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SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY

2012 Report
Businesses, organizations, and policies that strive toward triple bottom line principles in a green economy

Case Studies of U.S. Organizations & Businesses that are Supporting the Transition to a More Sustainable, Healthy, & Just Economy
Sustainable Development in Cities (USP 514.01) Professor: Raquel Pinderhughes

INTRODUCTION

Sustainable Development in Cities


Department of Urban Studies and Planning, SFSU
The purpose of the Sustainable Development in Cities (USP 514) course is to provide students with an academic setting in which to examine a wide range of issues that effect sustainable urban development. The primary focus of the course is on how decision makers can promote ecologically and socially responsible planning and management of cities. We examine this question by narrowing in on six key services and sectors that are critical to the health and vibrancy of cities and to quality of life for urban residents: water supply and management, waste minimization and management, energy production and use, transportation systems, building, and health, food and agriculture. The assignment that led to this publication required students to think about the wide range of economic activities that support and promote the transition to a more sustainable economy and society. As policy makers, planners and other decision makers pass policies and create incentives to promote sustainable development in the United States new opportunities (and constraints) are generated in the economy and labor market. The economic activity associated with promoting sustainable development has given rise to a sector of the economy that has come to be known as the green economy or "clean energy economy". In this assignment, students are asked to (1) choose a case study of a business that is explicitly committed to promoting sustainability through its business practices and services; (2) identify how this business is informed by triple bottom line principles, principles that are at the core of sustainable development; and (3) describe how this business's practices and policies promote economic, environmental, and equity goals. I want to thank Brandi Campbell, TA extraordinaire, and Megan Kalsman (editor extraordinaire) for their contributions to this publication.
Professor Raquel Pinderhughes Urban Studies and Planning Department San Francisco State University Fall 2012

CONTENTS
Introduction.........................................2 Case Studies Services
Betterworld Books: Rigoberto Rodriguez......................................................5 Thinkshift Communications: Marija Milutinovic.......................................9 Heart of the City Farmers Market: Xuan Quynh Tran............................11 Ecology Center: Sonia Gajic............................................................................16 William McDonough Architecture and Design Firm: Eric Zsolnay.......22 HOK Global Design: Dominique Molinari....................................................27

Goods
Bronners Soap: Richard Precedent.................................................................31 Toms Shoes: Heather Shetrawski.....................................................................34 Jacks Soaps: Gabriel Perez...............................................................................36 Patagonia: Patrick Daly.....................................................................................38 Open Arms Shop: Andrea Aquino..................................................................40

Waste
Recology: Lily Thomas......................................................................................43 World Centric Biocompostable Products: Karen Yu................................46 Urban Ore: Cierra Stratton..............................................................................49

Energy
Southern Energy Management: Lauren Spalter..........................................52 Grid Alternatives: Rongxian Yu......................................................................62 Jackson Country Green Park: Laura Daza..................................................66

Transportation
SF Bike Coalition: Kelsey Roeder....................................................................71 TransForm: Mariah Matrin..............................................................................73

CONTENTS CONT.
Food
Growing Power: Jane Becker............................................................................76 Bliss Unlimited LLC: Luna and Larrys Organic Coconut Bliss: Journie Bent..........................................................................................................81 Green Mountain Coffee Roasters: James Doyle..........................................85 Guayak Sustainable Rainforest Products, Inc.:Emily Leutzinger.............88 Organic Family Farms: Jordan Austin...........................................................91 The Clif Bar Company: Adam Scarbrough...................................................95 New Belgium Brewing Company: John Bakaldin........................................98 Eastern Market Corporation: Alicia Pisani................................................102

Funding
KIVA Micro Funds: Margaux Carpenter.......................................................105 Resourceful Communities Program: Michelle Gallemore.......................108 One PacicCoast Bank: Chris Morris..........................................................112

Job Training
Veteran Green Jobs Training: Matthew Keene..........................................118 Goodwill Industries International Inc.: Jane Deming.............................122 RichmondBUILD: Julia Michel......................................................................128 Environment Now: Miguel Guererro............................................................134 Cypress Mandala Training Center: Linda Becker....................................138 COLORS Restaurant: Meg Howie...............................................................143

Image Citations......................................148

CASE STUDIES : Services

Case Studies Services


Betterworld Books
By Rigoberto Rodriguez

Better World Books is a U.S based company located in 118 East Washington St Goshen, IN 46528 (1). Better World books is a for-prot enterprise that sells games, eBooks and new and used books through their online website www.betterworldbooks.com (2). The company strongly emphasizes green principals and social equity in their business model, this has come to be known as the triple bottom line approach. This innovative initiative utilizes the market tools of our economy to gain prots, establishes methods that decrease environmental impact from their activities and exercise their ability to promote social equity among people (3). Better World Books is a for prot retail company that obtains books through book drives and library donations which would later be sold on their website and bookstores. The company also buys new and used books from individuals for a competitive price with other big online book retailers. Better World Books caters to people interested in buying books and games online. It is a young, successful for prot company that emphasizes triple bottom line principles by providing low carbon shipping in online orders and promoting social equity by funding literacy programs around the world (4). Better World Books has gone from a carbon offset program that covered emissions generated when books were shipped to customers to one that covers emissions associated with shipping and the companys other operations

and activities. The Th quantifying if i of f these emissions can indicate where substantial reductions and improvements to can take place. They work with a sustainable business consultant and followed the World Resource Institute Greenhouse Gas Protocol in order to calculate their carbon inventory. They have partnered with 3Degrees, a carbon balancing services provider to acquire Renewable Energy Certicates and verify carbon offsets. The Tatanka wind farm, the largest renewable energy project in North and South Dakota receives support from Better World Books. Also in every purchase a few cents are collected to support wind projects that could potentially avoid carbon dioxide emission and reduce the enhanced greenhouse effect (5). In addition to nding homes for used books that are no longer wanted by individuals and libraries and reallocated by Better World Books, they also commit to recycle all books they receive if they cannot be sold or donated. They have recycled over 85 million books. The National Postal Service uses the lowest energy per package of any carrier and Better World Books uses it whenever they can by giving costumers the eco-shipping option at checkout (6). Better World Books achieved high protable levels within a few years after the company was rst launched. A critical indication of the economic success of the young company is their free shipping feature on all books and all around the world (7).

The Th company was able to increase its revenue by ve times, reaching 50 million in 2011.(8) As proof that Better World Books is expanding as a business outside the United States, the company recently launched an ecommerce website in the United Kingdom (9). Also a resale bookstore owned by Better World Books has recently increased 1,300 square-feet storage space and about 12,000 products (10). Better World Books was founded in 2002 by three Notre Dame Alumni with the objective to help raise funds for literacy nonprot organizations around the world such as WorldFund, Room to Read and Books for Africa (11). It is estimated that Better World Books donates between 5 and 10 percent of its revenue to libraries and literacy initiatives (12). Another initiative that has also taken place in the socially conducted company is the book for book approach from Better World Books, this project establishes that for every book that is purchased from Better World Books one book will be donated to charity (13). As of September 2011 Better World Books has raised over 10 million dollars for libraries and literacy initiatives on several continents (14). It is estimated that about 800 million people around the world are illiterate and that two thirds are women (15). High rates of illiteracy are often associated with poverty, violence, crime and lack of education, it is fundamental to improve the literacy

CASE STUDIES : Services

among individuals from developing and undeveloped countries if a real change on their socio-economic situation is to be improved. This educational strategy can positively affect human relations and promote equity. Better World Books promotes social capital by their rich social networks with communities, educational institutions, libraries and individuals (16). Their for-prot status allows Better World Books to increase their ability to maintain the company and its ongoing collaboration with its partners (2). This is the primary way in which the company obtains a prot from which it can grow as a business and as a contributor to literacy initiatives in the United States and around the world. (2) Better World Books is a B-corporation which greatly increases acceptance among costumers because of this triple bottom line approach to business. (17)

(6) Triple bottom line: social enterprise. Retrieved from


http://www.betterworldbooks.com/info.aspx? f=bottomlines

(7) (2010, Dec 27) Better World Books drops all shipping
fees, unveils free shipping worldwide. Retrieved from http://www.betterworldbooks.com/custom.aspx? f=pr-free-shipping-worldwide.xml

(8) Schwartz Ariel. 6 companies that are growing rapidly


while doing good. Retrieved from http:// www.fastcoexist.com/1679534/6-companies-that-aregrowing-rapidly-while-doing-good

(9) Stambor Zak. (2010, Dec. 8) Better World Books


opens an e-commerce site in Britain. Retrieved from http://www.internetretailer.com/2010/12/08/betterworld-books-opens-e-commerce-site-britain

(10) Cripe Justin. (2011, May 15) Better World Books is


also bigger. Retrieved from http://goshennews.com/ business/x1227547441/Better-World-Books-is-alsobigger

(11) Wicoff Mary. (2008, Jan 3) Book sales help


developing countries. Retrieved from http:// commercial-news.com/local/x212496769/Booksales-help-developing-countries

(12) Elam Stephanie. (2009, July 2) Building better world


a book at a time. Retrieved from http:// www.cnn.com/2009/LIVING/worklife/07/01/ mainstreet.books/index.html

(13) DeLoach Doug. (2011, Aug 19) Doing good, doing


well. Retrieved from http://www.bizjournals.com/ atlanta/print-edition/2011/08/19/doing-gooddoing-well.html References

(14) (2011, Sep 13) Buy a book; give a book. Retrieved


from http://whatgives365.wordpress.com/ 2011/09/13/buy-a-book-give-a-book/

(1) Retrieved from http://www.visitmishawaka.com/


business.asp?item=509&cid=6&yl=6

(15) Yeung Marie. (2011, Oct 12) Better World support


literacy, libraries. Retrieved from http:// www.theepochtimes.com/n2/united-states/betterworld-books-supports-literacy-libraries-62738.html

(2) Retrieved from http://www.betterworldbooks.com/


info.aspx?f=bottomlines

(3) Retrieved from http://www.betterworldbooks.com/


info.aspx?f=bottomlines

(16) (2012, March 17) Social capital and good books.


Retrieved from http:// stakeholderengagementnz.wordpress.com/tag/betterworld-books/

(4) Berkovitz F. Sarah (2012 April 25). Xabier Helgesen:


Merging entrepreneurship with charity. Retrieved from http://www.mnn.com/lifestyle/arts-culture/ stories/xavier-helgesen-merging-entrepreneurshipwith-charity#

(17) Moran Gwen. (2011, July 26) How and why one
company chose to organize as a B corp. Retrieved from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/220025

(5) Perlmutter Andrew. (2011, Oct 27) Reuse. Retrieved


from http://1800recycling.com/2011/10/betterworld-books-andrew-perlmutter-carbon-balancedreuse/

CASE STUDIES : Services

Bibliography Bookstores. Retrieved Nov 4 from http:// www.visitmishawaka.com/business.asp?item=509&cid=6&yl=6 Retrieved Nov 2 from http://www.betterworldbooks.com/ info.aspx?f=bottomlines Retrieved Nov 5 from http://www.betterworldbooks.com/ info.aspx?f=bottomlines Berkovitz F. Sarah (2012 April 25). Xabier Helgesen: Merging entrepreneurship with charity. Retrieved from http:// www.mnn.com/lifestyle/arts-culture/stories/xavier-helgesenmerging-entrepreneurship-with-charity# Triple bottom line: social enterprise. Retrieved from http:// www.betterworldbooks.com/info.aspx?f=bottomlines (2010, Dec 27) Better World Books drops all shipping fees, unveils free shipping worldwide. Retrieved from http:// www.betterworldbooks.com/custom.aspx?f=pr-free-shippingworldwide.xml Schwartz Ariel. 6 companies that are growing rapidly while doing good. Retrieved from http://www.fastcoexist.com/ 1679534/6-companies-that-are-growing-rapidly-while-doinggood Stambor Zak. (2010, Dec. 8) Better World Books opens an ecommerce site in Britain. Retrieved from http:// www.internetretailer.com/2010/12/08/better-world-booksopens-e-commerce-site-britain Cripe Justin. (2011, May 15) Better World Books is also bigger. Retrieved from http://goshennews.com/business/ x1227547441/Better-World-Books-is-also-bigger Wicoff Mary. (2008, Jan 3) Book sales help developing countries. Retrieved from http://commercial-news.com/local/ x212496769/Book-sales-help-developing-countries Elam Stephanie. (2009, July 2) Building better world a book at a time. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2009/LIVING/ worklife/07/01/mainstreet.books/index.html DeLoach Doug. (2011, Aug 19) Doing good, doing well. Retrieved from http://www.bizjournals.com/atlanta/printedition/2011/08/19/doing-good-doing-well.html (2011, Sep 13) Buy a book; give a book. Retrieved from http://whatgives365.wordpress.com/2011/09/13/buy-a-bookgive-a-book/ Yeung Marie. (2011, Oct 12) Better World support literacy, libraries. Retrieved from http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/ united-states/better-world-books-supports-literacylibraries-62738.html Perlmutter Andrew. (2011, Oct 27) Reuse. Retrieved from http://1800recycling.com/2011/10/better-world-booksandrew-perlmutter-carbon-balanced-reuse/ (2012, March 17) Social capital and good books. Retrieved from http://stakeholderengagementnz.wordpress.com/tag/ better-world-books/

Moran Gwen. (2011, July 26) How and why one company chose to organize as a B corp. Retrieved from http:// www.entrepreneur.com/article/220025 Yeung Marie. (2011, Oct 12) Better World support literacy, libraries. Retrieved from http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/ united-states/better-world-books-supports-literacylibraries-62738.html Perlmutter Andrew. (2011, Oct 27) Reuse. Retrieved from http://1800recycling.com/2011/10/better-world-booksandrew-perlmutter-carbon-balanced-reuse/ (2012, March 17) Social capital and good books. Retrieved from http://stakeholderengagementnz.wordpress.com/tag/ better-world-books/ Moran Gwen. (2011, July 26) How and why one company chose to organize as a B corp. Retrieved from http:// www.entrepreneur.com/article/220025

