling rods are connected to the proper cables. 29. Tighten the bottom turnbuckle hand tight. Then, tighten an additional five turns. Screw the turnbuckles onto the leveling rods and cable end fittings at least 11/4 (31.75 mm). This will provide the proper pretension on the leveling system for the initial runin of the new cables. Tighten the jam nuts securely but do not lockwire the turnbuckles at this time (refer to Figures 6.10). The turnbuckles will be lockwired when the leveling system is adjusted. 30. Inspect the entire leveling system to make sure that the leveling cables are not crossed and that they will operate freely without rubbing. The cable wrap around the leveling sheaves can be pushed into alignment for good tracking without rubbing.

Attention

Idler Sheaves

Cable connects the upper leveling rod in the lower boom to the upper leveling rod in the upper boom Leveling Sheave Cable connects the lower leveling rod in the upper boom to the lower leveling rod in the lower boom

Figure 6.9 Leveling Cable Wrap at the Elbow

Section 6 Mechanical Systems 85

Turn

R.H. R.H. Hold Hold Figure 6.10 Turnbuckle Assembly 31. Remove the sling and hoist supporting the platform. 32. Position the unit on a level surface with sufficient room for unobstructed operation of the booms. Apply the parking brake, chock the wheels, start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. L.H.

L.H.

Compensating Linkage

A steel and fiberglass linkage is used to hold the upper boom at the same relative angle to the horizon when the lower boom is raised or lowered. The compensating linkage is housed inside the lower boom and connected to the upper boom cylinder and the turntable (refer to Figure 6.11). On AA/AA-L 500 units, a single compensating link assembly is used. The assembly consists of both a fiberglass and a steel section. On AA/AA-L 600 units, separate fiberglass and steel links are used. The fiberglass portion of the linkage is held in position by one pin (on AA/AA-L 500 units) or two pins (on AA/AA-L 600 units) that are connected to slide blocks that run on tracks inside the lower boom. As the lower boom is raised or lowered, the compensating linkage slides on the slide blocks inside the lower boom. Removal Use the following procedure to remove the compensating linkage. 1. Remove the upper boom cylinder. Refer to Section 5 under Cylinders for the removal procedure. 2. Disconnect the upper boom cylinder hoses from the lower control valve. Refer to Section 5 under Upper Boom Cylinder Hoses for the procedure. 3. On AA/AA-L 600 units, complete the following procedure to remove the fiberglass compensating link. a. Remove the upper boom hoses from the fiberglass compensating link. Refer to Section 5 under Upper Boom Cylinder Hoses for the location and orientation of the hose guides and cable ties. b. Remove the small access cover from the middle of both sides of the lower boom base end weldment.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled movement. Do not permit anyone to occupy the platform until the unit has passed applicable tests. 33. Use the lower controls to operate the booms through all their positions with the rated load in the platform. 34. Inspect cables, rods, pins, etc. at the turntable, elbow, and boom tip to determine that there is no rubbing between the moving components. This inspection can be made from another aerial device. 35. Stow the booms, raise the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 36. Perform the adjustment and testing procedures in Section 8 under Leveling System. 37. At the elbow end of the upper boom, install the leakage monitoring wires on the upper and lower leveling cables. 38. Install all the access covers on the upper and lower booms. 39. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9 under Structural Testing. 40. Perform a dielectric test as described in Section 9 under Dielectric Testing.

86 Section 6 Mechanical Systems

Hose Guide, Cable Tie

Cap Screw

Cable Tie

AA/AA-L 600 Units

Hose Guide, Cable Tie

Fiberglass Compensating Link

Steel Compensating Link

Upper Boom Cylinder End

AA/AA-L 500 Units Figure 6.11 Compensating Linkage

Turntable End

c. Remove the cap screws, lock washers, and upper track extenders (refer to Figure 6.11). d. Remove the slide blocks and stepped pin. e. If required, use a sling and hoist to raise the lower boom six feet (two meters) above the rest to provide enough clearance to remove the fiberglass compensating link. f. Use a sling and hoist to remove the fiberglass compensating link through the hole in the top of the lower boom. Use care not to damage the surface of the fiberglass. 4. At the rear of the turntable, remove the lockwire, cap screws, lock washers, lug, bushing, and pin from the steel compensating link and turntable weldment (refer to Figure 6.11). 5. Connect a strap to the base end of the steel compensating link. Use a come-along attached to the strap and another solid surface to carefully back the compensating link and hoses out the base end of the lower boom. 6. Use a wooden 2 x 4 block to reach inside the access holes to help guide the link as it is backed out. 7. When the link has been partially removed from the lower boom, remove the come-along. 8. Use a sling and hoist to support and balance the compensating link as it is removed from within the lower boom.

9. When the compensating link is clear of the lower boom, lower it to the ground and remove the sling and hoist. 10. Remove the upper boom hoses from the compensating link. Refer to Section 5 under Upper Boom Cylinder Hoses for the location and orientation of the hose guides and cable ties. Installation Use the following procedure to install the compensating linkage. 1. Carefully inspect the insulator portion of the fiberglass link. If the surface is damaged, refer to Section 4 under Fiberglass for repair instructions. 2. Clean the fiberglass link to protect the dielectric integrity of the unit. 3. Install the upper boom hoses on the compensating link. Refer to Section 5 under Upper Boom Cylinder Hoses for the location and orientation of the hose guides and cable ties. 4. Use a sling and hoist to raise the compensating link into position near the base end of the lower boom. 5. Carefully guide the link and hoses into the base end of the lower boom. Use a wooden 2 x 4 (50.8 mm x 101.6 mm) block to reach inside the access holes to help guide the link as it is pushed into the boom. 6. When the compensating link is properly positioned in the lower boom, remove the sling and hoist. Section 6 Mechanical Systems 87

7. Align the holes in the base end of the steel compensating link with the mounting hole on the rear of the turntable and insert the pin (refer to Figure 6.11). Install the bushing and lug on the end of the pin with cap screws and lock washers. Secure the cap screws with lockwire. 8. On AA/AA-L 600 units, complete the following procedure to install the fiberglass compensating link. a. If required, use a sling and hoist to raise the lower boom six feet (two meters) above the rest to provide enough clearance to install the fiberglass compensating link. b. Use a sling and hoist to lower the fiberglass compensating link through the hole in the top of the lower boom. Use care not to damage the surface of the fiberglass. c. When the fiberglass link is properly positioned in the lower boom, remove the sling and hoist. d. Align the holes in the base end of the fiberglass link with mounting hole on the steel link and insert the stepped pin through the access hole (refer to Figure 6.11). Install the slide blocks on each end of the pin. e. Position the track extenders on both sides of the lower boom and install the cap screws and lock washers. f. Install the upper boom hoses on the fiberglass compensating link. Refer to Section 5 under Upper Boom Cylinder Hoses for the location and orientation of the hose guides and cable ties. g. Install the small access cover on the middle of both sides of the lower boom base end weldment. 9. Connect the upper boom cylinder hoses to the lower control valve. Refer to Section 5 under Upper Boom Cylinder Hoses for the procedure. 10. Install the upper boom cylinder. Refer to Section 5 under Cylinders for the installation procedure.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled movement. Properly support the component before loosening fasteners and removing hydraulic components. Two hoists, or other suitable lifting devices, are necessary for removal and installation of the lower boom. Removal Use the following procedure to remove the lower boom.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. 1. Remove all the access covers from the lower and upper booms. 2. Remove the platform leveling system from the lower boom as described under Platform Leveling System in this section. 3. Remove the upper boom cylinder as described in Section 5 under Upper Boom Cylinder for the removal procedure. 4. Remove the lockwire, cap screws, lock washers, lug, bushing, pin, rollpin, and lower link from the elbow end of the lower boom. 5. Remove the upper boom as described under Upper Boom in this section. 6. Remove the compensating linkage as described under Compensating Linkage in this section. 7. Remove the lower boom hoses and air line as described in Section 5 under Lower Boom Hoses. 8. Use a sling and hoist to support the elbow end of the lower boom. 9. Disconnect the rod end of the lower boom cylinder from the lower boom as follows. a. Use a sling and hoist to support the lower boom cylinder.

Lower Boom
The lower boom does not require removal for normal maintenance. If it is damaged and needs to be replaced, use the following procedure.

88 Section 6 Mechanical Systems

b. At the cylinder rod end, remove the lockwire, cap screw, lock washer, forged pin retainer, and pin (refer to Figure 6.12). c. Position a suitable wooden support, approximately three feet (one meter) in length, in front of the pedestal to support the lower boom cylinder. d. Use the sling and hoist to lower the cylinder until it is rests on the wooden support. Reposition the sling and hoist to support the base end of the lower boom. 10. At the base end of the lower boom, remove the lockwire, cap screws, lock washers, lug, bushing, pivot pin, and rollpin. 11. Use the slings and hoists to lower the lower boom to the ground. Installation Use the following procedure to install the lower boom. 1. Use the slings and hoist to position the lower boom at the turntable attachment point. 2. Align the mounting holes in the lower boom with those in the turntable. Make sure the hole in pivot pin flange is aligned with the rollpin and install the rollpin, pivot pin, bushing, lug, and cap screws with lock washers (refer to Figure 6.12). Lockwire the cap screws. 3. Reposition the sling and hoist from the lower boom base end to a position that supports the rod end of the lower boom cylinder at the lower boom attachment

point. Remove the wooden support from the lower boom cylinder. 4. Align the mounting hole in the rod end of the lower boom cylinder with those in the lower boom. Install the pin, forged pin retainer, and cap screws with lock washers. Lockwire the cap screw. Remove the slings and hoists supporting the lower boom cylinder and elbow end of the lower boom. 5. Remove the slings and hoists supporting the lower boom cylinder and elbow end of the lower boom. 6. Install the lower boom hoses and air line as described in Section 5 under Lower Boom Hoses. 7. Install the compensating linkage as described under Compensating Linkage in this section. 8. Install the upper boom as described under Upper Boom in this section. 9. Install the lower boom link as follows. a. Position and align the mounting hole in elbow end of the lower boom link with those in the lower boom. b. The lower boom link can be installed upside down. Make sure that the chamfered side of the link is toward the lower boom to prevent damage to the unit. c. Align the hole in pin flange with the rollpin hole and install the rollpin.

A A Lower Boom Link (Elbow End) Lower Boom Cylinder Rod End Pin Lower Boom Pivot Pin Rollpin Lower Boom Link Pin Section A A Section B B Figure 6.12 Lower Boom Section 6 Mechanical Systems 89 Section C C Retaining Ring B B C C

d. Insert the pin, position the bushing and lug, and secure with cap screws with lock washers. Lockwire the cap screws. 10. Install the upper boom cylinder as described in Section 5 under Upper Boom Cylinder. 11. Install the platform leveling system in the lower boom as described under Platform Leveling System in this section. 12. Connect all hoses, air lines, and wiring to the turntable and upper boom. 13. Position the unit on a level surface with sufficient room for unobstructed operation of the booms. Apply the parking brake, chock the wheels, start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 14. Use the lower controls to operate each function through five or six cycles to purge any air that may have entered the system. Check for leaks and proper operation. 15. Stow the unit, raise the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 16. Perform the adjustment and testing procedures in Section 8 under Leveling System. 17. Install all the access covers on the lower and upper booms. 18. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9 under Structural Testing. 19. Perform a dielectric test as described in Section 9 under Dielectric Testing.

Removal Use the following procedure to remove the upper boom.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. 1. Remove all the access covers from the upper boom. 2. Remove the platform(s) as described under Platform in this section. 3. Remove the platform leveling system from the upper boom as described under Leveling System in this section. 4. Disconnect the rod end of the upper boom cylinder from the upper and lower boom links as described in Section 5 under Upper Boom Cylinder. 5. Use a sling and hoist to support the elbow and boom tip ends of the upper boom. 6. Remove the lockwire, cap screws, lock washers, lug, bushing, pin, rollpin, and upper link from the elbow end of the upper boom (refer to Figure 6.13). 7. Disconnect the wiring and hose connections at the elbow end of the upper boom. Cap or plug all open ports. 8. Remove the upper controls pilot hoses from the upper boom as described in Section 5 under Upper Controls Pilot Hoses. 9. At the elbow end of the upper boom, remove the lockwire, cap screws, lock washers, lug, and bushing. Remove the cap screw, elbow pin, and rollpin. 10. Use the slings and hoists to lower the upper boom to the ground. Installation Use the following procedure to install the upper boom. 1. Use the slings and hoist to position the upper boom at the turntable attachment point. 2. Align the mounting holes in the elbow end of the upper boom with those in the lower boom. Make sure

Upper Boom
The upper boom does not require removal for normal maintenance. If it is damaged and needs to be replaced, use the following procedure.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled movement. Properly support the component before loosening fasteners and removing hydraulic components. Two hoists, or other suitable lifting devices, are necessary for removal and installation of the upper boom.

90 Section 6 Mechanical Systems

Cap Screw, Lock Washer, Lug, Bushing

Lower Boom Link

Upper Boom Cylinder (Rod End) Upper Boom Link Rollpin Cylinder Rod End Pin Cap Screw

Upper Boom Link (Elbow End) Rollpin Upper Link Pin Rollpin Elbow Pin Cap Screw

Section C C Section B B

Lower Link Pin Figure 6.13 Upper Boom the hole in elbow pin flange is aligned with the rollpin and install the elbow pin, bushing, lug, and cap screws with lock washers (refer to Figure 6.13). Lockwire the cap screws. 3. Align the platform end of the upper boom over the boom rest as described in Section 8 under Boom Alignment. 4. Install the upper controls pilot hoses in the upper boom as described in Section 5 under Upper Controls Pilot Hoses. 5. Connect the wiring and hose connections at the elbow end of the upper boom. 6. Reposition the sling and hoist from the upper boom base end to a position that supports the upper boom link at the upper boom attachment point. 7. Install the upper boom link as follows. a. Position and align the mounting hole in elbow end of the upper boom link with those in the upper boom. b. Align the hole in pin flange with the rollpin hole and install the rollpin. c. Insert the pin, position the bushing and lug, and secure with cap screws with lock washers. Lockwire the cap screws. 8. Reposition the sling and hoist to a position that supports the rod end of the upper boom cylinder at the attachment point. 9. Connect the rod end of the upper boom cylinder to the lower and upper boom links as described in Section 5 under Upper Boom Cylinder. Make sure that the chamfered side of the lower boom link is toward the lower boom to prevent damage to the unit. 10. Install the platform leveling system in the upper boom as described under Leveling System in this section. 11. Install the platform(s) as described under Platform in this section.

Section 6 Mechanical Systems 91

12. Connect all hoses, air lines, and wiring to the upper boom and platform. 13. Position the unit on a level surface with sufficient room for unobstructed operation of the booms. Apply the parking brake, chock the wheels, start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 14. Use the lower controls to operate each function through five or six cycles to purge any air that may have entered the system. Check for leaks and proper operation. 15. Stow the unit, raise the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 16. Perform the adjustment and testing procedures in Section 8 under Leveling System. 17. Install all the access covers on the upper boom. 18. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9 under Structural Testing. 19. Perform a dielectric test as described in Section 9 under Dielectric Testing.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 2. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the upper boom fold/unfold control lever in both directions several times. 3. Use a sling and hoist to support the platform.

Platform Tilt System


The platform tilt system allows personnel rescue and to empty the platform of liquid or debris. The platform tilt system is not adjustable. The platform can be in the operating position or the dump position only. If the platform is not level while operating the unit, the leveling system will need to be properly adjusted. Refer to the section on leveling system adjustment for more information.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. 4. Remove the platform mounting and hydraulic line access covers (refer to Figure 6.14). 5. Remove the access cover mounting brackets. 6. Mark all hydraulic line fittings before disconnecting them to ease installation later. Place a container under the hoses to catch the hydraulic oil. 7. Disconnect the hoses and air line from the platform mounted controls. Cap or plug all open ports. 8. Remove the lockwire, cap screws, lock washers, and lugs from both ends of the platform mounting pin.

Platform

This unit may be equipped with several different types of platforms. The removal and installation procedure for each type of platform is described in the following paragraphs. End Mounted Platform Removal Use the following procedure to remove the end mounted platform. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

92 Section 6 Mechanical Systems

Platform Mounting Weldment (Curb Side) Platform Mounting Pin, Key Platform Mounting Plate Weldment (Street Side)

Cap Screw, Washer, Self-Locking Nut

Cap Screw, Lock Washer, Lug

Platform Mounting Plate Weldment (Street Side) Figure 6.14 End Mounted Platform

9. Loosen the self-locking nuts securing the curb side platform mounting plate weldment to the curb side platform mounting rib. 10. Remove the cap screws, washers, and self-locking nuts securing the platform mounting plate weldment to the street side platform mounting rib. 11. Slide the platform mounting plate weldment off the street side end of the platform mounting pin. Remove the key from the pin. 12. Slide the platform mounting plate weldment and the platform off the curb side end of the platform mounting pin. Remove the key from the pin. 13. Use the sling and hoist to lower the platform to the ground. Installation Use the following procedure to install the end mounted platform. 1. If the old platform is being replaced, install the control assemblies and curb side platform mounting plate weldment on the new platform. 2. Use the sling and hoist to raise the platform into position. Install the keys on both sides of the platform mounting pin. 3. Slide the platform mounting plate weldment and the platform on to the curb side end of the platform mounting pin (refer to Figure 6.14). 4. Slide the platform mounting plate weldment on to the street side end of the platform mounting pin.

5. Install the cap screws, washers, and self-locking nuts to secure the platform mounting plate weldment to the street side platform mounting rib. Torque the mounting plate weldment cap screws to 55 footpounds (74.6 Nm). 6. Tighten the self-locking nuts to secure the curb side platform mounting plate weldment to the curb side platform mounting rib. Torque the mounting plate weldment cap screws to 55 foot-pounds (74.6 Nm). 7. Install the lugs with cap screws and lock washers on both ends of the platform mounting pin. Lockwire the cap screws. 8. Connect the hoses and air line to the platform mounted controls using the marks made in the removal procedure. 9. Install the access cover mounting brackets. 10. Install the platform mounting and hydraulic line access covers. 11. Remove the sling and hoist from the platform. 12. Position the unit on a level surface with sufficient room for unobstructed operation of the booms. Apply the parking brake, chock the wheels, start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 13. Use the lower controls to operate each function through five or six cycles to purge any air that may have entered the system. Check for leaks and proper operation.

Section 6 Mechanical Systems 93

14. Stow the unit, raise the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 15. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9 under Structural Testing. Side To End Mounted Platform Removal Use the following procedure to remove the side to end mounted platform. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 2. Rotate the platform to the end of the upper boom. 3. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the upper boom fold/unfold control lever in both directions several times. 5. Use a sling and hoist to support the platform.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. 6. Remove the covers from the sides of the platform and end mounted adapter bracket (refer to Figure 6.15). 7. Mark all hydraulic line fittings before disconnecting them to ease installation later. Place a container under the hoses to catch the hydraulic oil. 8. Disconnect the hoses and air line from the platform mounted controls and the platform rotator cylinder. Cap or plug all open ports. 9. Gently pull the upper control hoses out of the channel on the side of the platform.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 4. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system.

Platform

Platform Mounting Pin, Key End Mounted Adapter Bracket Upper Control Hoses Platform Rotated Forward (Viewed From Curb Side)

Platform Rotated Rearward (Viewed From Above)

Figure 6.15 Side To End Mounted Platform 94 Section 6 Mechanical Systems

10. Remove the lockwire, cap screws, lock washers, and lug from the curb side of the platform mounting pin. 11. Slide the end mounted adapter bracket and the platform off the curb side end of the platform mounting pin. Remove the key from the pin. 12. Use the sling and hoist to lower the platform to the ground. Installation Use the following procedure to install the side to end mounted platform. 1. If the old platform is being replaced, install the control assemblies, hydraulic rotator assembly, and end mounted adapter bracket on the new platform. Torque the mounting bracket cap screws to 55 foot-pounds (74.58 Nm). 2. Use the sling and hoist to raise the platform into position. Install the key on the platform mounting pin. 3. Slide the end mounted adapter bracket and the platform on to the curb side end of the platform mounting pin (refer to Figure 6.15). 4. Install the lug with cap screws and lock washers on the end of the platform mounting pin. Lockwire the cap screws. 5. Gently feed the upper control hoses through the channel on the side of the platform. 6. Connect the hoses and air line to the platform mounted controls and the platform rotator cylinder using the marks made in the removal procedure. 7. Install the covers on the sides of the platform and end mounted adapter bracket. 8. Remove the sling and hoist from the platform. 9. Position the unit on a level surface with sufficient room for unobstructed operation of the booms. Apply the parking brake, chock the wheels, start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 10. Use the lower controls to operate each function through five or six cycles to purge any air that may have entered the system. Check for leaks and proper operation.

11. Rotate the platform to the stowed position, stow the unit, raise the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 12. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9 under Structural Testing. Side Mounted Platforms with 94 Degree Rotators Separate platforms may be mounted on the street side and curb side of the platform mounting pin. The following removal and installation procedures may be used for both platforms. Removal Use the following procedure to remove side mounted platforms with 94 degree rotators. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 2. Rotate the platform(s) to the forward position. 3. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 4. Use the following procedure to remove any pressure in the hydraulic system. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by rotating the control to the Lower Control position while shifting the upper boom fold/unfold control lever in both directions several times. 5. Use a sling and hoist to support the platform to be removed. Section 6 Mechanical Systems 95

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. 6. On the curb side platform, remove the hose and control covers (refer to Figure 6.16). 7. Mark all hydraulic line fittings before disconnecting them to ease installation later. Place a container under the hoses to catch the hydraulic oil. 8. Disconnect the hoses and air line (curb side platform only) from the platform mounted controls and the platform rotator cylinder. Cap or plug all open ports. 9. Remove the lockwire, cap screws, lock washers, and lug from the platform mounting pin. 10. Slide the platform mounting weldment and the platform off the end of the platform mounting pin. Remove the key from the pin. 11. Use the sling and hoist to lower the platform to the ground. Installation Use the following procedure to install side mounted platforms with 94 degree rotators.

1. If the old platform is being replaced, control assemblies, hydraulic rotator assembly, and platform mounting weldment on the new platform. Torque the platform mounting cap screws to 55 foot-pounds (74.58 Nm). 2. Use the sling and hoist to raise the platform into position. Install the key on the platform mounting pin. 3. Slide the platform mounting weldment and the platform on to the end of the platform mounting pin (refer to Figure 6.16). 4. Install the lug with cap screws and lock washers on the end of the platform mounting pin. Lockwire the cap screws. 5. Connect the hoses and air line (curb side platform only) to the platform mounted controls and the platform rotator cylinder using the marks made in the removal procedure. 7. On the curb side platform, install the control and hose covers. 8. Remove the sling and hoist from the platform. 9. Position the unit on a level surface with sufficient room for unobstructed operation of the booms. Apply the parking brake, chock the wheels, start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 10. Use the lower controls to operate each function through five or six cycles to purge any air that may

Key

Platform Mounting Pin

Platform Mounting Weldment Cover Curb Side Street Side

Figure 6.16 Side Mounted Platforms With 94 Degree Rotators

96 Section 6 Mechanical Systems

have entered the system. Check for leaks and proper operation. 11. Rotate the platform to the stowed position, stow the unit, raise the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 12. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9 under Structural Testing.

the load hook is on the ground. Keep this length requirement in mind when installing a new winch line. Removal Use the following procedure to remove the winch line. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 2. Use the lower controls to raise the lower boom out of the rest. 3. Rotate the turntable until the booms are over an area that is suitable for lowering the winch line. 4. Use the remote winch control valve to fully lower the winch line. 5. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 6. Remove the protective cover from the winch.

Winch
Material handling units are equipped with a winch (refer to Figure 6.17) that is mounted on a metal structure near the tip of the upper boom. The winch has a bare drum capacity of 1,500 pounds (6,672 Newtons), which means the winch can pull 1,500 pounds (6,672 Newtons) with one layer of 7/16 (1.11 cm) synthetic rope left on the winch drum. Winch Line Winch Drum

7. Use a wrench to loosen both cap screws until the winch line is free from the rope clamp (refer to Figure 6.18). Pull the end of the winch line through the drum flange hole and off the drum. Winch Line End Hole

Motor

Figure 6.17 Winch A hydraulic motor powers the worm gear driven winch. Operation of the winch control valve spool directs hydraulic oil to the winch motor. The winch motor powers the worm gear set, which drives an output shaft keyed to the winch drum.

Drum Rotation

Clamp Drum Flange

Remove Slack From this End

Line

When replacing a synthetic rope winch line, the replacement line must be of the same size and at least the same rated working load as the rope originally furnished with the unit. ANSI requires the design factor of synthetic ropes not be less than 5:1. If it is necessary to cut out a damaged section and splice in a new piece of line, the new length of line must also meet this requirement. Follow the recommendations of the rope manufacturer when storing, unreeling, cutting, and installing new synthetic rope. The replacement winch line must be long enough to provide at least five full wraps on the winch drum when the booms are fully raised, the winch line is routed to the tip of the fully extended and raised jib, and

Figure 6.18 Winch Line Replacement 8. Remove the winch line through the jib tip sheave. Installation Use the following procedure to install the winch line. 1. The fibers of synthetic line can be cut and damaged by sharp edges and burrs on winch drums, sheaves, shackles, wire slings, etc. Take care to remove any sharp edges the synthetic line may come in contact with. To prevent damage to the synthetic winch line, repair or replace hardware that has been scored or damaged. Section 6 Mechanical Systems 97

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from loss of load control. Install the winch line in the proper direction of the drum rotation. 2. Route the drum end of the winch line though the sheave on the tip of the jib to the winch drum. 3. Insert the end of the 7/16 (1.11 cm) synthetic rope through the drum flange hole and rope clamp. 4. The synthetic rope must be inserted through the drum flange until the end is through the rope clamp. Do not allow the short end of the synthetic rope to extend past the outside edge of the drum flange. 5. Tighten the cap screws into the threaded holes in the drum flange until the rope clamp grasps the winch line securely (refer to Figure 6.18). 6. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and move the control selector valve to the Upper Control position. 7. Use the winch control valve lever to spool the winch line onto the winch drum. 8. Put the first layer of line around the winch drum closely, under a tension of at least 50 pounds (222.4 Newtons). This will prevent subsequent wraps from slipping down between the wraps in the first layer when a load is applied to the winch. 9. Wind the winch line onto the drum smoothly and evenly, maintaining a tension of at least 50 inchpounds (222.4 Newtons). 10. Use the winch control valve lever to remove any slack from the winch line.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from falling loads. Winch cable anchors are not designed to hold rated capacity. Keep a minimum of five wraps on the drum. 11. Stow the unit, raise the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine.

Brake

The winch on the material-handling package is equipped with a winch brake. The placards on the unit and the material handling lift capacity charts in the Operators Manual indicate the rated load lifting capacities of the jib/winch at various angles and extensions from the boom tip.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from overloading the unit. Do not exceed the rated capacity values. The winch is equipped with a brake that is located at the end of the worm shaft opposite the winch motor. The brake is an overrunning clutch type that runs freely in the winch Raise direction, but applies continuous braking action in the winch Lower direction. The brake assists the self-locking worm gear set in stopping a load when the winch control lever is returned to neutral. The brake is preset at the factory to a torque of 50 inchpounds (5.65 Nm). The torque setting decreases gradually due to normal wear of the friction brakes. Therefore, the brake will require periodic adjustment and eventual replacement of the friction discs to maintain this setting. Refer to Section 8 under Winch Brake for testing and adjustment procedures.

98 Section 6 Mechanical Systems

Section 7 Electrical System


The vehicle battery supplies power to control most operations of the electrohydraulic control system. An eightvolt battery at the platform supplies power for the fiber optic upper controls. Figure 7.1 shows a comparison between electrical and hydraulic components. This unit uses electrical power to operate the following functions. Remote engine start/stop Secondary stowage system DC pump on/off Outrigger interlock system

Caution
Injury can result from electric shock. Severe arcing can occur even when working with low voltage vehicle electrical systems. Use caution when working with any electrical device. Voltage levels of the vehicle battery power system are based on a constant power source. Voltage may vary from 10.2 to 13.8 volts and still be considered normal. The major electrical components and their operation are described in this section. Wiring Line Diagrams in the Appendix illustrate the component wiring.

Relay
A relay (refer to Figure 7.2) is an automatic switch with contacts that can be closed or opened by current in the relay coil. The truck/machine relay used in the chassis electrical system is a single-pole double-throw type that operates on 12 volts.

On/Off Circuit
An on/off circuit supplies low voltage constant power to a solenoid when a switch or relay is closed. When the circuit is opened the power is removed. All of the circuits on this unit are on/off electrical circuits. Electrical Component Hydraulic Component Function Performed Battery Voltage Current Wire Fuse or circuit breaker Diode Switch Controller Resistor Relay Solenoid Slip ring assembly Pump Pressure Oil flow Hose or tube Relief valve Check valve Shutoff valve Control valve Orifice Pilot operated check valve Cylinder Rotary joint Source of energy or power Creates a potential energy difference between two points in a system Allows potential energy to become kinetic and do useful work Transmits power from place to place Protects system from overload Allows power to flow in one direction but not the other Blocks power or allows it to flow Varies the amount of power which passes through it depending upon the distance the control handle is moved Restricts the flow of power Allows power to flow through upon receiving a signal from another source Causes axial movement of its central element when power is applied to it Transmits power through a continuously rotating connection Figure 7.2 Relay

Figure 7.1 Electrical/Hydraulic Comparison

Section 7 Electrical System 99

When the cab mounted truck/machine (PTO) selector switch is placed in the Machine (or PTO) position, it energizes the relay coil to close two normally open (NO) contacts and send power to terminal 4 on the remote start/stop control box. When the truck/machine (PTO) switch is returned to the truck position, the relay coil is deenergized and the normally closed (NC) contacts are reconnected to switch power from terminal 4 to terminal 5 on the remote start/stop control box.

The center terminals of the truck/machine (PTO) selector switch are connected to the machine power relay. The relay is closed when the ignition switch is On to provide electrical power to the truck/machine selector switch. Refer to the Wiring Line Diagrams in the Appendix for an illustration of the truck/machine selector switch wiring.

Remote Start/Stop Control Box


The remote start/stop control box (refer to Figure 7.4) serves as the central connection point between the remote start/stop system and the vehicles electrical system. With suitable electrical controls for the vehicle engine and starter, the engine may be stopped or started with a toggle switch located on the lower controls or upper controls. The same toggle switch on both control panels will also operate the DC pump.

Solenoids
A solenoid (refer to Figure 7.3) consists of a coil that surrounds a movable iron core. When current flowing through it energizes the coil, a magnetic field is produced within the coil that moves the iron core or valve spool to a different position. Spring Cap

(+)

Electromagnetic Coil

Caution
Injury can result from electric shock. Severe arcing can occur even when working with low voltage vehicle electrical systems. Use caution when working with any electrical device. Turn the vehicle ignition switch to the Off position before servicing the remote start/stop control box.

