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ASPIRE COMMUNICATION QUIZ FOR GROUPS 6, 7, 8 1. I returned back from my home on 2'o clock at Wednesday.

I returned from my home at 2'o clock on Wednesday. 2. Myself Divya, I am coming from Chennai. I am Divya and I come from Chennai. 3. We all of us visited many places last year. We visited many places last year. . 4. I have earned many friends in my college here. I have made many friends in my college. 5. English is been spoken across the world. English is spoken across the world. 6. When I was in my tenth class,I use to go to play cricket. When I was in my tenth class, I used to play cricket. 7. Most directors do not mind to give chance to new actors. Most directors do not mind giving a chance to new actors. 8. If I were a Prime Minister of this country,I changed the education systems first. If I were the Prime Minister of this country, I would have changed the education system. 9. The best part I liked about the movie were the action scenes. The best part I liked about the movie was the action scenes. 10. My most saddest moment was when I did not got through the interview. My saddest moment is when I did not get through the interview. 11. In the schools the English should be taught by qualified teachers. In schools, English should be taught by qualified teachers. 12. After our discussion,I am understanding you better now. After our discussion, I understand you better. 13. He can be able to sing very well. He can sing very well. 14. We are having many beautiful beaches in city. We have many beautiful beaches in the city. 15. An interesting incident happened with me in starting. In the beginning, an interesting incident happened to me. 16. I went to library to get as many informations as possible.

I went to a library to get as much information as possible. 17. I can't cope up with a lot of stress. I can't cope with a lot of stress. 18. I'm not speaking to nobody in this class. I'm not speaking to anybody in this class. 19. In this days youth are addicted at social networking. In these days the youth are addicted to social networking. 20. Its a big relief that I did not screw up my lab exams. It's a big relief that I did not make a mess of my lab exams.

ANSWERS TO THE ASPIRE ASSISNMENTS: unix assignment-1: UNIX Assignment 1 1. firite a command to list all the files inside a folder i.e. if there is afolder inside a folder then it should list all files inside the sub-folder which is inside the folder to be listed. Sol) $ find -type f 2. Search all the files which contains a particular string, say include"within a folder. Sol) $ ls -F|grep -v /|xargs grep include$ find -type f -printO|xargs -O grep include 3. Rename all the files within a folder with suffix Unix_" i.e.suppose a folder has two files a.txt and b.pdf than they both should be renamed from a single command to Unix_a.txt and Unix_b.pdf Sol) $ for f in $(ls -F|grep -v /);do mv "$f" "Unix_$f"; done 4. Rename all files within a folder with the first word of their content(remember all the files should be text files. For example if a.txt contains Unix is an OS" in its first line then a.txt should berenamed to Unix.txt Sol) $ for f in $(ls|grep .txt);do mv "$f" "$(cat $f|tr \n|head-1)".txt;done

5. Suppose you have a C project in a folder called project", itcontains .c and .h files, it also contains some other .txt files and.pdf files. firite a Linux command that will count the number of lines of your text files. That means total line count of every file. (remember you have to count the lines in .txt files only) Sol) $ ls|grep .txt|xargs wc l 6. Rename all files which contain the sub-string foo, replacing itwith bar within a given folder. Sol) $ for f in $(ls -F|grep -v /|grep "foo");do mv "$f" "${f//foo/bar}";done l. Show the most commonly used commands from history"? [hint:remember the history command, use cut, and sort it] Sol) $ history|cut -d -f5|sort|uniQ -c|sort -r|head -5 unix assignment2: Answer-1 Mkdir training training/level1 training/level2 training/cep level1/sdp level1/re level1/selevel2/sdp level2/re level2/se cep/sdp cep/re cep/se Answer-2 Cp r dir1 dir2 command will copy a directory structure dir1 todir2 .Answer-3 Ls lg command is used to find out if you have the permission to send a message. Answer-4 Ls l command is used to display all the content of directory along with size in bytes. Answer-5 Date +%T command is used to display date and time in 24-hour format .Answer-6 Date +%t command is for printing the year, month, and date with a horizontal tabbetween the fields. Answer-l