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Access to information http://www.english.org/sigmatd/about/partnerships/ BWB_bookdrive.shtml http://www.internetretailer.com/2010/06/23/better-worldbooks-opens-new-chapter http://www.creativity-and-inspiration.com/small-businesshosting.html http://www.mnn.com/lifestyle/arts-culture/stories/xavierhelgesen-merging-entrepreneurship- with-charity# http://www.betterworldbooks.com/custom.aspx?f=pr-freeshipping-worldwide.xml http://www.fastcoexist.com/1679534/6-companies-that-aregrowing-rapidly-while-doing-good http://www.internetretailer.com/2010/12/08/better-worldbooks-opens-e-commerce-site-britain http://goshennews.com/business/x1227547441/Better-WorldBooks-is-also-bigger http://commercial-news.com/local/x212496769/Book-saleshelp-developing-countries http://www.cnn.com/2009/LIVING/worklife/07/01/ mainstreet.books/index.html http://www.bizjournals.com/atlanta/print-edition/ 2011/08/19/doing-good-doing-well.html http://whatgives365.wordpress.com/2011/09/13/buy-a-bookgive-a-book/ http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/united-states/betterworld-books-supports-literacy-libraries-62738.html http://1800recycling.com/2011/10/better-world-booksandrew-perlmutter-carbon-balanced-reuse/ http://blog.bcorporation.net/2012/03/people-planet-prot-inaction-b-the-change-better-world-books/ http://venturebeat.com/2012/04/06/make-a-difference-thena-prot-building-startups-that-do-social-good/ http://stakeholderengagementnz.wordpress.com/tag/betterworld-books/ http://gamechangers500.com/organizations/better-worldbooks/ http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/220025

CASE STUDIES : Services

Thinkshift Communications
By Marija Milutinovic

The triple bottom line is a concept that involves a rms commitment to sustainable business practices through environmental awareness, social equity, and economic mindfulness. With this in mind, Thinkshift Communications creates marketing communications programs that establish credibility for cleantech and sustainability-focused businesses and nonprots. Thinkshift exists to inform, explain, and educate people about the many benets of green business. The concept of green business may seem simple on paper, but attaining the optimum results of a sustainable company that meets triple bottom line standards is hard to achieve. Thinkshift helps businesses by creating smart marketing techniques and ideas for their clients that communicate a smart and sustainable marketing communications strategy (3). They achieve this by helping clients hone in on the most efcient and effective marketing program, which may come in the form of a handbook, brochure, or campaign strategy that effectively communicates their clients message. In addition, Thinkshift formulates communications strategies that are custom-tailored to t their clients target audiences, while staying within their clients time, budget, and staff skills. They offer social media consulting, giving their clients the best path for successful social media marketing and branding. Thinkshift writes press releases, advises on benecial PR opportunities, and evaluates media coverage potential, as well as prepares websites, reports, articles, newsletters, blogs, and fact sheets. Thinkshift is a B Corporation which is upheld by a rigorous certication scale that breaks Thinkshift down into ve specic categories and rates them on each level. Thinkshifts main purpose is to provide marketing and communication solutions for their clients in a modern, manageable fashion that builds their credibility in the sustainability and equity sectors. In addition to helping their clients better brand and establish themselves, Thinkshift presents their clients with environmentally conscious operating options for utilizing marketing materials. They also encourage environmental sustainability habits and practices in clients who have not already done so, along with preference on collaborative partners who are also B Corporations or have adopted strong sustainability commitments (2).

Thinkshift works with small businesses that strive to achieve environmentally consciousness and sustainability goals, as well as companies in search of greener, more economically and socially viable and sustainable business practices. Businesses looking for an excellent model of a B Corporation that not only uphold green ideals and sustainable business practices, but also collaborate with companies who operate with the same mindset, and takes on clients who aim for the triple bottom line. Thinkshift strives for the most efcient and economically sound objectives in its business practices. Environmentally, they aim to constantly recycle, conserve energy and reduce their waste output. Economically, they partner with 1% for the World to donate one percent of their earnings to a non-prot that advocates clean SF Bay waters. Socially, they promote sustainable habits and practices among their clients and collaborators, as well as supporting nonprots that are based on social justice, which they achieve by donating their time and money to promote what they believe in. Thinkshifts core values and mission place a high importance on sustainability and they incorporate this mindset in everything they do. Being a certied B-Corp, they pride themselves in being socially and environmentally accountable for how Thinkshift is run, and having met the standards to become a B-Corp is something they highly value. Being a relatively small, one-branch forprot business, Thinkshift does not have high-prole investors, publicly traded stocks, nor any overseas ventures or investments. It does, however, boast an impressive client list on its website with links to each one and what it has done for these businesses and organizations. In the Clean Tech, Environment & Sustainability category is CALSTART, an organization dedicated to spreading the use of clean transportation technologies. Thinkshift has created an elaborate 14-page brochure for CALSTART depicting everything it does and hopes to accomplish, catering it for manufacturers and policy makers. Additionally, Thinkshift has created a communications strategy for the Stanford Sustainability Program to expand its audience reach and get SSPs message across to various types of audiences. It has also constructed a newsletter for California Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition, as well as worked with the GreenBelt Alliance and RoseRyan.

CASE STUDIES : Services

They also created an innovative website for the American Lung Association of California, giving the association vitality, reach, and effectiveness. Thinkshift was founded in 2008, and its home ofce is currently on Market Street in San Francisco. It has been utilizing the concept of cleantech technology before it was called cleantech, and has achieved B Corp status in September 2010 (6).

Bibliography

1. "Essential Strategies for Sustainable Success."


Thinkshift: Marketing Communications Strategies for Sustainable Success. Thinkshift, 2012. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://thinkshiftcom.com/index.html>. Lawrence, Anne T., and James Weber. Business and Society: Stakeholders, Ethics, Public Policy. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2011. Print. Pinderhughes, Raquel. Alternative Urban Futures. Lanham: Rowman & Littleeld, 2004. Print. "Why B Corps Matter." B Corporation. B Lab, 2012. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bcorporation.net/ what-are-b-corps/why-b-corps-matter>. Information Access

2. 3. 4.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

References Lawrence, A. and J. Weber. Business and Society: Stakeholders, Ethics, Public Policy. 163-64. Thinkshift Communications. Environmental Policy. Accessed Nov. 6, 2012. Thinkshift Communications. Services. Accessed Nov. 6, 2012. Thinkshift Communications. About. Accessed Nov. 6, 2012. Thinkshift Communications. Clients. Accessed Nov. 6, 2012. Facebook. Thinkshift Communications. Accessed Nov. 6, 2012

1. "Essential Strategies for Sustainable 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


Success." Thinkshift. <http:// thinkshiftcom.com/index.html>. Thinkshift Communications. Environmental Policy. <http:// thinkshiftcom.com/TS_EnviroPolicy.pdf>. Thinkshift Communications. Services. <http://thinkshiftcom.com/ thinkshift_services.html>. "Why B Corps Matter." B Corporation. <http://www.bcorporation.net/what-areb-corps/why-b-corps-matter>. Pinderhughes, Raquel. Alternative Urban Futures. Lanham: Rowman & Littleeld, 2004. Print. Lawrence, A. and J. Weber. Business and Society: Stakeholders, Ethics, Public Policy. 163-6=\=]

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CASE STUDIES : Services

Heart of the City Farmers Market


By Xuan Quynh Tran On Wednesday, Friday and Sunday, Heart of the City Farmers Market locates in San Francisco United Nations Plaza at Civic Center on Market Street, between 7th and 8th street, in the Tenderloin area in downtown San Francisco. The farmer market takes place above the Civic Center BART station near San Francisco City Hall and the Federal Building. Their mission statement is to bring high- quality and reasonably priced produce from small local farms to the heart of the San Franciscos inner city and make fresh produce accessible to everyone, as well as to support and sustain Californias small-scale growers.1 Heart of the City Farmers Market brings a wide variety of high-quality, local-grown and affordably priced produce to Tenderloin, described as the worst neighborhood in San Francisco, loads of drug dealers, addicts, prostitutes and mentally unstable street people, with many restaurants, fast food chains, corner stores, coffee shops but no full-scale grocery. (16) The Civic Center Farmers Market makes their services more affordable to vulnerable communities by accepting food stamps, WIC, and Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Coupons. They help low-income residents access fresh, healthy, and nutritious produce such as seasonal vegetables and herbs, including specialty Asian herbs; fresh or dried fruits and nuts; oils and vinegars such as white trufe oil, olive oil and olive brine for salads; preserves such as jam, kimchi or olives; cheeses and butters; fresh shes depend on availability, fresh eggs and grass-fed, humanely-raised meat; sauces and spreads; bakery, candy and fudge. (2) To support and sustain Californias small-scale family farms is one of Heart of the City Farmers Markets mission. Farmers Market Promotion Program provides free stall fees for their farmers on Fridays for six months to encourage them to continue participating on Fridays until the number of customers rises and the market becomes protable.17. Civic Center Farmers Market also helps generating more stable job opportunities for immigrants, the majority of participating farmers are Asian and Hispanic immigrants. The Farmers Market creates opportunities for community social place, friendship-enhancing between shoppers and farmers; and family gathering. It also provides services to the community through partnerships with local nonprots, schools and public hospitals. Many schools throughout San Francisco bring students of all ages on eld trips to meet the farmers and learn about agriculture, healthy eating and the importance of small, local farms. (3) The market also benets workers in the United Nation Plaza, Federal Building and UC Hasting College of the Laws students, because the farmer market sells a huge variety of fresh Asian herbs and specialty vegetables. A majority of its customers are from the China Town neighborhood. In addition, many street performers, local musicians and artists choose the farmer market as their performing stages and share their works of art. Heart of the City Farmers Market is a nonprot organization run by farmers, sustained by keeping rent fees low so farmers can sell their produce at a very reasonable price to support their low-income neighborhood and promotes healthy, sustainable food choices as well as buying locally. Heart of the City Farmers Market promotes buying locally, seasonally and sustainably. All of the farmers are small to medium-scale Californian farmers who grow and transport their own produce less than two hundred miles from the market. Buying locally and seasonally helps reduce the travel cost, storage and energy consumed to keep the produce fresh. There is less impact on the environment due to the fact less green house gas emission, especially carbon dioxide, from the process of transporting foods from farm to consumer. According to the website www.sustainabletable.org, by purchasing local food in season, you eliminate the environmental damage caused by shipping foods thousands of miles, your food dollars go directly to the farmer, and your family is able to enjoy the health benets of eating fresh, unprocessed fruits and vegetables.4 The market strongly encourages farmers to go organic or practice biological-integrated pest management. At the moment, any new applicants who want to sell their produce at the farmers market have to be certied organic, which most of their current farmers have not yet achieved due to the high- cost of the certication process. 5 Heart of the City Farmers Market participates in educating communities about healthy and sustainably eating habits by creating workshops and information booths at their meeting places, teaching children about agriculture, healthy eating and the importance of small, local farms in eldtrips and after school programs.

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One environmental aspect of the Civic Center farmers market is that it is easily accessible from the Civic Center BART, Civic Center Muni Metro Station and Muni lines 5, 6, 7, 9, 19, 21, 71. Heart of the City Farmers Market has been able to maintain its affordable prices for low-income residents through subsidized stall fees, which help keep produce prices low. According to Christine Adams- Heart of the City Farmers Markets manager, Heart of the City Farmers Market only charges farmers $30 per stand on each day, compared to $65/ a day at Alemany Farmers Market which is run by the city. (6) In September 2012, $93,778 in federal funding for Heart of the City Farmers Market was announced by Agriculture Deputy Secretary Kathleen Merrigan as part of the USDA Farmers Market Promotion Program, which provided over $9 million in grants in 2012 to organizations across 39 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico for initiatives that bolster the connection between agricultural producers and their consumers while improving access to healthy food and strengthening local economies.7 Striving to create equity for all, Heart of the City Farmers Market is proud to create job opportunities for small scale local farmers. Tony Mellow, a Sunnyvale farmer who has been selling in the market since the very rst day, says that farmers markets are the only way small and medium sized farms will survive in an urban area.(9) Most of the farmers here are family owned farms where parents, children, siblings and relatives work together. It is common to see young children from age six up helping their parents selling the produce on Sunday market. A majority of farmers are Asian: Vietnamese, Chinese, Thailand, and Burmese who contribute to the market cultural diversity. According to their website, due to the high rate of poverty in this community, over 80% of CalFresh/SNAP benets (formerly known as food stamps) used at San Francisco farmers markets to buy fresh produce are used at Heart of the City Farmers Market. The amount of purchases made here with an EBT card has grown by 30% each year for the past three years, said Kate Creps, Executive Director of Heart of the City Farmers Market. For many in this neighborhood, using their food stamp benets is the only way they can afford to incorporate fruits and vegetables into their diet. We know there are many who dont know they can use their EBT card to shop here but with our limited resources, our ability to promote and staff this program has not been able to meet the rising need.8. The market also participated in WIC and SFMN- Senior Farmers Market Nutrition which supports low-income seniors.

Heart of the City farmers have teamed up with Tenderloin Neighborhood Development Corporation to donate produce for free distribution to those in the Tenderloin and Mid-Market neighborhoods who cannot afford to incorporate fresh produce into their diets even with the aid of Heart of the City Farmers Market's EBT program, which enables residents to purchase food from farmers with food stamps. Volunteers from TNDC collect produce donated by farmers at the end of each Wednesday market day and distribute it free to residents at a Free Produce Store in the heart of the Tenderloin. Over 1,300 pounds of produce is donated each day by farmers.9. By the end of each market day, produce are sold more cheaply so the foods dont have to be transported back to the farm or go into the waste stream, creating more opportunities for low-income residents to have fresh produce in their meals. In an interview with Christine Adams- the markets manager, she stated that the market generates jobs for homeless people who get paid by farmers for helping unload their trucks and set up the stands. (10) On the 30th Anniversary of Heart of the City Farmers' Market Celebration on September 14th, 2011, Michael Cartwright, who has been working at the farmers market over ten years, had a chance to tell his story about how Heart of the City Farmers Market has helped him become a better person. Ten years ago, Michael was a homeless man out on the streets, smoking crack, using drugs and drinking anything to get high. The Farmers Market gave him a chance by hiring him to load trucks. He said That chance has led me to a solid foundationI went from unloading trucks to being on the staff. I found a place to live at the city ministry. As of the 25th of last month, I graduated from Bible College. I was homeless but I was not hopeless. I needed a hand up, not a handout. (19) Even though their earning for loading trucks is not sufcient, it makes a huge difference in boosting their self-esteem and encouraging them to get back on their feet. The market is working to create a healthy Heart of the City through our "Healthy Heart of the City" campaign that includes nutrition education outreach to local schools, after-school programs, and supportive housing buildings and partnerships with local health organizations to make health resources available at the market. (11) In contrast to the Alemany Farmers Market, which is run by the city.18, Heart of the City Farmers Market is an independent nonprot organization and a California Certied Farmers' Market run by local farmers. According to its website,

CASE STUDIES : Services

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Since July 1, 1982, Heart of the City Certied Farmers Market has been an independent market run by a Community Board known as The Heart of the City Farmers Market Community Advisory Board. It is comprised of both farmers and community representatives who are elected by farmers and friends of the market. All board members serve for two year terms. (12) Heart of the City Farmers Market generates their revenues from rent from farmers who make prot by selling their produce directly to consumers. In addition, the market receives government grants and funding.