Figure 7.3 Solenoid Solenoids control the hydraulic spool valves in the DC pump signal cutoff valve (on AA-L units only) and the outrigger interlock valve. The spool valves are spring centered and remain so until the solenoid is electrically energized. As electrical current is applied to the solenoid, the spool valve shifts to operate the function.

The control box is equipped with three light emitting diodes (LEDs) to indicate its operational status. They are located on the side of the box between the chassis wiring connections. A diagnostics placard is located next to the connectors to indicate the function of the LEDs. When the start/stop In and throttle In activity LEDs are illuminated, they indicate that voltage is present at their respective control box terminals. The diagnostics LED only illuminates when an error has been detected. This LED also indicates the type of error detected using a series of coded blinks separated by longer pauses. Refer to Figure 7.5 for a description of the five different error codes displayed. The control box uses low voltage components. This makes problems easy to troubleshoot with a voltmeter or a test light. Refer to the Parts Section for component wiring information and illustrations. Refer to Section 8 under Remote Start/Stop Control Box for troubleshooting information.

Truck/Machine (PTO) Selector Switch


The truck/machine (PTO) selector switch is controlled by the operation of the PTO. Separate control switches are not required. The cab mounted electrical switch has three terminals and two positions. The positions of the switch may or may not be labeled. A separate indicator light may be provided next to the switch to indicate when the PTO is engaged. When the Machine position is selected the center and top terminals are connected on the switch. This action energizes the truck/machine relay to engage the PTO via the remote start/stop control box. When the Truck position is selected, power is removed from the truck/machine relay. This action causes the relay to disengage the PTO via the remote start/stop control box.

100 Section 7 Electrical System

Diagnostics Placard

Diagnostics LED

Front View

Side View

Figure 7.4 Remote Start/Stop Control Box Number of Blinks in Pattern On continuously 1 2 3 4 Function Ignition cold Start relay Throttle Emergency pump Fault Location Remote start/stop control box Ignition cold side circuit Start relay circuit Throttle circuit DC pump circuit

Figure 7.5 Diagnostic LED Error Codes

Power Distribution Module (PDM)


The PDM may be installed in place of the remote start/ stop control box when electronic circuits are required to operate additional accessories or when electronic engine controls are used. The PDM performs the same functions as the control box, but includes some additional features and terminals. Refer to the PDM Information Manual.

When the outriggers are lowered, the interlock switches close. The switches are wired in series. When the switches are closed, electrical power is sent to the solenoid of the outrigger interlock valve. The solenoid energizes and shifts the outrigger interlock valve open. This allows the pump to be connected to the pressure port for the lower control valve. When the outriggers are raised, the electrical switches are opened and electrical power is removed from the solenoid on the outrigger interlock valve. The solenoid can no longer hold the valve open and the return spring shifts the valve closed to prevent the unit from being operated. If the solenoid for the outrigger interlock valve is defective, the outrigger interlock valve will not shift open when the outriggers are lowered. This will cause the functions of the lower control valve to be inoperable. Refer to Electrical System in Section 8 for more information on the outrigger interlock valve. Section 7 Electrical System 101

Outrigger Interlock System


The outrigger interlock system is a combination of electrical and hydraulic components. There is one outrigger interlock electrical switch for each outrigger leg (refer to Figure 7.6). Mechanically operated interlock switches are used on units with A-frame or modified A-frame outriggers. Mercury or proximity switches are used on units with radial outriggers.

Left Leg for Standard Mount

Right Leg for Behind Cab Mount Electrical Switch Mercury Switch

A-Frame

Radial

Electrical Switch

Modified A-Frame Figure 7.6 Outrigger Interlock Electrical Switch Location Since the outrigger interlock electrical switches are wired in series, if one switch is defective or out of alignment, the outrigger interlock will not operate. The adjustment of these switches should be checked first and replaced if defective. The removal and installation procedures are described in the following text. For more information on the switches, refer to Electrical System in Section 8. 3. Before removing the wiring, notice how the switch is wired, so the new switch can be wired the same. There will be three posts inside this switch. The posts are referred to as Com (common), NC (normally closed) and NO (normally open). Installation Use the following procedure to install the outrigger interlock switch. 1. Before installing the new switch, use the old one as a model and adjust the roller arm in a similar position. 2. Wire the new switch exactly like the old one. 3. Attach the new switch to the mounting bracket and replace the access cover over the switch. 4. Test the operation of the outrigger interlock system before returning the unit to service. If the outrigger interlock switch requires adjustment, refer to Section 8 under Electrical Switch Adjustment.

Mechanical Interlock Switches

Removal Use the following procedure to remove the outrigger interlock switch.

Caution
Injury can result from electric shock. Severe arcing can occur even when working with low voltage vehicle electrical systems. Use caution when working with any electrical device. Turn the vehicle ignition switch to the Off position before working on the switches. 1. Remove the two screws that hold the access cover over the switch. 2. Remove the two screws that hold the switch to the mounting bracket.

Mercury or Proximity Interlock Switches

Removal Use the following procedure to remove the outrigger interlock switch.

102 Section 7 Electrical System

Caution
Injury can result from electric shock. Severe arcing can occur even when working with low voltage vehicle electrical systems. Use caution when working with any electrical device. Turn the vehicle ignition switch to the Off position before working on the switches. 1. Disconnect the mercury switch leads from the wire harness. 2. Mark the position of the mercury switch and note the orientation of the bracket before removal to establish the correct position and tilt for replacement. 3. Remove the cap screw, mercury switch, and mounting bracket from the outrigger. 4. Remove the switch from the mounting bracket. Installation Use the following procedure to install the outrigger interlock switch. 1. Place the mercury switch in the bracket and install the switch on the outrigger leg with the cap screw. The wired end of the switch must face toward the outrigger shoe. 2. Connect the mercury switch leads to the wiring harness. 3. Operate the outrigger to determine if the switch operates correctly. The switch should close the when the outrigger is within 10 inches of the ground. 4. Test the operation of the outrigger interlock system before returning the unit to service. If the outrigger interlock switch requires adjustment, refer to Section 8 under Electrical Switch Adjustment.

Plastic Cover Slip Ring T Rotary Joint S

Spacer Tube

Pedestal Figure 7.7 Slip Ring The slip ring is attached below the rotary joint at the centerline of rotation. The chassis electrical wiring is routed up through the pedestal and spliced to wiring that is routed down through the center of the rotary joint. The brushes inside the slip ring may be cleaned if good contact is not being made. The brush and arm assemblies may also be replaced, if necessary. Other than cleaning or changing the brush and arm assemblies, field repair should not be attempted. The slip ring may be removed and returned to Altec for core credit. Removal Use the following procedure to remove the slip ring. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. 2. Remove the access panels from the sides of the pedestal and the turntable side opposite the lower controls. 3. Inside the pedestal, mark the slip ring wire connections to ease reassembly. Disconnect the wires from the slip ring wiring bundle at the wire splices.

Slip Ring
If the unit is equipped with a secondary stowage DC pump, remote engine start/stop system, and/or Category A monitor, one or more electrical circuits will also pass through the centerline of turntable rotation by way of the slip ring (refer to Figure 7.7). The slip ring is mounted to the top of the rotary joint with cap screws. The cap screws are inserted though metal spacer tubes for support.

Section 7 Electrical System 103

4. Remove the nuts, washers, and plastic cover from the top of the slip ring assembly (refer to Figure 7.7). 5. Mark the slip ring wire connections to ease reassembly. Disconnect the wires from the slip ring assembly. 6. Remove the nuts, washers, tubes, and cap screws connecting the slip ring assembly to the L-brackets on the rotary joint outer housing. 7. Remove the slip ring through the access hole in the side of the turntable, while gently pulling the electrical wires through the hole in the center of the rotary joint. Installation Use the following procedure to install the slip ring. 1. Install the slip ring assembly through the access hole in the side of the turntable while gently feeding the slip ring wiring through the hole in the center of the rotary joint.

2. Connect the slip ring assembly to the L-brackets on the outer housing of the rotary joint using cap screws, tubes, washers, and nuts (refer to Figure 7.7). 3. Connect the wires to the slip ring assembly using the marks made during removal. 4. Install the plastic cover on the top of the slip ring assembly using nuts and washers. 5. Connect the wire splices to the slip ring wiring bundle using the marks made during removal. 6. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and use the lower controls to operate each function through five or six cycles to purge any air that may have entered the system. Check for leaks and proper operation. 7. Stow the unit, raise the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 8. Install the access panels on the sides of the turntable and pedestal.

104 Section 7 Electrical System

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments


Troubleshooting Procedure
Establish a troubleshooting procedure to be followed any time there is a malfunction. This procedure will provide a starting point for determining the root cause of the malfunction and increase troubleshooting accuracy. Consider using the following procedure. 1. Position the unit on a level surface. Apply the parking brake and chock the wheels. Check the oil level in the reservoir. 2. Engage the PTO, warm the hydraulic oil to operating temperature, and properly set the outriggers. 3. Before testing each function through its full travel capabilities, try small movements to be certain the function is operating properly. Test each function for full travel capabilities. Hydraulic pressure is force. If a function does not operate, the failure is caused by a lack of pressure at the actuator. Hydraulic oil is speed. Both flow and pressure are required to operate a function. If a function is slow, it is caused by low oil flow.

Cycle Times

Figure 8.1 shows average cycle times. The time for all cylinders indicates full stroke. All times/rates are based on 8 gpm (30.32 l/min) for AA units and 14.5 gpm (54.9 l/min) for AA-L units. Function Lower boom raise Lower boom lower Upper boom unfold Upper boom fold Turntable CW or CCW rotation Cycle Times 40 - 50 sec 31 - 41 sec 20 - 30 sec 20 - 30 sec 55 - 65 sec

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from falling from the platform. All platform occupants must properly use an appropriate OSHA approved personal fall protection system. 4. Operate the unit from the lower controls and then the upper controls to identify the malfunction. 5. Use the Hydraulic System Schematic and Wiring Line Diagrams in the Appendix to determine the flow path required to operate the failed function. Make a list of the components used to operate the failed function. Cross off components used to operate other functions that are operating properly. This should leave only three or four items to check. 6. Check the easiest component first. Verify the proper operation of each component remaining on the list until the bad component is found. 7. Use accurate test equipment to verify flow, pressure, voltage, and current. Once the symptom has been positively identified, use the Troubleshooting Chart in the Appendix for suggested causes and corrective actions.

Figure 8.1 Average Cycle Times The Hydraulic System Schematic (refer to the Appendix) identifies the paths of the oil flow in the system. It also identifies the operation of every hydraulic component. A through understanding of JIC symbols and their meanings is helpful in troubleshooting (refer to Basic JIC Symbols in the Appendix). Use an accurately calibrated gauge to test the pressure of a particular circuit. A calibrated gauge will provide an accurate reading, which is essential for proper hydraulic adjustments. Before testing or adjusting the units functions, position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels.

System Pressure (AA Units Only)

Hydraulic System
The successful way to troubleshoot any hydraulic system is to find the cause of the problem before making any changes.

The unloading valve controls the main system pressure. When the unloading valve senses that the pressure in the main system has increased to 2,150 psi (148.2 bar), the unloading valve redirects the output of the pump back to the reservoir. The pump is set at the factory and cannot be adjusted, but the engine idle settings and the unloading valve are adjustable. Refer to Engine Throttle Control in this section for engine idle adjustment procedures. Refer to Unloading Valve (AA units only) in this section for testing and adjustment procedures.

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 105

System/Compensator Pressure (AA-L Units Only)

The system limit pressure is controlled by the compensator spring in the pressure compensator valve housing on the hydraulic pump (refer to Figure 8.2). The system limit pressure is 2,250 psi (155.2 bar). System Pressure Adjustment

5. Install a pressure gauge [4,000 psi (275.86 bar) minimum] on the system pressure test port located on the combination valve (refer to Figure 8.3). 6. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 7. Hold the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while checking the pressure gauge. 8. The pressure gauge should indicate 2,250 psi (155.2 bar). If the pressure is above or below this value, adjust the system pressure. Adjustment 1. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Standby Pressure Adjustment Figure 8.2 Pump Pressure Adjustments When the output pressure of the pump reaches 2,250 psi (155.2 bar), it overcomes the spring tension of the compensator spool. Pressure is then directed to the stroking piston to stop pump flow or control flow at the level necessary to maintain a pressure of 2,250 psi (155.2 bar). Testing 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. 2. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 3. Remove the access cover on the lower control valve side of the turntable. 4. Check the standby pressure as described under Standby Pressure in this section. Tool System Pressure Reducing Valve Tool System Flow Control Valve Main System Blocking Interlock Valve Top View Pilot Pressure Reducing Valve

2. Adjust the system pressure at the pump compensator (refer to Figure 8.2). If present, cut the wire seal and remove it. 3. Turn the adjusting screw clockwise to increase system pressure. Turn the adjusting screw counterclockwise to decrease system pressure. Use small adjustment increments. 4. Test the system pressure. If adjusting the compensator cannot raise the system pressure, the system pressure relief valve may be set too low. 5. When the proper pressure has been reached, install a wire seal (if possible). If the screwdriver slot and seal hole do not line up, use a small center punch and stake the threads lightly at the screwdriver slot to prevent movement of the adjustment. 6. Release the control selector valve, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine 7. Disconnect the pressure gauge and install the access cover on the side of the turntable. Check Valve Cartridge Tool Signal Valve Signal Shuttle Valve Flow Control Valve Side View

Purge/Upper/Lower Control Selector Valve

System Pressure Test Port

Figure 8.3 Combination Valve 106 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

Relief Valves (AA-L Units Only)

The system pressure relief valve cartridge is located in the outrigger/tool control valve (on material handling units) or outrigger control valve (on units with only two outriggers) at the tailshelf. The system relief pressure must be higher than the compensator pressure to prevent excessive heat generation. The relief valve cartridge in the outrigger/tool control valve or outrigger control valve is set to open at 3,250 psi (224 bar). It prevents the hydraulic system from building up excessive pressure if the pressure compensator in the piston pump malfunctions and fails to limit maximum system pressure to 2,250 psi (155.2 bar). Testing 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. 2. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 3. Remove the access cover on the control valve side of the turntable. 4. Install a pressure gauge [4,000 psi (275.86 bar) minimum] on the system pressure test port located on the combination valve (refer to Figure 8.3). 5. Turn the adjusting screw of the compensator to increase the pressure (refer to System/Compensator Pressure in this section). 6. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 7. Hold the control selector valve in the Lower Control position. If the compensator pressure was increased enough and the pressure relief valve is properly adjusted, the gauge should indicate 3,250 psi (224 bar). 8. If the pressure is properly adjusted, go to step 12. 9. If the pressure is above 3,000 psi (206 bar), but below the relief pressure of 3,250 psi (224 bar), disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 10. Gradually increase the compensator pressure and repeat the above steps until adjusting the compensator pressure screw does not increase the pressure. If the relief valve is properly adjusted, the gauge will indicate 3,250 psi (224 bar).

11. If the relief valve is not properly adjusted, complete the relief valve adjustment procedure. 12. If the relief valve is properly adjusted, adjust the compensator pressure back to 2,250 psi (155.2 bar). Refer to System/Compensator Pressure in this section for adjustment procedures. 13. Release the control selector valve, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine 14. Disconnect the pressure gauge and install the access cover on the side of the turntable. Adjustment 1. Loosen the jam nut on the cartridge and turn the adjusting screw clockwise to increase the pressure or counterclockwise to decrease the pressure. Tighten the jam nut. 2. Test the pressure. 3. Repeat the adjustment until the gauge indicates 3,250 psi (224 bar). 4. Adjust compensator pressure back to 2,250 psi (155.2 bar). Refer to System/Compensator Pressure in this section for adjustment procedures. 5. Release the control selector valve, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine 6. Disconnect the pressure gauge and install the access cover on the side of the turntable.

Attention

Pump Flow

A slow down in unit movement may indicate a worn or defective pump. Test the pump to determine the full flow. Testing 1. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnection hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately.

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 107

Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and may cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 2. Release any pressure built up in the hoses connected to the outrigger cylinder as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the boom fold/unfold control lever in both directions several times. c. Move the outrigger control lever in both directions several times to make sure there is no pressure in the lines. 3. On AA-L units, disconnect the sense line from the outlet of the DC pump signal cutoff valve (refer to Figure 8.4). 4. On AA-L units, disconnect the pressure line from the pump at the first tee fitting. Temporarily install a tee fitting on the line from the pump.

5. On AA units, disconnect the pressure line from the pump at the inlet to the unloading valve (refer to Figure 8.4). 6. On AA-L units, connect a line from the sense line disconnected in step 3 to one port of the tee fitting installed in step 4. 7. Connect a line from the open port on the pressure line to the flowmeter inlet. 8. Disconnect the return line from the return line filter inlet. 9. Connect a line from the flowmeter outlet to the open port on the return line filter. Cap any open connections. 10. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 11. The flowmeter should indicate approximately 8 gpm (30.32 l/min) at 2,150 psi (148.2 bar) on AA units and 14.25 gpm (54 l/min) on AA-L units. If the pump flow is less than this, the pump may be defective or worn out. Determine the cause of the problem and repair or replace the pump. 12. When testing is complete, reconnect all the lines in their normal operating configuration.

Connection

Connection

Flowmeter Connection

Connection

Flowmeter

Connection AA Figure 8.4 Pump Flow Test Connections 108 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments AA-L

Standby Pressure (AA-L Units Only)

Standby pressure is 350 psi (24.1 bar). The load-sensing valve in the compensator housing of the pump controls the standby pressure. Operation of the load-sensing valve for this standby pressure function is similar to a direct-acting relief valve. When the pump output exceeds the spring tension of the valve, a spool is shifted to direct this pressure to stop pump flow. Testing To test standby pressure, make sure all functions are turned off so that no signals are being sent to the pump. 1. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. Remove the cover on the control valve side of the turntable. 3. Install a pressure gauge [1,000 psi (69 bar) minimum] on the system pressure (PD) test port on the combination valve (refer to Figure 8.3). 4. Turn off the lower and upper tool circuits if so equipped. 5. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 6. The pressure gauge should indicate 350 psi (24.1 bar) +/- 50 psi (3.44 bar). Adjustment 1. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. Remove the plug from the compensator housing on the pump (refer to Figure 8.2). 3. Adjust the screw with an Allen wrench. Clockwise rotation of the screw will increase standby pressure and counterclockwise rotation will decrease standby pressure. 4. Replace the adjustment plug. 5. Repeat the testing procedure and readjust if necessary. 6. Disconnect the pressure gauge and replace the cover. Jam Nut Cap, Adjusting Screw Figure 8.5 Unloading Valve Testing 1. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 2. Extend and retract the outriggers until they will no longer move or hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the stored hydraulic oil is discharged from the accumulator. 3. Remove the access cover from the turntable on the side opposite the lower controls. 4. Install a pressure gauge of 3,000 psi (206 bar) minimum on the accumulator test port. 5. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 6. Hold the control selector valve in the Purge position while observing the pressure gauge. 7. Check if the pump speed increases to charge the accumulator after the pressure drops to 1,750 psi (120.6 bar) and the pump speed decreases when the pressure reaches approximately 2,150 psi (148.2 bar).

Unloading Valve (AA Units Only)

The unloading valve cartridge is located in the unloading valve (refer to Figure 8.5). The valve is used to maintain the accumulator and main system pressure between 1,750 psi (120.6 bar) and 2,150 psi (148.2 bar).

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 109

8. If the pressure dropped below 1,750 psi (120.6 bar) the pressure unloading valve cartridge needs to be adjusted. Adjustment 1. Remove the access cover from the top of the pedestal. 2. Remove the cap over the adjusting screw on the pressure unloading valve cartridge and loosen the jam nut on top of the cartridge with a wrench. 3. Use an Allen wrench to rotate the center adjusting screw to adjust the pressure setting. Rotate the screw clockwise to increase the loading pressure or counterclockwise to decrease the loading pressure. 4. When the loading pressure setting is properly set, tighten the jam nut and install the cap. Adjusting the loading pressure setting also changes the unloading pressure setting. There is a constant 400 psi (27.58 bar) pressure differential between them. 5. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 6. Install the access cover on top of the pedestal.

Accumulator (AA Units Only) Warning


Death or serious injury can result from the unexpected release of hydraulic or nitrogen pressure. Before an accumulator is taken apart, release all hydraulic and nitrogen pressure. Fully open the release valve. Only experienced, trained personnel should repair the accumulator. The accumulator has a special, high pressure valve core. Do not replace it with a standard automotive type valve core. An accumulator (refer to Figure 8.6) is mounted in the pedestal frame to provide hydraulic power to operate the unit when the engine is turned off or the pump is unloaded. The accumulator precharge is 900 psi (62 bar). Access Cover

Attention

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 7. Extend and retract the outriggers until they will no longer move or hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the stored hydraulic oil is discharged from the accumulator. 8. When all the pressure is discharged, remove the pressure gauge from the test port. 9. Install the access cover on the side of the turntable.

Pedestal

Accumulator

Figure 8.6 Accumulator Charging 1. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately.

110 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 2. Extend and retract the outriggers until they will no longer move or hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the stored hydraulic oil is discharged from the accumulator. 3. Remove the access cover from the top of the pedestal. 4. Fully close the release valve on the charging kit. Only use dry nitrogen gas to charge the accumulator. 5. Remove the cover and valve cap from the charging valve on the top of the accumulator (refer to Figure 8.7).

pressure because the valve on the bottle and the secondary valve on the accumulator are closed. 9. Turn the secondary valve on the accumulator counterclockwise to release nitrogen into the charging kit. This should happen between 11/2 to 2 turns of the secondary valve. Opening the secondary valve too far will cause the loss of nitrogen in the accumulator. 10. Slowly turn the release valve T-handle on the charging kit counterclockwise. This will release nitrogen into the pressure gauge. 11. Open the valve on the dry nitrogen container to allow nitrogen to precharge the accumulator. 12. When the pressure gauge indicates 900 psi (62 bar), close the valve on the dry nitrogen container. Also close the secondary valve on the accumulator and the T-handle on the release valve on the charging kit. 13. Remove the charging kit from the accumulator and replace the protective cap and cover on the charging valve.

Attention

Charging Kit

T-Handle

14. Install the access cover on the top of the pedestal.

Main System Pressure Reducing Valve (AA Units Only)


Adapter

Cap Accumulator

The main system pressure reducing valve (refer to Figure 8.8) is located in the pedestal below the turntable. This valve is used to regulate the main system pressure to maintain 1,750 psi (120.68 bar) when operating the units functions. Jam Nut Adjusting Nut

Charging Valve Secondary Valve Figure 8.7 Connections for Charging the Accumulator (AA Units Only) Damage to the T-handle on the adapter can result from overtightening. Do not overtighten the adapter. 6. Unscrew the T-handle on the adapter and then connect the adapter to the charging valve. Tighten the adapter to a snug fit. 7. Connect the hose from the dry nitrogen container to the charging kit. 8. Turn the T-handle on the adapter clockwise to connect the adapter to the charging valve. The pressure gauge on the charging kit should not register any

Attention

Figure 8.8 Pressure Reducing Valve Setup 1. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or dis-

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 111

connecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 2. Extend and retract the outriggers until they will no longer move or hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the stored hydraulic oil is discharged from the accumulator. 3. Install a pressure gauge of 3,000 psi (206 bar) minimum on the main system test port (TP3) provided on the lower control valve. Testing 1. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 2. Place the control selector valve in the Upper Control position. 3. Check the reading on the pressure gauge. If the pressure is not 1,750 psi (120.68 bar), the pressure reducing valve cartridge needs to be adjusted. Adjustment 1. Use an Allen wrench to rotate the center adjusting screw to adjust the pressure setting. Rotate the screw clockwise to increase the main system pressure or counterclockwise to decrease the main system pressure. 2. When the main system pressure reducing valve setting is properly set, tighten the jam nut. 3. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and may cause personnel to slip and/or fall. 4. Extend and retract the outriggers until they will no longer move or hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the stored hydraulic oil is discharged from the accumulator. 5. When all the pressure is discharged, remove the pressure gauge from the test port. 6. Install the access cover on the side of the turntable.

Pilot System Pressure Reducing Valve (AA Units Only)

The pilot system pressure reducing valve (refer to Figure 8.8) is located on the side of the turntable opposite the lower control valve. This valve is used to reduce the main system pressure down to 350 psi (24.13 bar) for the pilot operated upper control system. Setup 1. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 2. Extend and retract the outriggers until they will no longer move or hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the stored hydraulic oil is discharged from the accumulator. 3. Install a pressure gauge of 1,000 psi (69 bar) minimum on the tee fitting provided in the output of the pilot system pressure reducing valve. Testing 1. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 2. Place the control selector valve in the Upper Control position.

Caution
The accumulator must be completely discharged of hydraulic oil before servicing the unit and/or attempting to disconnect any hydraulic lines. Hydraulic oil escaping under pressure can have enough force to inject oil into the flesh. In case of injury by escaping oil, seek medical attention at once. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately.

112 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

3. Check the reading on the pressure gauge. If the pressure is not 350 psi (24.13 bar), the pressure reducing valve cartridge needs to be adjusted. Adjustment 1. Use an Allen wrench to rotate the center adjusting screw to adjust the pressure setting. Rotate the screw clockwise to increase the pilot pressure or counterclockwise to decrease the pilot pressure. 2. When the pilot system pressure reducing valve setting is properly set, tighten the jam nut. 3. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. Use the appropriate test to determine the cause of outrigger drift. Drift Up If an outrigger drifts up several inches when it is loaded, the check valve in the extend circuit may be leaking. If the outrigger drifts up a little and stops, there is an internal leak in the piston seal. Testing Internal Cylinder Leakage Use the following procedure to isolate the cause. A liquid container will be required for this test. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, chock the wheels, start the engine, and engage the PTO. 2. Retract the outrigger cylinder completely. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 3. Release any pressure built up in the hoses connected to the outrigger cylinder as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the boom fold/unfold control lever in both directions several times. c. Move the outrigger control lever in both directions several times to make sure there is no pressure in the lines. 4. Disconnect the outrigger cylinder hose from the extend port of the outrigger control valve. Cap the fitting at the valve. Allow the oil remaining in the hose to drain into the container. 5. Hold the open end of the hose over the container. Start the pump. Move the outrigger control lever to the retract position. There may be an initial surge of oil out of the open end of the hose as pressure is first applied to the cylinder.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 4. Extend and retract the outriggers until they will no longer move or hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the stored hydraulic oil is discharged from the accumulator. 5. When all the pressure is discharged, remove the pressure gauge from the tee fitting. 6. Install the access cover on the side of the turntable.

Outriggers

The outrigger cylinders and holding valves must operate properly to assure the units stability. Any leak must be corrected before placing the unit in service.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components.

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 113

6. If a heavy stream of oil continues to drain from the hose, with the control lever held in the retract position, the cylinder is leaking internally. Reconnect the hose to the outrigger control valve. Repair or replace the cylinder. Refer to Section 6 under Outriggers for the removal and installation procedures. Testing Piston Seal and Check Valve A vehicle jack, two clean liquid containers, and the ability to let the unit set overnight are required to complete this test. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, start the engine, and engage the PTO. 2. Extend the outrigger cylinder completely. Raise the vehicle chassis up with a jack so the outrigger will not be carrying its own weight. Turn off the engine and disengage the PTO. Release any pressure built up in the hoses connected to the outrigger cylinder. This is done by shifting the outrigger control lever in both directions several times. 3. Disconnect the retract outrigger cylinder hose from the outrigger control valve and place the hose in a liquid container. Disconnect the extend outrigger cylinder hose from the control valve and place the hose in another liquid container. 4. Mark the position of the outrigger leg. Let the jack down, so the outrigger will be carrying its own weight again. Let the unit set in this position overnight. a. If the retract outrigger cylinder hose container has oil in it, the pilot operated check valve is defective. b. If the cylinder moved a few inches and stopped, the cylinder piston seal is leaking. c. If the cylinder retracts all the way in and there is oil in the extend outrigger cylinder hose container, the cylinder piston seal is leaking and the pilot operated check valve is defective. 5. The pilot operated check valve port marked V1 controls the cylinder extension and the port marked V2 controls the cylinder retraction. Both of these ports are located in the valve housing. This housing is mounted on the base end of the outrigger cylinder (refer to Figure 8.9). Replace the appropriate pilot operated check valve port in the check valve housing and repeat the test. Drift Down If the outrigger drifts down from the raised position overnight, this may indicate the cylinder is leaking inter-

nally or the pilot operated check valve in the retract circuit is leaking. Testing Internal Cylinder Leakage and Check Valve A vehicle jack, two clean liquid containers, and the ability to let the unit set overnight are required to complete this test. 1. Place a jack under the outrigger shoe to support the outrigger. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. Release any pressure built up in the hoses connected to the outrigger cylinder as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the boom fold/unfold control lever in both directions several times. c. Move the outrigger control lever in both directions several times to make sure there is no pressure in the lines. 3. Carefully remove the retract hose from the control valve and place the hose in a liquid container. Remove the jack and let the unit set in this position overnight. a. If the outrigger extended and there is oil in the container, the retract pilot operated check valve is leaking. Place the jack under the outrigger shoe again to take the weight off of the outrigger cylinder. Replace the pilot operated check valve in the valve port marked V2 of the valve housing. b. If the outrigger is extended but there is no oil in the container, the cylinder is leaking internally. Replace the outrigger cylinder. Refer to Section 6 under Outrigger for the removal and installation procedures.

Rotary Joint

A leaking seal in the rotary joint can cause oil flowing to any hydraulic circuit above rotation to be diverted directly to the return line. This will cause functions to slow down and/or fail to build pressure. To properly test the rotary joint, a few simple hydraulic connections must be made as illustrated in Figure 8.10.

114 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

Pilot Operated Check Valve Base End

Pilot Operated Check Valve Base End

Rod End

Rod End

Modified A-Frame Pilot Operated Check Valve Base End

A-Frame

Rod End

Radial Figure 8.9 Outriggers

Cap Lines

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 2. Release any pressure built up in the hoses connected to the outrigger cylinder as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 115

Flowmeter

Temporary Connection

Figure 8.10 Rotary Joint Test Connections Testing 1. Properly set the outriggers. Turn off the engine and disengage the PTO.

b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the boom fold/unfold control lever in both directions several times. 3. Remove the pressure line (P) from the top of the rotary joint. Cap the open port (P) on the rotary joint and the open hose end. 4. As illustrated in Figure 8.6, connect a flowmeter in the pressure line (P) below the rotary joint. 5. Using the appropriate fitting, hydraulically connect the pressure line and the signal line below the rotary joint. With the pressure line connected to the signal line, the pump output will be 2,150 psi (148.2 bar) on AA units or 2,250 psi (155.2 bar) on AA-L units. The capped pressure line will stop oil flow and will allow the rotary joint to pressurize to 2,150 psi (148.2 bar) on AA units or 2,250 psi (155.2 bar) on AA-L units. 6. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 7. If the flowmeter indicates flow, the seals in the rotary joint are leaking. Reseal or replace the rotary joint. 8. Make sure to remove the flowmeter and return the hydraulic connections back to normal after testing the rotary joint.