Cat > chapaContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapb Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapcContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapdContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapeContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapAContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapBContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapCContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapDContents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapEContents of file Ctrl+DCat > chapO1Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapO2Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapO3Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapO4Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chapO5Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chap11Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chap12Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chap13Contents of fileCtrl+D Cat > chap14Contents of fileCtrl+DCat > chap15Contents of fileCtrl+D Answer-8 Ls [abcde] or Ls [a-z] Answer-9 Ls [A-Z] Answer-1O Ls O? Answer-11 Ls [bde] Answer-12 Srep c programmer personnel Answer-13 Sed n '/programmer/p personnel Answer-14 Sed 's/programmer/software professional/g personnel Answer-15 The command sleep

waits a given number of seconds before continuing. Type % sleep 1O This will wait 1O seconds before returning the command prompt %. Until the commandprompt is returned, you can do nothing except wait

DBMS ASSISNMENT 1: EMP EMP_NO NOT NULL NUMBER(4) EMP_NAME VARCHAR(25) DESISNATION CHAR(4) JOININS_DATE DATE SALARY NUMBER(l,2) DEPT_NO NUMBER(2) DEPT DEPT_NO NOT NULL NUMBER(2) DEPT_NAME VARCHAR(25) BUDSET NUMBER(15,2) MANASER VARCHAR(25) Create tables EMP, and DEPT, the structure for which are given above. firite SQL Queries for the following : 1. Display each employee??s name and date of joining. 2. Display employees earning more than Rs.5,OOO. Label the column name ??Employee??. 3. Display all employee names and employee numbers in the alphabetical order of names. 4. Display all employee names containing the letter ??S??. 5. Display the employees hired in 1981. 6. Display the minimum and maximum salary. l. Display the list of employees along with their department name and its manager. 8. Display the number of different employees listed for each department. 9. Delete the records of all the employees hired in 1981 from EMP table. 1O. Update the salary of all the employees to Rs. 1O,OOO. Answers: 11. select EMPNAME, JOININSDATE from emp

12. select EMP_NAME as Employee from emp where SALARY>5OOO 13. select EMPNAME, EMPNO from emp order by EMP_NAME 14. select EMPNAME from emp where EMPNAME like "%ra%" 15. select EMPNAME from emp where YEAR(JOININSDATE)=1981 16. select min(SALARY), max(SALARY) from emp 1l. select e.EMPNAME, d.DEPTNAME, d.MANASER from emp e, dept d where e.DEPTNO=d.DEPTNO 18. select count(), d.DEPTNAME from emp e, dept d where e.DEPTNO= d.DEPTNO group by e.DEPTNO 19. delete from emp where YEAR(JOININS_DATE)=1981 2O. update emp set SALARY=1OOO

1. write a program to find the difference between sum of the sQuares and the sQuare of the sums of n numbers? Program:

import java.io.; importjava.util.Scanner; class Difference { publicstaticvoid main(String args[]) throwsIOException { Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the value of n: "); int n=s.nextInt();

int a[]=newint[n]; int i, sQr, diff, sum=O, add=O; System.out.print("The "+n); System.out.println(" numbers are : "); for(i=O;i<n;i++) { a[i]=s.nextInt(); sum+=(a[i]a[i]); add+=a[i]; } sQr=addadd; diff=sQr-sum; System.out.println(""); System.out.print("Sum of SQuares of given "+n); System.out.println(" numbers is : "+sum); System.out.print("SQuares of Sum of given "+n); System.out.println(" numbers is : "+sQr); System.out.println(""); System.out.println("Difference between sum of the sQuares and the sQuare of the sum of given "+n); System.out.print(" numbers is : "+diff); System.out.println(""); } }

Enter the value of n: 4 The 4 numbers are : 2 3 4 5

Sum of SQuares of given 4 numbers is : 54 SQuares of Sum of given 4 numbers is : 196

Difference between sum of the sQuares and the sQuare of the sum of given 4 numbers is : 142

-------------2. Develop a program that accepts the area of a sQuare and will calculate its perimeter.