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Reference 1) Heart of the City Farmers Market Who we are at http://www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ Who%20We%20Are.html (accessed November 2012). 2) Heart of the City Farmers Market Whats in Season? at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/What%27s%20In %20Season.html (accessed November 2012). 3) Heart of the City Farmers Market Awards and Partners at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/Who%20We %20Are.html (accessed November 2012). 4) Sustainable Table At http://www.sustainabletable.org/shop/seasonal/ (accessed November 2012) 5) Heart of the City Farmers Market Want to Join Us? at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/Selling%20at%20the %20Market.htm (accessed November 2012). 6, 10) Adams, Christine. Personal Interview (October 2012). 7,8,13,17) Heart of the City Farmers Market $94k USDA Grant Awarded to Heart of the City Farmers Market (2012), at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ (accessed November 2012). 9) Heart of the City Farmers Market In the News: Heart of the City Farmers Donate More Than 1,500 Pounds of Produce Each Day to Tenderloin's Poorest Residents (2012), at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ (accessed November 2012). 11) Heart of the City Farmers Market In the News: "Healthy Heart of the City Campaign" Featured in the Chronicle (2012), at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ (accessed November 2012). 12) Heart of the City Farmers Market The Organization at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/Who%20We %20Are.html (accessed November 2012). 14) Market map downloaded from Heart of the City Farmers Market at http://www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ (accessed November 2012). 15) Tenderloin, San Francisco at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tenderloin,_San_Francisco (accessed November 2012). 16) Lisick, Beth. San Francisco: Tenderloin. SFGate. Periodical.

at http://www.sfgate.com/neighborhoods/sf/ tenderloin/ (accessed November 2012). 18) Carter, Tom. Heart of the City- A Success Since Day One in 1981. Central City Extra San Francisco. Periodical. July 2011. at http://www.studycenter.org/test/cce/issues/113/ ccx.113-cp1.pdf (accessed November 2012). 19) Cartwright, Michael. Mayor Edwin M. Lee Celebrates Heart of the City Farmers' Market 30th Anniversary. Video. at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZqAP0ObjqEI (accessed November 2012).

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Bibliography Adams, Christine. Personal Interview (October 2012). Carter, Tom. Heart of the City- A Success Since Day One in 1981. Central City Extra San Francisco. Periodical. July 2011. at http://www.studycenter.org/test/cce/issues/113/ ccx.113-cp1.pdf (accessed November 2012). Cartwright, Michael. Mayor Edwin M. Lee Celebrates Heart of the City Farmers' Market 30th Anniversary. Video. at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZqAP0ObjqEI (accessed November 2012). Heart of the City Farmers Market $94k USDA Grant Awarded to Heart of the City Farmers Market (2012), at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ (accessed November 2012). Heart of the City Farmers Market In the News: Heart of the City Farmers Donate More Than 1,500 Pounds of Produce Each Day to Tenderloin's Poorest Residents (2012), at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ (accessed November 2012). Heart of the City Farmers Market In the News: "Healthy Heart of the City Campaign" Featured in the Chronicle (2012), at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ (accessed November 2012). Heart of the City Farmers Market The Organization at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/Who%20We%20Are.html (accessed November 2012). Heart of the City Farmers Market Want to Join Us? at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/Selling%20at%20the %20Market.htm (accessed November 2012). Heart of the City Farmers Market Who we are? at http://www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ Who%20We%20Are.html (accessed November 2012). Lisick, Beth. San Francisco: Tenderloin. SFGate. at http://www.sfgate.com/neighborhoods/sf/ tenderloin/ (accessed November 2012). Mellow, Tony. Mellow's Nursery and Farm (2012), at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ (accessed November 2012). Sustainable Table At http://www.sustainabletable.org/shop/seasonal/ (accessed November 2012) Tenderloin, San Francisco at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tenderloin,_San_Francisco (accessed November 2012).

Resources & Links Adams, Christine. Personal Interview (October 2012). Carter, Tom. Heart of the City- A Success Since Day One in 1981. Central City Extra San Francisco. Periodical. July 2011. at http://www.studycenter.org/test/cce/issues/113/ ccx.113-cp1.pdf (accessed November 2012). Cartwright, Michael. Mayor Edwin M. Lee Celebrates Heart of the City Farmers' Market 30th Anniversary. Video. at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZqAP0ObjqEI (accessed November 2012). Heart of the City Farmers Market $94k USDA Grant Awarded to Heart of the City Farmers Market (2012), at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ (accessed November 2012). Heart of the City Farmers Market In the News: Heart of the City Farmers Donate More Than 1,500 Pounds of Produce Each Day to Tenderloin's Poorest Residents (2012), at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ (accessed November 2012). Heart of the City Farmers Market In the News: "Healthy Heart of the City Campaign" Featured in the Chronicle (2012), at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ (accessed November 2012). Heart of the City Farmers Market The Organization at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/Who%20We%20Are.html (accessed November 2012). Heart of the City Farmers Market Want to Join Us? at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/Selling%20at%20the %20Market.htm (accessed November 2012). Heart of the City Farmers Market Who we are? at http://www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ Who%20We%20Are.html (accessed November 2012). Mellow, Tony. Mellow's Nursery and Farm (2012), at http:// www.hocfarmersmarket.org/ (accessed November 2012). Lisick, Beth. San Francisco: Tenderloin. SFGate. at http://www.sfgate.com/neighborhoods/sf/ tenderloin/ (accessed November 2012). Sustainable Table at http://www.sustainabletable.org/shop/seasonal/ (accessed November 2012) Tenderloin, San Francisco at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Tenderloin,_San_Francisco (accessed November 2012). Mayor Edwin M. Lee Celebrates Heart of the City Farmers' Market 30th Anniversary. Video. at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZqAP0ObjqEI (accessed November 2012). Heart of the City Farmers' Market United Nations Plaza San Francisco California. Video. at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=svBx2LwHRQA (accessed November 2012). Heart of The City Farmers Market San Francisco. Video. at http://www.youtube.com/watch? 15

CASE STUDIES : Services

Ecology Center
By Sonia Gajic The Ecology Center is a nonprot organization that serves to provide a multitude of various activities and programs that foster the growth of ecological sustainability, economic development and social equity. Founded in 1969, the Center was the rst action-oriented environmental organization in the nationoriginally a meeting place where environmental thinkers of all kinds could congregate and work to expand their message to a wider audience. The Center engaged with the community by identifying unsustainable problems and practices, and providing meaningful alternatives for the community. The Ecology Center encourages community participation in a wide range of activities and makes it easily accessible for residents to locate an abundance of knowledge on many ecological and social concerns. The Center strives to make community activities like gardening, composting, and a wide array of workshops possible for everyone to participate in. According to the website, their mission statement is to make their goals of sustainability possible by providing people with the information they need, the alternatives they seek, and the infrastructure necessary to make sustainable practices possible on a large scale. We aim to make the visionary mainstream (1). The centers various activitiesfrom Berkeleys curbside recycling program to Climate Change Action Coalitionpromote awareness, encourage community involvement, and engage in social equality by attracting and empowering a multitude of different audiences. Services The Ecology Center offers a variety of different services to Berkeley residents. Director Martin Bourque explains that the center has a number of social and environmental enterprises that are constantly balancing environmental benet, equity, and income (2). One of the largest services is Berkeleys Curbside Recycling Program. Originally, the program had been launched as a project for collecting newspapers, but has grown to collecting all recyclablesa weekly collection of cans, bottles, newsprint, mixed paper and cardboard for the entire city of Berkeley. For the past thirty years, the Ecology Center has mandated the recycling efforts in Berkeley and strived to encourage all residents to recycle their waste. The Center holds itself to the highest standards, guaranteeing that everything collected will be recycled. The Ecology Center maintains a contract with the city of Berkeley to provide their recycling services and the income earned is used to fund other important projects of the Center. Recycling education is also crucial, and the Centers recycling program is one of the few that

supports community education on sustainable waste production. The Center takes its recycling efforts seriously and strives to make knowledge on proper recycling accessible for everyone. The resources that are earned are used to provide green-collar jobs as well as nancially supporting goals around climate action, sustainable food programs, and zero waste. The Ecology Center operates four farmers marketsthree in Berkeley and one in Albanyon a weekly basis to reach all of its residents and provide fresh and local food. According to the Ecology Center website, the Berkeley Farmers Markets were the rst in the country to ban methyl bromide, a severely toxic and ozone-depleting pesticide used most commonly on strawberries (1). Along with this ban, they also do not allow the sale of genetically modied produce at the markets and have developed a strategic report system that demands compliance with this standard. The Ecology Center is committed to providing the community with farmers markets of the highest standards, where smallscale farmers who practice sustainable agriculture can sell their produce to local residents. The markets support and promote organic and local agriculture not just by selling of sustainable produce but also by distributing information at the markets on toxics pertaining to conventional food. The staff provides shoppers with information about how to use their EBT cards at the markets, making it accessible to those who might not otherwise have the means to purchase organic foods. The Center coordinates regularly scheduled cultural and educational events during farmers markets that help to create awareness among Berkeleys residents. In shopping at farmers markets in Berkeley, one is not only supporting the noble efforts of the Ecology Center but is also contributing to the local and sustainable food movement.

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Restored from a dilapidated, vacant property, the EcoHouse is a demonstration home and garden where classes, workshops, and tours of the house and garden take place monthly. The events are designed to teach residentsvarying in economic, cultural and social backgroundsabout how to make their own living space more healthy, safe from toxins, productive, energy efcient, carbon neutral, and overall more ecologically friendly. The EcoHouse team does this by allowing guests to tour this exemplary house that is an example in every facet of its functionality. EcoHouse demonstrates these various sustainable ways of living that are accessible to all kinds of people, regardless of their income and racial backgrounds. EcoHouse features solar panels, recycled building materials, bamboo kitchen countertops, on-demand water heater and water-saving xtures, graywater system and rainwater cistern, living roof vegetable garden, native drought tolerant plants, mushrooms, and an organic permaculture garden. Each feature demonstrates sustainable infrastructure that can be adopted by all who come to visit EcoHouse, and those who lead the tours explain to their group how such features can be accessible for them. The Ecology Center Store, which can be found on San Pablo Avenue, is geared towards making environmentally friendly products accessible to the community. The Store provides organic gardening supplies, environmentally friendly toys, recycled glass canisters, nontoxic household products, and a multitude of kitchen products made from recycled and organic bers. They also have a library section stocked with important reads on sustainable living as well as a selection of childrens books. The goal of the Store is to provide the community with environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional

products that can be found in most other stores. When a 1999 report was released determining that the rates of diet-related diseasesdiabetes, heart disease, high blood pressurewere alarmingly high in low-income communities within the East Bay, the Center initiated its Farm Fresh Choice in response. Engaging lowincome residents of south and west Berkeley in obtaining health and empowerment, Farm Fresh Choice is the Ecology Centers food justice program. Farm Fresh Choice provides nutrition education programs and community outreach that encourages a strong connection with the age-old wisdom that food is both medicine and nourishment. The program provides foods that are culturally appropriate in minority communities which are organic and grown regionally. These foods are made easily accessible through after school programs in partnership with local farmers that reect and support various communities of color in Berkeley. The program is set up through produce stands at afterschool centers, where parents and children would already be. This makes obtaining fresh food easily accessible, and the affordability makes it possible for people who could not otherwise purchase healthy produce. The food that is sold is directly sourced from local, smallscale farmers. The program meets the larger goals of the Ecology Center by promoting not only social but also racial equity by empowering farmers of color to sell their produce to youth who need healthy, nutritious food in meaningful ways. In making their food accessible in a convenient location like schools, farmers are supporting youth of color by providing them and their families with access to healthy foods. Doing so helps independent small farmers not only to make their own income but

also boosts the local community by keeping its resources local. The EcoCalendar is a digital, comprehensive listing of environmental and social justice eventsclass, workshops, exhibits, tours, lms, etc.that are occurring at any time in the whole Bay Area. The Calendar helps to promote these events, maintain awareness, and encourage participation before they occur from a wide audience. Anyone can have access to the Calendar, and can get their own personal copy emailed to them every other week by signing up on the Ecology Centers home website. A searchable online directory compiled of both businesses and organizations offering services within environmental topics, the EcoDirectory is a compilation of options that help searchers nd just what they are looking for. From bee and wasp removal to pesticides to furniture, the Directory makes it easily accessible to nd environmentally friendly options in the area within most sectors. The Directory is constantly getting updated. The Center also has an information desk and a hotline as well as action alerts and informational fact sheets on important issues. They have a seed exchange library, where residents can bring their seeds in exchange for others with the promise that they will grow the seeds and return what their harvests yield to the community. The information service center staff are able to answer a wide range of questions for the public, involving any topic from non-toxic pest removal to community involvement and activism. If a question cannot be directly answered by one of the staff members, the client is provided with a referral of where they can go to obtain the answer they are searching for.

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The Ecology Center encourages and supports citizens with a range of environmental focuses that can help inform the community on how to prepare for serious climate change. The group encourages all participants to learn about greenhouse gas emissions, how to decrease them, and how to increase their community involvement. The Climate Change Action Coalition puts on workshops designed to collaborate with residents on how to understand their carbon footprint, set reduction goals, create proactive plans, and produce meaningful changes in every facet of their lives. A typical Climate Change Action workshop, the individual will work in a team with other Bay Area residents in which they will calculate their personal carbon footprint, get assistance in interpreting the ndings, then create a personal plan in which obtainable, realistic goals are set to reduce the size of the individuals carbon footprint. Then there is a discussion in which one can nd out how they can become a climate change leader in their group of friends and family. They are also offered any and all tools and training in which they can develop and facilitate their own action group. Despite this being the typical outline of a workshop, depending on the needs of the individual groups, the Climate Change Action program can cater to a wide variety of backgrounds with different amounts of knowledge on the topic and help them to either gain understanding of what climate change is, or encourage further actions for those already familiar with the topic. The Center also offers personal training to teach the individual that desires to create and mandate their own personal group with a unique background of understanding of the topic. Audience The Ecology Centers target audience is ultimately the entire

Berkeley community and beyond. Their various types of services and programs cater to audiences of all types, despite differences in age, gender, ethnicity, and economic and social backgrounds. Everyone can benet from the different types of programs that the Center offers, and the Center makes every effort to ensure that a wide range of people are participating in their activities and learning how to be more environmentally proactive in their daily lives. For programs like Farm Fresh Choice, the main target audience is youth of color and farmers of color because the program is meant to promote awareness and food empowerment among the most displaced and underprivileged youth in Berkeley, as well as help small-scale farmers of color not only earn a prot but also support the local food economy. Triple Bottom Line Objectives Environmentally, the Center creates events designed around environmentally friendly activities and alternatives to conventional methods. The store sells environmentally-friendly products ranging from non-toxic household goods to gardening supplies to books about ecology that bring attention to the urgency of climate change and how to address the problem. Climate Change Action also promotes environmentally responsible behavior by teaching the public about climate change, their personal impact, and how they can modify their behavior to be as least impactful as possible. The Center meets economic goals by avoiding being driven by prot, yet keeping all of its income within the local economy. By using many of the funds to support local jobs and programs in Berkeley, the Center helps support local businesses and individual sellers which helps to boost the local economy and strengthen community ties. To meet the social equity goals, the Center promotes all

of its events and programs as open to the public and encourages people to participate in the various programs they put on. They also have Farm Fresh Choice program which deals exclusively with youth and workers of color to help bring them crucial knowledge on food justice issues and how to have access to fresh fruits and vegetables. The Ecology Center aims to promote environmental responsibility through its various programs like curbside recycling, EcoHouse events, and selling products in the store that all encourage the use of environmentally friendly alternatives. With curbside recycling, the Center ensures that all materials are not only recycled but also reused. The EcoHouse demonstrations help to provide Berkeleys residents with diverse examples of the ways in which they can make their homes more sustainable. EcoHouse helps people understand how they can live in their homes more sustainably and make a positive environmental impact. In the store, there are products for sale that are environmentally safe, non-toxic, and healthier than conventional products, which helps to minimize harmful pollutants and dangerous chemicals into both the human body and the planet. The Center creates awareness around climate change through the Climate Change action program, making Berkeley residents more conscious of their environmental impact and how they work to reduce it in every facet of their lives. The Climate Change group is a great way to inform Berkeley residents of how they can personally contribute to the environmental movement and get involved in several easy ways to help minimize their personal environmental impact and also teach others to do the same.