Lower Control Valve (AA-L Units Only)

If the lower control valve is replaced or if a boom function speed is improperly set, it may be necessary to test and adjust the speed of the individual boom functions. The lower control valve on AA-L units is equipped with spool stop controls to precisely meter and consistently control the speed of each boom function. The adjustment stems are found on the end of each lower control valve section (refer to Figure 8.11). Testing Before testing the speed of a function, use a flowmeter to verify that the pump is delivering the proper hydraulic oil flow of 14.5 gpm (54.9 l/min) with two functions operating. The pump flow, engine speed, and boom cylinders are matched to provide the best operation at the speeds listed in Figure 8.1.

Caution
Injury and property damage can result from contact of the booms or platforms with fixed objects. Make sure there is sufficient clearance before operating the unit. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 2. Time the operation of each aerial device function using the lower controls. Make sure the control lever for the function selected is held in the full on position for the entire timing process. 3. Compare the actual operating times recorded with times in Figure 8.1. If the times do not agree, the lower control valve spool stops need to be adjusted. FUNCTION
ROTATION CW CCW

Lower Control Valve (AA Units Only)

The lower control valve is not adjustable on AA units. Boom function speeds must be set and adjusted with the upper control valve only. Refer to Upper Control valve in this section for test and adjustment procedures.

SPEED

60 Seconds

UPPER BOOM UNFOLD FOLD

30 Seconds From Stowed to 190 40 Seconds (Up) 36 Seconds (Down)

LOWER BOOM

Jam Nut A

Jam Nut B

DOWN

UP

Adjustable Spool Stops Figure 8.11 Valve Spool Adjustments 116 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

Adjustment 1. Locate the proper spool stop for the function to be adjusted (refer to Figure 8.11). The proper spool stop is located on the same control valve segment as the function to be adjusted, but on the side opposite the direction of travel of the control lever to operate the function. 2. Do not turn the fine tune metering adjusting screws when adjusting the spool stops. Hold the metering screw stationary with an Allen wrench when loosening or tightening jam nut B. 3 Loosen jam nut B first. Then loosen jam nut A. 4. Do not turn a spool stop more than one turn at a time before retesting a functions speed. Hold the metering screw stationary with an Allen wrench while adjusting the spool stop. 5. Turn the spool stop clockwise (into the end cap) to slow down a function. Turn the spool stop counterclockwise (out of the end cap) to speed up a function. 6. When testing and adjustment is complete, retighten jam nuts A and B, stow the unit, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine.

Interlock Trigger

Upper Control Valve Interlock Valve Figure 8.12 Single Handle Control Assembly When the interlock trigger is engaged on the single handle control, the interlock valve is opened by a mechanical connection with the trigger. The blocking valve in the pressure line to the lower control valve (on AA units) or in the combination valve (on AA-L units) is opened by pilot pressure. The mechanical linkage to operate the interlock valve is adjustable. The upper control valve is mounted directly under the single handle control. As the handle is moved, it varies the mechanical force applied to the internal spring pack of one or more of the variable pressure reducing valves (refer to Figure 8.13). As the mechanical force applied to Pressure Pin Assembly

Upper Control Valve

The single handle control assembly includes the mechanical linkage, an interlock valve, and the upper control valve which houses six variable pressure reducing valves (refer to Figure 8.12).

Start Pressure Shims Allen Screw Tank Port Forced Opening Shims Pressure Port

A Lower Boom (Raise/Lower) Upper Boom Turntable Rotation (Fold/Unfold) (CW/CCW) Work Port (To Lower Control Valve) Section A A (Variable Pressure Reducing Valve)

Figure 8.13 Upper Control Valve Assembly


3-04

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 117

the spring changes, the pilot pressure output from the upper control valve is varied as the spool shifts. The output pressure from the upper control valve can be varied from 0 to 350 psi (24.1 bar). The hydraulic oil output from the upper control valve is directed to the lower control valve spools so that boom movement may occur. Although it is unlikely that the variable pressure reducing valves will require adjustment under normal use, a new upper control valve may require adjustment. Start pressure and forced opening are shim adjustable at the variable pressure reducing valve. Testing The pilot system pressure must be 350 psi (24.1 bar) before attempting to test the upper control valve. It is recommended that the start pressure, move pressure, and forced opening for all six boom functions be tested before disassembling the upper control valve assembly for adjustment. Start and move pressure and forced opening will be checked in the following procedure.

Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 4. Release any pressure built up in the hoses as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the boom fold/unfold control lever in both directions several times. 5. Remove the upper controls cover. 6. Install a tee fitting at the output (work port) of each variable pressure reducing valve. 7. Install a low pressure gauge [400 psi (27.58 bar) to 1,000 psi (69 bar) maximum] on the tee for the function being tested. 8. Start the engine and engage the PTO.

Caution
Injury and property damage can result from contact of the booms or platforms with fixed objects. Make sure there is sufficient clearance before operating the unit. 1. Position the unit in a level area with sufficient room to operate the boom functions, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. It is not required that the booms be in any specific position for the start and move pressure tests. 2. Operate the unit with the lower controls first to make sure that the lower control valve and actuators for the functions are operating properly. 3. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from falling from the platform. All platform occupants must properly use an appropriate OSHA approved personal fall protection system. 9. Use an OSHA approved fall protection system, connect the lanyard, and operate the function from the upper controls. Move the single handle control very slowly while watching the pressure gauge for this function. A rapid rise in pressure should be noticed to a point and a slow rise in pressure after that. This point is the initial pressure required to move the lower control valve spool and is referred to as start pressure. Continue slow movement of the single handle control while watching the pressure gauge rise slowly until boom movement is seen or felt. This is referred to as move pressure, when the lower control valve spool is moved far enough to start boom movement. The difference between start and move pressure is called differential pressure. 10. During the last 10 percent of single handle control movement, the forced opening position will be reached. The forced opening position makes sure

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately.

118 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

that the function will operate at full speed when using the upper control valve. While holding the single handle control in this position, have someone move the same function to the full on position with the appropriate control lever on the lower control valve. If there is little or no change in the speed of the function, the forced opening position does not need adjustment. If there is a substantial increase in the speed of the function, adjust the forced opening position. 11. Repeat this test for all boom functions. Adjustment Move pressure is not adjustable in this control system. Start pressure must be adjusted to obtain the desired differential pressure of 30 psi (2.06 bar) +/-5 psi (+/- 0.34 bar). Start pressure for each boom function is controlled by an internal spring pack in the upper control valve. The tension of the spring pack is shim adjusted. Adding shims will increase start pressure and removing shims will decrease start pressure. Determine the start and move pressures and subtract the start pressure from the move pressure to determine the differential pressure. Use the following example to help determine the correct adjustment to be made. Example Move pressure Start pressure Differential pressure 130 psi (8.96 bar) -80 psi (5.52 bar) 50 psi (3.45 bar)

pressure by approximately 5 psi (0.345 bar). If the start pressure must be increased by 20 psi (1.37 bar), as in the example, 0.028 (0.711 mm) shim thickness must be added to the start pressure shim set. Use the following procedure if testing of the start, move, and differential pressure indicates a need for adjustment. 1. Remove the protective cover from the single handle control assembly. 2. Remove the hex head cap screws that fasten the base weldment to the front and rear mounting brackets to allow access to the upper control valve. 3. Lift the pressure pin assembly out of the upper control valve housing. Do not adjust the pressure pin assembly or move it to another function. 4. Lift the return spring out of the valve housing. Remove the spring pack and valve assembly. 5. A socket head cap screw fastens the spring pack to the valve. Wrap a narrow strip of emery cloth around the recessed unpolished area of the valve spool and grip it with narrow jawed pliers or vise grips. 6. Use an Allen wrench and remove the socket head cap screw that fastens the spring cap to the valve spool. Do not stick anything through the hole in the valve spool. This will damage the spool and make the entire valve unusable. 7. If forced opening occurred a significant distance before reaching the single handle controls full travel position, it may be necessary to remove one or two of the small shims from the center of the spring pack. These shims are located between the valve spool and the socket head cap screw that secures the internal spring pack to the valve. 8. If forced opening did not occur at the single handle controls full travel position, it may be necessary to add one or two forced opening shims. 9. Adding shims between the spring and the spring cap may increase the start pressure. Removing shims will lower the start pressure. A 0.007 (0.178 mm) shim will change the start pressure approximately 5 psi (0.345 bar).

Attention

The recommended differential pressure is 30 psi (2.06 bar). Subtract the recommended differential pressure from the actual differential pressure. Example Differential pressure 50 psi (3.45 bar) Recommended differential pressure -30 psi (2.07 bar) Start pressure must be adjusted 20 psi (1.38 bar) If the value of start pressure adjustment is a positive number, the start pressure needs to be increased by adding shims to the internal shim pack (refer to Figure 8.14). In the example, to obtain the recommended differential pressure of 30 psi (2.06 bar), the start pressure must be increased by 20 psi (1.37 bar). If the actual differential pressure were smaller than the recommended differential pressure, a negative number would result, indicating that the start pressure would need to be decreased by removing shims. The addition of each 0.007 (0.178 mm) shim thickness to the start pressure shim set will increase the start

Attention

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 119

10. Assemble the spring and valve spool assembly. Then install the assembly in the upper control valve housing. Place the return spring in the valve housing. 11. Place the pressure pin assembly in the valve housing and reassemble the upper control assembly. 12. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 13. Test the operation of the upper control valve, while watching the start and move pressures on the pressure gauge. Determine the differential pressure to see if it is within the recommended specification of 30 psi (2.06 bar) +\- 5 (0.345 bar). 14. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

position, the speed of the function may be adjusted at the lower control valve.

Upper and Lower Boom Cylinders

If either boom drifts down under a load or under its own weight, first rule out external causes such as a malfunctioning lower control valve. Complete the following test procedure to determine the cause. Testing 1. Position the unit, apply the parking brake, chock the wheels, start the engine, engage the PTO, and lower the outriggers. 2. When testing the upper boom, place the rated load in the platform, raise the upper boom six to eight feet out of the rest, disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 3. When testing the lower boom, complete the following. a. Place the rated load in the platform. b. Raise the lower boom six to eight feet out of the rest and rotate the turntable to a position that will allow the lower boom to drift down as far as possible. c. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 4. Remove the hydraulic pressure from the pilot operated check valve/counterbalance valve as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the turntable rotation control lever in both directions several times. 5. Return the lower controls to neutral and observe the following. a. If the upper/lower boom drifts down, move the appropriate control lever on the lower control valve to the Fold/Lower position. If the movement increases, the cross-ported check valve/counterbalance holding valve is leaking. b. If the boom drifts down slightly and stops, there is an internal cylinder leak.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 15. Release any pressure built up in the hoses as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, Remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the boom fold/unfold control lever in both directions several times. 16. Remove the gauge and install the covers. Do not adjust the pressure pin assembly or move it to another function. On AA-L units, if the function operates faster or slower than desired when the control lever is at the full stroke

Attention

120 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

Lower Boom Stow Valve

An improperly adjusted lower boom stow valve can allow excessive hydraulic pressure to be applied to the lower boom while placing it in the boom rest. The lower boom stow valve is located inside the turntable (refer to Figure 8.14). Valve Position Adjusting Slots

5. Place a 0.050 (1.27 mm) or 3/64 , shim between the plunger on the lower boom stow valve and the weldment on the boom. The cap screw holes in the valve housing are slotted so that the housing may be moved forward or backward on the top of the turntable (refer to Figure 8.14). 6. Slide the valve forward until the plunger bottoms out in the valve housing. Tighten the nuts. Testing 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. Release any pressure built up in the hoses as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever.

Pressure Relief Valve Adjusting Screw

Jam Nut

Figure 8.14 Lower Boom Stow Valve The lower boom stow valve contains a low pressure relief valve. The relief valve limits the hydraulic pressure that may be applied to the lower boom as it is stowed. The boom stow valve is mechanically activated when the lower boom weldment contacts a plunger on the valve. The hydraulic pressure relief setting should be approximately 500 psi (34.5 bar). A certain amount of hydraulic pressure is needed to open the counterbalance valve in the lower boom cylinder to lower the boom into the boom rest. The 500 psi (34.5 bar) pressure relief setting will provide enough hydraulic pressure to lower the boom into the rest without excessive pressure being applied to the boom. Plunger Adjustment 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 2. Make sure the lower boom in the boom rest. 3. Remove the turntable access cover on the side opposite the lower control valve. 4. Loosen the nuts on the cap screws securing the lower boom stow valve to the turntable.

b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the boom fold/unfold control lever in both directions several times. 3. Remove the cover from the side of the turntable on the side opposite the lower control valve. 4. Connect a pressure gauge [2,000 psi (138 bar) minimum] to the quick disconnect coupler on the lower boom stow valve. 5. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 6. Hold the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while using the lower boom control lever to raise the lower boom above the position where it contacts the boom stow valve. 7. Lower the lower boom into the rest. 8. The lower boom should slow down and lower into the boom rest. With the boom in the rest and the lower boom control lever in the Lower position, the pressure gauge should indicate approximately 500 psi (34.5 bar). If the pressure is not properly adjusted, adjustment is required. Adjustment 1. The boom stow pressure relief valve has an adjusting screw and jam nut (refer to Figure 8.14). Loosen the jam nut and turn the adjusting screw counter-

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 121

clockwise to decrease the pressure or clockwise to increase the pressure. After the adjustment has been made, tighten the jam nut. 2. With the gauge still attached, raise and lower the lower boom several times with the lower controls. At the same time, check for the proper boom stow pressure relief valve setting on the gauge. Make sure to stow the lower boom firmly each time the boom is lowered, so that an accurate reading may be taken. 3. With the booms in the boom rest, retract the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. 4. Release any pressure built up in the hoses as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the boom fold/unfold control lever in both directions several times. 5. Remove the pressure gauge and install the cover on the side of the turntable.

Testing 1. Connect a pressure gauge [3,000 psi (206 bar) minimum] to the tools quick disconnect coupler at the tailshelf. 2. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and move the tailshelf tool control lever to the On position. 3. The pressure gauge should indicate 2,000 psi (138 bar). If the proper reading is not indicated, adjust the pressure as follows. Adjustment 1. At the tailshelf, locate the lower tool pressure reducing valve. 2. Loosen the jam nut and turn the adjusting screw counterclockwise to decrease the pressure or clockwise to increase the pressure. 3. After the adjustment has been made, tighten the jam nut. 4. Repeat the testing procedure and readjust if necessary. 5. When testing and adjustment is complete, disengage the PTO, turn off the engine, and remove the pressure gauge. Flow The standard tool flow is controlled by a nonadjustable, pressure compensated, 8 gpm (30.32 l/min) flow control. This in-line flow control for the tailshelf tools is installed between the tool control valve and the quick disconnects. This flow control can be changed to accommodate tools with a flow rate other than 8 gpm (30.32 l/min). Testing 1. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. Connect a flowmeter to the tool outlets at the tailshelf. 3. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and turn the lower tool valve on. 4. Check the reading on the flowmeter.

Lower Tool Circuit (AA-L Units Only)

A tool pressure reducing valve (refer to Figure 8.15) is mounted on one of the frame rails near the tailshelf to regulate the tailshelf tool circuit pressure. Jam Nut Adjusting Nut

Figure 8.15 Lower Tool Pressure Reducing Valve Pressure The pressure for the lower tool circuit may be adjusted for different tool specifications.

5. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 6. If the proper reading was not indicated, clean the flow control or replace it with one that matches the required tool flow rate. 7. When testing is complete, disengage the PTO, turn off the engine, and disconnect the flowmeter.

122 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

Adjustment The flow control valve cartridge is not adjustable.

3. After the adjustment has been made, tighten the jam nut. 4. Repeat the testing procedure and readjust if necessary. 5. When testing and adjustment is complete, disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 6. Remove the pressure gauge and install the access cover. Flow The standard tool flow is controlled by a nonadjustable, pressure compensated, 8 gpm (30.32 l/min) flow control. The flow control valve cartridge for the upper tools circuit is installed on the side of the combination valve near the center. This flow control can be changed to accommodate tools with a flow rate other than 8 gpm (30.32 l/min).

Upper Tool Circuit (AA-L Units Only)

A tool pressure reducing valve cartridge (refer to Figure 8.16) is located on the front center of the combination valve on the turntable to regulate the upper tool circuit pressure. On units with material handling, reducing the tool circuit pressure will also affect the speed of the winch when it is operated from the platform. Upper Tool System Pressure Reducing Valve Upper Tool System Flow Control Valve Combination Valve Block Figure 8.16 Upper Tool Pressure Reducing Valve Pressure The pressure for the upper tool circuit may be adjusted for different tool specifications. Testing 1. Remove the access cover from the lower control valve side of the turntable. 2. Connect a pressure gauge [3,000 psi (206 bar) minimum] to the TD port on the top side of the combination valve. 3. Disconnect any power tool attachments from the upper tool circuit quick disconnects. 4. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and move the upper tool control lever to the On position. 5. The pressure gauge should indicate 2,000 psi (138 bar). If the proper reading is not indicated, adjust the pressure as follows. Adjustment 1. Locate the upper tool pressure reducing valve cartridge on the combination valve (refer to Figure 8.16). 2. Loosen the jam nut and turn the adjusting screw counterclockwise to decrease the pressure or clockwise to increase the pressure.

Testing 1. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 2. Connect a flowmeter to the tool outlets at the tip of the upper boom. 3. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and turn the upper tool valve on. 4. Check the reading on the flowmeter. 5. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 6. If the proper reading was not indicated, clean the flow control or replace it with one that matches the required tool flow rate. 7. When testing is complete, disengage the PTO, turn off the engine, and disconnect the flowmeter. Adjustment The flow control valve cartridge is not adjustable.

Holding Valves

The unit uses holding valves to insure that various actuators maintain their position under load or if there is hydraulic line failure. These holding valves block the hydraulic oil in the actuators to prevent movement. The types of holding valves used are pilot operated check valves and counterbalance valves. If the valve stops holding the load, or malfunctions in some other way, it is most likely contaminated. Do not disassemble a holding valve in the field. Holding valves should only be disassembled by the manufacturer.

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 123

When removing a holding valve cartridge, do not allow dirt, water, or other contaminants to enter the holding valve cavity when the cartridge is removed.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 3. Remove the hydraulic pressure from the pilot operated check valve before removing the valve cartridge from its housing as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the turntable rotation control lever in both directions several times. 4. Support the structure that the pilot operated check valve protects. Switch the position of the two valve cartridges. 5. If the problem moves to the other location when the function is operated, replace the valve cartridge. If the problem does not move, the pilot operated check valve is not the cause of the malfunction. Loading the Function 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 2. Load the function protected by the pilot operated check valve using the appropriate controls (lower controls, upper controls, etc.). 3. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 4. Remove the hydraulic pressure from the system as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled movement. Fully unload the actuator or position it so it cannot move, before removing a holding valve. Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean.

Caution
Injury can result from airborne particles entering the eyes. Wear appropriate safety equipment. Pilot Operated Check Valves A pilot operated check valve provides a positive lock against hydraulic flow or leaks until it is opened by pressure from a control valve. The following actuators use pilot operated check valves. Upper boom cylinder Jib tilt cylinder Platform rotate cylinder(s) Outrigger cylinders Turntable rotation motor

Pilot operated check valves are not adjustable and must be replaced if defective. Testing There are two methods for testing pilot operated check valves. Switching Valve Cartridges 1. Securely stow the booms and make sure the platform is level. 2. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Attention

124 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower boom control lever in both directions several times. 5. Select the appropriate position (upper or lower controls) with the control selector valve and place the control for the function selected in the proper position to connect the cylinder to tank. If the function moves, the cross-ported check valve is leaking and must be replaced. 6. Release the controls, start the engine, engage the PTO, and stow the unit. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. Counterbalance Valves A counterbalance valve provides a positive lock against hydraulic flow or leakage until it is opened by pressure from a control valve. Counterbalance valves are used to block flow out of the following actuators. Lower boom cylinder Platform rotator control valves on units with 94degree rotators Counterbalance valves assure the cylinder or motor will maintain its position if there is hydraulic line failure. Testing There are two methods for testing counterbalance valves. Switching Valve Cartridges 1. Securely stow the booms.

a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the turntable rotation control lever in both directions several times. 3. Locate the plugs in the extend and retract test ports at the base end of the cylinder. Use an Allen wrench to slowly unscrew the test plugs. Allow the pressure to bleed off before completely removing the plugs. If the cylinder is under pressure and the plugs are unscrewed quickly, hydraulic oil may spray out of the test ports. Replace the test plugs. 4. Switch the position of the two valve cartridges. 5. If the problem moves to the other location, replace the valve. If the problem does not move, the counterbalance valve is not the cause of the malfunction. Loading the Function 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 2. If the lower boom is being tested, load the function protected by the counterbalance valve by raising the lower boom a few feet (or one meter) above of the rest with the lower controls. 3. If the platform rotator valve is being tested, move the control selector valve to the Upper Control position and rotate the platform approximately 45 degrees. 4. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 5. Remove the hydraulic pressure from the system as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control valve control levers in both directions several times. 6. If the lower boom is being tested, hold the control selector valve in the Lower Control position and move the lower boom control lever to the Lower

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 2. Remove the hydraulic pressure from the system as follows.

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 125

position to connect the cylinder to tank. If the function moves, the counterbalance valve is leaking and must be replaced. 7. If the platform rotator valve is being tested, hold the platform rotator control knob in the Extend position to connect the cylinder to tank. Then load the function by having two technicians push the platform in the same direction. If the function moves, the counterbalance valve is leaking and must be replaced. 8. Release the controls, start the engine, engage the PTO, and stow the unit. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. Relief Pressure Counterbalance valves are set to relieve pressure at different settings. The counterbalance valves used in the lower boom cylinder are set to relieve pressure at 1,000 psi (69 bar). Do not adjust counterbalance valves in the field. The only exception is adjusting the counterbalance valves for manual boom lowering as described in the Operators Manual. If the setting on a counterbalance valve cartridge has been changed, the cartridge must be removed and adjusted with a test block or replaced. On units with 94-degree platform rotators, refer to Platform Rotator Counterbalance Valves for the adjustment procedure.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 2. Remove the hydraulic pressure from the system as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control valve control levers in both directions several times. 3. Locate the plugs in the extend and retract test ports at the base end of the cylinder or counterbalance valve block. Use an Allen wrench to slowly unscrew the test plugs. If the cylinder is under pressure and the plugs are unscrewed quickly, hydraulic oil may spray out of the test ports. If the test ports are not available, slowly screw the counterbalance valve cartridge from its housing. 4. Carefully unscrew the cartridge from its housing to allow the pressure to bleed off before the cartridge is fully unscrewed from the cavity. Testing 1. Lubricate the O-rings on the counterbalance valve cartridge and install the cartridge in the test block. 2. Connect a hydraulic pressure source and an accurate pressure gauge to port 1 (refer to Figure 8.17). The pressure source and gauge must be adequate for a pressure greater than the desired counterbalance valve relief setting.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from unexpected movement. Counterbalance valves that have had the relief setting changed must be replaced or reset to the proper setting using an Altec test block before the unit is operated. Do not adjust a counterbalance valve without a test block. Using a test block and pressure gauge is the only accurate way to determine that the proper setting has been obtained. A test block and instruction sheet for 11/8 hex cartridges and 7/8 hex cartridges are available from your Altec representative (refer to Service Tools and Supplies in the Appendix). Removal Before removing a counterbalance valve, the cylinder must be fully unloaded. Use the following procedure to remove a counterbalance valve. 1. Securely stow the booms.

126 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

Adjusting Screw

Jam Nut Counterbalance Valve Cartridge

while the vehicle is being driven. Use following procedure to adjust the counterbalance valve in both platform rotator valves. Adjustment 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers.

Figure 8.17 Counterbalance Valve Test Block 3. Install a straight adapter in port 2 to aid in observing the oil flow from this port during the procedure. 4. Gradually increase the pressure at port 1 with the pressure source. The counterbalance valve relief setting is the pressure at which a fine stream of oil begins to flow from port 2. Note this pressure reading and then remove the pressure from port 1. 5. If the relief setting is correct, relieve the pressure of the pressure source by turning off the pressure source and moving the control several times in both directions. 6. Disconnect the pressure source from port 1 and remove the counterbalance valve cartridge. 7. If the relief setting is incorrect, adjust the relief setting as described in the following procedure. Adjustment 1. Loosen the jam nut and turn the adjusting screw clockwise to decrease the setting or counterclockwise to increase the setting. 2. Hold the adjusting screw from turning and tighten the jam nut. 3. Repeat the test procedure until the correct relief setting is obtained. 4. Repeat the test procedure at least three more times to confirm the correct setting. 5. Relieve the pressure of the pressure source by turning off the pressure source and moving the control several times in both directions. 6. Disconnect the pressure source from port 1 and remove the counterbalance valve cartridge. 94 Degree Platform Rotator Counterbalance Valve An improperly adjusted counterbalance valve in the platform rotator valves may allow the platforms to rotate

2. Use the lower controls to rotate the turntable and reposition booms to lower the platform as close to the ground as possible. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 3. Remove the hydraulic pressure from the system as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the lower control valve control levers in both directions several times. 4. Move the control selector valve to the Upper Control position.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing.

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 127

5. If required, remove the access cover next to the platform rotator control valve to expose the counterbalance valve (refer to Figure 8.18). Jam Nut Adjusting Screw Platform Rotator Control Valve

14. Note the extend and retract times for the platform rotator cylinder. 15. If it takes longer than 18 to 20 seconds to rotate the platform in either direction, complete the following. a. If required, remove the access cover to expose the counterbalance valve. b. Turn the adjusting screw on the counterbalance valve clockwise one eighth turn. c. Note the extend and retract times for the platform rotator cylinder.

Counterbalance Valve

d. If it still takes longer than 18 to 20 seconds to rotate the platform, repeat steps 15b and 15c until the proper time is achieved. Turning the adjusting screw clockwise reduces the holding force that was previously adjusted. 16. If the proper balance between rotation speed and holding force is not achieved, replace the counterbalance valve and repeat the adjustment procedure. 17. If it takes less than 18 to 20 seconds to rotate the platform and the platform is still prevented from being manually rotated, the counterbalance valve is properly adjusted. 18. If required, remove the access cover. Tighten the jam nut on the counterbalance valve. 19. Install all access covers, stow the unit, retract the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine.

Curb Side

Street Side

Figure 8.18 Platform Rotator Control Valve 6. Loosen the jam nut on the counterbalance valve. 7. Use an Allen wrench to turn the adjusting screw counterclockwise one-forth turn. 8. Have two technicians try to manually rotate the platform. 9. If the platform moved, the counterbalance valve needs further adjustment. Repeat steps 5 and 6 until the platform cannot be moved. 10. If the adjusting screw needed to be turned more than three fourths of a turn to prevent the platform from moving, replace the counterbalance valve and repeat the adjustment procedure. 11. If platform did not move, the counterbalance valve is properly adjusted. 12. If removed, temporarily install the access cover so the unit can be safely operated. 13. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and use the platform rotator control to fully rotate the platform in both directions.

Mechanical System
Engine Throttle Control
A throttle cylinder or a pressure switch may be used to increase the engine speed. As the pump flow is directed into the hydraulic system, pressure rises in the pump outlet. A 200 psi (13.79 bar) to 300 psi (20.68 bar) rise will cause the throttle cylinder to be extended. The rod end of the cylinder is connected to the throttle linkage, causing the engine to speed up to the adjusted rpm. When the signal being sent to the pump bleeds off, the pump outlet pressure will decrease, allowing the throttle cylinder to be retracted by its internal spring. The engine speed will then return to idle.

128 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

Some functions may not require enough pressure to increase the engine rpm because the pump can supply enough oil with the engine at idle speed. Adjustment The throttle control must be properly adjusted to avoid over speeding the pump. The shaft of the throttle cylinder pushes against a sliding stop bolt. This sliding stop bolt has a self-locking nut that limits the stroke of the throttle cylinder. By adjusting the nut, the engine speed may be fine-tuned. Figure 8.19 illustrates the throttle actuator box. Sliding Stop Bolt Self-Locking Nut

Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers. 2. Remove the cap screws and turntable rotation gearbox pinion gear access cover. 3. Raise the lower boom until it is out of the rest and if necessary, rotate the turntable to the position that has the least amount of movement between the rotation pinion and the rotation bearing. This position is normally the high tooth location (refer to Figure 8.20). The high tooth is the point on the bearing is where the pinion gear meshes the tightest with the rotation bearing. On a new rotation bearing, the high tooth is painted blue or yellow. Reservoir

Throttle Cylinder

Figure 8.19 Engine Throttle Control Turning the nut counterclockwise will increase the engine speed. Turning the nut clockwise will decrease the engine speed. The nut is self-locking to prevent movement due to vibration.

Rotation Gearbox

The rotation pinion is adjustable to mesh properly with the rotation bearing. Proper adjustment minimizes backlash, or mesh, between the pinion and rotation bearing gear teeth. Adjustment is accomplished with the eccentric ring and eccentric ring lock. Excessive backlash will appear as excessive side-toside boom movement when the rotation function is stopped. Adjustment of the backlash may be necessary to compensate for wear after extended operation. Adjustment is necessary if a new rotation gearbox and/or rotation bearing is installed. Adjustment Use the following procedure to check and adjust the mesh between the rotation pinion and the rotation bearing.

Accumulator (AA Units Only) High Tooth Location

Figure 8.20 High Tooth Location 4. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. 5. With another person rocking the boom tip back and forth; observe the movement of the pinion. If side-to-side movement between the pinion and rotation gear teeth occurs at the point of gear mesh, the mesh between the pinion and rotation bearing is not properly adjusted.

Caution
Injury can result from contact with pinion and rotation bearing gear teeth. Keep hands clear.

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 129

Do not confuse backlash with slight lost motion within the rotation gearbox. Internal gearbox backlash will cause the pinion to rotate back and forth slightly. This cannot be reduced externally. If it is necessary to bring the pinion into closer mesh with the rotation bearing, continue with the following steps. 6. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 7. Use the lower controls to raise the lower boom a few inches out of the rest. Then rotate the turntable to a position where the eccentric ring lock (refer to Figure 8.21) can be easily removed.

13. Start the cap screws with lock washers into the gearbox mounting holes. The eccentric ring is located on top of the turntable base plate, under the gearbox. Since the bore of the eccentric ring is 1/16 (0.16 cm) off center from the outside diameter of the ring, rotating the ring will move the gearbox and pinion toward or away from the rotation bearing. The gearbox mounting holes are 1/16 (0.32 cm) oversize to accommodate for this movement. 14. Engage a suitable bar or drift pin, preferably of a soft material such as brass, in a drive slot of the eccentric ring. 15. Rotate the eccentric ring using light blows from a hammer against a bar or drift pin. If the gear mesh become looser, the ring must be turned in the opposite direction. 16. Rotate the eccentric ring until the pinion bottoms out in the rotation gear teeth. At this point, the ring will stop rotating. Do not use excessive force to drive the eccentric ring past this point.