Program:

importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclassCalculateSQuarePeri {

/ @paramargs / publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) {

Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Area of SQuare : "); double a=s.nextDouble(); double p=4Math.sQrt(a);

System.out.println(""); System.out.print("Perimeter of the SQuare : "+p); System.out.println(""); }

} Output:

Enter the area: 23 Perimeter of the sQuare is: 19.183326O9325O8l6

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3. Develop the program calculateCylinderVolume., which accepts radius of a cylinders base disk and its height and computes the volume of the cylinder.

Program:

import java.io.; importjava.util.Scanner; classcalculateCylinderVolume { publicstaticvoid main(String args[]) throwsIOException {

Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the radius : "); double rad=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the height : "); doubleht=s.nextDouble();

doublevol=Math.PIradradht; System.out.println(""); System.out.println("Volume of the cylinder is : " + vol); } }

Output:

Enter the radius : 12 Enter the height : 13

Volume of the cylinder is : 5881.O6144l52OO93

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4. Utopias tax accountants always use programs that compute income taxes even though the tax rate is a solid, never-changing 15%. Define the program calculateTax which determines the tax on the gross pay. Define calculateNetPay that determines the net pay of an employee from the number of hours worked. Assume an hourly rate of $12.

Program:

importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclasscalculateTax {

/ @paramargs / publicstaticvoid main(String[] args)

{ Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the no. of working days in the year : "); int d=s.nextInt(); System.out.println("Enter the no. of working hours in a day : "); int h=s.nextInt(); System.out.println("Enter the no. of hours worked in over time : "); intot=s.nextInt(); System.out.println("Enter the no. of hours took leave : ");

int l=s.nextInt(); double gross=((dh)+ot-l)12; double tax= grossO.15; double net=gross-tax; System.out.println(""); System.out.println("Sross Pay (in $) : "+gross); System.out.println("Tax (in $) : "+tax); System.out.println("Net Pay (in $) : "+net);

Output:

Days worked by employer in a year : 3OO Enter the no. of working hours in a day : 6

Enter the no. of hours worked in over time : 1 Enter the no. of hours took leave : 156O

Sross Pay (in $) : 2892.O Tax (in $) : 433.8

Net Pay (in $) : 2458.2

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5. An old-style movie theater has a simple profit program. Each customer pays $5 per ticket. Every performance costs the theater $2O, plus $.5O per attendee. Develop the program

calculateTotalProfit that consumes the number of attendees (of a show) and calculates how much income the show earns.

Program: importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclasscalculateTotalProfit {

/ @paramargs / publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { Scanner s = newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the no. of attendees of a show : "); int n=s.nextInt(); double profit = (n5)-(2O+(nO.5)); System.out.println(""); System.out.println("Total Profit of the theater per show (in $) is : " + profit); }

} Output: Enter the no. of attendees per show : 5O

Total Profit of the theater per show (in $) is : 2O5.O

l. Develop the program calculateCylinderArea, which accepts radius of the cylinders base disk and its height and computes surface area of the cylinder.

Program:

importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclasscalculateCylinderArea {

/ @paramargs / publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the base radius : "); double rad=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the height : "); doubleht=s.nextDouble(); double area=2Math.PIrad(rad+ht); System.out.println(""); System.out.println("Surface Area of the cylinder is : " + area); }

Output:

Enter the base radius : 12 Enter the height :

Surface Area of the cylinder is : 1884.9555921538l58

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8. Develop the program calculatePipeArea. It computes the surface area of a pipe, which is an open cylinder. The program accpets three values: the pipes inner radius, its length, and the thickness of its wall.

