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Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3 MB00 50 Research Methodology - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1206)

Q1. a. Explain the types of research. b. What is the significance of research in social and business sciences? Answer: a) Types of Research Pure Research: It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice, e.g., Einsteins theory of relativity. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. Applied Research: It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. Exploratory Research: It is also known as formulating research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. Descriptive Study: It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research Diagnostic Study: It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. Evaluation Studies: It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmers implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. Action Research: It is a type of evaluation study. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programmed launched for solving a problem for improving an existing situation.

Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3 MB00 50 Research Methodology - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1206)

B: The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increasing in modern times. The increasingly complex nature of government and business has raised the use of research in solving operational problems. Research assumes significant role in formulation of economic policy, for both the government and business. It provides the basis for almost all government policies of an economic system. Government budget formulation, for example, depends particularly on the analysis of needs and desires of the people, and the availability of revenues, which requires research. Research helps to formulate alternative policies, in addition to examining the consequences of these alternatives Thus, research as a tool of government economic policy formulation involves three distinct stages of operation which are as follows: Investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts Diagnoses of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forces underlying them; and The prognosis, i.e., the prediction of future developments Q2. What is meant by validity? How does it differ from reliability and what are its types?

Answer: Validity: A measurement scale may be considered to be valid if it effectively measures a specific property or characteristic that it intends to measure. The question of validity does not arise in the case of measurement of physical characteristics such as length, weight and height. This is because the measurement is direct and can be done through standard measuring devices. Types of Validity
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Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3 MB00 50 Research Methodology - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1206)

1. Content validity: This type of validity may be of two types a) Face validity and b) Sampling validity. Face validity is determined through a subjective evaluation of a measuring scale. However, the limitation of this type of validity is that it is determined by opinions, rather than through a statistical method. 2. Predictive validity: This type of validity refers to the extent to which one behavior can be predicted based on another, based on the association between the results yielded by the measuring instrument and the eventual outcome. 3. Construct validity: A construct is a conceptual equation that is developed by the researcher based on theoretical reasoning. Various kinds of relationships may be perceived by the researcher between a variable under study and other variables. While reliability is ability of a measuring scale to provide consistent and accurate results. There are two dimension of reliability stability and equivalence or non variability, Reliability and validity are closed interlinked a measuring instrument that is valid is always reliable but reverse is not true. Q3. a. Why literature survey is important in research? b. What are the criteria of good research problem? Answer: a. An area of subject matter in which explicit hypothesis have not yet been formulated. The researchers task then is to reviw the available material with an eye on the possibilities of developing hypothesis from it. In some areas of the subject matter hypothesis may have been stated by previous research workers. The researcher has to take stock of these various hypothesis with a view to evaluating their usefulness for further research and to consider whether they suggest any new hypothesis. Professional organization research groups and voluntary organizations are a constant source of information about unpublished works in their special fields.

Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3 MB00 50 Research Methodology - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1206)

b. Horton and hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research: 1. Verifiable evidence: that is factual observations which other observers can see and check. 2. Accuracy: that is describing what really exists. 3. Precision: that is making it as exact as necessary, or giving exact number or measurement. 4. Systematization: that is attempting to find all the relvant data or collecting data in a systematic and organized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. 5. Objectivity: That is free being from all biases and vested interests, it means observation is unaffected by the observers values, beliefs and preferences to the extent possible and he is able to see and accept as they are not as he might wish them to be. 6. Recording: that is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. 7. Controlling conditions: that is controlling all variables except on and then attempting to examine what happens when that variable is varied. 8. Training investigators: that is imparting necessary knowledge to investigators to make them understand what to look for, how to interpret in and avoid inaccurate data collection.

Q4. Explain the procedure for Testing Hypothesis. Answer: The various steps involved in hypothesis testing are stated below:
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Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3 MB00 50 Research Methodology - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1206)