Eccentric Ring

Eccentric Ring Lock Figure 8.21 Eccentric Ring Adjustment 8. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

17. Rotate the turntable back to the position where the eccentric ring lock was removed. 18. Align the eccentric ring lock to the eccentric ring so one of the holes in the lock lines up with the hole in the turntable plate. It may be necessary to rotate the eccentric ring slightly to loosen the adjustment to install the eccentric ring lock. 19. Install the cap screw through the lock washer, eccentric ring lock, and turntable base plate. Torque the cap screw to the proper value. 20. Tighten the gearbox mounting cap screws firmly. 21. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 22. Hold the control selector valve in the Lower position and use the rotation control lever to slowly rotate the turntable through at least two complete revolutions. 23. Release the controls, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine. If the turntable rotated smoothly, go to step 25. 24. If the turntable bound or hesitated in any position while being rotated, the backlash may have been set too tight. Properly set the backlash as follows. a. Loosen the gearbox mounting cap screws.

Caution
Injury can result from airborne particles entering the eyes. Wear appropriate safety equipment. Wear eye protection at all times to prevent particles of dirt, metal, or hydraulic oil from entering the eyes. 9. Remove the cap screw, lock washer, and the eccentric ring lock. 10. Use a wrench to manually rotate the turntable back to the high tooth location. 11. Loosen, but do not remove, the four cap screws that mount the rotation gearbox to the turntable base plate. 12. If installing a new gearbox, apply anti-seize compound to each mounting cap screw (threads, shank and underside of the head) before installing the cap screw into the gearbox.

130 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

b. Rotate the eccentric ring in the proper direction to loosen the adjustment one locking increment (refer to step 18). Repeat step 19. 25. Torque each gearbox mounting cap screw to 225 foot-pounds (155.9 Nm). 26. If a new gearbox was installed, or if the pinion gear teeth are dry, apply an open face gear lubricant. 27. Install the pinion gear access cover with cap screws.

Do not exceed platform(s) capacity while applying test loads. 3. If the unit is equipped with platform rotators, rotate the platform(s) to the furthest reach position. 4. The booms and vehicle should not be moved while the load is suspended. Load the platform(s) to the rated capacity as follows. Be careful not to damage the fiberglass components while loading and unloading the platform. a. Refer to the serial number and capacity placard on the unit to determine the rated capacity of the unit. b. If liner(s) are installed in the platform(s), determine the weight of the liner(s) and subtract the weight of the liner(s) from the rated platform capacity figure on the serial number and capacity placard to determine the proper load to place in the platform(s). c. Place the rated load in the platform(s) or suspend the load under the platform(s) at the transverse centerline. 5. Lubricate the turnbuckle threads, cable adapter threads and leveling rod end threads lightly with wire rope lubricant. 6. Understand that when the tension is adjusted on the lower leveling cable, it is also adjusted on the upper leveling cable. 7. Understand that as in any turnbuckle, one thread is a right hand pitch and one is a left hand pitch. The left hand threads are near the base end of the lower boom and the right hand threads are near the elbow end. Use wrenches to support and position the rod and cable end while turning the turnbuckle to prevent damage. 8. Understand that when a turnbuckle is being turned, the end of the leveling rods and the end of the cable must be held with wrenches to avoid twisting the rod or cable. 9. Tighten the upper and lower turnbuckles alternately, keeping the platform(s) level with the pedestal.

Attention

Leveling System

One type of leveling cable must be replaced at least every 5 years or 5,000 hours, whichever comes first. The other, newer type, of leveling cable must be replaced at least every 8 years or 8,000 hours, whichever comes first. The newer type is recognized by yellow paint on the end coupling of the cable. This requirement is based on normal use, proper care, regular inspection, and lubrication. If the unit is operated under severe conditions, or not properly serviced, replace cables, leveling rods, or sheaves more frequently. Cable adjustment generally will not be required until after the initial seating in period or after extended periods of operation. Without proper tension, platform movement may be noticed as weight is shifted from the front to the back of the platform. In addition, loose cables will allow the leveling rods, cables, and platform to bounce while the vehicle is being driven. Testing Test the tension by moving each rod and cable horizontally or vertically inside the boom. Movement should be minimal. If there is a large amount of movement, adjust the leveling system tension. Adjustment Use the following procedure to level the platform and adjust the tension on the leveling system.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear. Use caution when access covers have been removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing. 1. Lift both booms slightly out of the boom rest. 2. Remove the large access cover from the side of the lower boom near the base end. The turnbuckles will be visible through this access hole.

Attention

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 131

10. Tighten the jam nuts on the turnbuckle and secure with lockwire as shown in Figure 8.22. 11. Remove the test load from the platform(s). The platform will tip slightly toward the upper boom as the weight is removed. This can be considered normal. As the platform is loaded, it will return to the parallel position. 12. When the upper and lower boom leveling system cable tension adjustment procedure is complete, replace the access covers and stow the booms. Adjustment Using a Dynamometer 1. The platform load can be simulated with a dynamometer when adjusting the leveling system cable tension. 2. A nylon sling may be placed over the platform and attached to one end of the dynamometer below the platform(s). 3. The other end of the dynamometer can be tied with a chain to the vehicles pintle hook or another rigid structure. 4. With the lower boom out of the rest one or two inches, raise the upper boom to apply the rated load to the platform.

2. Use the lower controls to raise the upper boom just out of the upper boom restraint and support the upper boom so it will not latch back into the restraint. Support the lower end of the upper boom so the eccentric bushings can be turned. 3. If installed, remove the cap screw from the elbow pin flange and street side eccentric bushing (refer to Figure 8.23).

Upper Boom (Elbow End) Elbow Pin Lug Rollpin Flange

Eccentric Ring

Lower Boom

Figure 8.23 Elbow Pin Assembly 4. Use a large hex wrench to turn the street side eccentric bushing in a clockwise direction. If this moves the latch out of alignment with the restraint, turn the bushing in a counter clockwise direction to align the latch and the restraint. 5. If enough adjustment cannot be obtained from turning the street side eccentric bushing, turn it to position the latch as close as possible and prepare to adjust the curb side eccentric bushing.

Boom Alignment

The upper boom should be aligned so the latch on the boom properly enters the restraint mounted on the lower boom. 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and properly set the outriggers.

R.H. Thread

L.H. Thread

Section A-A Figure 8.22 Turnbuckle Assembly 132 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

Section B-B

Turning both eccentric bushings can have the effect of either increasing the side to side range of movement or moving the upper boom forward or backwards over the boom rest. 6. If installed, remove the rollpin from the curb side eccentric bushing. 7. Turn the curb side eccentric bushing in the appropriate direction to align the latch and the restraint. 8. When the adjustment is correct, install the cap screw to secure the pin flange and street side eccentric bushing and the rollpin to secure the curb side eccentric bushing.

When the control is not operated, the blocking section of the upper control valve is in the closed position. Adjustment The trigger on the single handle control should show slightly when it is fully engaged into the handle. The trigger should not bottom out or completely disappear into the handle, rather the spool should bottom out, stopping trigger movement. Adjust the interlock connecting linkage to insure that the interlock spool fully shifts when the trigger is actuated. If the spool is not being fully shifted, adjust the interlock linkage using the following procedure. 1. Locate the self-locking nut near the top of the interlock cable (refer to Figure 8.24). 2. Make the necessary adjustment. a. Turn the nut clockwise to shorten the cable so the spool will move to the fully open position before the trigger disappears into the handle. b. Turn the nut counterclockwise to lengthen the cable so the spool will move to the fully closed position when the trigger is released.

Upper Controls Interlock Trigger

The single handle control assembly (refer to Figure 8.24) uses an interlock linkage to prevent unintentional boom movement resulting from accidental contact with the control.

Self-Locking Nut Interlock Trigger

3. After the adjustment is made, move the single handle control without engaging the interlock trigger to check that movement does not open the interlock valve. Readjust if necessary.

Winch Brake

The winch is a worm gear driven by the hydraulic motor. The winch valve directs hydraulic oil to the winch motor. The winch motor powers the worm gear set. The worm gear set drives an output shaft keyed to the winch drum. Interlock Valve Figure 8.24 Upper Controls Interlock Trigger Adjustment When the interlock trigger on the bottom of the control handle is engaged, the single handle control may be operated. Squeezing the trigger causes a linkage inside the single handle control assembly to manually shift the blocking section of the upper control valve. When the blocking section is shifted, it allows hydraulic oil flow to the boom function spools of the upper control valve. The winch is equipped with a brake located at the end of the worm shaft opposite from the winch motor (refer to Figure 8.25). The brake is an overrunning clutch that runs freely when the winch control lever is moved to the winch Raise position. However, when the control lever is moved to the winch Lower position, the clutch applies continuous braking action. The brake assists the self-locking worm gear set in stopping a load that is being lowered when the winch control lever is returned to neutral. Testing If it appears that an insufficient winch brake torque setting is the cause for the load not stopping quickly enough, increase the brake torque. However, to save power and unnecessary wear on the winch and motor, do

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Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 133

Brake Clutch Orientation for Clockwise Rotation Lock Ring Worm Shaft

Spring Washer Brake Disc Pack

Spring Goes on High Side of Groove Brass Washer

Winch Brake Housing

Disc Plate Brake Clutch Washer

Spring Pressure Plate Button Spring Washers Gasket Cap Screw

Brake Clutch Orientation for Counterclockwise Rotation

Cover

Allen Head Adjusting Screw

Spring Goes on High Side of Groove Figure 8.25 Winch Brake Assembly not set the brake tighter than necessary to hold the load securely and prevent any unwinding of the winch line. Adjustment 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 2. Use the lower controls to raise the lower boom out of the rest and rotate the turntable until the area above the winch is clear. 3. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine. Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and work areas clean. 4. Remove the hydraulic pressure from the system as follows. a. On AA units, hold the control selector valve in the Purge position until all the pressure is bled off before moving a control lever. b. On AA-L units, remove the pressure in the main system by holding the control selector valve in the Lower Control position while shifting the upper boom fold/unfold control lever in both directions several times. c. Release any pressure in the hoses connected to the winch by moving the winch control lever to the Raise and Lower positions several times. 5. Place a container under the hoses connected to the winch to catch the hydraulic oil. Then disconnect the hoses from the winch. Mark the hose connections to ease installation later. Cap or plug the open ports. Warranty will be denied if the ports are not plugged.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if medical treatment is not given immediately.

134 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

6. Remove two cap screws, washers, and nuts, the winch motor, and the flange gasket (refer to Figure 8.25). 7. Use a torque wrench with a suitable adapter to turn the winch motor socket on the worn drive shaft. 8. Loosen the jam nut on the set screw in the center of the brake housing cover. Then adjust the set screw until the winch raise torque is 50 inch-pounds (5.649 Nm). When the torque is properly set, tighten the jam nut. 9. Use the torque wrench to check the winch lower torque. The running torque should be 25 inch-pounds (2.82 Nm) more in the winch lower direction than in the raise direction. 10. If the proper winch raise and lower torque cannot be set, replace the winch brake plates. Refer to the winch manufacturers maintenance manual for brake plate replacement instructions. If the torque is properly set, continue to the next step. 11. Using a new flange gasket, install the winch motor with two cap screws, washers, and nuts. Properly torque the cap screws. 12. Connect the hydraulic hoses to the winch. 13. Start the engine and engage the PTO. 15. Operate the winch control lever several times in both directions to remove air from the winch lines. While operating the winch, check for leaks and proper operation. 16. Stow the unit, disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Caution
Injury can result from electrical shock. Severe arcing can occur even when working with low voltage electrical systems. Use caution when working with any electrical device. Short Circuit High current flow through a short circuit will usually interrupt one or more circuit breakers or fuses. A short circuit can be caused by the following items. Pinched wire Worn insulation Defective component Loose connection touching a ground

To find the location of a short circuit, analyze the location of the circuit breaker or fuse which is opening and what is being operated when it opens. It may be necessary to progressively isolate the location of a short by disconnecting circuits until the short disappears. A short can also be detected by turning off power to the unit and using an ohmmeter to check the resistance to ground at connections and terminals that would have a voltage applied during normal operation. If a zero resistance is found between ground and one of these locations, it indicates a short circuit. This checking procedure should begin closest to the power source. Open Circuit An open circuit prevents normal current flow through components of the electrical system. An open circuit may be caused by the following items. Broken wire Corrosion Wire pulled from a connection Poor contact where an electrical component is grounded

Electrical System
A basic understanding of electrical system components and system failures will aid in troubleshooting the units electrical system.

Failure Identification

The following three types of failures in the electrical system will cause the system to operate improperly or not at all. Short circuit Open circuit Defective component

Search for an open circuit at a point closest to the component that is not operating. Trace the wiring from the component and look for a disconnected connection, corrosion or other visible damage to the cable or wires. If the component is grounded to the unit structure, make sure the ground connection is good. If the wiring looks good and the ground contact is good, disconnect the leads to the component and check the resistance reading through the component with an ohmmeter. A very high or infinite resistance indicates an open circuit.

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 135

Component Failure A component malfunction is sometimes the most difficult problem to locate. It may appear as an open or a short circuit, or the component may not perform to its design capacity. Determine what functions are affected and what components in the system could be the cause of the problem. If no open or short circuits can be located, and the proper voltage is being applied to the components electrical connections, the problem may be hydraulic or mechanical rather than electrical. Make every effort to locate the problem component before installing new parts. Trial and error component replacement to isolate the problem can be very costly. Solenoid Testing Normal resistance for solenoid valve coils is shown in Figure 8.26. If the resistance reading is much higher than shown on the chart, the problem is most likely an open coil. It could also be a faulty connection in the wire to the coil. Solenoid/Coil Outrigger interlock valve DC pump signal cutoff (AA-L units only) Resistance 10 ohms 10 ohms

from the ignition switch to the truck/machine (or PTO) switch has a 10-amp thermal circuit breaker in it.

Remote Start/Stop Control Box

Use the LEDs on the side of the remote start/stop control box and the information provided in the following paragraphs to troubleshoot the system. Refer to Section 7 under Remote Start/Stop Control Box for an explanation of the LED functions and Figure 8.27 for wiring information. The control box uses low voltage components. This makes problems easy to troubleshoot with a voltmeter or a test light and a jumper wire.

Caution
Injury can result from electrical shock. Severe arcing can occur even when working with low voltage electrical systems. Use caution when working with any electrical device. Place the ignition switch off to remove power from the control box before servicing. To test for an open circuit to ground, connect a jumper wire from terminal 14 to a suitable ground. If the unit operates, there is a bad ground. Repair the appropriate circuit. If the start/stop circuit will not operate from the lower or upper controls, connect a jumper wire from terminal 1 to terminal 14. If the remote start/stop system is now operable, the remote start/stop control box is not the problem. If the system is still inoperable, check the pressure switch connected to the sense line near the pump. A jumper wire may be used to momentarily connect the 12 VDC battery input (terminal 1) to terminals 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, or 13 to troubleshoot a malfunction. Connect a jumper wire from the 12 VDC battery input to terminal 4 to bypass the truck/machine switch. If this restores operation, the remote start/stop control box is not the source of the problem. Check the wiring between the remote start/stop control box and the truck/machine switch, if the wiring and connections are good, the remote start/stop control box is the source of the problem. Connect a jumper wire from the 12 VDC battery input (terminal 1) to terminal 9 or 10 to bypass the remote start/ stop control box when checking the operation of the throttle or secondary stowage DC pump. If this restores operation, the remote start/stop control box is the source of the problem.

Figure 8.26 Solenoid Coil Resistance Many ohmmeters will not accurately measure resistance in the five to six ohm range. An exact reading should not be expected. If normal resistance is found in the component, check that the proper voltage is being applied to the components.

Pin and Circuit Identification

To troubleshoot the electrical system, the outriggers must be lowered to activate the interlock switches. The control selector valve must be held in the Lower Control position to troubleshoot the lower control functions and placed in the Upper Control position to troubleshoot the upper control functions.

Circuit Protection

Self-resetting thermal circuit breakers are used in the electrical system to protect wiring and components from electrical overload in the case of a short circuit or other fault. These circuit breakers normally reset within a few minutes if the electrical overload condition is removed. Damage to the electrical system can result if a circuit breaker trips repeatedly. A 20-amp thermal circuit breaker is used to protect the ignition splice in the remote start/stop circuit. The wire

Attention

136 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

Terminal 1 Start/stop input 2 Start/stop input 3 Throttle input 4 Cab switch machine 5 Cab switch truck 6 Accessory ignition cold 7 Starter relay 8 Throttle (-) 9 Throttle (+) 10 DC pump relay 11 Clutch pump 12 12V console 13 Park brake interlock 14 Chassis ground Terminal 1 Battery 2 Ignition cold input 3 Ignition hot output

Remarks Gnd when switched Not used Not used +12 volts with cab switch in Machine position +12 volts with cab switch in Truck position Not used +12 volts when relay energized Not used Not used +12 volts when relay energized +12 volts with cab switch in Machine position +12 volts with ignition turned on +12 volts with ignition turned on Ground Remarks +12 volts at all times +12 volts with ignition turned on +12 volts at all times

Figure 8.27 Remote Start/Stop Control Box Wiring Identification

Outrigger Interlock System

If the solenoid for the outrigger interlock valve is defective, the outrigger interlock valve will not shift open when the outriggers are lowered. This will cause the functions above rotation to be inoperable. The following procedure will determine if the defective component is in the electrical system or if it is the outrigger interlock valve. The following supplies are necessary to complete this procedure. Jumper wire A +12 volt power source Testing 1. Locate the outrigger interlock valve. There are two wires connected to the outrigger interlock valve. One is the ground wire. The other wire provides electrical power. Locate the electrical wire providing the power to the solenoid. Use a jumper wire to connect a +12 volt power source to this electrical wire. 2. Try to operate a boom function. If the function operates, go to step 3. If the outriggers do not operate, follow steps 4 to 7. 3. Remove the jumper wire. If the outriggers were operational in step 2, the defective component is in

the electrical system. Troubleshoot the portion of the electrical system from the electrical wire connected to the solenoid and check the outrigger interlock electrical switches and the wiring connected to these switches. 4. Remove the jumper wire. If all the functions above rotation are not operational in step 2, the source of the problem is most likely a defective outrigger interlock valve cartridge. It could also be a defective solenoid coil or a poor ground connection. Follow steps 5 to 7 to determine if the cartridge is the source of the problem. 5. Shut off the engine and disengage the PTO. 6. The outrigger interlock valve must be hydraulically bypassed. To do this, disconnect the hydraulic lines connected to the outrigger interlock valve. Use an appropriate fitting to connect the hydraulic lines. 7. Turn on the engine and engage the PTO. Try to operate a function above rotation. If the function operates, the outrigger interlock valve cartridge, ground wire or solenoid coil is the source of the problem. If the function does not operate, the outrigger interlock valve is not the problem. Disconnect the hydraulic hoses and connect them to the outrigger interlock valve. Troubleshoot other hydraulic components located below rotation.

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 137

Electrical Switch Adjustment The outrigger interlock electrical switches are wired in series. If one switch is defective or out of alignment, the outrigger interlock will not operate. If the unit is equipped with A-frame or modified A-frame outriggers, adjust the switch using the procedure under Mechanical Interlock Switches in this section. If the unit is equipped with radial outriggers, adjust the switch using the procedure under Mercury or Proximity Interlock Switches in this section. Mechanical Interlock Switches Adjustment of the roller arm of the outrigger interlock electrical switch is accomplished by adjusting the jam nut on the top of the switch (refer to Figure 8.28). Front View Roller Jam Nut

2. Move the roller arm in the appropriate direction (toward or away from the switch contact) to increase or decrease the amount of roller arm travel before contact to the switch. 3. Too much roller arm travel may damage the switch. Therefore, make the initial adjustment by allowing very little travel before contact. Then ease the adjustment toward more travel until the appropriate adjustment is made. 4. Retighten the jam nut. 5. If adjustment does not correct the problem, replace the switch. Mercury or Proximity Interlock Switches Adjustment of the outrigger interlock electrical switch is accomplished by adjusting the tilt of the switch (refer to Figure 8.29). Tilt about one degree to close switch Tilt about one degree to open switch Mounting Bracket

Cap Screw

Side View

Roller Arm

Outrigger Leg Side Plate

Figure 8.29 Mercury or Proximity Activated Interlock Switch 1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Start the engine, engage the PTO, and lower the outriggers until they just touch the ground. 2. Use the lower controls to make sure the unit is operable.

Figure 8.28 Mechanically Activated Interlock Switch

Caution
Injury can result from electric shock. Severe arcing can occur even when working with low voltage vehicle electrical systems. Use caution when working with any electrical device. Place the truck/machine switch in the Truck position. This will remove the electrical current from the vehicle to the unit while working on the electrical switch. 1. Loosen the jam nut and adjust the position of the roller arm.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result if the unit becomes unstable. Properly stow the booms before raising the outriggers.

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear.

138 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments

3. Raise the outrigger to be tested until the shoe is slightly higher than 10 to 14 inches (25.4 to 35.56 cm) above the ground. 4. Use the lower controls to test if the unit is still operable. 5. If the unit is prevented from operating by the outrigger interlock system, the unit is operating properly, go to step 7. 6. If the unit is still operational, complete the following procedure.

a. Loosen the cap screw securing the mercury switch and increase the tilt in small increments until the outrigger interlock system prevents the unit from being operated. b. Retighten the cap screw and lower the outrigger until the shoe is within 10 to 14 inches (25.4 to 35.56 cm) above the ground. c. If the unit is operational, the outrigger interlock system is operating properly, go to step 7. d. If the unit will not operate, loosen the cap screw securing the mercury switch and decrease the tilt in small increments until the unit will operate. e. Retighten the cap screw, and repeat this procedure from step 3. f. If the adjustment does not correct the problem, replace the switch. 7. Stow the unit, retract the outriggers, disengage the PTO, and turn off the engine.

Caution
Injury can result from electric shock. Severe arcing can occur even when working with low voltage vehicle electrical systems. Use caution when working with any electrical device. Place the truck/machine switch in the Truck position. This will remove the electrical current from the vehicle to the unit while working on the electrical switch.

Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 139

Section 9 Dielectric, Structural, and Stability Testing


This unit has been factory tested and, at the time of delivery, all applicable ANSI requirements were met or exceeded. Any time an alteration is made that may affect the units stability or dielectric insulation, testing must be performed to confirm that the unit operates safely and in compliance with all governing organizations. The leakage monitor system is a tool used to measure the leakage of electrical current through the components it is attached to and for dielectric tests of all voltages. This system consists of wires connected to components internal to the upper boom and to a test electrode that extends through the bottom of the fiberglass upper boom. A test electrode may also be located on the turntable. Dielectric test forms can be found in the Appendix. Choose the appropriate form, thoroughly document all tests, and maintain records in a permanent file.

Dielectric
This unit is tested to a rating listed on the serial number placard at the time of delivery. The platform liner, if furnished, will carry the certification test of the liner manufacturer. Periodic dielectric testing is required by ANSI.

Insulated Single Handle Control

Danger
Death or serious injury will result from contact with or proximity to an energized conductor. Maintain the dielectric characteristics of the fiberglass boom(s). Surface irregularities such as scratched, cracked, or chipped gelcoat can trap dirt and contaminants, which over time may reduce the dielectric properties of the fiberglass. Of particular concern are irregularities running lengthwise on the boom. Trapped contaminants, such as dust particles and water, can cause tracking, providing a path to ground. Surface flashover occurs when a substance causes an arcing of electricity between two points on the boom. If this occurs, the dielectric integrity of the boom may be permanently damaged. Dielectric tests that can be performed only after installation are the responsibility of the installer, whether the installer is a dealer, owner, or user. After the completed unit is in the possession of the owner or user, subsequent testing becomes the responsibility of the owner or user. The importance of dielectric testing cannot be overemphasized. Understand the dielectric test procedures in ANSI publications. Provide for periodic inspection and dielectric testing of insulated components at intervals of 1 to 12 months. This recommendation is not intended to alter more frequent inspection or testing of other components as defined in ANSI publications. In addition to regular tests, conduct tests any time the dielectric strength of the insulating components is in doubt. If it is necessary to change or replace any component which is part of the units insulation, including booms, tool lines, control lines, etc., a dielectric test must be performed. If there is any doubt about the dielectric strength of the hydraulic oil, perform a dielectric test.

This unit may be equipped with an insulated single handle control(s). This control, which is green in color, may offer limited secondary dielectric protection. To maintain this limited secondary protection it must be kept clean, dry, and in good condition with periodic tests of its dielectric properties. Never rely on the insulating feature of the single handle control as a substitute for your primary protection from electrical contact. In addition to regular tests, conduct a test any time any component which is part of the controls insulation has been replaced. A dielectric test form can be found in the Appendix. Complete the test, document the results, and maintain the test in a permanent file.

Structural
After replacing any major component, perform a 1.5 to 1 structural test to verify structural soundness before putting the unit back into service.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result if the unit becomes unstable. Maintain stability of the unit while performing a structural test by following proper procedures. Use the following procedure to perform a structural test. 1. The area where the test is performed should be level and free from any overhead obstructions. Position the unit in the test area so the platform may be accessed by a forklift (or other lifting device) to place the test weight. 2. Apply the parking brake and chock the wheels. Engage the PTO and properly set the outriggers. 3. The position of the booms for the test is somewhat dependent upon the component(s) which has been replaced. If a component of the leveling system has been replaced, the booms can be raised approxi-

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Section 9 Dielectric, Structural, and Stability Testing 141

mately one foot out of each rest. Replacement of other components requires the test be performed with the lower boom vertical and the upper boom horizontal. 4. Position the platform(s) in the end-mounted position. Allow enough space to permit jib/winch operation. 5. Calculate the test weight for the platform by multiplying 1.5 times the platform capacity shown on the serial number placard. If the unit is equipped with a platform liner, deduct the weight of the liner from the test weight figure. Carefully load the test weight to prevent damage to the platform or liner. 6. Place a sling around the platform to suspend the weight directly under its centerline. Use a forklift (or other lifting device) to slowly apply the weight. If the test is being performed with the lower boom below horizontal, the test weight can be placed in the platform without the use of a lifting device. 7. Pay out the winch line so a weight of 1.5 times the rated load may be applied to the winch line at less than 2 feet from the ground. 8. Apply the test weight for five minutes. During that time, do not operate any function of the unit. This is a static test only. 9. Remove the weight from the platform and the winch line. Inspect the unit for structural soundness if any cracking or popping was heard during the test. 10. Operate the unit through its full range of movement before returning it to service.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled movement. Do not permit anyone to occupy the platform until the unit has passed applicable tests. Death or serious injury can result if the mobile unit becomes unstable. Provide a suitable restraint while the stability tests are performed. Carefully load the test weight to prevent damage to the platform or liner. Test Forms Stability test forms are provided in the Appendix. The forms designate the proper boom and jib positions and the proper test loads to be used. They show the unit loading configuration(s) that would most likely cause overturning. Completed forms should be dated and signed by the test technician after conducting the stability tests and should be retained as part of the original unit documentation. Additional test forms may be needed to show appropriate stability tests for units equipped with special lifting features such as a lower boom lifting eye or a gin pole socket. If Altec Engineering determines that these special lifting features will always produce less tendency toward overturning than would normal platform and jib stability test loads, stability tests using these special lifting features are not required. General Test Conditions Remove all tools and material including removable boom supports, extra platforms (not attached to the unit), and all removable cargo. Restrict the amount of total fuel in all tanks to 20 gallons or less. Only the test technician can be on the unit during the test. Do not use outrigger pads. Perform the test only while operating from the lower controls. Provide a suitable restraint during all stability tests to prevent the mobile unit from overturning in the event a condition of instability is reached. A typical restraint method is a loose loop of chain around each side of the rear axle (allows the axle to raise off the test surface at least 8 to 10 inches before tightening the

Attention

Attention

Stability
Due to the possible affect on stability, this unit and/or vehicle should never be altered or modified without the specific written approval from Altec Industries, Inc. Component replacement with original equipment parts will not affect the stability of this unit. ANSI A92.2 requires a level surface test and a five degree slope test when the unit mounting is complete on the vehicle. These stability tests are not required to be performed again unless significant changes are made in the original vehicle and body mounting or the unit is remounted on another vehicle.

142 Section 9 Dielectric, Structural, and Stability Testing

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chain), near the wheel, which is securely anchored to the ground. Increase the length of the chain to allow further movement if there is any doubt about whether the mobile unit has reached a condition of instability. Raising of outriggers or tires does not necessarily indicate a condition of instability. Choose Test A or Test B depending on the location of the weight for the test. Test B can only be used if the jib can structurally carry both the jib load and the platform load. The unit must pass the Level Surface Test before conducting the Five Degree Slope Test. Level Surface Test 1. Position the unit on a level, hard surface, apply the parking brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic system. 2. Properly set the outriggers. Extend the outriggers to remove the bulge from the tires while still maintaining at least some tire-to-surface contact at each tire. Level the mobile unit side-to-side with the outriggers. If equipped with two sets of outriggers, use the outriggers to level in the front to back direction. 3. Move the booms and jib into a position to most likely cause overturning (refer to the test form). 4. Apply a load at the center of the platform(s) equal to 1.5 times the rated platforms load. The load can be applied either into the platform(s) or suspended by a winch line from the center of the platform(s). The platform test load may be suspended on the jib line, in addition to the jib test load, if the unit is equipped with a material handling jib structurally capable of carrying the added load. 5. Apply a load to the material handling jib, if equipped, equal to 1.5 times its rated load. 6. Rotate the turntable in a full rotation cycle, watching for any evidence of instability. Outriggers and tires may lift off the surface during the test without indicating a condition of instability as long as the mobile unit does not tend to overturn. 7. If the initial test shows that the mobile unit is unstable, adjust the outriggers to determine any effect on stability. Rotate the turntable again in a full rotation cycle watching for any evidence of instability. 8. Add permanent counterweight if it is determined that the mobile unit will not pass the test as originally built.

Use temporary counterweight to determine how much permanent counterweight is needed and where the counterweight should be added. Rotate the unit in a full rotation cycle watching for any evidence of instability after adding the temporary counterweight. If the unit passes the test with the temporary counterweight, remove the temporary weight and add the permanent counterweight. Perform the test again. The unit must pass this test before moving on to the Five Degree Slope Test. Five Degree Slope Test 1. Position the unit on a level, hard surface with the centerline of the vehicle positioned approximately perpendicular to the direction of the slope. If the Level Surface Test showed the mobile unit has a greater tendency to overturn about one side than another, position the least stable side on the low side of the slope. Apply the parking brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic system. 2. Properly set the outriggers. Extend the outriggers fully on the low side of the slope. The mobile unit does not have to be level or maintain tire contact on the low side for this test. (The mobile unit is usually the most stable when the low side outriggers are at maximum penetration and the high side outriggers are at minimum penetration.) Extend the outriggers on the high side of the slope, enough to complete a full cycle of rotation without any intermediate readjustment of any of the outriggers. Do not extend the high side outriggers enough to cause the front tire or outside dual rear tires on the high side of the slope to lose surface contact. 3. Move the booms and jib into a position to most likely cause overturning (refer to the test form). 4. Apply a load at the center of the platform(s) equal to 1.33 times the rated platform load. The load can be applied either into the platform(s) or suspended by a winch line from the center of the platform(s). The platform test load may be suspended on the jib line, in addition to the jib test load, if the unit is equipped with a material handling jib structurally capable of carrying the added load. 5. Apply a load to the material handling jib, if equipped, equal to 1.33 times its rated load. 6. Rotate the turntable in a full rotation cycle, watching for any evidence of instability. Outriggers and tires may lift off the surface during the stability test without indicating a condition of instability as long as the mobile unit does not tend to overturn.