Program:

importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclasscalculatePipeArea {

/ @paramargs / publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the inner radius : "); double rad=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the length : "); doublelen=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the thickness : "); double thick=s.nextDouble(); double area=2Math.PI(rad+thick)len;

System.out.println(""); System.out.println("Surface Area of the pipe is : " + area);

Output:

Enter the inner radius : 13 Enter the length : 2O Enter the thickness : 5

Surface Area of the pipe is : 2261.946l1O584651

9. Develop the program calculateHeight, which computes the height that a rocket reaches in a given amount of time. If the rocket accelerates at a constant rate g, it

reaches a speed of g t in t time units and a height of 1/2 v t where v is the speed at t.

program:

importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclasscalculateHeight {

/ @paramargs / publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the time (in seconds) : "); double t=s.nextDouble(); double v=9.8t;

double height=O.5vt; System.out.println(""); System.out.println("Height reached (in meters) is : " + height);

Output:

Enter the time (in seconds) : 3OO

Height reached (in meters) is : 441OOO.O

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1O. Develop a program that computes the distance a boat travels across a river, given the width of the river, the boats speed perpendicular to the river, and the rivers speed. Speed is distance/time, and the Pythagorean Theorem is c2 = a2 + b2.

Program:

importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclassBoatDistance {

/ @paramargs /

publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { Scanner s= newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the width of the river (in meters) : "); doublerw=s.nextDouble();

System.out.println("Enter the rivers speed (in meter/sec) : "); doublers=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the boats speed (in meter/sec) : "); doublebs=s.nextDouble(); double time=rw/bs; //time takes to travel from shore to shore straight by the boat double w2=timers; //distance due to down stream doublebd=Math.sQrt((rwrw)+ (w2w2)); System.out.println(""); System.out.println("The distance travelled by boat (in meters) is : "+bd); } } Output:

Enter the width of the river (in meters) :

15 Enter the rivers speed (in meter/sec) : 2OO Enter the boats speed (in meter/sec) : 25O

The distance travelled by boat (in meters) is : 19.2O93l2l12298546

11. Develop a program that accepts an initial amount of money (called the principal), a simple annual interest rate, and a number of months will compute the balance at the end of that time. Assume thatno additional deposits or withdrawals are made and that a month is 1/12 of a year. Total interest is the product of the principal, the annual interest rate expressed as a decimal, and the number of years. Program: importjava.util.Scanner;

publicclasscalculateBalance {

/ @paramargs / publicstaticvoid main(String[] args) { Scanner s=newScanner(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the principal amount : "); double p=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the annual interest rate : "); double r=s.nextDouble(); System.out.println("Enter the no. of months : "); double m=s.nextDouble(); doublesi=(p(m/12)r)/1OO; doublebal=p+si; System.out.println(""); System.out.print("Balance after " +(int)m); System.out.println(" month(s) is : "+bal); }

} Output: Enter the principal amount : 15OOO Enter the annual interest rate : 12 Enter the no. of months : 24

Balance after 24 month(s) is : 186OO.O

JAVA ASSISNMENT 2: 1.)Create a washing machine class with methods as switchOn, acceptClothes, acceptDetergent,switchOff. acceptClothes accepts the noofClothes as argument

returns the no of Clothes.

import java.util.; class fiashingMachine{Scanner input=new Scanner(System.in);public void switchOn () {System.out.println ("The lid is open.");} public void start () {System.out.println ("Start washing ...");} public void acceptDetergent ()

{System.out.println("Adding Detergent.. ");start();}public intacceptClothes() {System.out.println("Enter no of clothes: ");int no=input.nextInt();return no;}public void switchOff () {System.out.println ("The lid is closed.");} public static void main(String[] args){fiashingMachinewm=new fiashingMachine();wm.switchOn();int numOFClothes=wm.acceptClothes();wm.acceptDetergent();wm.switchOff();System. out. println(numOFClothes+" clothes get washed");}}