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CASE STUDIES : Services

Economically, the Center helps Berkeleys economy by keeping all of its prot and resources local. The curbside recycling, unlike most other cities, is not driven for prot and thus all of the recycled resources and money generated from the program stays within Berkeleys local economy. The income generated from the recycling program primarily covers the union salaries as well as the maintenance of the equipment necessary for the program to function. This helps keep Berkeleys economy strong by encouraging the responsible circulation of resources and money within the area in which they are generated. The Farmers Market is also a great mechanism where money made locally remains local. Small farmers who sell their produce come from the area or surrounding areas, and the income they generate from the produce they sell remains in their hands. This is crucial because it helps not only to support small farmers to continue growing healthy produce for local residents but also helps Berkeleys local economy by keeping the money circulating within the area. Socially, the Center provides a multitude of programs to a wide variety of people, encouraging underprivileged and minority communities to come out to free events where they can be empowered on important environmental issues and learn how to be socially responsible within the economic and social connes that they might live in. Director Martin Bourque makes it clear that as the Ecology Center team provides services to a wide range of clientele, they are constantly asking what are the barriers to participation and who will benet from this program. With some of the highest income disparities in the country, Alameda County provides unique challenges in service to this broad economic spectrum and cultural diversity (2). Putting the Center into context, Bourque underlines the fundamental challenge of the program. While the Center strives to make the entire Berkeley community its audience, the reality is that there is great difculty in doing so because of the great disparities in income, culture and social circumstances among the people. These major differences pose great challenges for any group to target everyone as their main audience. The team is thus consistently rening its practice by critically analyzing their audience and who is able to participate, while encouraging everyone to do so. Therefore, the team is constantly working to rene programs to ensure that all members of the community can benet from the work that they do (2). In doing so, the Center works to maximize its audience, helping to promote social equity by providing underprivileged communities with knowledge about sustainable practicesa necessity for understanding environmental problems and how to be socially responsible despite potential economic constraints. Another important facet for promoting equity within the Center is the Farm Fresh Choice program. Bourque

explains that the Center has its food justice program specically designed to address issues of disparities in food access and health indicators, and we provide technical assistance to farmers markets across the state to make them accessible to EBT eligible shoppers (2). Farm Fresh Choice directly helps marginalized communities by empowering youth and farmers of color to take control of their food choices and make healthier decisions both for their personal well-being and the well-being of the planet. In doing so, Farm Fresh Choice fosters awareness of food justice issues to a very important groups of peopleyouth and farmers of color. This helps to promote social equity by empowering those that are most often the least fortunate due to their social circumstances, and giving them the knowledge to make smart and responsible decisions regarding their food choices. In a personal interview with the Information Program Coordinator Carrie Bennet, explained how the Center is structured. The center has a Board of Directors that oversee much of the planning that goes into the various programs, but there are separate directors and managers that are specic to each program (3). Every individual program has its own group of people who manage and oversee the program overall as well as its various other employees and volunteers. Currently, the Center is implementing a strategic plan for the next ve to ten years that will further assist the various needs of the different programs and ensure that all operations run even more smoothly. During a phone interview, Board President Raquel Pinderhughes explained that the Center is nanced through various revenue sources. The center receives grants which come from federal and private foundations (4). Revenue is generated from the recycling program and farmers markets. The recycling program is a million dollar business in the city of Berkeley and the money that is made from the program is used to support the program and its workers (4). The farmers markets produce revenue on a weekly basis when they are put on for the public, and that money also returns to support the business, and thus these direct services help to fund the Center. Fiscally sponsored projects also generate revenue (4). Overall, the Center generates a substantial revenue stream and much of this money goes right back into supporting the various programs and their employees. Bourque explains that the Center has a diversied income base, where earned income, fee for service contracts, foundation and grant support, members and donors, and retail sales are all different means by which the Center is continuously nanced (2). The recycling program is a big contributor to the overall income of the Center. This income goes primarily to cover the union salaries and benets and equipment needed to run the program, says Bourque (2). Also, the income covers administrative expenses of the program including things

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like senior management, audits, legal expenses, and the likes. Anything that might remain may go towards initiating and supporting other goals and or to building and maintaining organizational reserves for a rainy day (2). In addition to various programs led by the Center, they also act as the scal sponsors for several local organizations that are dedicated to missions and goals similar to that of the center. For a scally sponsored project, the group in question is able to use the Ecology Centers nonprot status for the purpose of fundraising. Also, the Center is able to provide both insurance and various types of administrative services that allow the group to focus on their larger goals while ensuring that they meet their legal qualications. Projects will often do this in an effort to raise awareness over their work through the afliation of an already established organization with a strong reputation. Several examples of partnerships with scally sponsored projects include the Berkeley Community Gardening Collaborative, a group composed of diverse gardeners who are all committed to organic agriculture and equal access to healthy food for all Berkeley residents. Another notable partnership is with the Bay Area Coalition for Headwaters, which does most of its work on the north coast of California working to ensure the redwood forest ecosystem is being adequately preserved for the future. The Indigenous Permaculture Project is another partnership, a grassroots organization that teaches the wide range of communities it works with to become selfsustainable through the process of reclamation and promotion of their traditional practices and values. Another notable partnership is with Roots of Success, which is dedicated to insuring environmental literacy and job readiness amongst youth and adults from underserved communities to promote opportunities in the green economy and improve living conditions in their own communities. The Ecology Center provides this service to groups and programs with sustainable messages so that a comprehensive understanding of just how diverse and accessible sustainable options are can be spread for everyone to follow. Working with as much of the Berkeley community as possible, the Ecology Center strives for environmental, economic and social sustainability through every facet of their work. The diverse range of programs, from curbside recycling to food justice to gardening, exemplify the Center as an important community resource in the movement towards sustainability. The Center meets environmental goals through its extensive recycling program that minimizes the output of waste and maximizes the use of valuable resources. The center achieves social equity through programs like Farm Fresh Choice, where youth of color and their families are given the opportunity to purchase

affordable healthy food as well as learn how to live and eat more sustainably. The Centers various programs encourage participants from all backgrounds, regardless of race, class or income levels. The Center meets this goal by making their programs accessible for everyone in regards to locationstrategic placement of events like the farmers markets maximizes amount of people able to access itaffordability, and education levelmaking all of their workshops relatable and easy to convey to a diverse group of people with differing educational backgrounds. Ultimately, the Center exemplies what it means to be an organization committed to the triplebottom line objectives by providing programs that are allencompassing and that encourage community involvement, participation, and activism on a wide range of topics.

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References (2) Martin Bourque, Director of the Ecology Center. (3) Carrie Bennet, Information Program Coordinator. (4) Raquel Pinderhughes, President of the Ecology Center. Works Cited Bennett, Carrie. "Structure of the Ecology Center." Personal interview. 31 Oct. 2012. Bourque, Martin. "The Ecology Center." E-mail interview. 30 Nov. 2012. "Climate Change Action." Ecology Center. Ecology Center, n.d. Web. 03 Nov. 2012. <http:// ecologycenter.org/ climatechange/>.

Access to Links about Ecology Centers Various Programs

Berkeley Curbside Recycling: http://


www.ecologycenter.org/recycling/

Ecology Center Farmers Markets: http://


www.ecologycenter.org/bfm/

EcoHouse: http://www.ecologycenter.org/ecohouse/ Ecology Center Store: http://www.ecologycenter.org/


store/

Farm Fresh Choice: http://www.ecologycenter.org/ffc/ EcoCalendar: http://www.ecologycenter.org/calendar/


To receive the bi-weekly EcoCalendar email, request the service at calendar@ecologycenter.org EcoDirectory: http://www.ecologycenter.org/directory/ Information Services: http://www.ecologycenter.org/ erc/ For more personalized help, email erc@ecologycenter.org or call (510) 548-2220 extension 233 Climate Action Change: http://www.ecologycenter.org/ climatechange/ To get involved, visit http:// www.ecologycenter.org/climatecoalition/

"EcoCalendar." Ecology Center. Ecology Center, n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http:// ecologycenter.org/calendar/>. "EcoHouse Demonstration Home." Ecology Center. Ecology Center, 22 Oct. 2012. Web. <http:// ecologycenter.org/ecohouse/>. "The Ecology Center." Ecology Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http:// www.ecologycenter.org>. (1) "Ecology Center Store." Ecology Center. Ecology Center, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. <http:// ecologycenter.org/store/>. "Ecology Center's Farmers Markets." Ecology Center. Ecology Center, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://ecologycenter.org/ bfm/>. "Farm Fresh Choice." Ecology Center. Ecology Center, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http:// ecologycenter.org/ffc/>. Pinderhughes, Raquel R. "Financing of the Ecology Center." Telephone interview. 1 Nov. 2012. "Your Berkeley Recycling Guide." Ecology Center. Ecology Center, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. <http:// www.ecologycenter.org/recycling/>.

Access to Links to Partnerships with the Ecology Center Bay Area Coalition for Headwaters (BACH): http:// headwaterspreserve.org Berkeley Community Gardening Collaborative: http:// ecologycenter.org/bcgc/ Indigenous Permaculture Project: http://indigenouspermaculture.com Roots of Success: http://rootsofsuccess.org

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CASE STUDIES : Services

William McDonough and Partners Architecture and Design Firm


By Eric Zsolnay William McDonough Partners is a design and architecture rm based in Charlottesville, VA., with a second ofce in San Francisco, CA. The organizations vision is described as,A delightfully diverse, safe, healthy and just world -with clean air, soil, water and powereconomically, equitably, ecologically, and elegantly enjoyed.1 This organization bases all of their efforts on the core philosophy that, Design is the rst signal of human intention. 2 This frame of reference allows the rm to approach projects and consultancy, with the concept of triple-bottom-line(3p) sustainability as the foundation of all of their endeavors. Beginning with the Design, the rm is able to propagate sustainability as their signal of human intention, and do so with great potential for success. With a truly recognizable 3p formulation, McDonough and Partners is seen as an industry leader, and an expert in many phases of the development process: from individual projects, to community designs, and beyond; this rm realizes that, conventional, modern architecture is not sustainable over the long term3. book, Cradle-to-Cradle, Rethinking the Way We Make Things. Adopting the core values in the book, this company recognizes that recycling should take place at the design phase, and should seek to be created into a closed-loop cycle(s) where there is no waste4 While a potentially unreachable goal due to the purely utopian nature of the standards rolled-out, there is tremendous value in analyzing the fundamental design processes which satisfy our consumption: the rm recognizes that 50% 0f food waste can be diverted into consumer products.5 The rest of the waste will presumably qualify to be mostly reintroduced as organic input, back into the closed-loop of our integrated planetary lifecycle. With this outlook, the company -along with its subsidiariesengages in a host of services revolving around: architecture, design, consultancy, manufacturing research, benchmarking sustainability, and venture capitalism. These different services are provided from various separate entities under the McDonough umbrella, and due to the distinct nature of the offerings, these individual rms target a range of audiences. William McDonough and Partners begins approaching community design in ways that connect people to their homes in healthy and happy ways. The organization seeks to enter infrastructural development in the early stages, and create high performance communities which operate in an organically integrated ways. Developments include: harvesting energy from the sun, sequestering carbon, making oxygen, creating habitats, building soil,distilling water, and creating benecial microclimates.6 Their goal is to create communities that act as inputs, and are regenerative in nature with respect to ecological well being, economic development, and social health. Within the area of consultancy, the rm has adopted a highly integrated, solutions-based approach to their projects, and in the past has provided help in the following areas of activities 7 : Performance Analysis and Peer Review; Project Benchmarking and Design Frameworks; Existing Facility Auditing; Pre-Design Research and Feasibility Studies; Material Assessments; Guideline Formulation; and Education and Workshops. Clients partner with this organization for many different reasons, and presumably with many ideas of organizational sustainability and cost/benet trade-offs at the relationships inception. One desire of the McDonough Company is to sufciently bridge the gap of misinformation regarding sustainability and misguided, yet widely-adopted sustainability perspectives the clients may have.