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Section 9 Dielectric, Structural, and Stability Testing 143

7. If the initial Five Degree Slope Test shows that the mobile unit is unstable, adjust the outriggers to determine any effect on stability. Rotate the turntable again in a full rotation cycle watching for any evidence of instability. 8. Add permanent counterweight if it is determined that the mobile unit will not pass the test as originally built. Use temporary counterweight to determine how much permanent counterweight is needed and where the counterweight should be added. Rotate the unit in a

full rotation cycle watching for any evidence of instability after adding the temporary counterweight. If the unit passes the test with the temporary counterweight, remove the temporary weight and add the permanent counterweight. Perform the test again. The mobile unit must pass this test. 9. Torque the rotation bearing cap screws to 325 footpounds using the patterns in Section 6 of the Maintenance Manual.

144 Section 9 Dielectric, Structural, and Stability Testing

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Appendix

Glossary
2nd stage boom see intermediate boom. 3rd stage boom see upper boom. A-frame outrigger an extendible outrigger having two diagonal members which are connected at the top and joined near the midsection by a horizontal cross piece. Resembles a broad based A. above rotation in reference to a position on or about a unit that is vertically above the rotation bearing. absolute a measure having as its zero point or base the complete absence of the item being measured. absolute pressure a pressure scale with the zero point at a perfect vacuum. accumulator a container used to store fluid under pressure as a source of hydraulic power or as a means of dampening pressure surges. actuator a device for converting hydraulic energy into mechanical energy, such as a motor or cylinder. adapter a device used to connect two parts of different type or diameter. adjusting stud a component of a cable drive system that is threaded on both ends and has a hex adjusting flat in the center. It secures the drive cable to the cylinder rod and can be used to adjust the tension of the drive cable. aeration the entrapment of air in hydraulic fluid. Excessive aeration may cause the fluid to appear milky and components to operate erratically because of the compressibility of the air trapped in the fluid. aerial control valve the control valve on the turntable of an elevator unit which operates the movement functions of the aerial device. aerial device a vehicle-mounted device with a boom assembly which is extendible, articulating, or both, which is designed and used to position personnel. The device may also be used to handle material, if designed and equipped for that purpose. Allen wrench a six-sided wrench that fits into the hex socket of a cap screw or set screw. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) a self-governing body of professionals whose primary objective is to prevent accidents by establishing requirements for design, manufacture, maintenance, performance, use and training for manufactured goods including aerial devices and digger derricks. anaerobic adhesive a bonding agent or adhesive that cures in the absence of air. analog signal an electrical signal that communicates information by the continuous variation of voltage or current level within a defined range, in proportion to an input parameter such as pressure or control lever position. annular area a ring shaped area. Usually refers to the piston area minus the cross-sectional area of the rod of a hydraulic cylinder. ANSI see American National Standards Institute. antirotation fork a two-pronged retainer which is fastened to the inside of the turntable and used to prevent movement of the rotary joint outer housing. antifoam additive an agent added to hydraulic fluid to inhibit air bubbles from forming and collecting together on the surface of the fluid. antiwear additive an agent added to hydraulic fluid to improve the ability of the fluid to prevent wear on internal moving parts in the hydraulic system. arbor bar the shaft or spindle that is used to support a cable reel. arbor bar collar a cylindrical device that is used to secure a cable reel on an arbor bar. arm 1: the primary load-carrying structure of an articulating arm. 2: the primary load-carrying structure of a single elevator. 3: the articulating structure which supports the arbor bar for reel lifting. arm cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the arm of a single elevator up and down. articulating arm a system located between the turntable and lower boom of an aerial device which is used for lifting the boom assembly to increase the platform working height. This system includes the arm, link(s), riser and articulating arm cylinder. articulating arm cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves an articulating arm up and down. articulating-boom aerial device an aerial device with two or more boom sections that are connected at joint(s) which allow one boom to pivot with respect to the adjacent boom. ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials. atmosphere (one) a pressure measure equal to 14.7 psi. atmospheric pressure pressure on all objects in the atmosphere because of the weight of the surrounding air. At sea level, about 14.7 psi absolute. attention information that must be followed to reduce the likelihood of property damage. Property damage could include structural damage to the unit, component failure, or damage to nearby property. auger the hole boring tool of the digger, consisting of a hollow tube with hardened teeth attached at one end to dig into and break up soil and/or rock as the auger is rotated. Several turns of flighting are welded to the tube to carry the loose material away from the teeth. auger extension shaft a shaft which fits into the auger tube to connect the digger output shaft to the auger. auger rotation hydraulic system the hydrostatic system on a pressure digger which operates the auger transmission gearbox. auger stow bracket the bracket on a digger derrick lower boom which stores the digger and auger assembly when it is not in use. auger stow switch a limit switch which is actuated by the auger to shut off digger operation in the stowing direction when the auger reaches its fully stowed position in the auger stow bracket. auger transmission gearbox the gearbox mounted on the mast weldment of a pressure digger that is used to rotate the kelly bar. auger tube the hollow tube at the centerline of an auger to which the auger flighting is welded. auger windup sling the cable or strap attached to the auger stow bracket which is used to store the digger and auger. auxiliary engine a separately mounted engine that is used to provide power for the units hydraulic system. auxiliary hydraulic system the secondary hydraulic system of a pressure digger that operates all the hydraulic functions except auger rotation. AWS American Welding Society. back pressure pressure existing in the discharge flow from an actuator or hydraulic system. It adds to the pressure required to operate an actuator under a given load. backlash the clearance at the tooth contact point between the adjacent gear teeth of two or more meshing gears. baffle a device, usually a plate, installed in a reservoir to separate the return line inlet from the suction line outlet. bare-hand work a technique of performing live line maintenance on energized conductors and equipment whereby one or more authorized persons work directly on an energized part after having been raised and bonded to the energized conductors or equipment. barrel the hollow body of a hydraulic cylinder into which the piston and rod are assembled. base boom see lower boom. base end 1: the closed end of a hydraulic cylinder, opposite from the end that the rod extends from. 2: the end of an extendible boom that is closest to the turntable. 3: the end of an articulating boom that remains positioned closest to the turntable when the boom is fully unfolded. basket see platform. battery charger a device used to restore the electrical charge in a battery. bearing a machine part that is installed between two adjacent machine parts to allow those parts to rotate or slide with respect to each other. Commonly used to decrease friction or wear on components. behind cab mount a pedestal mounting position located immediately behind the vehicle cab on the longitudinal centerline of the chassis. below rotation in reference to a position on or about a unit that is vertically below the rotation bearing. below rotation controls controls that are located on the chassis, used for operating some or all of the functions of the unit. bleed-off to reduce the trapped pressure in a hydraulic system, line, or component, to a zero state by allowing fluid to escape under controlled conditions through a valve or outlet.
1

1-01

Appendix Glossary

blocking valve a two-position, two-way valve that blocks pump flow to a hydraulic circuit or system when it is not actuated, and opens to allow fluid when actuated. body a structure containing compartments for storage of tools, materials, and/or other payload which is installed on a vehicle frame or subbase. body belt a component in a personal fall protection system consisting of a strap which is secured about the waist of a person, with a means for attaching it to a lanyard. (As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for personal fall protection is prohibited by OSHA.) body harness a component in a personal fall protection system consisting of an assembly of straps which are secured about the waist, chest, shoulders, and legs of a person, with a means for attaching the assembly to a lanyard. bolt a cylindrical fastener with external screw threads at one end and a head configuration such hexagonal, square, or round at the other end, which conforms to the dimensional and material specifications published for bolts. (These specifications are different from those for cap screws.) boom a movable, mechanical structure that is used to support a platform, material handling components and/or other attachments on a unit. boom angle indicator a device which indicates the angle between the boom centerline and a horizontal plane. boom flares steel structures mounted on the boom tip of a digger derrick which are used to protect the boom tip from loads and support poles carried on the winch line. boom functions valve the control valve on a digger derrick that directs hydraulic pressure and flow to the boom functions (boom, rotation, intermediate boom, upper boom) hydraulic circuits. boom pin the horizontal pin that connects the lower boom to the turntable or riser. boom rest the structural member attached to the chassis or body to support the lower boom in the travel or rest position. boom stow switch a limit switch which is actuated to shut off the boom lower function when the boom reaches its stowed position in the boom rest. boom stow valve a mechanically actuated hydraulic valve that limits the downward pressure of a boom as it is placed in its rest. boom tip 1: the end of an extendible boom that is farthest from the turntable. 2: the end of an articulating boom that becomes positioned farthest from the turntable when the boom is fully unfolded. boom tip idler sheave the upper sheave in a digger derrick upper boom tip containing two sheaves, which carries the winch line as it travels from the winch to the lower sheave (boom tip sheave). boom tip pin a horizontal pin at the upper boom tip. Platform mounting bracket(s) and material handling devices are fastened to this pin. boom tip sheave 1: the sheave in a digger derrick upper boom tip containing only one sheave, which carries the winch line as it travels from the winch to the load. 2: the lower sheave in a digger derrick upper boom tip containing two sheaves, which carries the winch line as it travels from the upper sheave (boom tip idler sheave) to the load. boom tip tools see upper tool circuit. boom tip winch a winch located at the tip of a boom. bore the inside diameter of a pipe, tube, cylinder barrel, or cylindrical hole in any of various other components. boss protruding material on a part which adds strength, facilitates assembly, provides for fastenings, etc. brake a device used to slow or stop the rotation or movement of a component such as a rotation gearbox, winch, gravity leveled platform, or arbor bar. breather a device that permits air to move in and out of a container or component to maintain atmospheric pressure. bridge mount a unit mounting configuration in which the turntable is mounted on a pedestal structure which forms a bridge over the cargo area. broadband a high speed telecommunication system utilizing fiber optic and/or coaxial cable. bucket see platform. buckeye see forged pin retainer.

bullwheel assembly an assembly of steel rollers used as a portion of a cable stringing system. burst pressure the minimum internal pressure that will cause a hose, tube, cylinder, or other hydraulic or pneumatic component to rupture or split open. button head a type of cap screw with a rounded head containing a socket into which a tool can be inserted to turn the cap screw. bypass a secondary passage for fluid flow. bypass valve a hydraulic valve that allows for an alternate passage for fluid flow. cable 1: a wire or wire rope by which force is exerted to control or operate a mechanism. 2: an assembly of two or more electrical conductors or optical fibers laid up together, usually by being twisted around a central axis and/or by being enclosed within an outer covering. cable chute a device used to guide cable into strand for lashing the cable to the strand when placing cable. A trolley allows the device to ride on the strand as cable is fed through the chute. cable drive system an upper boom drive mechanism which utilizes cables to produce upper boom movement. cable guide a bracket which is mounted on a boom to guide the winch line. cable keeper 1: a mechanical device attached to a cable that is used to maintain the position of the cable on a sheave. 2: a component used to prevent a cable or winch line from coming off a sheave. cable lasher a mechanical device which wraps lashing wire in a spiral configuration around a length of suspension strand and adjacent communication cable. cable lug a mechanical device attached to a cable that is used to maintain the position of the cable on a sheave. cable placer a type of aerial device which contains a cable stringing system and associated components for use in erecting overhead communication cable. cable slug the steel end fitting at each end of the drive cable in an upper boom drive system. One end is attached to the cylinder rod and the other is secured in a pocket on the elbow sheave. cable stringing system the group of steel rollers, bullwheel assemblies, strand sheave assemblies and fairlead which directs communication cable or suspension strand from the reel it is stored on to the working position of the operator. calibrate to check, adjust, or determine by measurement in comparison with a standard, the proper value of each scale reading or setting on a meter or other device. caliper a measuring instrument with two legs or jaws that can be adjusted to determine the distance between two surfaces. cam a rotating or sliding piece that imparts motion to a roller moving against its edge or to a pin free to move in a groove on its face or that receives motion from such a roller or pin. candling a method of inspecting filament wound fiberglass booms by slowly passing a light through the inside of the boom in a darkened area. Cracks, crazing, and other damage show up as dark spots or shadows. cap a device located on the hand of a reel lifter that is used to retain the arbor bar. cap end see base end. cap screw a cylindrical fastener with external screw threads at one end and a head configuration such as hexagonal, hex socket, flat countersunk, round, or slotted at the other end, which conforms to the dimensional and material specifications published for cap screws. capacitive coupling the transfer of electrical energy from one circuit to another through a dielectric gap. capacity chart a table or graph showing the load capacity, rated capacity, or rated load capacity figures for a unit or accessory. captive air system a closed circuit, low pressure pneumatic system used to actuate a pressure switch by means of a manually operated air plunger. cartridge 1: the replaceable element of a fluid filter. 2: the replaceable pumping unit of a vane pump, composed of the rotor, ring, vanes and side plates. 3: A removeable hydraulic valve that is screwed into place in a cavity in a hydraulic manifold or cylinder. catrac see hose carrier.
2 1-01

Appendix Glossary

caution information that indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury. It may also be used to alert against unsafe practices. cavitation the formation of gaseous voids in hydraulic fluid caused by a low pressure condition which typically occurs when inlet starvation prevents the pump from filling completely with fluid. The characteristic sound of cavitation is a high pitched scream. center mount see behind cab mount. center of gravity the point in a component or assembly around which its weight is evenly balanced. centerline of rotation the vertical axis about which the turntable of a unit rotates. centrifugal pump a pump in which motion and force are applied to fluid by a rotating impeller within a housing. chain a series of identical rigid segments connected to each other at joints which allow each segment to pivot with respect to adjacent segments, used to transmit mechanical force. chain extension system a mechanical system consisting of a motor, gearbox, chains, and sprockets that is used to extend and retract an extendible upper boom. chain sling an inverted Y-shaped length of chain used for lifting a strand reel with an aerial device and placing it in a strand carrier. chamber a compartment within a hydraulic component that may contain elements to aid in operation or control, such as a spring chamber or drain chamber. channel a fluid passage that has a large length dimension compared to the dimension of the cross-section. charge to fill an accumulator with fluid under pressure. charge pressure the pressure, above atmospheric pressure, at which replenishing fluid is forced into the hydraulic system. charge pump the hydrostatic hydraulic system pump that provides fluid at low pressure to make up for internal leakage, provides cooling fluid flow, and tilts the hydrostatic pump swash plate. chassis a vehicle on which a unit is mounted, such as a truck, trailer, or all-terrain vehicle. check valve a valve that permits flow of fluid in one direction, but not in the reverse direction. circuit the complete path of flow in a hydraulic or electrical system. circuit breaker a form of electrical switch which opens (trips) to interrupt a circuit when it senses excessive current flow that may be caused by a short circuit, to protect wiring and components from damage. Some types of circuit breakers reset automatically when the excessive current discontinues and others must be reset manually. clevis a U-shaped fastening device secured by a pin or bolt through holes in the ends of two arms. closed center a directional valve design in which pump output is blocked by the valve spool(s) when the valve spool(s) is in the center or neutral operating condition. clutch the device on a reel lifter which allows the connection and disconnection of the arbor bar and the driver. coaxial cable a type of shielded cable used for conducting telecommunication signals, in which the signal carrier is a single wire at the core, surrounded by a layer of insulating material, which is in turn surrounded by a metallic, conductive layer which serves as a shield, with an overall outer layer of insulation. combined digger derrick and platform use the stability criteria for a digger derrick mobile unit which indicates that the load capacity chart and stability requirements apply to the use of the derrick for lifting of loads with the winch line at the upper boom tip or material handling jib tip, with the platform occupied. come-along a device for gripping and putting tension into a length of cable, wire, rope, or chain by means of two jaws or attaching devices which move closer together when the operator pulls on a lever. communication cable a copper wire, coaxial, or fiber optic cable used for conducting telecommunication signals. compensating link a mechanical linkage that serves as a connector between the turntable and the upper boom drive mechanism. As the lower boom is raised or lowered, this linkage causes the upper boom to maintain its relative angle in relationship to the ground. compensator a valve spool that is used to maintain a constant pressure drop regardless of supply or load pressure.
12-00 3

compensator control a control for a variable displacement pump that alters displacement in response to pressure changes in the system as related to its adjusted pressure setting. component a single part or self-contained assembly. compressibility the change in volume of a unit volume of a fluid when it is subjected to a unit change in pressure. conductive having the ability to act as a transmitter of electricity. Electricity will flow through metal, therefore metal is conductive. conductive shield a device used to shield the lower test electrode system from capacitive coupling. conductor a wire, cable, or other body or medium that is suitable for carrying electric current. constant resistivity monitor device used to continuously measure the electrical resistance of the wash water in the tank of an insulator washer. contaminate to render unfit or to soil by introduction of foreign or unwanted material. continuous rotation a rotation system in which the turntable is able to rotate an unlimited number of revolutions about the centerline of rotation without restriction. control a device, such as a lever or handle, which is actuated by the operator to regulate the direction and speed of one or more functions of a unit. control station a position where controls for unit operation are located. These positions may include the platform, upper boom tip, turntable, pedestal or vehicle tailshelf. control valve a directional valve controlled by an operator, used to control the motion or function of an actuator or system. cooler a heat exchanger used to remove heat from the hydraulic fluid. corner mount a pedestal mounting position located behind the rear axle(s) with the centerline of rotation located to one side of the chassis. corona ring see gradient control device. counterbalance valve a load holding valve that can be opened to allow flow in the normally blocked direction by applying hydraulic pressure to a pilot port, and which contains a relief capability to allow flow from the blocked direction if the blocked pressure exceeds a certain value. cracking pressure the pressure at which a pressure actuated valve, such as a relief valve, begins to pass fluid. crazing a network of fine cracks on or below the fiberglass surface. Crazing often occurs when the fiberglass is struck with a blunt object, sometimes causing deformation and breakdown of the fiberglass resin. crosstalk a form of interference in which one circuit or channel receives some unintentional signal from another. cross-ported a hydraulic path connected between the two opposite flow paths of a hydraulic circuit that allows a route for flow between the two paths in lieu of flow thru an actuator. To allow sensing of the pressure in one path by a component installed in the other path. cSt (centistoke) a metric unit of kinematic viscosity. In customary use, equal to the kinematic viscosity of a fluid having dynamic viscosity of one centipose and a density of one gram per cubic centimeter. curb side the side of a vehicle which is opposite from oncoming traffic when the vehicle is traveling forward in the normal direction in a lane of traffic. cushion a device built into a hydraulic cylinder that restricts the flow of fluid at the outlet port to slow the motion of the rod as it reaches the end of its stroke. custom option an option which is not shown on a standard order form and which requires additional engineering work to supply. cylinder a device that converts fluid power into linear mechanical force and motion. It usually consists of a moveable piston and rod, or plunger, operating within a cylindrical bore. danger information that indicates an imminently hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. This signal word is to be used in the most extreme situations. DC pump a pump which is powered by a direct current electric motor. dead band the area or range near the center rest position of a hand control where the function does not respond to movement of the lever or handle.

Appendix Glossary

decal a thin sheet of flexible material which is attached to another surface by adhesive, and is used to convey instructions, information and warnings. deenergize to remove electrical power from a device, as from the coil of a solenoid valve. delivery the volume of fluid discharged by a pump in a given time, usually expressed in gallons per minute (gpm). demulsibility the ability of a liquid to expel another type of liquid. Commonly used to describe a fluids ability to cause water to separate out rather than being held in suspension. design voltage the maximum rated line voltage for which an aerial device has been designed, and for which it can be qualified. detent a device for positioning and holding one mechanical part in relation to another so that the device can be released by force applied to one of the parts. diagnostic relating to the practice of investigation or analysis of the cause or nature of a condition, situation, or problem. diagonal brace the structural member attached near the top of a corner mount pedestal and extending downward and forward to a point of attachment on the subbase or vehicle frame between the pedestal and the vehicle cab. dial indicator a meter or gauge with a calibrated circular face and a spring-loaded plunger, used as a measuring device. diegrinder a small, hand held, rotary grinding tool. dielectric nonconductive to electrical current. differential cylinder any cylinder that has two opposed piston areas that are not equal. digger the mechanism which drives the auger. digger bail a tubular housing attached to the gearbox portion of a digger, which surrounds the motor and provides an attachment point to the digger link. digger derrick a multipurpose, vehicle-mounted device with an extendible boom which may accommodate components that dig cylindrical holes, set utility poles, and position materials, apparatus, and/or personnel. digger derrick use the stability criteria for a digger derrick mobile unit which indicates that the load capacity chart and stability requirements apply to the use of the derrick for lifting of loads with the winch line at the upper boom tip or material handling jib tip, with the platform stowed or removed, if so equipped. digger hanger bracket the structural member on a digger derrick which supports the digger link on the extendible boom. digger latch mechanism a mechanism which secures the digger to the lower boom when it is stowed and to the extendible boom when it is unstowed. digger link the structural member which attaches the digger to the digger hanger bracket. digger/winch valve the control valve on a digger derrick that directs hydraulic pressure and flow to the digger and winch hydraulic circuits. digital signal an electrical signal that communicates information by the use of two distinct levels of voltage or current, a high on level and a low off level, which are sent in a series of pulses. The timing of the pulses is used to indicate the level of an input parameter such as control lever position, or information such as the address setting of a radio control transmitter linking it to its receiver. diode an electrical component that allows current flow in one direction but not in the reverse direction. directional valve a valve that selectively directs or prevents fluid flow through desired passages. displacement the quantity of fluid that can pass through a pump, motor or cylinder in a single revolution or stroke. docking station a device used to mount a remote control transmitter on a platform. dog clutch see drum clutch. double-acting cylinder a cylinder in which fluid pressure can be applied to either side of the piston to move the rod in either direction. double elevator an elevator lift with two load carrying arms. The double elevator system includes a lower pedestal, lower arm, lower arm cylinder(s), riser, upper arm, upper arm cylinder(s), and upper pedestal, plus parallel links in both the lower and upper sections.

double-pole, double-throw (DPDT) switch a six-terminal electrical switch or relay that connects, at the same time, one pair of terminals to either of two other pairs of terminals. double-pole, single-throw (DPST) switch a four-terminal electrical switch or relay that, at the same time, opens or closes two separate circuits or both sides of the same circuit. down load the downward force created when an external force is exerted on the boom, such as a winch pulling cable on a cable placer. drain a passage or a line from a hydraulic component that returns leakage fluid to the reservoir. drift 1: a gradual, uncontrolled change from a set position of an actuator or component. 2: a tool for ramming or driving something. driver the gearbox and motor assembly on a reel lifter which is connected to and disconnected from the arbor bar through the clutch assembly. drop pocket an open top tool storage area on the chassis of a unit. drum clutch a clutch consisting of two or more drive lugs that engage similar driven lugs to transmit torque. Commonly used between the gearbox and cable drum on front or bed mounted winches. dump valve a normally open, two-position, two-way valve that sends pump flow through a path going directly to the reservoir or bypassing hydraulic circuit when it is not actuated, preventing operation of the hydraulic system or circuit. When it is actuated, it closes off this path, redirecting flow to the hydraulic system or circuit to allow operation. dynamometer an instrument for measuring mechanical force or power. earth anchor see screw anchor. eccentric ring a ring with the center hole located in a position off the geometric center, commonly used to adjust the position of the rotation pinion with respect to the rotation bearing gear teeth. eccentric ring lock a device which engages a hole or notch in an eccentric ring to prevent the ring from rotating. efficiency the ratio of output to input. Volumetric efficiency of a pump is the actual output in gpm divided by the theoretical or design output. The overall efficiency of a hydraulic system is the output power divided by the input power. Efficiency is usually expressed as a percent. elbow the structure on an articulating-boom aerial device that connects the upper boom to the lower boom. The elbow allows the upper boom to pivot relative to the lower boom. elbow bearing the rotating member that allows the upper boom to rotate around the end of the lower boom. Used on aerial devices with the upper and lower booms mounted side by side. elbow pin the horizontal pin that attaches the upper boom to the lower boom on an articulating-boom aerial device. Used on aerial devices with the upper boom mounted over the lower boom. electrical harness an assembly of electrical wires that is used to deliver electrical current between components. electrocution receiving an electrical shock resulting in death. electrohydraulic a combination of electric and hydraulic control mechanisms in which an electrically controlled actuator is used to shift the spool in a hydraulic control valve. electrohydraulic control system a control system in which the function control handles are connected to electric controls. The electric controls actuate electrohydraulic valves to operate the functions of the unit. electrohydraulic valve a directional valve that receives a variable or controlled electrical signal which is used to control or meter hydraulic flow. elevator lift a system located between the turntable and subbase of an aerial device which is used for lifting the aerial device to increase the platform working height. This system may be configured as a single elevator or a double elevator. elevator unit the overall device including the subbase, elevator lift and the aerial device. emergency operating DC pump see secondary stowage DC pump. emergency operating system see secondary stowage system.

Appendix Glossary

10-01

end gland a hollow, cylindrical part that screws into or is retained in the open end of a hydraulic cylinder barrel, through which the rod protrudes. end-mounted platform a platform which is attached to a mounting bracket that extends beyond the boom tip, positioning the platform (and platform rotation pivot, if so equipped) beyond the end of the upper boom. energize to send electrical power to a device, as to the coil of a solenoid valve. energized conductor an apparatus that is transmitting electric current. energy the ability or capacity to do work, measured in units of work. engine protection system a system which detects when the auxiliary engine oil pressure or temperature is out of the proper range and shuts the engine off. extendible capable of linear movement of one or more portions of an assembly to increase the overall length or reach of the assembly. extendible-boom aerial device an aerial device with a telescopic or extendible boom assembly. extension cylinder a hydraulic cylinder which extends and retracts an extendible boom(s). fairlead the group of steel rollers at the platform of a cable placer which guide the cable or suspension strand during the placing process. fall protection system a system consisting of a body harness or body belt, a decelerating lanyard, connectors, and an anchor point at the boom tip, used to catch and hold a person who falls from a platform. (As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for personal fall protection is prohibited by OSHA.) feedback (feedback signal) the return of part of an output signal to the input for the purpose of modification and control of the output. feeder tube a telescopic hydraulic tube assembly mounted on an extendible boom which carries pump flow to a device mounted on the extendible portion of the boom such as a digger or boom tip winch. fiber optic cable a type of cable used for conducting control or telecommunication signals, in which the signal carrier(s) is one or more optical fibers, enclosed within an outer covering. fiber optics the use of transparent fibers of glass or plastic which transmit light signals throughout the length of the fiber. Commonly used to transmit signals from a remote control. fiberglass glass in fibrous form added as a reinforcement to a plastic for use in making various products. filler breather cap the component on the top of a reservoir that allows air to enter and exit the reservoir as the fluid level changes, and which can be removed to access a fill hole when adding hydraulic fluid to the reservoir. filter a device through which fluid is passed to remove and retain insoluble contaminants from a fluid. filter cart a portable device which can be connected to a units hydraulic system to filter water and/or other contaminants out of the hydraulic system fluid. filter cartridge a component containing filtration material which is installed within a filter housing or attached to a filter receptacle for use, and can be removed and replaced as a self-contained unit. firm footing outrigger placement and extension in accordance with the instructions in a units operators manual to ensure proper leveling of the vehicle and adequate stability when operating the unit. fixed displacement pump a pump in which displacement is constant, so that the output flow can be changed only by varying the drive speed. flange on a flange and lug pin retaining system, an end plate that is welded to one end of the pin. The purpose of the flange is to position the pin in the connection. flange and lug pin retaining system a connecting pin retention system in which an end plate is welded to one end of the pin and a retaining plate is attached with cap screws to the other end to hold the pin in position. flashover a disruptive electrical discharge at the surface of electrical insulation or in the surrounding medium, which may or may not cause permanent damage to the insulation.

flats from finger tight (F.F.F.T.) a method of counting the number of wrench flats when tightening a hydraulic adapter to establish a torque value. flat-shoe outrigger an outrigger which has a shoe that is fixed in a horizontal position. flighting a curved plate or series of curved plates welded together, spiraling along the axis of an auger tube or screw anchor rod. flow the movement of fluid generated by pressure differences. flow control valve a valve that regulates the rate of fluid flow. flow rate the volume, mass or weight of a fluid passing through any conductor per unit of time. flow straightener a component part of a nozzle used to straighten or remove any swirling motion of fluid going through the nozzle. flowmeter an instrument used to measure the flow rate of fluid in a hydraulic tube or hose. fluid a liquid that is specially compounded for use as a power transmitting medium in a hydraulic system. fold to move a pivoting structure such an articulating upper boom toward its stowed position. fold-up shoe outrigger an outrigger which has a shoe that pivots into a vertical position when the outrigger is fully retracted. force any push or pull measured in units of weight. forged pin retainer a pin retainer made from forged steel, consisting of a slender, cylindrical body with a flattened, circular head at one end, with a mounting hole through the head perpendicular to the body. The body is inserted through a hole in the pin to be retained, and the head is fastened to the adjacent structure with a cap screw. four-way valve a valve having four ports for direction of fluid flow. FPS Fluid Power Society. frequency the number of times an action occurs in a unit of time. gasket a packing made of a deformable material, usually in the form of a sheet or ring, used to make a pressure tight fit between stationary parts. gate valve see shutoff valve. gauge pressure a pressure scale that ignores atmospheric pressure by establishing atmospheric pressure as its zero point. Its zero point is 14.7 psi absolute. gauge snubber see snubber valve. gearbox an assembly with internal speed changing gears; a transmission. Gearboxes are commonly used to transmit power from a hydraulic motor to operate a function through an output shaft. gelcoat a protective coating used on fiberglass components to prevent the wicking of moisture into the fiberglass strands and to retard the degrading effect of ultraviolet light on the fiberglass. GFI ground fault interrupter. gin pole a vertical phase-holding apparatus which is attached to a platform or upper boom tip. gpm gallons per minute. gradient control device a device at the upper end of an insulating boom that reduces electrical stress level(s) below that considered to be disruptive. gravity leveling system a system which uses the force of gravity to keep the bottom of a platform parallel to level ground as the boom is raised or lowered. One means of accomplishing this is by allowing the platform to pivot freely about a horizontal shaft attached above the platforms center of gravity. grease fitting a small fitting that acts as the connection between a grease gun and the component to be lubricated. gripper tool a component used for grasping an object or electrical lines through the use of an articulated mechanism. ground 1: a large conducting body with a potential of zero volts used as a common current return for an electric circuit.2: an object that makes an electrical connection with a ground or with the earth. ground fault interrupter (GFI) a fast acting form of circuit breaker that opens to interrupt an electrical circuit if it senses a very small current leakage to ground, to protect personnel against a potential shock hazard from defective electrical tools or wiring. It does this by monitoring for any difference in current flow between the hot and neutral wires