. 2)Create a calculator class which will have methods add, multiply, divide subtract class Calculation{public int add(inta,int b){return a+b;}public int subtract(inta,int b){if(a>b){return a-b;}else{return b-a;}}public int multiply(inta,int b){return ab;}public int divide(inta,int b){if(a>b){return a/b;}else{return b/a;}}}public class Calculator{public static void main(String []args){Calculation cal=new Calculation();int add=cal.add(5,1O);int sub=cal.subtract(5,1O);intmul=cal.multiply(5,1O);int div=cal.divide(5,1O);System.out.println(add);System.out.println(sub);System.out.pri ntln (mul);System.out.println(div);}} 3. Create a class called Student which has the following methods:

i. Average: which would accept marks of 3 examinations return whether the student haspassed or failed depending on whether he has scored an average above 5O or not.ii. Inputname: which would accept the name of the student returns the name. import java.util.; public class Student{ Scanner input=new Scanner(System.in); public String average(){System.out.print("Enter Marks1: ");double m1=input.nextDouble();System.out.print("Enter Marks2: ");double m2=input.nextDouble();System.out.print("Enter Marks3: ");double m3=input.nextDouble();double tm=m1+m2+m3;double avg=tm/3;if(avg<5O) {return "Failed";}if(avg>5O){return "Passed";}return " ";}public String getName() {System.out.println("Enter Name:");String name=input.nextLine();String result=average();return name+" get "+result;}public static void main(String[]args) {Student data=new Student();String nameAndResut=data.getName();System.out.println(nameAndResut);}}

4).Create a Bank class with methods deposit withdraw. The deposit method would acceptattributes amount balance returns the new balance which is the sum of amount balance. Similarly, the withdraw method would accept the attributes amount balance returns the new balance balance amount if balance > = amount or return O otherwise.

import javax.swing.;class Customer{intbal; Customer(intbal) {this.bal = bal;}int deposit(intamt) {if (amt< O) {System.out.println("Invalid Amount");return 1;}bal = bal + amt;return O;} int withdraw(intamt) {if (bal<amt) {System.out.println("Not sufficient balance.");return 1;}if (amt< O) {System.out.println("Invalid Amount");return 1;}bal = bal - amt;return O;}void check() {JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null,"Balance:" + Integer.toString(bal));} }public class Bank{public static void main(String[]args){Customer Cust=new Customer(15OO);String st1=JOptionPane.showInputDialog(null,"Enter the amount to deposit:");intdep=Integer.parseInt(st1);

int bal1=Cust.deposit(dep);Cust.check();String st2=JOptionPane.showInputDialog(null,"Enter the amount to withdraw:");int with=Integer.parseInt(st2);intbal2=Cust.withdraw(with);Cust.check();}}

int bal1=Cust.deposit(dep);Cust.check();String st2=JOptionPane.showInputDialog(null,"Enter the amount to withdraw:");int with=Integer.parseInt(st2);intbal2=Cust.withdraw(with);Cust.check();}}

5)Create an Employee class which has methods netSalary which would accept salary tax asarguments returns the netSalary which is tax deducted from the salary. Also it has a methodgrade which would accept the grade of the employee return grade.

import java.util.;class Employee{static Scanner input=new Scanner(System.in);public double netSalary(double salary, double taxrate){double tax=salarytaxrate;doublenetpay=salary=tax;returnnetpay;}public static String grade( ){System.out.print("Enter Srade: ");String grade=input.next();return grade;}public static void main(String[] args){Employee emp=new Employee();System.out.print("Enter Salary: ");double sal=input.nextDouble();System.out.print("Enter Tax in %: ");double taxrate=input.nextDouble()/1OO; String g=emp.grade();double net=emp.netSalary(sal,taxrate);System.out.println("Net Salary is: "+net);System.out.println("Srade is: "+g);}}

6. Create Product having following attributes: Product ID, Name, Category ID and UnitPrice. CreateElectricalProduct having the following additional attributes: VoltageRange and fiattage. Add a behavior to change the fiattage and price of the electrical product. Display the updatedElectricalProduct details. import java.util.;class Product{intproductID;Stringname;intcategoryID;doubleprice;Product(intproductID,St rin gname,intcategoryID,double price) {this.productID=productID;this.name=name;this.categoryID=categoryID;this.pric e=price;}}public class ElectricalProduct extends Product{intvoltageRange;intwattage;ElectricalProduct(intproductID,Stringname,intc ateg oryID,doubleprice,intvoltageRange, intwattage) {super(productID,name,categoryID,price);this.voltageRange=voltageRange; this.wattage=wattage;}

COMMUNICATIOM ASSISNMENT: 1. Identify the sounds in the following words. How many sounds can you find in each word? Try and rewrite the words using the phonetic symbols.