The rm engages in most levels of architectural activity with the exception of residential or basic McDonough and Partners retrot. From small scale structural aim to alleviate the impacts of the creations, all the way to communitynegative pressures associated with wide efforts and partnered ventures unsustainable development, by acting with global NGOs: the rm as an inuencer regarding the ways approaches projects with a highly the world thinks about approaching sustainable methodology, which is a development design. Attacking the result of their Cradle-to-Cradle core issue of sustainability, this and Design with Intent integrated company introduces a solution in the foundational frameworks. 2002 McDonough and Braungart

22

This rm is able to approach business in a way that strategically drives triple-bottom-line(3p) sustainability front and center with their mission, vision, and values, in any project they tackle. Reinforcing the level of sustainability produced by this company, tactical efforts are approached with design as intent, which enables McDonough and Partners to adapt to many In McDonough and Partners Architectural given situations, without compromising their core beliefs. division of this rm, the companys target market Evolving with uid capacity, the organization is able to includes: top level executives seeking to contemporize engage in levels of 3p adherence not attainable by many their organization with a sustainable approach; Individual other entities around the globe. clients, with a high level of discretionary income, seeking to modernize their organizational environments; The rst criteria to meet in 3p sustainability, is Partnered Manufacturers- such as Living Homes- that sell the area of economic sustainability. In order for this pre-fabricated homes to the public; Government component of 3p sustainability to be met, services must Organizations seeking to adopt a higher level of be provided in ways that create positive economic impacts infrastructural integrity or climate cooling progress in for the regions in which the organization operates. This their region. dimension is critical for sustainable progress, as 1.2 billion people... live on less than $1.00 a day9. Because of With respect to the Community Design division this economic disparity throughout the world, a heavy of this company, the target market is somewhat limited in burden rests on many communities seeking to develop breadth as there are far fewer communities than infrastructures in ways that will not compound negative businesses partnering with this company. Characteristics aspects of their individual circumstances, or the health of of a client in this category include: A community that the planet as a whole. Furthermore, meeting this criteria faces problems or deciencies with regard to healthily of 3p sustainability acts as an inuencer, and nancial integrated urban or rural infrastructures; Communities risk reducer for organizations seeking to transition their seeking to stave off negatives outcomes associated with practices, into ones with greater sustainable signicance. continued unsustainable approaches to their designs and While there is great potential and reality in creating structures; Communities seeking to become more positive economic impacts for rms adopting 3p educated in sustainable and future-focused methods of methodology, this appeal has yet to be fully recognized by providing opportunities, infrastructures, and welfare for many organizations. William McDonough and Partners their members. strives to change this outdated way of approaching business strategy. Within this rms Consultancy space of activities, the desired consumer is much wider in scope. In this Once skeptical naysayers, such as the Shaw business division, the core audience is determined to be: Industries component of Berkshire Hathaway, are beginning any company, community, or recognizable entity, that is to about-face, with regard to the economic vitality of faced with a problem of adaptation, implementation, going green. Following the success of their transition to situational analysis, or sustainability benchmarking and recycled, Shaw Industries now enjoys cheaper materials audits, and revolving around increasing the entitys costs than if they were to source it new 10. Shaw operational or strategic implementations of sustainability. Industries was so happy with this turn around into a Additionally within the area of consultancy, this rm has $150-million-a-year business, that the company signed a adopted a highly integrated, solutions-based approach to new contract with the McDonough group 11. This is a their projects, and in the past has provided help in the successful measure of economic sustainability as the carpet 8 following areas of activities : Performance Analysis and manufacturer is located in the town of Dalton, GA. The town of Dalton is known as the carpet manufacturing Peer Review; Project Benchmarking and Design center of the nation, and has fallen on tough times with Frameworks; Existing Facility Auditing; Pre-Design the growing success of globalization. Thanks to the help Research and Feasibility Studies; Material Assessments; of the McDonough Partners, this community is in better Guideline Formulation; and Education and Workshops. economic shape, than it would have otherwise been Because of the broad-scope of activities (conceptually without their work. 23

This company's core target audience is more closely related to psychographics (interest, desires, and needs) surrounding the desire to change or improve, than to demographic or geographic elements within the population. Due to the broad-space of activities in which this rm is able to operate, their clientele is widely diverse with regards to demographics, geography based demographics, as well as product needs. This rms todate operational patterns suggest a propensity towards projects in Europe and primarily the United States; to a lesser extent this company has completed projects in countries such as Australia, Costa Rica, and Pakistan.

CASE STUDIES : Services

open-ended design) in which this rm may engage, the target audience is widely diverse with respect to demographics and geographic areas, but is highly standardized with regard to individuals or organizations eager to transition to higher levels of sustainability.

Further economic benet of the rms operations can be seen in William McDonough efforts to push for a new industrial revolution, they built Ford Motors a living roof, for their polluted Dearborn Michigan, River Rouge plant. While saving the car-manufacturer $35 million in cleanup costs may, or may not be a good thing, it is important to afrm that this rms efforts were well intentioned. Maintaining economic relevance in todays globalizing market is beginning to expose severe weaknesses in existing U.S. manufacturing rms. As such, William McDonough has expressed his desire to fuel the new industrial revolution with green-based design, and respond to Chinas earlyadoption of sustainable manufacturing, by seeking to revive the U.S. recognition as a quality manufacturing global leader 12. While it is widely debatable whether or not helping this direct and by-proxy, longtime industrial polluter is sustainably ethical, it is important to appreciate the long-range scope from which the McDonough rm is able to approach the circumstance.

profound to very subtle, yet surprisingly inspiring. A good example of a small adjustment to receive a large benet is this companys efforts at the NASA sustainability lab in Silicon Valley, where the building exoskeleton provides awnings and shade 15. In this example, environmental conservation happens at the level of reduced articial energy inputs necessary to cool the interior of the building, and therefore leads to a decrease in total carbon consumption by the organization of contract.

believed to be the rst production home to feature Cradle to Cradle inspired material, and a LEED Platinum level environmental program. 18 In addition to the high environmental efciency of the home, the line is priced for lowerincome affordability at $139,000 $179,000*LH; the model home this line is close to half of the price as other models offered by LivingHomes, which only achieve Gold or Silver LEED certications. With Z6 standards, this home can be customized to achieve a LEED score of 100. The term C6 meets Z6 standards, occurs in the following ways: Zero Energy: Energy efcient lighting and appliance, and smart heating/AC control system; Zero Carbon Waste: Recycled materials and Cradle to Cradle inspired materials. Carbon offset included in purchase price to counter energy used to create the home; Zero Water: Low ow xtures. Grey water system ready; Zero Emissions: No VOC paint. Formaldehyde-free millwork; Zero Ignorance: Real time feedback on energy use.19 Following triplebottom-line protocol, this home was created in association with several organizations and actor Brad Pitt, and was introduced in order to provide low-income homes for the Hurricane Katrina ravaged Lower 9th Ward area of New Orleans. The nal component of sustainability encompasses an organizations ability to provide services in a way that promotes social equity. These impacts must directly stem from the companys efforts, and must attempt to reduce negative externalities in ways that do not compromise the other two aspects of 3p practices. This organization is able to address the issue of social equity in situationally unique ways, that enable the greatest potential positive impacts for this dimension of sustainability.

CASE STUDIES : Services

Conversely, there are many revolutionary and innovative, inherently less intuitive processes that are brought into the mix of elements revolving around the design of the NASA project. These innovative and effective elements include such features as: raised oors and pipedceilings, which provide heating and cooling via 106 geothermal wells located under a nearby lawn; solar panels for water heating, and an oxide fuel cell for electricity; and 5000 wireless sensors, which display real-time reports for the whole building, as well as The rm is widely celebrated individualized interfaces at each employees stations.16 All told, this for its efforts in going beyond traditional environmental methods of building is both net-positive and positive global impact, and moving environmentally aligned with respect manufacturing from recycling to to energy consumption, and Cradle-to-Cradle (C2C)13 life-cycles. nancially only around 17% more In contrast to C2C, human industry expensive to construct than a is designed around a linear, one-way, traditional building, the NASA project will recoup the difference in production-use-disposal ow, a cost in only seven to nine years.17 cradle-to-grave (C2G) life cycle.14 This methodology enables The native planting design by the McDonough and Partners to operate rm further promotes environmental in ways that meet the second aspect health, by adding to a lower near of 3p sustainability. Grounded in this surface-temperature, and also by approach, the organization is able to extracting storm water that would exist in ways that positively impact otherwise be run-off into the San the environment, and encourage it Francisco Bay. into becoming an input of renewable resources. Further examples of William McDonoughs Firms efforts towards Specic examples of positive a more ecologically healthy future environmental impacts can be can be found in his partnership with realized in the range from quite Living Home, that yielded what is

24

CASE STUDIES : Services

In seeking to fulll the social equity area of 3p sustainability, the McDonough rms systematically give back to the communities in ways that are sustainable, and create a positive impact for the people. Any successful implementation of a McDonough design seems to add value to human equity as a result of aesthetics or elation; in cases of community design or that of an industry, the results can be much more prolic. The humanity this rm cherishes can be found in a variety of areas throughout the organizational lifestyle-approach, and has been implemented in several key ways, including: Creating social-based and non-prot associations, and partnering with Brad Pitts non-prot organization to design and build 150 homes for residents of New Orleans 9th Ward. Unfortunately, setbacks have occurred as well in this area, such as the failed partnering in creating Chinas rst sustainable village. 20

entity, and is nanced through its own work. Using prots to propagate the ideologies of C2C and Design by Intent, William McDonough and internal collaborators, ultimately decide on business dealings. Mr. McDonough is viewed as a sustainably uncompromising industrial leader, and is a current member of many inuential NGOs, academic boards, and decision-making committees, including: Stanford University Engineering Consultant, University of Cambridge Sustainability Leadership Council, Yale University School of Forestry Leadership Council, University of Virginia School of Architecture Dean, Healthy Child Healthy World Advisory Council; Global Agenda Council of Urbanism; U.S. Green Building Council Charter Member; and many more 24.

Aside from his successful architecture rms, William McDonough is credited with building his designs into Irelands rst solar-heated home in 1977, designing Of specic positive note, this organizations environmental efforts surrounding the creation of the Z6 the rst green ofce in the U.S. in 1985; the rm as home, converge into the area of building social equity, as of 2005, has been in the works for a skyscraper in Colorado Springs, and seven large-scale planning 150 of these homes were donated in partnership with projects and developing a certication system, in China Brad Pitts non-prot organization -The Make it Right 25, and with many other activities. William McDonough is Foundation- to victims of Hurricane Katrina in 2010. recognized for an array of awards throughout his life, After commissioning work from 13 architectural rms, with some notables including three U.S. presidential the Make it Right Foundation decided on The William awards: the Presidential Award for Sustainable McDonough rm, and things took off 21, when marginalized people struck by a manmade disaster ves Development (1996), the Presidential Green Chemistry years earlier, were nally the benet of well placed efforts Challenge Award (2003) and the National Design Award (2004).26 towards increasing levels social equity in New Orleans. Above the initial donations, these homes are very reasonably priced versus comparables, thereby adding a secondary level of social equity to the endeavour. As mentioned before, not every effort goes as smoothly as the New Orleans model. In the most prolic fallout of a project associated with the William McDonough name, residents of Huangbaiyu,China, are reported to have not desired the homes that were developed as part of a U.S.-Chinese partnership to create China's rst green village. Many of the 400 energyconscious homes built in 2009 are still not occupied, and blame for shoddy craftsmanship bounces back and forth between the McDonough organization and a local contractor 22 . Further complaints by locals suggest that western-ways were pushed on the rural inhabitants of Huangbaiyu with little regard for the social impacts associated with the transition. One PRS.org video suggests that farmers were pressured to move into the new homes with little regard to old ways of life.23 Regardless of who is to blame, negative social equity was created, and the partnership dissolved in 2009. This company is structured as a privately held limited liability corporation, which acts as a for-prot

NASA Sustainability Base Moffett Field, California

25

CASE STUDIES : Services

References 1. http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/design_approach 2. http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/design_approach/ philosophy 3. (McDonough; Braungart: UNEP) 4. (McDonough; Braungart) 5. (Smith, Rebecca) 6. http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/services/consulting 7. http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/services/ community_design 8. http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/services/consulting 9. (Pinderhughes, Raquel) 10. (Smith, Rebecca) 11. (Smith, Rebecca) 12. (Hayes, Linda) 13. (Smith, Rebecca) 14. (McDonough; Braungart) 15. (Arch Daily) 16. (Arch Daily) 17. (Arch Daily) 18. (PR Newswire) *LH. http://www.livinghomes.net/homesCommunities.html 19 (PR Newswire) 20. (Wu, Yong) 21.(Anonymous 2) Links and Resources http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/ design_approach http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/projects/ featured http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/services/ consulting http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/ design_approach/philosophy http://www.bvsde.paho.org/bvsaia/fulltext/ towards.pdf (UNEP) http://www.livinghomes.net/ homesCommunities.html http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/fellows/ green_dreams/ http://www.mcdonough.com/pdf/ William_McDonough_Portfolio.pdf

Bibliographies Pinderhughes, Raquel. Alternative Urban Futures. 1st ed. Maryland: Rowman and Littleeld Publishers Inc., 2004. xiii. Print. Wu, Yong. "Project targets 'sustainable village." China Daily [New York, N.Y.] 13 Jun 2006, 3. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. Yeager meets architect William McDonough, whose commitment to sustainable development is infectious." Financial Times [London, U.K.] 15 Oct 2005, 8. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. Hayes, Linda. "An Environmental Problem Slipping Through the Quacks." Washington Post 27 Aug 2005, Final C1.1. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. McDonough, William, and Michael Braungart. "A World of Abundance."Interfaces. May. (2000): 55-65. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. "NASA Sustainability Base / William McDonough + Partners and AECOM" 02 May 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 28 Nov 2012. <http://www.archdaily.com/231211> Smith, Rebecca. "Beyond Recycling: Manufacturers Embrace ." Wall Street Journal[New York] 03 Mar 2005, B1. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. Living Homes Unveils the C6: The First Lower-Cost, Zero Energy, Zero Carbon, and LEED Platinum(R) Level Production Home: The C6, in Collaboration with Make It Right and William McDonough, Debuts Today at Modernism Week & the Upcoming TED 2012 Conference.PR Newswire [New York] 17 Feb 2012 Anonymous, . "William McDonough and Susan Tierney Join Ze-gen's Market Advisory Board." Business Wire[New York, N.Y.] 06 May 2008, n. pag. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. McDonough, William, and Michael Braungart. " Towards a sustaining architecture for the 21st century: the promise of cradle-to-cradle design." UNEP Industry and Environment. April (2003): 13-16. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.<http:// www.bvsde.paho.org/bvsaia/fulltext/towards.pdf> Anonymous 2, . "Brad Pitt talk about Hurricane Katrina, his Make it Right work and his love for New Orleans."TimePicayune [Picayune] 25 Aug 2010, n. pag. Print. <http:// www.nola.com/katrina/index.ssf/2010/08/ brad_pitt_talks_about_hurrican.html>. Lesle, Timothy, perf. Someone Else's Village. Prod. Sharon Tiller. 2008. Web. 28 Nov 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/ frontlineworld/fellows/green_dreams/>. McDonough, William. "William McDonough Portfolio."William A. McDonough. William McDonough and Partners, n.d. Web. 28 Nov 2012. <http:// www.mcdonough.com/pdf/ William_McDonough_Portfolio.pdf