1-01

Appendix Glossary

in the circuit. An imbalance exceeding a very small preset value indicates that current is finding an improper path to ground, and causes the breaker to trip. guard ring see conductive shield. hand an extension of the reel lifter arm that allows for loading the arbor bar. hand control a hand operated control lever or handle located at a control station used to regulate a function of a unit, where the speed of the function is proportional to the distance the control is moved. heat the form of energy that has the capacity to create warmth or to increase the temperature of a substance. Any energy that is wasted or used to overcome friction is converted to heat. Heat is measured in calories or British thermal units (Btu). One Btu is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. heat exchanger a device that transfers heat through a conducting wall from one fluid to another or into the atmosphere. hertz (Hz) a unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second. high tooth the individual tooth out of all the gear teeth on a rotation bearing at which the minimum backlash occurs with the rotation pinion. This is because of a slight difference between the actual and theoretical tooth pitch lines due to manufacturing tolerances. HLIW hot line insulator washer. holding valve see load holding valve. HOP see hydraulic overload protection system. horsepower (HP) the power required to lift 550 pounds one foot in one second or 33,000 pounds 1 foot in one minute. One horsepower is equal to 746 watts or to 42.4 British thermal units per minute. hose carrier a flexible component which contains hydraulic, electrical, and/or air lines, usually mounted inside or along the side of an extendible boom. As the boom is extended, the hose carrier unfolds in a rolling motion to allow the lines to extend with the boom. hose carrier tube a rigid, enclosed tube which contains hydraulic, electrical, and/or air lines, and may contain components for upper controls. It is usually attached to a hose carrier on the side of an extendible boom. hot line insulator washer (HLIW) a vehicle-mounted device which is designed and used for cleaning pole and structure mounted transmission and distribution insulators. HTMA Hydraulic Tool Manufacturers Association. Huck bolt a bolt-like fastener that is placed in position and then stretched while an end fitting is swaged on. Commonly used to attach a pedestal, subbase, and/or outriggers to a vehicle frame. hydrant a discharge pipe with a valve and spout at which water may be drawn from a water main. hydraulic control a control that is actuated by hydraulically induced forces. hydraulic leveling system an automatic hydraulic control system which keeps the bottom of a platform parallel to or at a fixed angle to the turntable base plate as the boom is raised or lowered. One means of accomplishing this is by transferring hydraulic fluid between a master cylinder actuated by movement of the lower boom and a slave cylinder mounted between the platform and the upper boom. hydraulic overload protection (HOP) system the system on a digger derrick that shuts off certain functions to help prevent damage to the digger derrick structure when an overload is applied to the boom in the downward direction. hydraulic schematic a drawing that uses common hydraulic symbols to represent the hydraulic system of the unit. hydraulic swivel a fluid conducting fitting having two joined parts that are capable of pivoting freely about each other to accommodate motion of an attached hydraulic line. hydraulically extendible jib a jib boom that may be extended or retracted by hydraulic power. hydraulics an engineering science pertaining to liquid pressure and flow. hydrostatic hydraulic system any hydraulic drive in which a positive displacement pump and motor transfer rotary power by means of fluid under pressure.

individual address setting the code that identifies a specific transmitter as the one emitting the signal corresponding to a specific receivers reception address. in-line the installation of a component in series between two portions of a hydraulic line or electrical conductor so that flow in the line or conductor toward the component passes through the component and continues on in the line or conductor on the other side. instability a condition of a mobile unit where the sum of the moments tending to overturn the mobile unit is equal to or exceeds the sum of the moments tending to resist overturning. insulated aerial device an aerial device with dielectric components designed and tested to meet the specific electrical insulating rating consistent with the manufacturers name plate. insulated digger derrick a digger derrick designed for and manufactured with a fiberglass boom(s) for use around energized conductors at a maximum of 46 kV phase to phase. insulated liner see platform liner. insulator a device that isolates the energized conductor of a power line from the support structure. intercom system a transmitter and receiver system that allows twoway verbal communication between a platform operator and a person at ground level. interference any energy that inhibits the transmission or reception of electrical or radio signals. intermediate boom (INT BOOM) an extendible boom section which is located between the upper boom and the lower boom in an extendible boom assembly. ISO International Standards Organization. jam nut a nut that is screwed down firmly against another nut to prevent loosening. jaw clutch see drum clutch. jib an auxiliary boom which attaches to the upper boom tip to extend the reach of the boom. JIC Joint Industry Conference. joystick a two or three axis control lever which allows the operator to simultaneously control multiple functions. junction box an enclosed central connecting point for electrical wiring. kelly bar 1: for derricks see auger extension shaft. 2: the auger drive shaft of a pressure digger which is extendible from the ram cylinder. key a parallel-sided piece that fits into grooves in two adjacent parts to prevent movement between the parts. Often used as the driving member between a shaft and a sheave or winch drum. keyway a groove that is cut in a shaft or bore for a key to fit into. kilovolts (kV) a unit of potential difference equal to 1,000 volts. knuckle see elbow. L-bracket an L-shaped weldment that is used to connect a splicer platform to the upper boom tip. lanyard a component in a personal fall protection system consisting of a flexible, nonmetallic strap or rope with a connector at each end for connecting a body harness or body belt to a specified anchor point provided at the boom tip, used to catch and decelerate a person in a fall from the platform. (As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for personal fall protection is prohibited by OSHA.) lashing wire a thin, solid wire which is wrapped in a helix configuration around a length of suspension strand and adjacent communication cable so that the suspension strand carries the weight of the cable. lay the length of wire rope in which one strand makes one complete spiral around the rope. layer all wraps of winch line on a winch drum which are on the same level between drum flanges. leakage monitor system a means by which current leakage is measured through the insulated section(s) of a boom to confirm of dielectric integrity. leveling cable the wire rope portion of a mechanical leveling system that passes over the sheaves.

Appendix Glossary

10-01

leveling chain the chain portion of a mechanical leveling system that passes over the sprockets. leveling cylinder 1: a cylinder that is used in a master/slave arrangement in a hydraulic leveling system to hydraulically level the platform. 2: the hydraulic cylinder that is used to tilt the pivot and mast weldments of a pressure digger to either side of the vertical position. leveling rod a slender, round, fiberglass rod used in a mechanical leveling system that passes through a units boom to connect the leveling chains or cables at each end of the boom. leveling system see platform leveling system. leverage a gain in output force over input force; mechanical advantage or force multiplication. lift cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the lower boom up and down on a digger derrick or extendible-boom aerial device. lifter cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the reel lifter arms. lifting eye a shackle or weldment used for attaching chain, cable, rope, etc. to a boom for material handling. light emitting diode (LED) a semiconductor diode that emits light when subjected to an applied voltage. LEDs are used for electronic display. line a tube, pipe or hose used as a passageway to move hydraulic fluid. linear in a straight line. linear actuator a device for converting hydraulic energy into linear motion such as a cylinder or ram. linear position transducer an extendible length measuring device which produces a variable electrical signal that is proportional to the length to which the device is extended. liner see platform liner. link the secondary load-carrying structure of an articulating arm. load capacity (as defined by ANSI for digger derricks) the maximum load, specified by the manufacturer, that can be lifted by the mobile unit at regular intervals of load radius or boom angle, through the specified ranges of boom elevation, extension and rotation, with options installed and inclusive of stability requirements. load holding valve a hydraulic valve which blocks fluid flow from a hydraulic actuator, such as a cylinder or motor, to prevent motion when the control valve is not being operated or in case of a hydraulic line failure. load radius the horizontal distance from the centerline of rotation to the winch line load attachment point. lock washer a solid or split washer that is placed underneath a nut or cap screw to help prevent loosening by exerting pressure against the fastener. locknut see self-locking nut. lockwire a wire that is installed to prevent loosening of fasteners or components. lower arm the primary load-carrying structure of a double elevator which is located between the lower pedestal and the riser. lower arm cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the lower arm of a double elevator up and down. lower boom (LWR BOOM) the boom section in a boom assembly which is attached to the turntable or riser, and which supports the upper boom or intermediate boom. lower boom cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the lower boom about its pivot point on an articulating-boom aerial device. lower boom insulator the part of the lower boom made of high dielectric strength material (usually fiberglass reinforced plastic or equivalent) to interrupt the conductive path for electricity through the lower boom. lower boom winch a winch that is located on the lower boom. lower control valve the hydraulic valve on the vehicle, turntable, or pedestal of an aerial device used for operating some or all of the functions of the aerial device. lower controls the controls on the vehicle, turntable, or pedestal, used for operating some or all of the functions of the unit. lower pedestal the structure within an elevator lift that connects the elevator lift to the subbase.

lower test electrode system a system on an insulated aerial device utilizing conductive bands installed permanently on the inside and outside surfaces of the insulated portion of the upper boom and conductive connections to components inside that portion of the boom such as leveling rods and hydraulic lines. All the bands and component connections are connected to a common pickup point for use in measuring current leakage to confirm of dielectric integrity. lower tool circuit a hydraulic tool circuit with quick disconnect couplings located on the pedestal or on the vehicle. lug a metal part which serves as a cap, handle, support, or fitting connection. magnetic suction separator filter see magnetic suction strainer. magnetic suction strainer a suction filter consisting of a strainer which contains one or more magnets to trap ferrous metallic contaminants that are small enough to pass through the strainer. mainframe see pedestal. man-and-a-half platform an oversized one-man platform. manifold a fluid conductor that provides multiple connection ports. manual lowering valve a manually operated hydraulic valve used to lower the boom in the event of power failure. manual override a means of manually actuating an automatically or remotely controlled device. manually extendible jib a jib that is capable of being extended and retracted by human force. mast the structure on a pressure digger which supports the auger transmission gearbox, ram cylinder, kelly bar, and pole setter. master control panel the primary derrick lower control panel which contains the electrical connections between the derrick control system and components such as the power module and the dump or blocking valve. The master control panel is used in conjunction with a slave panel to provide dual station lower controls. master cylinder a cylinder in which motion of the piston under an external force transfers hydraulic fluid to a slave cylinder to produce corresponding motion. material handling having the ability to use the boom or attachments on the boom to lift and position materials. material handling system the system on an aerial device that consists of a jib and winch used to lift material to the upper boom tip. mechanical leveling system a mechanical system which keeps the bottom of a platform parallel to or at a fixed angle to the turntable base plate as the boom is raised or lowered. One means of accomplishing this is by utilizing a parallelogram arrangement of leveling rods attached to cables or chains operating around sheaves or sprockets at boom pivot points. mercury switch a switch that is closed or opened when an internal globule of mercury moves to or away from the contacts when the switch is tilted. meter to regulate the amount of fluid flow. meter-in to regulate the amount of fluid flow into an actuator or system. meter-out to regulate the flow of the discharge fluid from an actuator or system. micron (micrometer) one-millionth of a meter or about 0.00004. micron rating the minimum size of the particles that a filter is designed to remove. microswitch a small electrical device that is used to turn an electrical current on or off, or to change the connections in a circuit. mobile operation the use of the aerial device or digger derrick while the mobile unit is traveling. mobile unit the combination of a unit, its chassis and related permanently attached equipment. modified A-frame outrigger an extendible outrigger that is configured like a large broad based A with an open top. modulation ratio the on time vs. the off time of a pulse width modulated digital signal. This ratio is determined by dividing the on time during one cycle by the total cycle time. moly see molybdenum disulfide. molybdenum disulfide a black inorganic chemical that is used as a dry lubricant and as an additive for grease and oils. Molybdenum disulfide has a very high melting point and is insoluble in water.
7

12-00

Appendix Glossary

molydisulfide see molybdenum disulfide. moment a force multiplied by the perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to an axis or point. The force may be the weight of an item, with the vertical line of action located at the items center of gravity. Moment is measured in units of force times distance; for example, pound-feet or foot-pounds. monitor head remotely controlled articulated assembly with a nozzle, mounted at the upper end of an HLIW. motor a device that converts hydraulic or electrical energy into continuous rotary motion and torque. multiple-part line the arrangement of the winch line on a digger derrick in which the winch line is routed between the boom tip and the load two or more times. A snatch block is used at the load and a snatch block or additional boom tip sheave(s) is used on the boom to reverse the direction of the winch line. The end of the winch line is connected to a stationary attachment point on the boom or lower snatch block. A multiple-part line is used to reduce the tension in the winch line to a value below the winch line rated working load when a lifting load that exceeds the winch line rated working load. multiplexing a process by which signals from multiple inputs are combined and transmitted simultaneously over a single channel. multiviscosity the viscosity characteristic of a fluid which contains additives that increase the viscosity index. The fluid does not become as thin at high temperatures or as thick at low temperatures as a fluid without these additives. This allows the fluid to be used over a wider temperature range. nonconductive the characteristic of a substance that allows it to transmit electricity only in a very small degree when it is clean, dry and properly maintained. noncontinuous rotation a rotation system in which the turntable is prevented from rotating more than approximately one revolution about the centerline of rotation. non-insulated aerial device or digger derrick an aerial device or digger derrick which is not designed, manufactured, or tested to meet any dielectric rating. nonmetallic formed of materials which are not any type of metal. non-overcenter aerial device a type of articulating-boom aerial device on which the upper boom will not unfold from the stored position to beyond a vertical position regardless of the position of the lower boom. nontransferable boom flares boom flares that are permanently attached to the boom tip of a digger derrick. nontransferable upper controls an upper control panel on a digger derrick that is permanently attached to the upper boom tip. normally closed switch a switch which is closed to allow current to flow through it when it is not actuated, and opens to interrupt current flow when actuated. normally closed valve a two-way valve which is closed to block fluid from flowing through it when it is not actuated, and opens to allow flow when actuated. normally open switch a switch which is open to prevent current from flowing through it when it is not actuated, and closes to allow current flow when actuated. normally open valve a two-way valve which is open to allow fluid to flow through it when it is not actuated, and closes to block flow when actuated. nozzle a tube-like device for accelerating and directing the discharge flow of fluid. NPT National Pipe Thread. NPTF National Pipe Thread Fluid, a pipe thread form which is modified from the NPT form to improve the resistance to fluid leakage through the threads in a connection. O-ring a ring of material with a circular cross section that is used as a gasket, usually made of synthetic rubber. ohmmeter an instrument used to measure the resistance in ohms between two points in an electrical component or circuit. on/off circuit circuit that supplies constant electrical power to a solenoid or other component when a relay or switch is closed and removes the power when the relay or switch is opened. one-man platform a platform designed to carry one person. It is usually 24 wide x 30 wide or 24 wide x 24 wide.

open center a directional valve design in which pump output returns freely to the reservoir when the valve spool(s) is in the center or neutral position. open circuit an electric circuit that has infinitely high resistance, resulting in no current flow. An open circuit may be caused by a loose connection, broken wire, corrosion or poor contact where an electrical component is grounded to the unit structure. operator a person trained, authorized and engaged in the operation of the unit. optical fiber a thin strand of transparent glass or plastic used to transmit signals using light throughout the length of the strand. orifice a restriction in a hydraulic or pneumatic circuit, the length of which is small in respect to its diameter. OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration. out and down outrigger an outrigger that has independentlycontrolled horizontal and vertical extendible outrigger legs. outboard bearing a bearing which supports the end of a gearbox output shaft farthest from the gearbox. output signal a radio wave intended to pass communication from a source to a destination. outrigger a structural member, which when properly extended or deployed on firm ground or outrigger pads, assists in stabilizing the mobile unit. outrigger controls the controls for operating the outriggers. outrigger cylinder the hydraulic cylinder which extends and retracts or unfolds and folds an outrigger leg. outrigger interlock system a system which requires all outriggers to be extended to a specified position before other unit functions are allowed to operate. outrigger interlock valve a valve which prevents above rotation sense line signals from reaching the pump until the outriggers have been lowered. outrigger leg 1: the moveable structural component of an outrigger which extends or unfolds to position the outrigger shoe on the ground, and which retracts or folds to return the outrigger shoe to the stored position. 2: the stationary structural component of an extendible outrigger from which the moveable outrigger leg extends. outrigger motion alarm an audible warning system to alert personnel that outriggers are being lowered or moved. outrigger pad a portable piece of rigid material which is placed under an outrigger shoe to increase the contact area with the ground surface when the ground surface is not firm enough to support direct contact from the outrigger shoe. outrigger shoe the component of an outrigger that is attached to the moveable leg and that contacts the ground or outrigger pad to stabilize the mobile unit. outrigger signal valve a valve used to provide a signal to the pump when the outriggers are being operated and to allow a separate signal system to control the aerial device operation. outrigger spread the distance between the outer edges on fixed shoes, or between pin centerlines on pivoting shoes, of opposite outriggers which have been extended or deployed to a given position. over travel movement of a mechanism beyond its normal stopping point. overcenter aerial device a type of articulating-boom aerial device on which the upper boom can unfold from the stored position to beyond a vertical position. overframe an outrigger weldment mounting position located above the vehicle chassis frame. overload the condition existing when a load greater than the rated capacity or design lead is applied to a unit or component. override the takeover of boom movement control functions from the platform controls by the activation of the lower control station controls. overtighten to torque a threaded fastener beyond the recommended torque value. oxidation the reaction of a substance with oxygen. parallel link the secondary load-carrying structure of an elevator lift. particle count a visual count of the numbers of particulate contaminants in a quantity of a hydraulic fluid.
10-01

Appendix Glossary

passage a machined or cored fluid conducting path that lies within or passes through a component. payload any tools, materials, fuel and occupants carried by the mobile unit that are not permanently attached. pedestal the stationary base of a unit that supports the turntable and is attached to the subbase or vehicle frame. pedestal mount a mounting configuration for an aerial device in which the turntable is mounted on a pedestal consisting of a box-like structure. penetration the distance the vehicle frame is lifted after the outriggers contact the ground surface. phase a conductive wire or cable used for transmitting high voltage electrical current. The phrase phase to phase can be referenced as any two conductors of a three-phase electrical power line system. pilot operated condition in which a valve is actuated by hydraulic fluid pressure. pilot operated check valve a check valve that can be opened to allow flow in the normally blocked direction by applying hydraulic pressure to a pilot port. pilot pressure auxiliary pressure used to actuate or control hydraulic components. pilot valve an auxiliary valve used to control the operation of another valve. pin a cylindrical structural device used to allow a pivoting joint or to connect mating parts. pin retainer a device which is used to hold a pin in place in an assembly. pinch point a particular location in which a human body or a part of the body may become pinched or pinned between moving mechanical parts. pinion a gear with a small number of teeth that has been designed to mesh with a larger gear. piston a cylindrically shaped part that fits within a cylinder or cylindrical bore and transmits or receives linear motion by means of a connecting rod or other component. piston pump a pump in which motion and force are applied to fluid by a reciprocating piston(s) in cylindrical bore(s). pivot weldment the structure located above the slide frame on a pressure digger which supports the mast. placard 1: a thin sheet of rigid material which is attached to another surface by adhesive and/or mechanical fasteners, and is used to convey instructions, information and warnings. 2: May also refer to a decal. planetary gear set an assembly of meshed gears consisting of a central gear (sun gear), a coaxial internal tooth ring gear and several intermediate pinions (planet gears) supported on a revolving carrier. planetary gearbox a gearbox containing one or more planetary gear sets. platform the personnel-carrying component of a unit, mounted at the upper boom tip. platform heater an electrically powered device mounted in a splicer platform which is used to warm the occupant. platform leveling system a system which keeps the bottom of a platform parallel to or at a fixed angle to the base plate of the turntable, or parallel to level ground, as the boom is raised or lowered. The system may be mechanically, hydraulically, or gravity operated. platform liner a component made of material having a high dielectric strength which is designed to be inserted into a platform to cover the walls and bottom of the platform. platform pin the horizontal pin that is used to fasten a platform mounting bracket to the upper boom tip. The mounting bracket pivots about this pin for platform leveling or positioning. platform rest the structural member attached to the chassis or body to support and cushion the platform in the travel or rest position. platform ring a metal band around the lip of a splicer platform which supports and guides the platform as it is rotated about its vertical centerline. platform rotation override system a system which allows the zone of platform rotation to extend beyond a predetermined limit when actuated by the operator.
12-00 9

platform rotator a system which allows the operator to rotate the platform about a vertical axis. This permits the position of the platform to be changed with respect to the boom tip. platform tilt system a system which allows the operator to adjust the orientation of the platform about a horizontal axis. Some systems allow the operator to adjust the working position of the platform floor and tilt the platform for cleaning. Other systems allow tilting of the platform for cleaning but do not provide for operator adjustment of the working position. platform use the stability criteria for a digger derrick mobile unit which indicates that the load capacity chart and stability requirements apply to the use of the derrick with the platform occupied, with no lifting of loads with the winch line. plunger a cylindrically shaped part that is used to transmit thrust; a ram. pole a long cylindrical piece of material such as wood, metal, or concrete which is installed in a vertical position for use as a support structure for power and communication lines. pole guide a mechanism at the tip of a boom used for guiding and stabilizing a utility pole while using the winch line to raise or lower the pole. pole guide tilt cylinder the hydraulic cylinder which is used to tilt (raise or lower) the pole guide. pole guide tong cylinder the hydraulic cylinder which opens and closes the pole guide tongs. pole guide tongs moveable arms on a pole guide used to stabilize and guide a utility pole as it is being raised or lowered with the winch line. pole puller an apparatus consisting of a hydraulic cylinder, chain and other components used to loosen a utility pole from the ground. pole setter an assembly attached to the mast of a pressure digger that is used to pick up, position, and set a pole. polyethylene a moisture proof plastic. poppet that part of certain valves that prevents flow when it closes against a seat and allows flow when it moves away from the seat. port an internal or external opening for intake or exhaust of fluid in a component. portable resistivity tester a device used for testing the electrical resistance of water. Commonly used for testing the wash water for insulator washers. position a term which describes the number of possible positions a valve spool or mechanism can be shifted to. post mount a mounting configuration for an aerial device in which the turntable is mounted on a pedestal which utilizes a round vertical tube as its primary load-carrying structure. potentiometer a variable resistor that is connected to act as an electrical voltage divider. pour point the lowest temperature at which a fluid will flow or pour under specific conditions. power work per unit of time, measured in horsepower (HP) or watts. power module the central connection point between the chassis and unit electrical systems. This device is used to provide battery power to the unit when the truck/machine selector is in the machine position. power take-off (PTO) a supplementary mechanism enabling vehicle engine power to be used to operate non-automotive apparatus such as a pump. precharge pressure the pressure of compressed gas in an accumulator before any fluid is added. pressure the force applied in a given area. It can be expressed in pounds per square inch (psi). pressure compensator a device on a variable displacement pump that adjusts pump output flow to develop and maintain a preset maximum pressure. pressure differential the difference in pressure between two points in a system or component. pressure drop the reduction in pressure between two points in a line or passage due to the energy required to maintain flow. pressure gauge an instrument which displays the hydraulic or pneumatic pressure sensed at a port on the device.

Appendix Glossary

pressure line the line carrying fluid from a pump outlet to the pressurized port of a valve or actuator. pressure override the difference between the cracking pressure of a valve and the pressure reached when the valve is passing full flow. pressure reducing valve a pressure control valve whose primary function is to limit its outlet pressure. pressure switch an electric switch which is actuated when the hydraulic or pneumatic pressure applied to a port on the switch reaches a specified value. pressure transducer a pressure measuring device which produces a variable electrical signal that is proportional to the hydraulic pressure applied to a port on the device. proportional circuit a circuit that supplies a varying voltage to a coil in a pilot valve as electrical current applied to the circuit is varied by a hand control. proximity alarm a system which measures the distance from a detector to another object, and sounds an alarm when this distance is less than a specified value. Commonly used to inform the operator of an HLIW of the distance between the boom tip nozzle and a power line insulator or support structure. psi pounds per square inch. PTO see power take-off. pullout upper controls an upper control panel on a digger derrick which is mounted on a housing that can be extended from inside an outer housing when additional length is needed, such as to attach the control panel to a personnel jib with the outer housing attached to the upper boom tip, or to attach the upper control panel to the upper boom tip with the outer housing attached to the transferable boom flares. pulse width modulation (PWM) a means of transmitting a digital signal in continuous cycles of pulses where the total length of time for a cycle of one on pulse and the following off period is constant, and the length of time (width) of the on pulse within each cycle is varied (modulated) in proportion to the level of an input parameter such as control lever position. pump a device that converts mechanical force and motion into hydraulic flow and pressure. purge system a system of check valves that allows hydraulic fluid flow in a reverse manner through the hydraulic system, usually from the lower control valve to the upper controls. This actions frees or purges the control system of any trapped air and restores a solid column of fluid for precise control. The purge system may also be used to warm up the control system in cold weather conditions if the fluid in the reservoir is warm. purge/upper/lower controls selector valve a valve which is used to direct hydraulic fluid to the purge system, the upper control valve, or the lower control valve. PWM pulse width modulation. quick disconnect couplings hydraulic fittings designed for fast and easy attachment and separation. radial ball bearing an antifriction bearing with rolling ball contact in which the direction of action of the load transmitted is perpendicular to the axial centerline of the bearing. radial outrigger an outrigger in which the moveable outrigger leg pivots in an arc around a pin connection between the leg and a supporting structure as the leg is lowered and raised. radio communication communication by means of radio waves. ram 1: a single-acting cylinder with a single diameter plunger rather than a piston and rod. 2: the plunger in a ram-type cylinder. ram cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that is used to retract and extend the kelly bar on a pressure digger. range diagram a diagram which shows the load radius and sheave height of a digger derrick at all the configurations of boom extension and boom angle covered by the corresponding load capacity chart. rated capacity (as defined by ANSI for digger derricks) the maximum load, specified by the manufacturer, that can be lifted by the digger derrick at regular intervals of load radius or boom angle, through the specified ranges of boom elevation and extension, with specified options installed, and exclusive of stability requirements. rated line voltage the nominal voltage, phase to phase, at which electrical systems are rated. rated load capacity (as defined by ANSI for aerial devices) the maximum loads, specified by the manufacturer, which can be lifted by

the aerial device through the specified range of boom elevation and extension with specified options installed and in consideration of stability requirements. reach diagram a drawing that shows the horizontal and vertical limits of travel of the platform, upper boom tip, and/or jib tip throughout all possible configurations of lower boom angle, boom extension, upper boom angle, articulating arm travel, and/or elevator lift travel. rear mount a pedestal mounting position located over or near the rear axle(s) on the longitudinal centerline of the chassis. receiver a device that converts radio waves into electrical signals for communication and/or control purposes. reel brake a component of the reel driver which prevents the overrunning of cable reels carried by a strand carrier and reel lifter. The brake is used to maintain tension in the cable or suspension strand when used with the reel driver. reel driver a component of a strand carrier and reel lifter used for paying in or paying out cable or suspension strand. reel lifter a device used to support and move cable reels from the ground to the vehicle. reel lifter arms the structure on a reel lifter used to lift and store reels of cable or suspension strand on the chassis. reengage to repeat the activation of a function after it has been momentarily halted. relay an automatic switch with contacts that can be closed or opened by electrical current in a coil. relief valve a pressure operated valve that bypasses pump delivery to the reservoir to limit system pressure to a predetermined maximum value. remote arm a remotely operated jib used to handle equipment or electrical lines. remote assist a vehicle-mounted device with a boom assembly which is extendible, articulating, or both, which is designed and used to accommodate attachments for performing operations such as supporting or cutting electrical conductors, lifting or holding objects, or cutting tree branches. It is operated by remote control from the ground or from the platform of an adjacent personnel lifting device. It may be mounted on the vehicle by itself or in addition to a personnel lifting device. remote control system a system used for operating some or all of the functions of a unit from a portable control station. The control station may be a transmitter which sends signals by radio waves to a receiver on the unit, or a control module which sends signals through a fiber optic or electrical cable to the unit. remote operated auxiliary control system (ROACS) a radio controlled system for starting and stopping certain functions of the mobile unit. remote start/stop system the components used to actuate a function of the unit from a location other than for normal operation. The most common functions controlled are engine start/stop and the secondary stowage DC pump. reservoir a container for storage of liquid in a fluid power system. resistance the opposition to the flow of electricity or hydraulic fluid. restriction a reduced cross-sectional area in a line or passage that produces a pressure drop. retaining ring a hardened, washer-like ring that may be spread apart or compressed and installed into a groove or recess to serve as a retaining device. return line a hydraulic line used to carry discharge flow from a hydraulic system or actuator back to the reservoir at low pressure. return line filter a filter located in a hydraulic system return line or at the inlet of a hydraulic reservoir which cleans fluid flowing from the hydraulic system to the reservoir. reversing valve a four-way directional valve used to change the direction of movement of a double-acting cylinder or reversible motor. ribbon hose a group of hoses that are attached side by side to produce a flat bundle. Commonly used to carry hydraulic fluid, air and/ or electrical cable(s) to the boom tip or upper controls. riding seat an operators control station attached to the side of the turntable, with a seat on which the operator rides with the rotation of the unit.