S.No. fiord Phonetic symbol No. of sounds

1) added & d a d 4 2) project p r a d7 s k t l 3) man m & n 3

4) king k + y 3 5) duck d a k 3 6) come k a m 3 l) here h + r 3 8) chocolate tf a k l a t 6 9) comfortable k a m f a r t a b a l 11 1O) environmenta n v a j r a n m a n t 12 11) technology t s k n a l + d7 i 9 12) bear b s r 3 13) computer k a m p j u t a r 9 14) English + y g l + f 6 15) Manager m & n a d7 a r l ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. fihat do you understand by the term schwa? Explain what you have understood with the help of examples.

Schwa is the most common sound in the English language. It occurs only in unstressed syllables and getting it correct helps spoken English to sound more natural and fluent. Any vowel letter can be pronounced as schwa and the

pronunciation of a vowel letter can change depending on whether the syllable in which it occurs is stressed or not.

The phonetic symbol for schwa is: /e/ Example: :- To survive the cold weather you have to make thorough preparations..

The schwa sounds are marked in underlined ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. How many sounds do we have in English?

There are 26 letters in the English alphabet but there are 44 sounds in the English language. This means that the number of sounds in a word is not always the same as the number of letters.

The sounds are organized into the following different groups: Short vowels Long vowels

Diphthongs (double vowel sounds) Voiceless consonants Voiced consonants

Other consonants --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. Put and Cut are spelt in a similar fashion but pronounced differently. Could you explain why?

fiords rhyme when their sounds are the same from the last stressed vowel sound to the end of the word. In single-syllable words its easy to find rhymes. Cat, sat, hat, and fat all rhyme. There are some non-rhyming words, specifically about words you would expect to rhyme, but do not.

Example: Cut and Put These two words have some similar spelling but they are pronounced in a different way.

Cut is pronounced as /kxt/ Put is pronounced as /put/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Could you explain connected speech?

fihen we speak naturally we do not pronounce a word, stop, and then say the next word in the sentence. Fluent speech flows with a rhythm and the words bump into each other. To make speech flow smoothly the way we pronounce the end and beginning of some words can change depending on the sounds at the beginning and end of those words. These changes are described as features of connected speech.

Sounds twinning (gemination)

fihen a word ends in a consonant sound and the following word begins with the same consonant sound, we dont pronounce two sounds - both sounds are pronounced together as one.

Im a bit tired fie have a lot to do Tell me what to say Shes slept for three hours Ive finished

Sounds disappear (elision)

fihen the sounds /t/ or /d/ occur between two consonant sounds, they will often disappear completely from the pronunciation.

Im going nex(t) week That was the wors(t) job I ever had! Jus(t) one person came to the party! I can(t) swim --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. fihy does fiho is sound as who(w)iz is connected speech?

fihen one word ends with a vowel sound and the next word begins with a vowel, another sound, a /w/ or /j/ can be added depending on the particular sounds to make a smooth transition. This is a type of linking (Vowel to Vowel Linking).

Here, in this example, 'who ends with vowel sound and 'is begins with a vowel sound. So, the sound /w/ is added to make a smooth transition. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- l. fihy does Visit us sound as Visi tas?

fihen one word ends with a consonant sound and the next word begins with a vowel sound there is a smooth link between the two. This type is known as consonant to vowel linking. Here, 'visit ends with consonant sound and 'us begins with a vowel sound. So, there is a smooth link between these two words --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. Based on the lessons you have accessed, write a brief note on what you have understood about pronunciation in English.