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CASE STUDIES : Services

HOKs architectural service utilizes research of the site, environmental conditions, and the native culture to By Dominique Molinari create a product (building) to enhance the satisfaction of the client and the surrounding community being inuenced by the new building. HOKs design revolves around green building methods, using technological advances to provide sustainable buildings. They have created guidebooks on sustainable building, from efcient construction methods to sustainable design techniques to dramatically lower emissions and waste. They are also involved in policy making committees such as LEED and DC Real Estate Services to further the progression of policies that will increase sustainable design throughout the industry. Codes have HOK, Global Design, been created in using resources Architecture, Engineering and efciently, and what qualies as Planning Firm, is located in thirteen proper demolition procedure. (2) cities within the United States, ve Other services include ofces in Canada, one in Europe, and planning, engineering, and six throughout Asia. HOK is sustainable consulting. HOKs currently expanding to another ten planning sector focuses on creating cities in Europe and South America. sustainable urban settings through (1) HOK was founded is 1955 by place-based design and public transit Gyo Obata in St. Louis Missouri.(2) oriented transportation, taking into HOK employs 1,600 people in account social and environmental design, architecture, planning, and impacts. HOKs planning process is engineering. [HOK] create[s] a collaboration between the clients, exceptional environments that meet stakeholders, partners, and clients most complex design environmentalists. The engineers of challenges. [HOK] inspire[s] people HOK the design to optimize through [their] work by expressing occupant comfort, energy efciency, timeless cultural, organizational and while maintaining the original personal values. [HOK] connect[s] architectural vision. The services people and place with ideas that provided by the engineering sector come from many minds and include electrical, mechanical, imaginations. [HOK] care[s] about structural, and plumbing. HOK serving clients, enriching lives, Engineers biggest project is creating improving communities and systems to ensure a zero emissions protecting [the] natural environment building. The implementation of through design. (1) reusable, clean energy reduces energy HOK primarily provides use by 73%. Strategic design of the architectural services, but also envelope of the building with rain contributes to a multitude of other screens, daylight panels consisting of services within the design process. triple glazed window panes, and solar

HOK Global Design

tube panels to heat the building. Also, there is simplicity in designing the facades of the building to optimally respond to day lighting, taking in natural light while preventing overheating. (3) The type of buildings in which HOK implements all of these services are civic and cultural centers, commercial and corporate, education and government, healthcare, hospitality, justice, residential, retail, science and technology, and skyline high risers. (1) Examples of buildings that incorporate the services previously stated are Indianapoliss HOK airport and the Anaheim Regional Transportation Intermodal Center. The Indianapolis airport design consists of allowing natural light and keeping the lights off throughout the day. It also properly insulates the building, retaining heat and keeping out the cold. The roof design is broad, providing shade to the terminal, creating a more comfortable airport. (5) The engineering process considers every avenue possible in energy conservation and emission reductuion. The ARTIC of Anaheim is a diverse system of public transportation consisting of intercity bussing, taxi, and local transit. ARTIC also emphasizes regional transit, expanding high-speed rail services to San Francisco, Sacramento, and Las Vegas. HOKs design and planning services are involved in the ARTIC. This project is intended in transitioning Anaheim from an auto centric mode of transportation, to be more walkable and public transit oriented. The ARTIC is a platinum LEED certied building, reducing energy use, water use, solid waste production and carbon emissions for the City of Anaheim. (4)

27

CASE STUDIES : Services

HOK serves private clients that resulted in 47 projects in 2012. Their clients also include public projects such as schools, government buildings, and judicial courts. They also do pro bono, and work alongside non prot organizations like the United States Green Building Council, Habitat for Humanity, and local organizations that pertain to the in need community. One group that HOK is working closely presently is Foundation Enfant Jesus in their efforts in Haiti. (1) HOK is a privately owned business whose services capture every aspect of the design process, including business management and consulting. Environmentally, HOK integrates high performance into the planning and design solutions, combined with our sustainable consulting, enables HOK to provide life-cycle sustainable services for clients. And socially, HOK utilizes architecture as a social work, using design to support and empower communities. HOK contributes to social equity through three main categories: professional services, charitable donations and volunteerism. HOK began in 1955 and in 1975 HOK won a $3.5 billion contract for King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. In 2002, HOK was awarded the design contract for the new $939 million terminal at Indianapolis International Airport, the same year HOK designed the Environmental Protection Agency's new headquarters in Washington, D.C. (2) Environmentally, HOK implements planning and strategy, design and construction, and operations and occupancy. The planning process consists of benchmarking, and sustainable planning teaming together with policy making. HOK only associates with high performance design. HOK strives for green rating, but then takes it further with deep green retrots that results in net zero design, zero

emissions. HOK also educates its occupants of their design in sustainability and social impact. (7) An example of such a project is when HOK teamed up with Vanderweil engineers in creating the new design for the Los Angeles Federal building which will achieve a Zero Environmental Footprint. This project used FIT strategies to develop integrated building systems and onsite renewable energy generation that will dramatically decrease the buildings energy and water use, and obliterate waste production. (8) And Socially, HOK is associated with many pro bono works is their efforts in Haiti. Mary Ann Lazarus FAIA, LEED AP BD+C, Director of Sustainable Design speaks on behalf on HOK in their design aspects in the rebuilding of the orphanage damaged in the current earthquake. The US Green Building Council asked HOK to take on this project and they jumped at the opportunity. HOK Cares about the planet and the people on this planet. It is HOKs belief that a difference can be made through design. HOK sent a team to Haiti to study the site and dive into the culture to better design a sustainable building that would best t for Haiti. The local habitat was used as inspiration to the building. The native Kay Pac tree possesses spiritual meaning to the Haitian people, and it has become the inspiration for the structure and the water retaining system. HOK is also involved with local craftsmen and utilize the local materials of Haiti. (9) Their non Prot works are teams sent all over the world to enhance social equity. HOK creates its social impact through professional services, charitable donations, and volunteerism. HOK designed Fordham Village, a supportive housing unit for 56 men and women veterans, located in New York. 40% of the apartments are reserved for low income vets, and 60% for recovering homeless vets. (10) HOK

also facilitates volunteer projects around the world such as tactile maps to aid the blind through San Franciscos Bart systems to rebuilding a kindergarten in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. (11)

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CASE STUDIES : Services

Links

Percentages (%) of Revenue for each office Green Design from 19% government offices Green design from education Green design from

2011

http://www.hok.com/ http://www.ickr.com/photos/hoknetwork/sets/ 72157605058320674/ http://www.hoklife.com/2011/03/15/education-throughvolunteerism-lighthouse-for-the-blind/

12%

http://www.hoklife.com/2011/05/31/fordham-village-homeof-the-brave/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CDW4gFztnvw http://www.hoklife.com/2011/05/12/hok-vanderweil-teamwins-metropolis-2011-next-generation-design-competition/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4JcQblr2po http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=LU0sKhe4Pro&feature=plcp&context=C4f3853fVDvjVQa 1PpcFMil5NOVCUtUVFOlDYMJM68ZkR0GsYnggk%3D http://www.architypereview.com/17-train-stations/projects/ 479-anaheim-regional-transportation-intermodal-ce/ description www.netzerocourt.com

27%

healthcare Green design from hotels 2% Green design from multi 1% residential units Green design from sports, 1% entertainment, and civic Green design from other 13% buildings Green design from other 1% markets Green design from retail 22% and office buildings

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CASE STUDIES : Services

References 1. "HOK Is a Global Design, Architecture, Engineering and Planning Firm." Firm Overview. Hok, 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.hok.com/about/>. 2. "HOK Group, Inc. History." History of HOK Group, Inc. FundingUniverse. Funding Universe, n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fundinguniverse.com/companyhistories/hok-group-inc-history/>. 3. "Net Zero Court." Net Zero Court. HOK and the Weidt Group, 2010. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http:// netzerocourt.com/>. 4. "Receive New Issues and Access the Latest Innovations in Architecture and Design." Anaheim Regional Transportation Intermodal Center. Architype Review Inc., 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.architypereview.com/17-train-stations/projects/ 479-anaheim-regional-transportation-intermodal-ce/ description>. 5. Network, HOK. "HOK's Ripley Rasmus on Sustainable Design for Airports." YouTube. YouTube, 08 May 2009. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=LU0sKhe4Pro>. 6. Network, HOK. "HOK's Mary Ann Lazarus on FIT." YouTube. YouTube, 10 Apr. 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4JcQblr2po>. 7. "In 2012, HOK was Once Again The #1 Role Model in Sustainable and High-performance Design." Sustainability. Hok, 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.hok.com/about/sustainability/>. 8. "HOK / Vanderweil Team Wins METROPOLIS 2011 Next Generation Design Competition | Life at HOK." HOK / Vanderweil Team Wins METROPOLIS 2011 Next Generation Design Competition | Life at HOK. Hok Group, 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.hoklife.com/2011/05/12/hok-vanderweil-teamwins-metropolis-2011-next-generation-designcompetition/>. 9. Network, HOK. "HOK's Mary Ann Lazarus on Project Haiti." YouTube. YouTube, 10 Apr. 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=CDW4gFztnvw>. 10. "Fordham Village: Home of the Brave | Life at HOK." Fordham Village: Home of the Brave | Life at HOK. Hok Group, 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.hoklife.com/2011/05/31/fordham-villagehome-of-the-brave/>. 11. "HOK Puerto Vallarta Service Project." Flickr. Yahoo!, 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ickr.com/ photos/hoknetwork/sets/72157605058320674/>. 12. "PrivCo | The Private Company Financial Data Authority." PrivCo | The Private Company Financial Data Authority. PrivCo LLC, Dec. 2012. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <http://www.privco.com/>.

Works Cited "Fordham Village: Home of the Brave | Life at HOK." Fordham Village: Home of the Brave | Life at HOK. Hok Group, 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.hoklife.com/2011/05/31/fordham-villagehome-of-the-brave/>. "HOK / Vanderweil Team Wins METROPOLIS 2011 Next Generation Design Competition | Life at HOK." HOK / Vanderweil Team Wins METROPOLIS 2011 Next Generation Design Competition | Life at HOK. Hok Group, 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.hoklife.com/ 2011/05/12/hok-vanderweil-team-winsmetropolis-2011-next-generation-design-competition/ >. "HOK Group, Inc. History." History of HOK Group, Inc. FundingUniverse. Funding Universe, n.d. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fundinguniverse.com/companyhistories/hok-group-inc-history/>. "HOK Is a Global Design, Architecture, Engineering and Planning Firm." Firm Overview. Hok, 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.hok.com/about/>. "HOK Puerto Vallarta Service Project." Flickr. Yahoo!, 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ickr.com/photos/ hoknetwork/sets/72157605058320674/>. "In 2012, HOK was Once Again The #1 Role Model in Sustainable and High-performance Design." Sustainability. Hok, 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.hok.com/about/sustainability/>. Network, HOK. "HOK's Mary Ann Lazarus on FIT." YouTube. YouTube, 10 Apr. 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4JcQblr2po>. Network, HOK. "HOK's Mary Ann Lazarus on Project Haiti." YouTube. YouTube, 10 Apr. 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=CDW4gFztnvw>. Network, HOK. "HOK's Ripley Rasmus on Sustainable Design for Airports." YouTube. YouTube, 08 May 2009. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=LU0sKhe4Pro>. "Net Zero Court." Net Zero Court. HOK and the Weidt Group, 2010. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://netzerocourt.com/ >. "PrivCo | The Private Company Financial Data Authority." PrivCo | The Private Company Financial Data Authority. PrivCo LLC, Dec. 2012. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <http://www.privco.com/>. "Receive New Issues and Access the Latest Innovations in Architecture and Design." Anaheim Regional Transportation Intermodal Center. Architype Review Inc., 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.architypereview.com/17-train-stations/projects/ 479-anaheim-regional-transportation-intermodal-ce/ description>.

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CASE STUDIES : Goods

Case Studies Goods


Dr. Bronners Soaps
By Richard Thomas which is a true soap; true soaps are made by combining alkalis with fats, castile soap utilizes vegetable oils, such as coconut, olive oil and hempseed oil. (1) Dr. Bronners is the nations largest seller of industrial hemp products, which they import from Canada, and are at the forefront of the push for the normalization and cultivation of hemp for industrial purposes, due to its ready renewability and other versatile qualities. (1) Dr. Bronners soaps are all certied under the USDA National Organic Program. In November of 2012, Dr. Bronners backed proposition 37 in the California statewide election. (1) Proposition 37 would have required producers of food products to post an advisory on a food product if it contained ingredients that had been genetically modied. In 2003 Dr. Bronners pioneered the practice of using 100% post-consumer recycled bottles for their products. (1) Bronner described what he called productive capitalism as sharing the proceeds of your business with your workers and the planet. (1) In the 1990s when his children assumed control of the company due to Bronners agging health, they implemented corporate policies to promote equity within their company and with business partners. To this end they voted to cap their private salaries at no more than 5 times that of the lowest paid, fully vested employee in the warehouse. (2) They also implemented generous employee no-deductible PPO health plans and fully funded retirement plans. (1) On top of this, Dr. Bronners partners with the Swiss certier IMO to ensure that all of their materials are sourced in ethical ways that compensate workers with a living wage, this extends to workers in Israel, Sri Lanka, Ghana, and Canada. They estimate that this policy affects several thousand farmers and workers. (1) Employees of Dr. Bronners receive annual bonuses of between $10,000 and $40,000. (2)

Dr. Emmanuel Bronner founded Dr. Bronners Magic All-one Soap in Southern California in 1948. (2) He would sometimes give the soap away free while he proselytized to people on street corners in L.A. in an attempt to bring about a mass unication of the human race under an all-inclusive monotheistic religion. When he noticed that many people took the soap and left without listening to his pitch, he endeavored to pack his message onto the labels of the bottles. People eventually began to buy the soap, and during the 1960s it came to prominence within counter-cultural circles as a versatile cleaning product sporting a positive message printed on the packaging, and sold by an eccentric and iconoclastic gure, not some faceless corporation. (2) What makes the company so popular is that Dr. Bronners message and story is so out of the ordinary that it appeals to a subset of the public that appreciates outsiders. That, and it is a really high quality product. When Bronners children took control of the company in the 1990s they were able to take the brand, a staple in health food stores, and expand its market so that now Dr. Bronners is sold in such mainstream outlets as Wholefoods and Target. According to their website, Dr. Bronners made over $32 million in 2007. (1) Any proceeds taken in by the company in excess of what is needed for overhead and business development are donated to various charities, such as the Fair Shake Reentry Resource Center, a website established to facilitate and empower ex-cons to reintegrate into society after leaving the criminal justice system. (1) Dr. Bronner believed in the unity of all life, and since his death in 1998, his family has labored to produce a soap that would be sustainably sourced and ecologically friendly. (1) Many soaps on the mass market use petroleum compounds as emollient, and are properly called detergents, but Dr. Bronners is a castile soap,

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Dr. Bronners is, as of this writing, currently operating a program by which they are selling limited edition bars of soap with the proceeds going to provide mosquito netting for beds in communities around the farms in Ghana where they source some of their materials, in an effort to curb the incidence of malaria, which is wide spread in the equatorial world and potentially fatal. (1) Dr. Bronners is a household cleaner that is a household name due in no small part to its eccentric packaging, but despite the absence of the man whose vision started it all, the Bronner family is carrying on in Dr. Bronners spirit of personal and corporate responsibility.