Appendix Glossary

10

1-01

riser 1: the structure on a double elevator that connects the lower elevator arm to the upper elevator arm. 2: the structure within an articulating arm to which the lower boom is connected. ROACS see remote operated auxiliary control system. rod the cylindrically shaped part of a cylinder which extends and retracts from the barrel to actuate or move a component. rod end the end of a cylinder that the extending component or rod is on. roller a cylindrical device which spins freely about a pin or shaft, used to guide the motion of another component. rollpin a pin that has been formed by rolling up a thin, flat strip of metal to form a cylinder. Commonly used by being driven into a hole to serve as a retaining device. rope a stout, flexible cord, which consists of many strands of wire or fibers that are twisted or braided together. rotary actuator a device for converting hydraulic energy into rotary motion and torque in which the rotary motion is restricted to within certain angular limits. rotary joint a multiple port manifold that has a rotating portion and a stationary portion, used to provide a continuous hydraulic connection between rotating and stationary hydraulic lines. Commonly used at the centerline of rotation of units equipped with continuous rotation. rotate frame the structure located above the stationary frame on a pressure digger that is used to support and rotate the slide frame. rotating platform a platform which can be rotated about a vertical axis to change its position in relationship to the boom tip. rotation bearing the rotating member, usually a shear ball bearing, located between the pedestal and the turntable which allows the turntable to rotate and which contains gear teeth that mesh with the rotation pinion. rotation chain a chain attached to the stationary frame of a pressure digger that is used by the rotation gearbox to rotate the rotate frame. rotation gearbox the gearbox which drives the rotational motion of the turntable. rotation pinion the gear on the output shaft of the rotation gearbox which meshes with the rotation bearing gear teeth and drives the turntable rotational motion. rotation resistant wire rope wire rope which is constructed to resist the tendency to untwist or rotate when carrying a suspended load. This is accomplished by laying the outer strands in the opposite direction to the lay of the inner strands or core. rotation system the system which drives the rotation of the turntable about the centerline of rotation. It typically consists of a rotation bearing, rotation gearbox, hydraulic motor, and load holding valve. rpm revolutions per minute. running torque the torque produced by a rotating device such as a motor or gearbox at a specified rotational speed. SAE Society of Automotive Engineers. safety belt see body belt. saybolt universal viscosity A measure of viscosity equal to the time it takes in seconds for 60 milliliters of fluid to flow through a capillary tube in a Saybolt universal viscosimeter at a given temperature. scissor link the mechanical linkage on a reel lifter used to connect the lifter cylinder to the arm. screw anchor a rod with an eye on one end and auger flighting on the opposite end. It is designed to screw into the ground and serve as an anchor to hold an attached cable such as a guy wire. seating in an initial microscopic surface deformation of components that are clamped together with threaded fasteners. This causes a slight reduction in the dimension of the components, reducing the clamping force applied by the fasteners. secondary stowage DC pump a low flow hydraulic pump driven by a direct current electric motor. This pump is used to provide hydraulic flow to stow the unit when the system for normal operation has failed. secondary stowage system those components used to stow the unit when the system for normal operation has failed.

selector switch a switch which is used to direct electrical current to one of two or more electrical circuits. selector valve a valve which is used to direct hydraulic fluid to one of two or more hydraulic circuits. self-locking nut a nut which contains a built-in device or shape to increase thread friction so as to resist loosening due to vibration or repeated loading. self-lubricating bearing an antifriction bearing in which lubricating material is incorporated in the bearing. sense line a line that carries a hydraulic pressure signal from a valve or actuator to the compensator control on a variable displacement pump. sense selector valve a valve which prevents hydraulic fluid in the sense line from reaching the pump until a certain function(s) is operated. sequence 1: the order of a series of operations or movements. 2: to divert flow to accomplish a subsequent operation or movement. sequence valve a pressure operated valve that diverts flow to a secondary actuator while holding pressure on the primary actuator at a predetermined minimum value after the primary actuator completes its travel. sequential extension the operation by which one boom section in an extendible boom assembly reaches full extension or retraction before the next boom section begins movement. set screw a short screw, typically with an Allen type head, that is used as a clamp to bind parts together. shackle see clevis. shear an action or stress resulting from opposing applied forces that attempt to separate a part into two pieces that would then slide along each other in opposite directions along the plane of separation. shear ball bearing an antifriction bearing with rolling ball contact in which the direction of load transmitted through the balls is parallel to the axial centerline of the bearing, producing shear loading on the balls. The bearing can support axial, radial, and tilt loading. Commonly used as a rotation bearing. shear pin a replaceable pin which prevents motion between two adjacent parts by the production of shear loading in the pin, and which may be designed to fail under overload to protect other parts. shear stability resistance of a hydraulic fluid viscosity index improver additive to shearing. shearing molecular damage or breakdown of the viscosity index improver additive in hydraulic fluid. Shearing can occur when the fluid flows through fine clearances at high velocity. Shearing can cause permanent loss in fluid viscosity. sheave a grooved wheel used to support and guide a winch line or leveling cable at a point of change in the direction of motion of the line or cable. sheave height the vertical distance from ground level to the centerline of the boom tip sheave in a digger derrick upper boom tip. short circuit an inadvertent path of low resistance established between two points of an electrical circuit. A short circuit will result in excessive current flow. shutoff valve a device which is used to stop hydraulic fluid flow. shuttle valve a three-port valve that accepts hydraulic fluid pressure from two inlets and allows only the highest pressure fluid to pass through it to a single outlet while keeping the inlet fluid pressure isolated from one another. side gun a hand held water nozzle and hose that can be used from the ground for washing or fire fighting. side load an external horizontal load placed on a boom from one side. side load protection system the system on a digger derrick that helps prevent damage to the digger derrick structure when excessive side loads are applied to the booms. side-mounted platform a platform which is attached to a mounting bracket that extends from one side of the boom tip, positioning the platform (and platform rotation pivot, if so equipped) beside the boom tip. sideslip sideways motion of a component caused by an externally applied sideways force which overcomes resistive forces from hydrau-

1-01

11

Appendix Glossary

lics, friction, etc. Commonly used to describe rotation of a digger derrick boom caused by side loading which exceeds the side load protection setting. signal a command or indication of a desired position, velocity, flow or pressure. signal line see sense line. single-acting cylinder a cylinder in which fluid pressure can be applied to move the rod in only one direction. Return motion is produced by an external force such as a spring or gravity. single elevator an elevator lift with one load carrying arm. The single elevator system includes a lower pedestal, arm, arm cylinder(s), parallel links, and upper pedestal. single handle control a control, with an interlock trigger incorporated in the handle, which allows the operator to simultaneously control multiple functions of the booms and turntable from the platform. single-pole, double-throw (SPDT) switch a three-terminal electrical switch or relay that connects one terminal to either of two other terminals. single-pole, single-throw (SPST) switch a two-terminal electrical switch or relay that opens or closes one circuit. slave control panel a secondary derrick lower control panel that is configured as a remote terminal of the master panel. The slave panel is used in conjunction with a master panel to provide dual station lower controls. slave cylinder a cylinder in which motion of the piston is produced by the transfer of hydraulic fluid from a master cylinder, resulting in corresponding motion. slide frame the structure on a pressure digger used to support the auxiliary engine, hydraulic reservoir, control station, and pivot weldment. The slide frame can be extended horizontally from its stowed position to adjust the distance of the kelly bar from the rotate frame. slide pad a rectangular block used as a bearing between extendible boom or outrigger sections, usually composed of a non-metallic material. slip ring an assembly of one or more conductive, rotating rings and stationary brushes used to provide a continuous electrical connection between rotating and stationary conductors. Commonly used at the centerline of rotation of units equipped with continuous rotation. slug face the extreme end of the cable slug which is secured to the cylinder rod or adjusting stud. snatch block a device which has a means of attachment to connect it to a boom or load, and which can be opened to receive a winch line around an internal sheave. snubber valve a two-port valve with a manually adjustable orifice that restricts the flow of fluid through the valve. socket head a cylindrical cap screw head design containing a hexagonal (six-sided) female socket into which an Allen wrench can be inserted to turn the cap screw. solenoid a coil of insulated wire that produces a magnetic field within the coil when electrically energized. When attached to a hydraulic valve, the magnetic field acts upon the valve to move internal valve parts. solenoid valve a valve which is actuated by a solenoid to controlling the flow of hydraulic fluid. speed reducer see gearbox. spherical bearing a bearing with a spherically shaped inner race that is allowed to move freely inside a stationary outer race to accommodate misalignment. splicer platform a fiberglass platform equipped with a door and latch. spline one of a number of equally spaced, load carrying teeth that have been cut on the outside diameter of a shaft or inside diameter of a bore, parallel to the shaft or bore centerline. spool a moving, cylindrically shaped part of a hydraulic valve that moves to direct flow through the valve. spring lockouts a mechanical system which is engaged to keep a vehicles suspension system from flexing during operation of the unit. sprocket a wheel with teeth along the circumference which are shaped so as to engage with a chain, used to support and guide the chain at a point of change in the direction of motion of the chain.

SSU (Saybolt Second Universal) the unit of measure for Saybolt universal viscosity. stability a condition of a mobile unit in which the sum of the moments which tend to overturn the mobile unit is less than the sum of the moments tending to resist overturning; the mobile units ability to resist tipping. stabilize to provide adequate stability for a mobile unit to allow operation of the vehicle-mounted device(s). stabilizer a device used to assist in stabilizing a mobile unit, such as an outrigger, torsion bar or spring lockout. stake to slightly deform the threads of a fastener or material at the joint between two components by placing the blade of punch or chisel on the threads or joint and tapping on the handle with a hammer. The deformed material serves to prevent loosening of the components. stall torque the torque produced by a rotating device such as a motor or gearbox at zero rotational speed. standard option an option which can be ordered from a standard order form and can be supplied without additional engineering work. start/stop control module an electrical device that relays signals from the units remote start/stop system to the component(s) or system(s) being controlled, such as the secondary stowage DC pump and/or vehicle ignition system. stationary frame the structure attached to the subbase of a pressure digger that supports the outriggers and rotate frame. stationary platform a platform which can not be rotated about a vertical axis to change its position in relationship to the boom tip. stow to place a component such as a boom or digger derrick auger in its rest position. strainer a coarse filter. strainer basket a coarse, basket shaped filter which is mounted in the fill hole of a reservoir and projects into the reservoir. strand 1: one of the groups of individual fibers or wires within a synthetic winch line or wire rope. 2: see suspension strand. strand carrier a device used to support and transport strand reels on a vehicle. strand reel a reel or spool used for carrying suspension stand. street side the side of a vehicle toward oncoming traffic when the vehicle is traveling forward in the normal direction in a lane of traffic. stroke 1: total linear movement in either direction of a piston or plunger. 2: to change the displacement of a variable displacement pump or motor. subbase a structural mounting interface between the pedestal and the vehicle frame. It provides torsional stiffness and strength in addition to that which would be provided from the vehicle frame alone. subweldment a smaller welded subassembly used within a more complex welded structure. suction filter a filter located in a hydraulic system suction line or at the outlet of a hydraulic reservoir which cleans fluid flowing from the reservoir to the pump inlet. suction line the hydraulic line connecting the pump inlet port to the reservoir outlet. surge a momentary rise of pressure in a circuit. suspension strand a type of wire rope which is used to support the weight of an attached communication cable suspended between poles or other overhead support structures. swage to taper or reduce the diameter of a rod, tube or fastener by forging, squeezing or hammering. synthetic winch line a winch line made from nonmetallic synthetic fibers which are formed into strands that are then braided together to make a complete rope. T-stand a T shaped weldment for mounting lower controls to the vehicle. tachometer an instrument used for displaying the speed of rotation of an engine output shaft. tailshelf the rear portion of the mobile unit above and behind the rear axle. tailshelf tools see lower tool circuit. tank the hydraulic reservoir.

Appendix Glossary

12

1-01

telescopic having sections that slide within or over one another to change overall length. terminal block an insulating mounting used for making electrical terminal connections. test block a manifold with ports for connecting a hydraulic pressure source, pressure gauge and a cartridge valve such as a counterbalance valve or relief valve used for testing and adjusting the relief setting of the valve. thimble a metal ring around which a rope is passed and spliced to make a loop or eye. thread locking adhesive an anaerobic adhesive that is applied to fastener threads to prevent loosening due to vibration or repeated loading. three-phase a system for transmitting high voltage, alternating current, electrical power along three separate conductors, with 120 degrees between the voltage waveform cycles of any two conductors. three-position valve a valve having three positions for direction of fluid flow, such as neutral, flow in one direction, and flow in the opposite direction. three-way valve a valve having three ports for direction of fluid flow. throttle control a manual, hydraulic, or electrical device used to regulate vehicle or auxiliary engine speed. toggle switch an electrical switch operated by a short projecting lever combined with a spring to quickly open or close a circuit when the lever is pushed through a small arc. topping cylinder see lift cylinder. torque 1: a rotational twisting force.2: to preload a threaded fastener by application of a rotational twisting force. torque converter a rotary device for transmitting and amplifying torque, especially by hydraulic means. torsion bar a rod-like spring which is flexed by being twisted about its axis, used to assist in stabilizing a mobile unit. tow line winch a winch located on a cable placer which is used for tensioning suspension strand or self-supporting cable or towing a cable lasher. trace element analysis analysis of a small sample of hydraulic fluid to determine contamination level and condition of additives. tracking a current leakage path created across the surface of insulating material when a high-voltage current forms a carbonized path within a foreign material on the surface. transducer a device that converts input energy of one form into output energy of another, such as hydraulic pressure into an electrical signal. transferable boom flares boom flares, on which a pole guide may be mounted, that can be pinned to either the intermediate boom tip or the upper boom tip of a digger derrick. transferable upper controls an upper control panel on a digger derrick that can be attached to either the upper boom tip or the transferable boom flares by the use of a detent pin. transmitter a device used to generate and emit a radio frequency carrier signal. The signal is sent to a receiver which translates the signal into usable information. trim pot a potentiometer which is used to make fine adjustments in a circuit during manufacture or calibration, typically by turning a slotted adjusting screw. troubleshoot to locate and diagnose problems in a system or a component. trunnion a mounting device consisting of a pair of opposite, projecting cylindrical pivots on which something can be rotated or tilted. trunnion bearing a bearing that a trunnion pin pivots in. trunnion pin a cylindrical pivot pin that is a part of a trunnion. turnbuckle a link with screw threads at both ends that is turned to bring the ends closer together for tightening purposes. turns from finger tight (T.F.F.T.) a method of counting the number of turns of a hydraulic adapter to establish a torque value. turntable the structure located above the rotation bearing which supports the lower boom or articulating arm, and rotates about the centerline of rotation. turntable winch a winch located on the turntable.
1-01 13

turret see turntable. two-man platform a platform designed to carry two people. It is usually 24 wide x 48 wide. two-part line a multiple-part line on a digger derrick in which the winch line is routed from the boom tip sheave down to a snatch block at the load and then back up to a stationary attachment point on the boom. two-position valve a valve having two positions for direction of fluid flow, such as open and closed. two-speed motor a motor which has two operating speed and torque modes (a low-speed, high-torque mode, and a high-speed, lowtorque mode) that can be selected by the operator. two-way valve a valve having two ports for direction of fluid flow, with one internal flow path which can be open or blocked. UNC Unified National Coarse, a thread description. underframe an outrigger weldment mounting position located beneath the unit subbase or vehicle chassis frame. undertighten to torque a threaded fastener below the recommended value. UNF Unified National Fine, a thread description. unfold to move a pivoting structure such as an articulating upper boom away from its stowed position. unit the Altec device(s), subbase, outriggers, body and associated interface items mounted on a chassis, but not including the chassis itself. unload to release hydraulic flow, usually directly to the reservoir, to prevent pressure buildup. unloaded vehicle weight the total weight of the completed mobile unit without payload. unloading valve a valve that bypasses flow to the reservoir when a set pressure is maintained on its pilot port. upper arm the primary load-carrying structure of a double elevator which is located between the riser and the upper pedestal. upper arm cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the upper arm of a double elevator up and down. upper boom (UPR BOOM) the boom section in a boom assembly which is farthest from the turntable when the boom assembly is fully extended or unfolded, and which supports the boom tip sheave and/or platform(s). upper boom cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the upper boom about its pivot point on an articulating-boom aerial device. upper boom drive mechanism the components used to produce upper boom movement on an articulating boom-aerial device, such as linkage, cables, sheaves and/or gears. upper boom rest the structural member that supports the upper boom in the rest or travel position. upper boom tip the boom tip of an upper boom. upper control valve the hydraulic valve on or beside the platform of an aerial device used for operating some or all of the functions of the aerial device. upper controls the controls located on or beside the platform used for operating some or all of the functions of the unit. upper pedestal the structure within an elevator lift that connects the elevator lift to the aerial device rotation bearing. upper tool circuit a tool hydraulic circuit with quick disconnect couplings located at the upper boom tip. vacuum the absence of pressure. A perfect vacuum is the total absence of pressure; a partial vacuum is some condition less than atmospheric pressure. Vacuum is measured in inches of mercury (in. Hg.). valve a device that controls fluid flow direction, pressure or flow rate. vane pump a type of pump with a rotor and several sliding vanes in an elliptical chamber. Hydraulic fluid enters the expanding area and is forced out as the fluid is moved to the decreasing chamber area. variable displacement pump a pump in which the size of the pumping chamber(s) can be changed, so that the output flow can be changed by moving the displacement control or varying the drive speed or both. vehicle a carrier for a unit.

Appendix Glossary

velocity the speed of linear motion in a given direction. velocity fuse a hydraulic valve that is used to stop fluid flow through it when the flow rate reaches a predetermined cut-off value. vent an air breathing device on a fluid reservoir or hydraulic line. VI see viscosity index. viscosity a measure of the internal friction or resistance to flow of a fluid. viscosity index (VI) a measure of the resistance to change in viscosity of a fluid with change in temperature. The higher the number, the less the viscosity will change as the temperature changes. voltmeter an instrument used to measure the potential difference in volts between two points in an electrical circuit. volume 1: the size of a space or chamber in cubic units. 2: loosely applied to the output flow of a pump in gallons per minute (gpm). vortex a whirlpool of liquid. waist harness a belt device worn by the operator of a radio remote control system to which the transmitter is attached. walking beam outrigger an extendible outrigger which has a pivot point at the top of the nonextending leg and a linkage attached to the extending leg, so that the leg assembly rotates about the pivot point to increase the outrigger spread as it is extended. warning an instruction that indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury. water monitor an articulating mechanism that is used to direct the flow of a high pressure water stream. water removal filter cartridge a special filter cartridge designed to absorb and remove water from hydraulic fluid. It is not intended for use during normal operation, but is for use when water removal is required.

way a term which describes how many ports are in a valve or valve section. weldment a structural unit formed by welding together an assembly of pieces. wheel chock a wedge or block placed on the ground in front of or behind the wheel of a vehicle to block the movement of the wheel. winch a mechanism consisting of a gearbox with a cylindrical rotating drum on which to coil a line for load hoisting or line tensioning. winch capacity the maximum load, specified by the manufacturer, that can be pulled on the first layer of line on the winch drum at rated system pressure. winch line a load hoisting line consisting of a synthetic or wire rope. winch line rated working load the average breaking strength of a winch line (as specified by the line manufacturer) divided by the appropriate design factor as specified by ANSI. wire rope a rope made from steel wires which are formed into strands that are then twisted about each other in a spiral configuration. work the exertion of a force moving through a definite distance. Work is measured in units of force multiplied by distance; for example, pound-feet. worm gearbox a gearbox that utilizes a gear which has a continuous helix tooth or teeth similar to a large screw thread along shaft (worm), that drives a gear which has teeth cut at an angle along a its outside diameter (worm gear). The rotational axis of the worm is perpendicular to the rotational axis of the worm gear. wrap a single coil of winch line on a winch drum. Y-cable an electrical cable assembly which contains three branches joined at a common point, similar to a Y. zerk see grease fitting.

Appendix Glossary

14

10-01

Service Tools and Supplies


Most routine maintenance and service of the unit can be performed with common hand tools and shop supplies available from a tool supply company. Some special tools and supplies are available from your Altec representative that may be useful or required to perform certain maintenance procedures. These items are catProduct Lubrication
Gear Shield Chain and Cable Fluid Moly grease Anti-seize compound (16 oz can) Anti-seize compound (1/4 lb tube) Lubricate rotation gears and pinions. Lubricate cables such as wire rope winch line, auger windup sling, and leveling cables or chains. Component lubrication. Component lubrication. Component lubrication. 099-00017 099-00018 099-00025 099-00033 099-00050

egorized with their corresponding Altec part number. The list contains items for both aerial devices and derricks. An Accessory and Replacement Parts Catalog is also available for ordering other items that may not be shown in the Parts Manual. This catalog can be obtained through your Altec representative. Part Number

Purpose/Use

Fasteners
Thread locking adhesive (Purple 50 ml) Thread locking adhesive (Blue 50 ml) Thread locking adhesive (Red 50 ml) Thread locking adhesive (Red 50 ml) Inspection lacquer, blue (1/2 oz) Cleaner for inspection lacquer (1/2 oz) Stainless steel safety wire (5 lb roll) Cleaning solvent (12 oz) Primer (Grade N 6 oz) Primer (Grade T 6 oz) Wire twisting pliers Low strength thread locking and sealing agent for small diameter screws. Medium strength thread locking and sealing agent for bolts and nuts. High strength thread locking and sealing agent for large diameter bolts and cap screws. Medium/high strength thread locking agent. Visual inspection stripe. Visual inspection stripe removal. Lockwiring fasteners. Quick drying, nonflammable solvent used for cleaning parts prior to bonding. Leaves no residue. Anaerobic solvent reduces cure time on thread locking adhesive. Anaerobic solvent reduces cure time on thread locking adhesive. Lockwiring fasteners. 099-00019 099-00020 099-00037 099-00069 099-00123 099-00124 099-00021 099-00039 099-00040 099-00041 099-60007

Appendix Service Tools and Supplies

Product Fiberglass Care


Gelcoat kit Formula Five Clean N Glaze Plastic Kleen #2 Polish Bonding kit White paint

Purpose/Use

Part Number

Repair fiberglass platforms and booms. Cleaning and polishing fiberglass. Nontoxic plastic cleaner. Rebond fiberglass booms. Nonmetallic spray paint.

041-90001 041-90002 099-00062 703-50039 099-00008

Hydraulic System Care


Pipe sealant (50 ml) Flowmeter Test block small bore (7/8 hex) Test block large bore (11/8 ) Return line filter cartridge Water removal filter cartridge Diagnostic test kit Oil warming kit Corrosion suppressant General purpose pipe sealant for use on pipes to two inches. Testing hydraulic system. Testing counterbalance valve. Testing counterbalance valve. Filters hydraulic oil before it is returned to the reservoir. Removes water from the hydraulic system. Testing hydraulic systems. Warm hydraulic oil to operating temperature in cold weather. Chrome cylinder rod protection. 099-00038 099-00034 352-79006 352-79008 353-30007 353-30016 356-90002 750-40039 099-00051

Electrical System Care


Conformal coating (14 oz) Lectra-Motive Electric Parts Cleaner (19 oz) Silicon based electrical component protection. Clean and degrease electrical systems. 099-00042 099-00061

Miscellaneous
4,000 lb dynamometer Atmospheric vent valve tester Test side load protection system. Test atmospheric vents for proper operation. 099-00022 356-90042

Appendix Service Tools and Supplies

Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist


Vehicle No. __________________________ Location ___________________________ Date ________________ Model Number _________________________________ Serial Number _________________________________ Odometer _________________ Hours Meter _________________ Inspector _____________________________ Perform all inspections, adjustments, repairs, and lubrication according to Altec specifications in the Maintenance Manual. Refer to any MABs, CSNs, or other applicable documents provided by Altec for servicing the unit. If you are tracking PTO hours utilizing an approved method or device, follow the recommended hourly maintenance intervals, or if you are performing maintenance based upon a calendar-based schedule, follow the recommended monthly intervals. The required items apply to both interval-tracking systems. Intervals t Prior to placing unit in service t 1,000 PTO hours/1 year Symbols  = Okay or completed U = Unsafe to operate

u r o

t i n

u b s
t t

f a ilt

1 r te
t t

3 0 0-

85 PTO hours/1 month 2,000 PTO hours/2 years

500 PTO hours/6 months Required maintenance

C = Corrected by inspector N/A = Not applicable

R = Repair or replacement required

Prior to Placing Unit in Service


Rotation Bearing Turntable tilt measurement2: ___________

Perform the Daily Preoperational Inspection (refer to the Operators Manual) Hydraulic Reservoir and System Check oil and collect oil sample for analysis1

85 PTO Hours/1 Month


Perform the Daily Preoperational Inspection (refer to the Operators Manual) General Condition Clean debris from turntable, cylinders, boom tip Hydraulic Reservoir Oil level Hydraulic System Pedestal (no leaks) Turntable (no leaks) Elbow (no leaks) Boom tip (no leaks) Fiberglass Boom(s) Upper boom (condition, clean) Lower boom (condition, clean) Lubrication Rotation bearing ball race Lower boom lift cylinder pivot bearings Upper boom lift cylinder pivot bearings Rotation pinion and bearing gear teeth Outrigger inner leg outer surfaces Self-aligning bearings on the compensating link

500 PTO Hours/6 Months


Perform the 85 hour/1 month inspection PTO Operation, noise level, no leaks Mounting cap screws secure Supplemental Brake Lock Operation (holding, no bleed-off) Chassis Underside Hoses (routing, condition) Exhaust shields Pump Mounting cap screws secure 4-bolt flange cap screws secure Drive line Noise level No leaks Unit Mounting Subbase mounting (fasteners secure, welds intact, no cracks) Subbase structure (welds intact, no cracks) Pedestal mounting (fasteners secure, welds intact, no cracks) Boom rest (welds intact, no deformation or cracks) Utility body mounting (cap screws secure, welds intact, no cracks)

Appendix Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist

Hydraulic Reservoir Mounting (cap screws secure, welds intact, no cracks) No leaks Shutoff valves fully open Drain water from bottom Filters Change return line filter Change pilot line filter Outriggers Mounting (welds intact, no deformation or cracks) Machine/ground level functions selector valve (operation, no leaks) Two-speed throttle switch operation Interlock system operation Operation (holding without drift, no leaks) Structures (welds intact, no deformation or cracks) Pins and retainers secure, retaining cap screws secure Motion alarm Hoses and tubes (routing, condition) Placards (condition, readable) Control valves (operation, leaks) Lower Tools Circuit Operation, no leaks Hoses (routing, condition) Quick disconnect couplers (condition, operation, dust caps) Hydraulic System Pressure Main system pressure (_______ psi) Pump compensator (_________psi) Standby pressure (________psi) Tool system pressure (_______psi) Pilot system (_______ psi) Accumulator unloading valve (fills at ______ psi) Lower Controls Placards (condition, readable) Engine start/stop switch (operation) Secondary stowage DC pump switch (operation) Lower/emergency stop/upper control (operation) Operation, no leaks Lower control valve (operation, no leaks) Pedestal Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks) Hoses and tubes (routing, condition) No leaks Rotary joint mounting cap screws secure Rotary joint drive pin (condition, in place)

Slip ring mounting cap screws secure Throttle circuit (hydraulic swivel mounting bracket and drive bracket secure) Placards (condition, readable) Turntable Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks) Boom pin and retainers secure Lift cylinder pivot pin and retainers secure Hoses and tubes (routing, condition) No leaks Placards (condition, readable) Rotary joint mounting cap screws secure Slip ring mounting cap screws secure Rotary joint drive bar cap screws secure Boom stow valve (operation, condition, no leaks) Rotation Bearing and Gearbox Gearbox mounting cap screw visual inspection Motor mounting cap screws secure Eccentric ring lock (in place, secure) No leaks Pinion gear teeth Rotation bearing gear teeth condition Pinion to rotation bearing gear backlash Gearbox internal lost motion Operation (smoothness, noise level) Rotation bearing cap screw visual inspection Rotation bearing inspection and measurement (after 0.050 increased wear from initial measurement)2 Lower Boom Lift Cylinder Pivot bearings secure within cylinder eyes Pin retainers secure Operation, no leaks Holding valves (operation, no leaks) Chromed rod condition Lower Boom Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks) Lift cylinder pivot pin and retainers secure Slide bearing nuts and cap screws secure Fasteners secure Boom angle indicators Insulator (condition, clean, undamaged, fasteners secure) Leveling rods/cables Jam nuts on leveling turnbuckles (in place, secure) Remove any debris from inside lower boom Lifting eye (welds, hardware)

Appendix Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist

5-04

Upper Boom Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks) Fiberglass (condition, clean, fasteners secure) Jam nuts on leveling turnbuckles (in place, secure) Leveling rods/cables Hose assembly (no leaks, attached to tension rod) Tension rod (securely attached, tightened) No leaks Covers in place Upper boom restraint (condition, operation) Upper boom stow pad (condition, in place) Boom tip weldment (welds intact, no deformation or cracks) Boom tip fasteners secure Remove any debris from inside upper boom Compensating Link Pivot pin attaching upper boom drive mechanism (condition, cap screw secure and lockwired, retaining rings in place) Slide pad condition Pins (condition, looseness) Hoses securely attached Upper Boom Lift Cylinder Cylinder attachment pins (condition, cap screws secure and lockwired, retaining rings in place) Pivot bearings secure within cylinder eyes Operation, no leaks Holding valves (operation, no leaks) Chromed rod condition Elbow Leveling shaft retainers Elbow pin (condition, cap screws secure and lockwired, spacer tube and rollpin in place) Upper boom drive mechanism (condition, cap screws secure and lockwired, rollpin in place) Hoses (routing, condition, no leaks) Lower scissor link anchor pin (condition, cap screws secure and lockwired, rollpin in place) Eccentric bushings (cap screws and rollpins in place) Leakage monitor system test receptacle (condition) Upper Boom Tip Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks) Mounting to upper boom secure Platform Mounting secure (bracket, pins and fasteners) Platform mounting bolts secure
5-04

Storage lock detent pin operation Platform (condition, clean) Platform angle (leveling system tension) Liner (condition, clean, fasteners secure) Placards (condition, readable) Hoses (routing, not pinched or pulled, no leaks) Lanyard attachment secure Covers in place Platform Rotator Operation Pivot pin or cap screw (looseness, nut secure) Rotary actuator (condition, no leaks) Pivot bearings Upper Controls Operation (metering, proper direction, no leaks) Emergency stop operation Mechanical linkage (operation, adjustment) Single handle control isolating links (condition, clean) Interlock linkage (condition, adjustment) Upper control blocking valve (operation, no leaks) Engine start/stop control Tools at Platform Quick disconnects (condition, operation, no leaks) Quick disconnect dust caps (condition, in place) Hoses (routing, condition, no leaks) Material Handling Package Fiberglass condition Bracket and mounting pins (condition) Sheave (condition, turns freely) Sheave pin and retainer secure Placards (condition, readable) Jib operation (tilt and extension) Jib cylinders (condition, no leaks, chromed rod) Winch mounting (cap screws secure, welds intact, no deformation or cracks) Winch motor mounting cap screws Winch brake operation Gearbox outboard bearing secure Winch rope/line/hook (condition, anchor point secure) Control valve (condition, operation, no leaks) Winch cover (condition, in place) Hoses (routing, condition, no leaks) Platform Tilt System Tilt valve (condition, no leaks) Operation Tilt cylinder (operation, fasteners secure, no leaks)

Appendix Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist

Lubrication Leveling cables Interlock linkage Platform rotator pivot bearings Upper control mechanical linkage Boom pin Upper boom slide bearing pivot pin Winch gearbox outboard bearing Annual Testing Dielectric test unit Dielectric test platform liner(s) Dielectric test insulated single handle control(s), if so equipped

Rotary joint Boom angle indicator Outrigger valve handle linkage Platform mounting pin and boss Outrigger inner leg outer surface Top bearing on rotation bearing gearbox Rotation gearbox oil level Winch gearbox oil level Atmospheric vents (visually inspect all, verify operation on Category A units) Leveling Cables Replace leveling system cables3

Required Maintenance (Regardless of Hours)

1,000 PTO Hours/1 Year


Perform the 500 hour/6 month inspection Hydraulic Reservoir and System Clean suction filter Change filler breather cap Clean or change filler hole strainer Reservoir cover gasket condition Collect oil sample for analysis Lubrication Pump input shaft splines
1

Elbow Compensating link fiberglass to metal fasteners secure (30 foot-pounds) Turntable end compensating link slide pads (condition, secure) Elbow end compensating link slide pads (condition, secure) Compensating link slide pad bearing mount at elbow end fasteners secure Rotation Bearing and Rotation Gearbox Annual torque inspection

2,000 PTO Hours/2 Years


Perform the 1,000 hour/1 year inspection Hydraulic Reservoir and System Flush hydraulic system Clean inside of reservoir Clean magnetic suction separator filter Change hydraulic oil
1

Lubrication Change winch gearbox oil Change rotation gearbox oil Rotation Bearing Rotation bearing inspection and measurement (before 0.050 increased wear from initial measurement)2

Periodic laboratory analysis is the most accurate method of determining the condition of the hydraulic oil and when it should be changed. If laboratory analysis is used, take baseline sample. Compare future lab tests on subsequent samples to the original to establish a trend. 2 Initially measure turntable tilt as a baseline. Check rotation bearing wear every 2 years until it measures 0.050 increased wear from initial measurements. After reaching 0.050 increased wear, measure every 6 months. Refer to the Maintenance Manual for the proper procedure. 3 Refer to the Maintenance Manual for inspection and replacement criteria.