Making a formal statement: the step consists in making a formal of the the null hypothesis (H0) and also of the alternative hypothesis (Ha). this means that hypothesis should clearly state considering the nature of the research problem. Selecting a significant level: The hypothesis is tested on pre-determined level of significance and such the same should have specified in practice either 5% level or 1% level is adopted for the purpose. Deciding the distribution to use: after deciding the level of significance the next step hypothesis testing is to determine the appropriate sampling distribution Selecting a random sample & computing an appropriate value: select a random sample and compute an appropriate value from the sample data concerning the test static utilizing the relevant distribution. Calculation of the Probability: calculate the probability that the sample result would diverge as widely as it has from expectations Comparing the probability: comparing the probability thus calculated with the specified value for the significant level. If the calculated probability is the equal to smaller than value in case of one tailed test but if probability is greater then accept the null hypothesis in case we reject H0 we run a risk of committing an error or type I but if we accept H0 then we run some risk of committing error type II. Q5. a. Explain the components of a research design. b. Briefly explain the different types of research designs. Answer: It is important to be familiar with the important concepts relating to research design they are:

Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3 MB00 50 Research Methodology - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1206)

1. Dependent and independent variables: A magnitude that varies


is known as a variable. The concept may assume different quantitative values like height weight income etc. 2. Extraneous variable: the independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. 3. Control: one of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the effect of extraneous variable. Technically the term control is used when a researcher designs the study in such a manner that it minimizes the effects of extraneous independent variables. 4. Confound relationships: the relationship between dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable when the dependent variable is not free from its effects. a. Research hypothesis b. experimental and control groups c. Treatments d. experiment e. experiment unit B. there are number of crucial research choices various writers advance different classification schemes: 1. Experimental historical and inferential design. 2. Exploratory descriptive and casual design 3. Experimental and expose fact 4. Historical method and case and clinical studies 5. Sample surveys field studies experiments in field setting and laboratory experiments 6. Exploratory descriptive and experimental studies. 7. Exploratory descriptive casual (green and tull) 8. Experimental quasi experimental design 9. True experimental quasi experimental and non experimental design
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Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3 MB00 50 Research Methodology - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1206)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

10. Experimental pre-experimental quasi experimental designs and survey research. Q6. a. What are the assumptions of Case Study Method? b. Explain the Sampling process. Answer: Case study would depend upon wit commonsense and imagination of the person doing the case study. If the life history has been written in the first person it must be as complete and coherent as possible. Life histories should have been written for knowledgeable persons. It is advisable to supplement case data by observational statistical and historical data since these provide standards for assessing the reliability and consistency of the case material. Efforts should be made to ascertain the reliability of life history data trough examining the internal consistency of the material. A judicious combination of techniques of data collection is a prerequisite for securing data that are culturally meaningful and scientifically significant. B. Steps in Sampling Process: An operational sampling process can be divided into seven steps as given below: Defining the target population. Specifying the sampling frame. Specifying the sampling unit. Selection of the sampling method. Determination of sample size. Specifying the sampling plan. Selecting the sample.
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Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3 MB00 50 Research Methodology - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1206)

1. Defining the Target Population:Defining the population of interest, for


business research, is the first step in sampling process. In general, target population is defined in terms of element, sampling unit, extent, and time frame. The definition should be in line with the objectives of the research study. 2. Specifying the Sampling Frame:Once the definition of the population is clear a researcher should decide on the sampling frame. A sampling frame is the list of elements from which the sample may be drawn. Continuing with the micro oven 3. Specifying the Sampling Unit:A sampling unit is a basic unit that contains a single element or a group of elements of the population to be sampled. In this case, a household becomes a sampling unit and all women above the age of 20 years living in that particular house become the sampling elements 4. Selection of the Sampling Method:The sampling method outlines the way in which the sample units are to be selected. The choice of the sampling method is influenced by the objectives of the business research, availability of financial resources, time constraints, and the nature of the problem to be investigated. 5. Determination of Sample Size:The sample size plays a crucial role in the sampling process. There are various ways of classifying the techniques used in determining the sample size. A couple those hold primary importance and are worth mentioning are whether the technique deals with fixed or sequential sampling and whether its logic is based on traditional or Bayesian methods. In nonprobability sampling procedures, 6. Specifying the Sampling Plan:In this step, the specifications and decisions regarding the implementation of the research process are outlined. Suppose, blocks in a city are the sampling units and the households are the sampling elements. This step outlines the modus operandi of the sampling plan in identifying houses based on specified characteristics. It includes issues like how is the interviewer going to take a systematic sample of the houses. What should the interviewer do when a house is vacant?

7. Selecting the Sample:


This is the final step in the sampling process, where the actual selection of the sample elements is carried out. At this stage, it is necessary that the interviewers stick to the rules outlined for the smooth implementation of the business research. This step involves implementing the sampling plan to select the sampling plan to select a sample required for the survey.