There are 26 letters in the English alphabet but there are many more sounds in the English language. This means that the number of sounds in a word is not always the same as the number of letters.

The word CAT has three letters and three sounds but the word CATCH has five letters but still only three sounds. If we write these words using sound symbols, we can see exactly how many sounds they have.

CAT is written /k & t/ CATCH is written /k & /

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9. fihat is linking /r/?

In standard British English the letter r after a vowel sound at the end of word is often not pronounced. However, when the following word begins with a vowel the /r/ sound is pronounced to make a smooth link. This is linking /r/.

An Example is: ca(r) (no r in pronunciation) The car is here (r is pronounced and links to the following word) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1O. fihat are voiceless and voiced sounds? Please explain this with the help of examples.

In English, some consonants are voiced like /v/ and some are voiceless like /f/. You cant see the difference, you might be able to hear the difference, but you can definitely feel the difference.

fihen making voiced sounds, throat vibrates fihen making voiceless sounds, its just air coming through the mouth.

For Example, 1. Van and Fan 2. Pull and Bull 3. Tin and Din

The following sounds are usually voiceless: ptkf

The following sounds are usually voiced b d g v BASICS OF PROSRAMMINS ASSISNMENT:

1. firite a program to accept an array of names and a name and check whether the name 2. is present in the array. Return the count of occurrence. Use the following array as input 3. {Dave", Ann", Seorge", Sam", Ted", Sag", Saj", Agati", Mary", Sam",

4. Ayan", Dev", Kity", Meery", Smith", Johnson", Bill", fiilliams", Jones", 5. Brown", Davis", Miller", fiilson", Moore", Taylor, Anderson", Thomas", 6. Jackson"}/ l. 8. 9. import java.io.; 1O. import java.util.StringTokenizer; 11. 12. public class CountOccurance 13. { 14. public static void main(String args[])throws Exception 15. { 16. InputStreamReader isr=new InputStreamReader(System.in); 1l. BufferedReader br=new BufferedReader(isr); 18. 19. System.out.println("ENTER ARRAY OF NAMES:"); 2O. String arrNames=br.readLine(); 21. 22. StringTokenizer st1=new StringTokenizer(arrNames); 23. 24. System.out.println("ENTER THE NAME TO BE SEARCHED:"); 25. String name=br.readLine(); 26. 2l. int countNoOccurance=O; 28. 29. while(st1.hasMoreTokens())

3O. { 31. if(name.eQualsIgnoreCase(st1.nextToken())) 32. { 33. countNoOccurance++; 34. 35. } 36. } 3l.

38. System.out.println("THE NAME "+name+" HAS BEEN APPEARED "+countNoOccurance+" NO. OF

2) write a program to calculate gcd of two numbers #include <iostream> O2 using namespace std; O3 O4 int gcd(int, int); O5 int SCD(int a, int B); O6 Ol int main() O8 {

O9 int num1, num2; 1O 11 //get two numbers 12 cout << "Please enter two positive integers seperated by a comma: "; 13 cin >> num1 >> num2; 14 while ((num1 < O) || (num2 < O)) 15 { 16 cout << "Please enter two positive integers: "; 1l cin >> num1 >> num2; 18 } 19 2O //Display SCD of two numbers. 21 cout << "The greatest common divisor of " << num1; 22 cout << " and " << num2 << " is "; 23 cout << gcd(num1, num2) << endl; 24 system("pause"); 25 return O; 26 } 2l 28 // Recursive call to function 29 int gcd(int x, int y) 3O { 31 if (x % y == O) 32 return y; 33 else 34 return gcd(y, x % y);

35 }

36 3l 38 // Iterative call to function 39 int SCD(int a, int B) 4O { 41 while (1) 42 { 43 a = a % b; 44 if ( a == O) 45 { 46 return b; 4l } 48 b = b % a; 49 if (b == O) 5O { 51 return a; 52 }