Sources (1). http://www.drbronner.com/ accessed, 12/3/2012. (2). Lamm, Sara. Dr. Bronners Magic Soap Box. Ghost Robot. 2006. www.magicsoapbox.com

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TOMS Shoes
By Heather Shetrawski

4. A BETTER TOMORROW Healthy, educated children have a better chance of improving the future of their entire community. 1. www.TOMS.com The target audience TOMS Shoes wants to reach with their products and services can be broken down into three categories: The consumer base who purchases their merchandise, the volunteers who distribute free products and services in the US and abroad, and the underprivileged communities who receive the free products and services. These three groups are interconnected, with each one functioning to sustain the others. It begins with the people who purchase a pair of shoes, allowing TOMS to provide a pair for a person in need while also maintaining an economically viable company. Then, many of these consumers who want to do more for the cause become volunteers or interns for TOMS shoe drops and medical services. Finally, the recipients of the TOMS goods and services have more access to life-prolonging healthcare and education, bettering their entire communities, which has a global effect. TOMS Shoes exemplies activity in the green economy by equally promoting the three principles of the triple bottom line. They are successful in terms of revenue, take measures to reduce their environmental impacts especially concerning their textiles, which is an industry that has some of the greatest negative effects on the environment, and promote social equity with their One-for-One principle. TOMS Shoes meets their economic objectives by manufacturing a very diverse product line that is appealing to a wide customer base. In their rst year of business, TOMS sold 10,000 pairs of shoes. Only three years later in 2010, TOMS sold its one-millionth pair. 2. TOMS.com On top of the popularity of their merchandise, TOMS Shoes has kept operating costs low by being an online-only store, avoiding a lot of the expensive costs of permitting, constructing, and operating brick-and-mortar stores. TOMS Shoes are also available at over 500 well known retailers worldwide. After the great initial success of their shoe line, TOMS diversied its product line to include clothing, wedding styles, youth and baby sizes, and glasses and sunglasses, all under their One-for-One principle. TOMS headquarters is located in a modern, sustainably designed and operated building in downtown Los Angeles and they are planning on opening their rst agship store in Southern California. 3. TOMS.com

TOMS Shoes is a Los Angeles, California based for-prot company with a non-prot subsidiary, Friends of TOMS, that is successfully promoting the triple bottom line principles of sustainable development. TOMS Shoes was founded by Blake Mycoskie in 2006 after a trip he took to Argentina. While there, he witnessed the extreme poverty that many communities in South America live in. One thing that affected him in particular was that many children were running around barefoot in extremely hazardous conditions and were contracting diseases and infections through cuts on their bare feet. So he came up with the idea to start TOMS Shoes based on variations of the alpargata, the indigenous Argentinian shoe. He wanted his company to operate under the One-for-One principle, where for every pair of shoes sold, the companys subsidiary would donate a pair to a child in need, operating both here in the United States and internationally. To ensure that their Shoe Giving is sustainable and does not disrupt local shoe businesses, TOMS operates under strict guidelines in partnership with local business owners. Every year they publish The Giving Report which outlines what, where, and who they give to and highlights what actions the company is taking to not disrupt or displace local businesses in the areas they give to. Free footwear, glasses, medical and vision exams are services provided by TOMS to underprivileged communities worldwide to address the companys four areas of concern: 1. GROWING UP BAREFOOT In many developing countries, children must walk barefoot for miles to school, clean water and medical help. 2. INJURY AND DISEASE Hundreds of millions of children are at risk of injury, infection and soiltransmitted diseases that most dont have access to prevent or treat. 3. EDUCATION AND OPPORTUNITY Children who are healthy are more likely to be successful students, and access to education is a critical determinant of long- term success.

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TOMS Shoes achieves the owners environmental goals for sustainability in a few different ways. Most of the TOMS product line is 100% vegan, while the few non-vegan styles are made out of sustainable, well sourced animal materials. The major materials used in the TOMS product line are natural hemp, organic cotton, suede, wool, and recycled polyester. Every pair of TOMS has a vegan insole, the industry standard is suede. The shoe boxes that every product comes in use minimal packaging, are made from 80% post-consumer recycled waste and all writing is printed with non-toxic, soy based biodegradable inks. TOMS also has a Corporate Responsibility division in their company which ensures that they are sourcing and operating within the environmental and social values set by the company, as well as the laws in the countries they do business in. TOMS Shoes is a member of the AAFA (American Apparel and Footwear Association) and are active participants in their Environmental and Social Responsibility Committees. They also belong to Textile Exchange, a non-prot organization with goals of getting sustainable materials into the global textile markets, and TOMS uses their guidelines to source sustainable textiles. The company also participates in sustainability conferences and industry gatherings, sharing best practices within the world of sustainable design and responsible operations. 4. TOMS.com The agship brick-and-mortar store in LA has nished the planning stages and will soon be built. The company is taking great strides to make sure that the building is sustainably built and operated, to align with their environmental values. To successfully meet their social equity objectives, TOMS Shoes has great control over their entire supply chain, making sure that the other companies and organizations they partner with are operating under the laws in that country, as well as meeting the TOMS social equity values, especially concerning prevention of slavery, child labor, and human trafcking. TOMS Shoes is registered with the FLA (Fair Labor Association), and their Supplier Code of Conduct is inuenced by their leadership within labor standards and social compliance. The entire reason TOMS Shoes was founded is rooted in global social equity, the fact that people in poverty have lower life expectancies and educational opportunities when they dont have access to their fundamental needs such as shoes. Many people in impoverished conditions die from preventable infections contracted through bacteria in the soil, which get in through cuts and sores on their feet. It is common for schools in these communities have dress codes, and in turn, children

without shoes cannot attend and therefore miss out on the chance to get an education. After the initial success of TOMS shoe line, they expanded to include eyewear, also under the Onefor-One principle. For every pair of glasses or sunglasses sold, TOMS provides a vision exam and glasses to someone in poverty, both in the US and internationally. These people are benetting greatly from these free medical resources which they would not have been able to afford on their own. To ensure future success, TOMS revisits the same communities where they have provided goods and services, so they may keep benetting as their needs increase. Therefore, a child who receives a pair of shoes will also be able to get a new pair when they outgrow the previous ones, ensuring equity and opportunity throughout their lifetime. The business structure of TOMS Shoes is a for-prot, corporation which is incorporated in Santa Monica, California, USA. The company also operates a subsidiary, Friends of TOMS, which is a 501(c)(3) non-prot foundation that oversees the distribution of free goods and services. TOMS Shoes and Friends of TOMS were originally nanced when founder and Chief Shoe Giver, Blake Mycoskie, sold his small drivers education company to get the startup capital needed. Today, TOMS and its non-prot subsidiary are nanced solely through the prots made from merchandise sales. Every year since 2007, TOMS has hosted a worldwide social activism event called One Day Without Shoes, where people go an entire day without wearing shoes to highlight the impact shoes have on a persons life and to raise awareness for their cause. In 2012, there were 3,000 One Day Without Shoes events held in 50 different countries. 5. TOMS.com Because of the success and philanthropy of TOMS Shoes, the company and its founder have won many awards and recognition including the 2007 People's Design Award and #6 on the 2010 FastCompany list of Top Ten Most Innovative Retail Companies. 6. McGuigan 2007. In 2009 TOMS founder Blake Mycoskie, along with other business leaders, met with President Obamas senior administration to discuss ideas and solutions regarding US economic policy. He also gave the keynote address at the 2011 South by Southwest Conference. 7. Carney, 2009

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References

1. www.TOMS.com 2012 2. www.TOMS.com 2012 3. www.TOMS.com 2012 4. www.TOMS.com 2012 5. www.TOMS.com 2012 6. McGuigan, 2007 7. Carney, 2009
Additional Information www.TOMS.com www.onedaywithoutshoes.com www.facebook.com/toms www.tomscampusprograms.co m twitter.com/BlakeMycoskie http://blog.toms.com http://www.toms.com/givingreport http://pinterest.com/toms/ http://www.cgiu.org/ meetings/2009/agenda.asp http://www.toms.com/ourmovement http://www.toms.com/ourmovement/intern http://www.toms.com/ corporate-responsibility/ http://www.toms.com/jobs http://www.toms.com/ corporate-info/ http://www.toms.com/ afliate-program http://www.toms.com/veganshoes-1

Bibliography

1. TOMS Shoes. "Our Movement: Why We Give."


TOMS Shoes & Eyewear Ofcial Store. TOMS Shoes, 01 Jan. 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.toms.com/>. 2. TOMS Shoes. "Corporate Information." TOMS Shoes & Eyewear Ofcial Store. TOMS Shoes, 01 Jan. 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.toms.com/>. 3. TOMS Shoes. "Corporate Responsibility." TOMS Shoes & Eyewear Ofcial Store. TOMS Shoes, 01 Jan. 2012. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.toms.com/>. 4. TOMS Shoes. "Corporate Responsibility." TOMS Shoes & Eyewear Ofcial Store. TOMS Shoes, 01 Jan. 2012. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.toms.com/>. 5. TOMS Shoes. "One Day Without Shoes." TOMS Shoes & Eyewear Ofcial Store. TOMS Shoes, 01 Jan. 2012. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.toms.com/>. 6. McGuigan, Cathleen. "TOMS Shoes Wins Design Award: A Self-Sustaining Charity so Simple It's Brilliant." Newsweek. Newsweek/Daily Beast, 17 Oct. 2007. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek.html>. 7. Carney, John. "Ivanka Trump Works the White House." Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc., 07 Mar. 2009. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.businessinsider.com/>.

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Jacks Soap
By Gabriel Perez

Jacks Soap is a for-prot company that sells affordable vegan soap bars with the one for one model beneting someone else in the world. 1. Currently focusing on helping people of Haiti. The business was created when cofounders Bridget Hilton & Ben Richardson found out that everyday 5,000 children from all over the world die from diseases such as diarrhea, pneumonia, typhoid fever and cholera. The owners were astonished when they learned that many of these children could signicantly reduce their chances of contracting these illnesses by simply washing their hands. 2. Bridget Hilton who is the face of Jack's Soap co-created this company to help prevent common childhood illnesses in disadvantaged communities. The company is nanced through the purchases of soap via online store or small organic retail shops and results in donation of funds for soap to children in need. Jacks Soap is made in Los Angeles then it is distributed and sold in North America. Jacks Soap donates a percentage of their soap prots to soap-making institutions, many local communities with children in need and do not have an opportunity to afford soap. These soap-making institutions are asked to give away the soap that is made from donation money to their communities for free. Jacks Soap creates jobs, income, and boosts the local economy of each community they assist. Jacks Soaps makes soap from organic materials that are grown sustainably and have a certication of organic. The product comes in a three pack to save on cost of shipping and is packaged in fully recycled cardboard. The soap

is approved by Peta as a vegan product because it is not tested on animals and is not made of animal-derived products. 3. Local ingredients are used both in the U.S. product and in the product made in assisted communities. Jacks Soap focuses on being friendly to the environment as a tenet of their business model. Bridget Hilton and Ben Richardson have created a business model and a supply chain that decreases resource usage and aids children in high weather stricken impoverished communities. Jacks Soap strive for equity is not only evident in their ability to assist these communities with free health-boosting products, but also by assisting directly to the communities income. Donations are made to local soap makers to produce soap in a country in need, currently focusing in Haiti. Funds are given to the soap-making institutions that Jacks's Soap hires to make the locally donated product. The produced soap is then distributed by Jack's Soap employees or partnered organizations to distribute the soap to children in need. Apart from ghting illness, part of the donations of Jacks Soap goes to educating children and the communities about the importance of hand washing. Work shops are taught by the distributor so children know the benets of washing their hands. Jacks Soap is partnered with Children of the Nations to ensure that every soap-making institution that receives a donation fully complies with the companys policy of giving away the soap for free and to ensure that employees of these soapmaking institutions will not be exploited in the process. In 2012 Jack's Soap was bought by another company, Hand in Hand Soap LLC. Co-founder Bridget Hilton left Jacks Soap to focus on her new company LSTN which sells headphones that have a One-for-One trade of giving hearing aids to deaf children. Hand in Hand Soap introduced carbon free shipping, rainforest saving, poverty alleviation, fair trade, carbon offsetting shipping and Natural Products Association certied. 4.

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References 1. Tom's Shoes which recently popularized the term One-for-One. Inspired the businesses model for Jack's Soap. 2. Jack's Soap mission statement Paraphrase 3. Palmer, Ashley Paraphrase 4. Hand in Hand Soap LLC Paraphrase Bibliography "Given Goods Company | Blog." Given Goods Company | Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// givengoodscompany.tumblr.com/post/26152831073/ggcs-rstdate-with-bridget-hilton>. "LSTN Headphones." LSTN Headphones. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http://www.lstnheadphones.com/>. Palmer, Ashley. "Q&A With Cofounder of Vegan Company Jack's Soap | PETA.org ." People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA): The animal rights organization | PETA.org . N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.peta.org/living/beautyand-personal-care/qa-with-cofounder-of-vegan-company-jackssoap.aspx>. Schulzke, Mario . "Bridget Hilton - Saving Lives Through Soap." IdeaMensch | A Community of People With Ideas. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. <http://ideamensch.com/bridget-hilton/>. "Seacology-About Us." Seacology - Conservation organization preserving island environments and cultures. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.seacology.org/about/index.htm>. Shopify. "Jack's Soap - Welcome." Jack's Soap. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Nov. 2012. <http://jackssoap.com/>. Staff, QUART1. "Jack's Soap: Soap That Saves - with Bridget Hilton | QuarterWaters." Social Entrepreneurs - The Site for Social Entrepreneurs. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Nov. 2012. <http:// quarterwaters.com/jacks-soap-soap-that-saves-lives-withbridget-hilton>. Soap, purchasing a Fair Trade Certied bar of. "Buy a Bar, Give a Bar // Hand In Hand Soap." Home // Hand In Hand Soap. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// handinhandsoap.com/buy-a-bar>. "TOMS Shoes & Eyewear Ofcial Store - FREE SHIPPING on Everything | TOMS.com." TOMS Shoes & Eyewear Ofcial Store - FREE SHIPPING on Everything | TOMS.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http://www.toms.com/>.