Appendix Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist

3-04

Accessory Checklist
Vehicle No. __________________________ Location ___________________________ Date ________________ Model Number ___________________ Serial Number ___________________ Inspector ___________________ Symbols  = Okay or completed U = Unsafe to operate C = Corrected by inspector N/A = Not applicable R = Repair or replacement required

1,000 PTO Hours or as Recommended by the Manufacturer


Unit Accessories Platform liners Platform covers Tool holders (mounting and condition) Scabbard (mounting and condition) Spare augers Screw anchor wrench Lifting slings and chains Hydraulic cooler (mounting, condition and fan operation) Hydraulic oil heater (operation and condition) ROACS system (operation) Radio controls Auxiliary power unit (mounting, pump to bellhousing bolts, exhaust system, cooling system, fuel system) Body Accessories Body (structure, mounting) Outrigger pads and holders Pole rack mounting Access steps (condition and mounting) Cargo area retention (mounting and condition) Dump bed operation (dump hoist and body prop) Spotlights and work lights Beacons Wheel chocks and holders Mud flaps Cones and holders Inverters (operation and mounting) Generators (operation and mounting) Platform rest (condition and mounting) Fire extinguishers*
* DOT items

First aid kit Flare kit/warning triangles (3)* Grounding reel Power cord reel Hotstick tube or box Ladder rack Spare fuse pack* Chassis Accessories Front winch (mounting and operation) PTO and driveline Bed winch Capstan Collapsible reel Secondary brake system Pintle hitch (condition and mounting) Safety chain eyebolts Trailer plug Tow hooks Cab guard Brake controller (mounting and operation) Back up alarm (mounting and operation) Torsion bar Hydraulic Tools and Hoses Hose reel and hoses Pole puller, chain and base Impact Chain saw Tamp Quick disconnects

Appendix Accessory Checklist

Torque Values
Cap Screws

Size
1 5

SAE Grade 5 ft-lbs (Nm) Dry Lubed

SAE Grade 8 Hex and Socket Head ft-lbs (Nm) Dry Lubed

Button and Flat Head ft-lbs (Nm) Dry Lubed

/4 /8 /2 /8 /4 /8 1

0.2500 0.3125 0.3750 0.4375 0.5000 0.5625 0.6250 0.7500 0.8750 1.0000

8 (11) 16 (22) 28 (38) 44 (60) 68 (92) 98 (133) 135 (183) 240 (325) 386 (523) 579 (785)

6 (8) 13 (18) 23 (31) 37 (50) 57 (77) 82 (111) 113 (153) 200 (271) 322 (437) 483 (655)

11 (15) 22 (30) 39 (53) 63 (85) 96 (130) 138 (187) 191 (259) 339 (460) 545 (739)

9 (12) 18 (24) 33 (45) 52 (71) 80 (108) 115 (156) 159 (216) 282 (382) 455 (617)

9 (12) 19 (26) 33 (45) 54 (73) 82 (111) 118 (160) 164 (222) 290 (393) 467 (633) 701 (951)

8 (11) 15 (20) 28 (38) 45 (61) 68 (92) 98 (133) 136 (184) 241 (327) 390 (529) 583 (791)

/16
3

/16
1

/16
5 3 7

818 (1,109) 681 (923)

Torque values shown are for turning the nut while holding the head of the bolt with a wrench. If the application demands tightening by the bolt head, increase the torque slightly (by 5-20 percent depending on the bolt length) to allow for the normal twist of the bolt shank.

Pipe Thread T.F.F.T.


Fitting Size
1 3

Valve Cartridges
T.F.F.T. 1 /2 to 2
1 1 1 1 1 1

T.F.F.T. 2 to 2 /2
1 1 1 1

Fitting Size
3 7

Wrench Size
7

Fitting Size -8 -10 -10 -12 -16 -20

Torque ft-lbs (Nm) 20 (27) 25 (34) 25 (34) 35 (48) 50 (68) 65 (88)

/8 /4 /8 /2 /8

/4 /8

/8

/16 /16

2 to 2 /2 2 to 2 /2 2 to 2 /2 1 /2 to 2
1

1 /2 to 2 1 /2 to 2 1 /2 to 2 1 /2 to 2 1 /2 to 2

1 1 /8
1 1 1

1 5

1 1 /8
1 1

1 /4 1 /2 2

3 1 5

1 /2 2

2 to 2 /2
1 1

2 to 2 /2

Compression Fittings
Tube Size
1

Split Flanges
T.F.F.T. 1 /4
1 3 1

Fitting Size 2 thru 4 5 6 thru 16

Flange Size
3

Thread
3 3 7

Torque in-lbs (Nm) 250 to 350 (28 to 40) 325 to 425 (37 to 48) 425 to 550 (48 to 62) 550 to 700 (62 to 79) 650 to 800 (73 to 90)

/8 thru /4
1 5

/4

/8-16 /8-16 /2-13 /2-13

/16

1 /4 2 /4

1 1 /4
1 1

/8 thru 1

/16 -14

1 /2 2

1 1

Appendix Torque Values

SAE O-Ring Fittings


Fitting Size -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 -20 -24 -32 Torque With Self-Locking Nuts in-lbs (Nm) 60 to 70 (7 to 8) 120 to 140 (14 to 16) 180 to 200 (20 to 23) 245 to 275 (28 to 31) 300 to 340 (34 to 38) 545 to 595 (62 to 67) 690 to 750 (78 to 85) 910 to 1,010 (103 to 114) 1,675 to 1,825 (189 to 206) 1,845 to 1,995 (208 to 225) 2,550 to 2,850 (288 to 322) 2,850 to 3,150 (322 to 356) 3,700 to 4,100 (418 to 463) Torque Without Self-Locking Nuts in-lbs (Nm) 85 to 95 (10 to 11) 160 to 180 (18 to 20) 205 to 235 (23 to 27) 245 to 275 (28 to 31) 300 to 340 (34 to 38) 545 to 595 (62 to 67) 1,010 to 1,110 (114 to 125) 1,250 to 1,350 (141 to 153) 1,675 to 1,825 (189 to 206) 1,895 to 1,945 (214 to 220) 2,550 to 2,850 (288 to 322) 2,850 to 3,150 (322 to 356) 3,700 to 4,100 (418 to 463)

Upper values are for stainless steel.

Tube and JIC Fittings

Misalignment of marks show how much nut was tightened Tube Size
1 5

Fitting Size -4 -5 -6 -8 -10 -12 -16 -20 -24

Rotate Number of Hex Flats 2 2 11/2 11/2 11/2 11/4 1 1 1

/4 /8 /2 /8 /4

/16

3 1 5 3

1 1 /4
1 1

1 /2

Appendix Torque Values

Basic JIC Symbols


Lines
Line, pressure or tank

Methods of Operation
Spring

Line, sense (for control)

Manual

Component enclosure

Manual, rotary

Push button

Flow, direction of

Hydraulic Pneumatic

Push/pull lever

Pedal or treadle Lines crossing Mechanical or Detent

Pressure compensated Lines joining Solenoid, single winding Line with fixed restriction Servo motor Flow control adjustable, non-compensated Pilot pressure Flow control adjustable (temperature and pressure compensated) Station, testing, measurement, power take-off or plugged port Remote supply Internal supply

Appendix Basic JIC Symbols

Valves
Check

Cylinders
Double acting

Counterbalance

Single acting, internal spring

Single acting, external spring On - off (manual shut-off)

Fluid Storage
Pressure relief Reservoir Vented Pressurized Pressure reducing Line, to reservoir Two position, two connection Vented manifold Above fluid level Below fluid level

Two position, three connection

Two position, four connection

Motors
Hydraulic oscillator

Three position, four connection Hydraulic motor Two position, in transition Variable displacement Valves capable of infinite positioning (horizontal bars indicate infinite positioning ability) Shuttle valve Bidirectional Fixed displacement

Pumps
Hydraulic pump Fixed displacement

Variable displacement

Appendix Basic JIC Symbols

Miscellaneous
Internal combustion engine Temperature cause or effect

Accumulator, spring loaded

Variable component (run arrow through symbol at 45) Pressure compensated units (arrow parallel to short side of symbol)

Accumulator, gas charged

Weighted Direction of shaft rotation (assume arrow on near side of shaft)

Filter, strainer

Filter with adjustable bypass

Flowmeter

Pressure switch Heater Pressure gauge Cooler Pressure sensor Temperature gauge Temperature controller Quick disconnect

Appendix Basic JIC Symbols

Hydraulic System Schematics

Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics

Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics

Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics

Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics

358-00055B 3-04 AA

Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics

358-00038A 3-04 AA-L

Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics

Reservoir

Pump (AA Units Only)

Pump (AA-L Units Only)

DC Pump

Accumulator (AA Units Only)

Rotary Joint

Outrigger Control Valve (Personnel Handling Units Only)

Outrigger Control Valve (Material Handling Units Only)

Outrigger/Tool Control Valve (Material Handling Units Only)

Outrigger Interlock Valve (AA-L)

Outrigger Interlock Valve (AA)

Outrigger Signal Valve (AA-L Units Only)

Tool Pressure Reducing Valve (AA-L Units Only)

Unloading Valve (AA Units Only)

Combination Valve (AA-L Units Only) Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics

Main System Pressure Reducing Valve (AA Units Only)

Main System Blocking Valve (AA Units Only)

Lower/Purge/Upper Control Selector Valve (AA Units Only)

Lower Winch Valve

Upper Controls Interlock Valve

Lower Control Valve (AA Units Only)

Lower Control Valve (AA-L Units Only)

Upper Control Valve

Jib/Winch/Rotate Valve

Jib/Winch/Tool Valve

Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics

Tool Valve (Side-to-End Mounted Platform and Pedestal Tools

Tool Valve (End-Mounted Platform)

Platform Rotator

Lower Boom Stow Valve

Cross-Ported Pilot Operated Check Valve

Counterbalance Valve

Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics

Basic Electrical Symbols

Circuit breaker

Relays Simple

Fuse Bistable

Capacitor

Coil

Air-core Iron-core

Latching

Connection

Logic

No connection

Switches Single-pole, single-throw (SPST) Single-pole, double-throw (SPDT)

Battery

Ground Chassis or common return connected to one side of voltage source Chassis or common return not connected to voltage source Double-pole, single-throw (DPST) Double-pole, double-throw (DPDT)

Transistors Diodes Rectifier


A K

NPN

B E C

Photoemissive diode (LED)

Resistors

PNP Fixed

B E

Variable Motor

Appendix Basic Electrical Symbols

Troubleshooting Chart
Symptom Nothing operates. Possible Cause Hydraulic oil not reaching pump. Test Procedure/Corrective Action Check oil reservoir. If the oil level is low, add the proper type of hydraulic oil within two inches of the top of the reservoir. Check shutoff valve. If shutoff valve is closed, open it. Check for blocked suction line. PTO not engaged. Pump not operating properly. Check PTO. If it is not engaged, properly engage it. Connect a flowmeter to the pump and check pump flow. If pump flow is less than it should be, determine the cause of malfunction. Repair or replace the pump. (Check for worn pump shaft.) Rebuild or replace worn out pump. Pump not operating properly (load sense). Disassemble the pump compensator housing at the back of the pump and check for excessive friction on the compensator spool or contamination. Pump malfunction is usually caused by improper installation, contamination, or no oil in pump. If pump generates pressure when signal line is connected to the pump pressure line, the problem is not in the pump but in the unit. Cylinder drifts. Internal leakage in cylinder. Leakage past holding valve. Test the cylinder. If it is determined that there is internal leakage in the cylinder, repair seals in the cylinder or replace the cylinder. Replace holding valve O-ring seal and check for contamination. Make certain the cylinder is not being overloaded, causing counterbalance valves to open. Test the cylinder to determine if the holding valve is leaking. If the holding valve is a counterbalance valve, test and adjust the valve using an Altec test block or replace the valve cartridge. If the holding valve is a pilot operated check valve, replace the check valve cartridge. Leakage past directional control spool. Functions operate too slow from upper controls. Restriction in pilot pressure line connected to the upper control valve. Check operation of lower controls. Upper controls interlock valve not fully shifted. Interlock trigger on the single handle control is not properly adjusted. Control selector valve not fully shifted to the Upper Control position. Low pilot pressure. Air in upper control lines. Contamination under purge check balls in lower control valve. Forced opening on upper control valve set too low. Control spool is bent, broken, or worn out. Replace control valve for the outrigger. Check for kinks and restrictions in the pilot line.

If lower controls do not operate the concern is below rotation. Remove the spool for the upper controls interlock valve and inspect for contamination. If contamination is found, clean and/or replace the spool. Check the interlock trigger for proper placement. If necessary, adjust the interlock trigger to fully open the interlock valve of the upper controls. Check position of lower control selector valve on side of turntable. If control selector is in the Lower Control position, position the valve in the Upper Control position. Adjust pilot pressure to 350 psi. Purge air from the system using the purge function. Clean check purge valves.

Adjust if necessary.

Appendix Troubleshooting Chart

Symptom

Possible Cause

Test Procedure/Corrective Action Check operation of blocking valve. Clean and/or replace as necessary. Test and/or adjust pilot pressure. Adjust system pressure reducing valve as explained in Section 8. Troubleshoot the outrigger interlock system. Determine if the problem is in the electrical portion or hydraulic portion of the system. Replace defective component. Check adjustment of outrigger interlock electrical switches. Adjust if necessary.

No boom functions Blocking valve in turntable above rotation operate. not shifting (accumulator). Low or no pilot pressure. System pressure reducing valve is set too low. Outrigger interlock valve is not operating.

Pump compensator pressure is set too low (load sense). Low pressure at lower control valve (load sense). No signal from outrigger signal valve (load sense).

Adjust compensator pressure to 400 psi.

Check blocking valve cartridge in combination valve; replace if necessary. If a signal is reaching the rotary joint, but not the outrigger signal valve, the seals may be leaking internally in the rotary joint. Check operation of outrigger signal valve. Clean or replace. Clean or replace pump sense line filter.

One boom function operates slow from upper controls.

Purge check not seating.

Operate lower control valve lever to verify that function operates properly from the lower control valve. Check upper controls section linkage and pressure output. Clean or replace purge check valve.

Tools, jib, winch operate slowly or will not work under load.

Internal leak in rotary joint. Low pump flow.

Test rotary joint. If a leaking rotary joint is the source of the problem, repair the seals in the rotary joint or replace the rotary joint. Connect a flowmeter to the pump and check pump flow. If pump flow is less than is should be, determine the cause of malfunction. Repair or replace the pump. Move lower winch control valve to neutral. Replace tool signal pressure reducing valve or tool signal cartridge. Adjust tool pressure reducing valve. Change power tools or adjust tool flow control. Make sure two circuit connection has only open or closed center tools. Adjust or replace engine throttle control. Visually inspect throttle mechanical linkage. Clean orifice at yellow line elbow and at combination valve signal bleed off. Check power beyond O-ring at upper tools valve. Check platform rotator valves to see if they return to the center position.

Lower winch valve out of position. Tool signal not working (load sense). Tool pressure is set too low (load sense). Power tools incorrectly sized for gpm flow of tool circuit. Engine throttle does not work. Pump pressure oscillates during operation. Momentary loss of pump signal (load sense).

Appendix Troubleshooting Chart

Symptom Engine and pump remain loaded all the time.

Possible Cause Tool valve on. Defective blocking valve (load sense). Pump signal not bleeding off (load sense).

Test Procedure/Corrective Action Check that tool valve is off at tailshelf or boom tip. Replace blocking valve cartridge. Replace signal bleed off cartridge. Check each possible cause. Correct the source of the internal hydraulic leak. Test and/or adjust pilot pressure. Make sure platform rotator valves are in neutral and pilot pressure is set properly.

Excessive heat buildup. Unit operates from the lower controls, but no functions are operational from the upper controls.

Many possible causes of heat generation. Low or no pilot pressure.

Pilot control line kinked. Control selector valve in the correct position. Control selector valve is not fully shifted. Upper controls interlock valve not fully shifted. Air in hydraulic line.

Check for kinked or smashed line. Check the control selector. Place in the Upper Control position. Check the operation of the control selector valve. If defective, replace the control selector valve. Check the operation of the upper controls interlock valve. If defective, replace or adjust. Purge all air out of lines. Check for hot spots in pressure line. Restricted area will feel warmer than the rest of the hydraulic system. If a restriction is found, remove it. Excessive friction in valve section. Clean valve spool. Pilot pressure too low. Adjust to proper level. Lower control valve handles hitting turntable cover, hoses, etc.

All functions operate slow from the lower and upper controls.

Restriction in pressure or tank line. Lower control valve spools do not fully shift.

Low pump flow. Blocking valve not fully open. Throttle not set properly. Pump standby pressure is low (load sense). Cannot achieve full system pressure. Main system pressure reducing valve is set too low (accumulator). Unloading valve is set too low (accumulator) Pump is defective. Pump compensator pressure is set too low (load sense). Engine rpm is too low. Outrigger valve reliefs set too low (accumulator).

Check pump with flowmeter. Replace pump if defective. Test by connecting flowmeter in pressure line. Replace blocking valve if necessary. Adjust the throttle cylinder. Test standby pressure. Adjust if necessary. Adjust main system pressure reducing valve.

Adjust the unloading valve. Replace the pump. Adjust pump compensator pressure.

Readjust rpm. Reset outrigger pressure.

Appendix Troubleshooting Chart

Symptom All functions operate except power tools.

Possible Cause Tools turned off. Lower tool control needle valve is closed (accumulator). Quick disconnect malfunction. Tool malfunction. Upper controls interlock depressed. Blocking valve in combination valve malfunctioning (load sense). Tool system receiving external signal (load sense). Pump not receiving signal from tool control cartridge in combination valve (load sense).

Test Procedure/Corrective Action Turn boom tip or tailshelf tools valve on. Open needle valve. Repair or replace quick disconnect. Check circuit with known good tool. Release interlock trigger on single handle control. Remove and cap pilot port line to combination valve PLT port to determine if blocking valve is malfunctioning. Remove and cap TP port line of combination valve to determine if system is receiving external signal. Check for pressure at tool diagnostic port. Replace tool signal cartridge. Test accumulator precharge. Recharge if necessary. Reset unloading valve pressure setting. Turn off tool circuit. Correct internal leaks. Lubricate or replace as necessary. Open manual shutoff valves. Remove restriction or replace line. Check for malfunction or contamination. Clean or replace as necessary. Fill reservoir to the proper level. Suction line shutoff valve not fully open. Suction hose kinked or plugged. Suction hose too small (1-1/4 minimum).

Unloading valve cycles at a high rate with rapid throttling up and down of the engine.

Loss of accumulator precharge (accumulator). Unloading valve adjustment is low (accumulator). Upper tool circuit on. Internal hydraulic leak.

All functions operate except outriggers.

Sticky outrigger valve spools. Manual shutoff valves closed. Blocked or plugged hydraulic line. Outrigger signal valve is not operating properly (load sense).

Pump is noisy.

Reservoir oil level too low. Restriction in pump suction line.

Air entering suction line.

Low oil level. Hydraulic fitting is loose or weather cracked hose.

PTO/pump connection misaligned. Cavitation.

Correct misalignment. Restriction in suction line. Improper hydraulic oil viscosity. Excessive pump speed.

Severe hydraulic leak.

Hose, tube, fitting, seal failure, etc.

Replace defective component.

Appendix Troubleshooting Chart

Dielectric Test Form Category B 46 kV and Below


Meter Receptacle Bonding Jumper Test Band Bonding Jumper High Voltage Test Leads Control Leads High Voltage Transformer Upper Boom Test Lower Boom Test

Polyethylene Pads

Ground/Return Controls Leads Position A

Ground Position B

Procedure 1. Read and understand the dielectric test information in the Maintenance Manual and ANSI requirements. 2. Insulate the vehicle from ground by placing polyethylene pads beneath each tire and outrigger leg. 3. The preferred test is with the unit in Position A. Position B may be used for an inside facility with limited test space. When using Position B place the bottom of the platform 15 feet from the ground. Electrical connections are the same for both positions. 4. Electrically bond all metal at the boom tip and the booms. 5. Attach the ground and test leads for the upper boom test as shown. 6. Do not use cancel (null) circuit if the tester is so equipped. 7. Gradually increase the voltage to 27 kV. Hold at 27 kV (60 hertz) for 1 minute continuously. If flashover occurs or the leakage rate exceeds 27 microamps, the unit has failed the test. Record leakage reading. 8. Gradually increase the voltage to 54 kV. Record leakage when 54 kV (60 hertz) is reached. If flashover occurs or the leakage rate exceeds 54 microamps, the unit has failed the test. Record leakage reading. 9. Hold the voltage at 54 kV (60 hertz) for 1 minute continuously. If flashover occurs or the leakage rate exceeds 54 microamps, the unit has failed the test. Record leakage reading. 10. Gradually increase the voltage to 80 kV. Hold at 80 kV (60 hertz) for 10 seconds. If flashover occurs or the leakage rate exceeds 80 microamps, the unit has failed the test. Record leakage reading. 11. Remove the ground and test leads from the upper boom. Attach the test leads for the lower boom test as shown. 12. Gradually increase the voltage to 50 kV. Hold at 50 kV (60 hertz) for 3 minutes continuously. If flashover occurs or the leakage rate exceeds 3,000 microamps, the unit has failed the test. Record leakage reading. General Information Model number ______________________________ Test device number __________________________ Upper Boom Test Leakage reading (microamp) at: 27 kV _______ 54 kV _______ 54 kV after 1 minute _______ 80 kV _______ Serial number __________________________________ Test position ___________________________________

9-04

Appendix Dielectric Test Forms

Lower Boom Test Leakage reading (microamp) ___________________ Conclusion Date _________________________ Test performed by ______________________________________________ Pass _____ Fail (reason) _______________________________________________________________________ Comments ___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

Appendix Dielectric Test Forms

11-03

Dielectric Test Form for Platform Liners


Procedure 1. Connect a ground lead to a steel tank. 2. Immerse the liner in the tank and fill with conductive fluid until the level around both the inner and outer surfaces of the liner is within six inches of the top of the liner. 3. Suspend the high voltage lead in the fluid within the liner. 4. Apply the test voltage to the conductive fluid in the liner. Voltage may be either 35 kV (60 hertz) for 1 minute or 100 kV DC for 3 minutes. 5. If flashover occurs, or the liner wall punctures, the liner has failed the test. Ground High Voltage Lead Six Inch Maximum Conductive Fluid Tank

Liner

6. Turn off the test voltage, remove the high voltage lead and remove the liner from the tank. 7. The test for more than one liner may be recorded on the same form providing the same setup is used to eliminate external variables. Conclusion Liner Part No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Liner Serial No. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Pass (Initials) ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Fail (Reason) ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________

Date ______________________ Test voltage __________ Test performed by ___________________________ Comments _________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Appendix Dielectric Test Forms

Dielectric Test Form for Insulated Single Handle Control


Ground/Return Lead Attached to Spring Wrapped Around Handle Test AC DC

Maximum Test Microamp Voltage Leakage 40 kV 56 kV 400 28

High Voltage Lead

Tester

Control Lead

Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Read and understand the dielectric test information in the Maintenance Manual and ANSI requirements. Insulate the vehicle from ground by placing polyethylene pads beneath each tire and outrigger leg. Wrap a 0.375 to 1.000 inch diameter spring around the control handle as shown. Attach the ground/return leads to the spring on the control handle as shown. Attach the high voltage test lead (insulated from ground) to the control base as shown. (The bellows must be in place for this test.) 6. Do not use cancel (null) circuit if the tester is so equipped. 7. To test the control, gradually increase the voltage (refer to the chart). Hold at the appropriate voltage for 3 minutes continuously. If flashover occurs or the leakage rate exceeds the appropriate microamps from the chart, the control has failed the test. Record leakage reading. General Information Model number ______________________________ Serial number __________________________________

Test device number ___________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion Test conducted AC ___________________________________ DC ___________________________________ Curb side control leakage reading (microamp) _______ Street side control leakage reading (microamp) _______

Pass _____ Fail (reason) _______________________________________________________________________ Comments ___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Signature of Technician ______________________________________ Date of Test ________________________
3-04

Appendix Dielectric Test Forms

Stability Test Form (Without Jib)

Platform Test Weight

Procedure 1. Perform the stability test on a level surface and on a five degree slope in accordance with applicable ANSI requirements. 2. Fill out all information on this form as a record of a completed stability test. 3. Position the lower boom as shown in the figure and place the upper boom horizontal. 4. If the unit is equipped with platform rotators, the platforms must be rotated to the position furthest from the centerline of rotation. 5. Load the platform using a test weight of 1.5 times rated load for the Level Surface Stability Test and 1.33 times rated load for the Five Degree Slope Stability Test. Subtract the weight of liners, tools, etc., from the test weight. 6. After the test has been completed, torque all accessible rotation bearing cap screws to 325 foot-pounds using a circular pattern (only required at time of initial installation of unit on chassis). 7. After the test has been completed, torque the rotation gearbox mounting cap screws to 225 foot-pounds (only required at time of initial installation of unit on chassis) General Information Model number _________________________ Serial number _________________________________________ Platform type __________________________ Platform capacity (lbs) __________________________________ Counterweight added to unit (lbs) _________________________________________________________________ Location of counterweight relative to rear axle _______________________________________________________ Level Surface Test Test weight (lbs) ________________________ Thickness of outrigger pads (0 if not used) __________________ Five Degree Slope Test Test weight (lbs) ________________________ Side of vehicle on low side of slope _______________________ Thickness of outrigger pads (0 if not used) __________________ Appendix Stability Test Form

Conclusion Rotation bearing cap screws torqued ___________ Rotation gearbox mounting cap screws torqued ___________

Pass _____ Fail (reason) _______________________________________________________________________ Comments ___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Signature of Technician _______________________________________ Date of test ________________________

Appendix Stability Test Form

Stability Test Form (With Jib)

D Platform Test Weight Jib Test Weight

Level Surface Stability Test Chart


Standard Test A Model AA500 AA500L AA600 AA600L Platform Options Single side-mounted Double side-mounted Single side-mounted Double side-mounted Capacity Per Platform 350 lbs 300 lbs 350 lbs 300 lbs Platform Test Weight 525 lbs 900 lbs 525 lbs 900 lbs Jib Test Weight at D 1,580 lbs - 4 1,015 lbs - 4 1,135 lbs - 4 565 lbs - 4 Alternate Test B Platform Test Weight 0 0 0 0 Jib Test Weight at D 2,140 lbs - 2 1,970 lbs - 2 1,685 lbs - 2 1,505 lbs - 2

Five Degree Slope Stability Test Chart


Standard Test A Model AA500 AA500L AA600 AA600L Platform Options Single side-mounted Double side-mounted Single side-mounted Double side-mounted Capacity Per Platform 350 lbs 300 lbs 350 lbs 300 lbs Platform Test Weight 465 lbs 800 lbs 465 lbs 800 lbs Jib Test Weight at D 1,405 lbs - 4 905 lbs - 4 1,010 lbs - 4 500 lbs - 4 Alternate Test B Platform Test Weight 0 0 0 0 Jib Test Weight at D 1,895 lbs - 2 1,745 lb. - 2 1,495 lb. - 2 1,330 lb. - 2

Procedure 1. Perform the stability test on a level surface and on a five degree slope in accordance with applicable ANSI requirements. 2. Fill out all information on this form as a record of a completed stability test. 3. Find the model being tested in the chart for the test being performed. 4. Position the lower boom at the angle (A) indicated in the chart and place the upper boom horizontal. 5. Position the jib so the distance (D) from the center of the load line to the center of the jib pivot equals the value designated in the stability charts. 6. If the unit is equipped with platform rotators, the platforms must be rotated to the position furthest from the centerline of rotation. Appendix Stability Test Form

7. Alternate Test B is a more conservative test that may be used instead of Standard Test A to reduce weight handling time. On units which require counterweight, Standard Test A may be preferred to minimize counterweight. 8. Subtract the weight of liners, tools, etc., from the test weight shown in the stability charts. For platform capacities not shown, use a test weight of 1.5 times rated load for the Level Surface Stability Test and 1.33 times rated load for the Five Degree Slope Stability Test. 9. Load the jib and the platform with the proper weight. 10. After the test has been completed, torque all accessible rotation bearing cap screws to 325 foot-pounds using a circular pattern (only required at time of initial installation of unit on chassis). 11. After the test has been completed, torque the rotation gearbox mounting cap screws to 225 foot-pounds (only required at time of initial installation of unit on chassis) General Information Model number _________________________ Serial number _________________________________________ Platform type __________________________ Platform capacity (lbs) __________________________________ Counterweight added to unit (lbs) _________________________________________________________________ Location of counterweight relative to rear axle _______________________________________________________ Level Surface Test Test conducted A _____ B _____ Platform test weight (lbs) ___________ Jib test weight (lbs) ____________

Thickness of outrigger pads (0 if not used) __________________________________________________________ Five Degree Slope Test Test conducted A _____ B _____ Platform test weight (lbs) ___________ Jib test weight (lbs) ____________

Side of vehicle on low side of slope _________ Thickness of outrigger pads (0 if not used) __________________ Conclusion Rotation bearing cap screws torqued ___________ Rotation gearbox mounting cap screws torqued ___________

Pass _____ Fail (reason) _______________________________________________________________________ Comments ___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Signature of Technician _______________________________________ Date of test ________________________

Appendix Stability Test Form

Stability Test Form (With Lower Boom Lifting Eye)

Test Weight

Procedure 1. Perform the stability test on a level surface and on a five degree slope in accordance with applicable ANSI requirements. 2. Fill out all information on this form as a record of a completed stability test. 3. Place both booms in a horizontal position with the upper boom near its rest. 4. Do not occupy or load the platform or jib. 5. Lift eye test weight is 1,200 pounds for the Level Surface Stability Test and 1,065 pounds for the Five Degree Slope Stability Test. 6. Perform an applicable unit stability test. General Information Model number _______________________ Serial number __________________________________________

Counterweight added to unit (lbs) _________________________________________________________________ Location of counterweight relative to rear axle _______________________________________________________ Level Surface Test Lift eye test weight (lbs) _______________ Five Degree Slope Test Lift eye test weight (lbs) _______________ Thickness of outrigger pads (0 if not used) ___________________ Thickness of outrigger pads (0 if not used) ___________________

Side of vehicle on low side of slope _______________________________________________________________ Conclusion Pass _____ Fail (reason) _______________________________________________________________________ Comments ___________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Signature of Technician _______________________________________ Date of test ________________________

Appendix Stability Test Form