Access to information about this case study: http://handinhandsoap.com http://www.lstnheadphones.com http://www.toms.com/

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Patagonia
By Patrick Daly retailers to use this material; it is estimated that between 1993 and 2006 it saved 86 million plastic bottles from ending up in the landll. Patagonia also recycles its cotton T-shirts, which saves 20,000 liters of water per kilogram of cotton, a water-intensive crop. (1) Patagonia is a clothing brand that specializes in clothing for outdoor activity; activities that are individual and based in nature, far removed from conventional team sports. Based in Ventura, CA, the brand is recognized as a worldwide company with textile mills in the United States, Belgium, Italy, Thailand, Taiwan, China, South Korea, and Japan; and factories in the United States, Mexico, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Columbia, Turkey, Jordan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, China, and South Korea. The guiding philosophy at Patagonia is to, build the best product, cause no unnecessary harm, and use business to inspire and implement solutions to the environmental crisis. For 40 years Patagonia has used this ideology to become one of the most inuential and innovative companies in the world. In addition to recycled material, the promotion of organically grown cotton is a measure taken to mitigate environmental degradation. While traditional methods of growing cotton are more efcient, they require use pesticides and defoliants to increase plant yield. Cotton grown organically is more expensive to produce but avoids using damaging practices.

Patagonia understands that creating a sustainable product does not involve just using sustainable material. In an attempt to increase the lifespan of their product and foster a more responsible consumer base, the company created the Common Threads Initiative. This program encourages and promotes ways for consumers to x or reuse products before attempting to dispose of them. Patagonia went as far as to carry out an ad campaign that told consumers to not buy the product if Patagonia provides quality, durable clothing they do not need it; they are aware of the resources and produced by means that are less damaging to the energy that creating their products consume, therefore ecosystems affected by industrial production. Patagonia they design products to last and provide utility. Patagonia practices corporate responsibility that promotes fair labor pays for repairs that they are responsible for and charge practices and ensures good working conditions in a fair price for repairs due to normal wear and tear. A factories and in addition Patagonia is dedicated to aiding market is provided on the Patagonia website in environmental protection and donates 1% of sales (or partnership with eBay that allows consumers to sell used 10% of pre-tax prots whichever is more) to grassroots products they have no use for, likewise there is a organizations involved in preservation and restoration of Patagonia recycling program for used fabrics. (7) the natural environment. As a company they possess a keen awareness of how the way they do business affects Another aspect of Patagonias corporate the environment and are very open to sharing it with any responsibility is the internal assessment to continually business that expresses an interest. monitor the environmental impact of its facilities and operations. In 1998, Patagonia became the rst company Their supply chain is an example of complete in California to commit to 100 percent wind-power corporate transparency, as it posted to their website energy. Alternatives to petroleum based fuels are viewed accompanied by audit reports revealing success or failure; as an essential component of the companys good or bad the information is posted and the company is environmental obligation. (3) quick to respond and provide updates of corrections. Patagonias business model focuses on practices that are Whenever possible Patagonia attempts to restore environmentally responsible and appropriate regarding old buildings rather than build new ones, or chooses to the harvesting of raw materials used in products. A build using all recycled or reclaimed products. (3) This variety of raw materials that are less harmful to the philosophy creates a sense of community and environment are utilized in production, including organic appreciation with the brand, and it displays the cotton, recycled plastic, bamboo, hemp, PVC- and understanding that consumers are also stakeholders. phthalate-free free inks. Patagonia has been selling eece Every one of Patagonias fty-three retail stores has its clothing made from recycled plastic soda bottles since own character and air, while also utilizing smart design. 1993. This recycling process takes clear plastic bottles Patagonia was an early adopter of LEED standards, and made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), melts them, every building maintains a logical focus concentrated on and recongures them into bers that can be woven into reducing impact. fabrics. Patagonia is one of the rst and largest clothing

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Patagonia is a privately held company that brought in $414 million in sales in 2011. The company attracts a certain brand of individual, one that is respectful of the planet and thoughtful of human activity and the consequences it may have. Patagonia is known for hiring environmentally conscious individuals and then teaching them business skills on the job, because the commitment to the cause is more important than the business training. The turnover rate at the companys main facility was only 4.5 percent compared to the industry average of 20-25 percent. Employees willingness to accept lower salaries, coupled with a low turnover rate, gives credence to the idea that most Patagonia employees work for the company principally because they believe in its mission and appreciate its employee-friendly work environment. (3) In addition to the strict standards Patagonia sets for itself, the company works with a variety of associations and programs to ensure corporate responsibility. In addition to complying with watchdog organizations, Patagonia participates with the Fair Labor Association (FLA), which displays commitment to promoting and complying with international labor standards throughout their supply chain. The FLA evaluates whether or not the company can be considered for accreditation, and to become accredited, companies are assessed on the basis of fulllment of the 10 Obligations of Companies as described in the FLA Charter, including adopting and communicating the FLA code, training staff to monitor and remediate noncompliance issues, conducting internal monitoring of facilities, and providing workers with condential reporting channels. (6) As part of its membership obligations the FLA, Patagonia submits itself to random and unannounced audits of

the supply chain to assess the quality of due diligence and help to identify areas of concern; the audit results are posted for public access on the FLA website. (10) In terms of equity; many factories employ people who are not competitively employable. For example, a sewing factory in Texas employs a labor force that is 75% blind, and another company in Maine employs a majority of disabled people from the local community. Globally, Patagonia holds itself to a higher standard than demanded by some countrys governments, but doing right by the employees is an important part of the Patagonia business model. All over the world, workers employed by the company receive fair wages and appropriate working conditions. Patagonia was an early adopter of progressive employment practices such as exible working hours and family-friendly practices including day care and after school programs. The company will also provide a sabbatical leave of up to two months with pay for employees who want to engage in environmental activities. (2) Patagonia has worked with a number of big companies to improve environmental conditions, and they remain on the frontlines of creating environmental awareness. For example, The Conservation Alliance is a group of rms in the outdoor activities supply business that work together to support environmental causes. The organization, 1% for the Planet is a group of rms that have agreed to give one percent of annual revenue to environmental organizations. Patagonia considers this to be Earth Tax and has also given over $20 million to environmental groups for projects that other donors have rejected. (2) As early as 1974, the company began to donate money to a variety of grassroots environmental

organizations and individuals. Its Environmental Grants Program was launched in 1985 and by 2002 had given over $14 million to more than 900 different groups. (3) Patagonia is recognized as a large, international, for prot company; they are a Benet Corporation (B Corp). Which means they must meet rigorous standards of social and environmental performance, accountability, and transparency. Patagonia has scaled the peak of the outdoor apparel and accessories business. The company designs and markets rugged clothing and accessories to mountain climbers, skiers, surfers, and other extreme sports enthusiasts and environmentalists who are willing to pay for the Patagonia brand and its environmental ethic (9). Patagonia is an innovator, both in the retail market and the environmental model of how to run a company. The people at Patagonia understand that there is no human economic activity that can call itself sustainable; but they also acknowledge that meaningful steps can be taken to improve the way we create products and do business, one that is more conducive to a happier customer, happier employee, and a happier planet.

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Resources

1. Claudio, Luz. "Waste couture: environmental impact


of the clothing industry." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.9 (2007): A449. November 2, 2012.

1. http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.opac.sfsu.edu/pmc/
articles/pmc1964887/

2. http://idr.edu.vn/forum/uploads/les/TAI
%20LIEU%20NGHIEN%20CUU/Tai%20lieu %20tham%20khao/Allieacademies/Journal%20of %20the%20International%20Academy%20for %20Case%20Studies/JIACS%20Vol%2014%20No %207%202008.pdf#page=133

2. Rarick, Charles A., and Lori S. Feldman.


"Patagonia: Climbing to new highs with a smaller carbon footprint." J. INTL ACAD. CASE STUDIES 14 (2008): 121. November 2, 2012.

3. http://www.anbhf.org/Journal%202006/Yvon
%20Chouinard.pdf

3. Chouinard, Yvon. "Yvon Chouinard Patagonia, Inc."


November 2, 2012.

4. http://www.patagonia.com/us/patagonia.go?
assetid=12080

5. http://www.patagonia.com/us/patagonia.go?
assetid=1964

4. What Makes a Building Green? Patagonia's Reno


Service Center. Patagonia 2012. November 2, 2012.

6. http://www.fairlabor.org/blog/entry/accreditation 7. http://www.fairlabor.org/blog/entry/commonground-patagonia%E2%80%99s-common-threadsinitiative-and-a

5. Our buildings Patagonia 2012. November 2, 2012.

8. http://www.bcorporation.net/community/
directory/patagonia

6. Accreditation. Fair Labor Association. January 1,


2006. November 2, 2012

9. http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/47/47281.html 10. http://www.patagonia.com/us/patagonia.go?


assetid=67583

7. Common Ground: Patagonias Common Thread


Initiative and the FLA. October 28, 2011. November 3, 2012.

8. Patagonia, Inc. B Lab 2012. November 3, 2012.

9. Patagonia, Inc. Company Prole. Yahoo! Finance


2012. November 3, 2012.

10. Working with Factories November 14,2012.

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Open Arms Shop


By Andrea Aquino The Open Arms Shop is a for-prot sewing shop located in Austin, Texas. For their mission statement, the company expresses that their intent is to measure its success against a triple bottom line that is economic (employ), ecologic (engage) and social (enjoy).1 The Open Arms Shop uses the triple bottom line as guidance in their work in achieving their goals to empower women in a sustainable and involved way. Every year thousands of individuals ee their home nations to escape war, persecution, and other forms of civil unrest to seek refuge in America.2 Often times they arrive with very little and must work for wages that are barely sufcient enough to cover their basic expenses. Displaced to a brand new country with different customs, they also commonly endure feelings of desolation. The Open Arms Shop aims to help women refugees in the USA by providing them with opportunities in their employment that they would have difculty nding elsewhere.

The Open Arms Shop meets their economic goals by producing and selling fashionable, unique, and well-made scarves and skirts online and in successful stores across America. Their products are sold in approximately 50 stores and in 15 states around the country.3 Their material costs are kept low because their products are created using recycled tee shirts that have been donated by generous individuals in the community. By using recycled tee shirts, the company also achieves their environmental goals. The input of these goods into their production line contributes to reducing unnecessary waste sent to landlls as well as reducing the use of new resources.

While the triple bottom line is important to the company, the social aspect is perhaps the most signicant in the operations. The business was started on the premise that they would improve the lives of refugee women settling in their area in the United States.4 Employees are paid at a rate of $3-$7 above minimum wage per hour. During the workday, employees can take an ESL class once a week. They provide onsite childcare through a cooperative with the church that they Leslie Beasley, one of the operate in to help eradicate extra founders, felt compelled to help expenses for their employees. They refugee women after spending time hold workshops in which their with female survivors in Uganda who refugee employees can speak about were victims of the civil war, and their individual, trying experiences. realized that there were many women They also engage the community refugees who resettled in the United through tee shirt donations for their States. She volunteered at a refugee products. They realize that assistance resettlement agency in Austin and, alone is not going to get these women understanding the extent to which through life; rather, they give these they are unseen, unheard, and women the opportunities they need to unrecognizable in our cities,1 assist themselves through teaching decided to initiate the positive change skills and accommodations to get that these women deserve. The their new lives started. The Open company provides scarves and skirts Arms Shop promotes equity by giving for the general public to purchase, disadvantaged women the resources and provides employment, they need and deserve to enrichment programs, benets, and a meaningfully integrate themselves comfortable environment for the into a new world. refugee women who create them.

The company was started with an investment of $50,000. Beasley and her management staff of ve friends agreed to work the rst year without a salary because of the limited startup capital. Currently they have a production team of six refugee women who are paid a minimum of $11 per hour, which is considered a living wage in Austin. These women were hired through the refugee resettlement center in Austin, which assists about 900 refugees annually, and were trained by the company to create the scarves and skirts that the company sells. Beasleys goal by the end of 2013 is to expand the production team by 10 more women by the end of 2013. The important thing to remember about the Open Arms Shop is that it is not a charity, but rather a business that wants to impact their community in a positive way by giving women a chance at a better life.

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References 1. http://www.theopenarmsshop.com/category_s/57.htm 2.http://theopenarmsshop.blogspot.com/search?updatedmax=2011-09-15T09:37:00-05:00&max-results=7 3. http://www.studentsoftheworld.org/blog/womenrefugees-open-arms-shop 4. http://theopenarmsshop.blogspot.com/ Bibliography 1. Why We Do It. Why We Do It. The Open Arms Shop, n.d. <http://www.theopenarmsshop.com/category_s/57.htm>. 2. Beasley, Leslie. Refugee 401. The Open Arms Shop. N.p., 15 May 2011.< http://theopenarmsshop.blogspot.com/search? updated-max=201-09-15T09:37:00-05:00&max-results=7>. 3. Bell, Jaclyn. Triple Bottom Line Company Open Arms Shop Employs Women Refugees.Triple Bottom Line Company Open Arms Shop Employs Women Refugees. n.P., 20 Apr. 2012.<http://www.studentsoftheworld.org/blog/womenrefugees-open-arms-shop>.

Resources website: http://www.theopenarmsshop.com/ facebook: http://www.facebook.com/pages/the-open-armsshop/128905863823806 blog: http://theopenarmsshop.blogspot.com/ twitter: https://twitter.com/theopenarmsshop

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Case Studies Waste Recology


By Lily Thomas Recology provides recycling and waste services to California, Nevada, Oregon and Washington. Recologys headquarters is located at 50 California Street in San Francisco. Its sorting centers in San Francisco are located in the Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood at Pier 96, 501 Tunnel Avenue, and 250 Executive Park Blvd. The mission statement of Recology is, waste zero is our rallying cry to make the best and highest use of all resources. Our commitments are to provide rst-class customer service, to positively contribute to the quality of life within the communities we serve and to reduce our negative impacts on the environment. Our achievements are driven by our awareness of the impact on our children, the communities we serve and the planet we all share. Recology According to the organizations website, is a noun, which is described as the science and practice of resource recovery. The process, of resource recovery, is reclaiming the garbage materials that are thrown out, and giving them a new use and purpose. Recology does not represent waste management, which is continuing to move garbage from place to place. Recology emphasizes, recycling, composting, art and invention, and education. They still must use a landll, since the organization has not found use for all garbage yet. But they see themselves completing their goal of zero waste someday. Recology provides a variety of services to residential, commercial, and municipal customers. Services to residential customers are designed to reduce the amount of landll bound materials and consist of basic waste management services such as, curbside collection of recycling, organics for composting, and garbage. Recology collectors can also pick up any debris from home remodeling, construction, or demolition, e-waste, hazardous waste and bulky items (such as furniture and appliances). For commercial and municipal customers Recology picks up all the same items as residential pick up, as well as consultation for a companys waste reduction. Other services include urban cleaning services, sorting and transfer of recyclables, landll management, and education and outreach to San Francisco and the other cities they serve. Many other services such as composting and the Artist in Residency (AIR) programs

are helping to change the waste management paradigm into a resource recovery paradigm. Recology has a monopoly on the garbage, recycling and compost in the city of San Francisco, and is doing some of its most inuential work in the Bay Area by serving residence, businesses, and municipalities in resource recovery. Recology is truly a green business that embodies the triple bottom line. It is an organization that puts the environment and people rst and still manages to make a very successful prot. Recology realizes that public and private entities are needed to make the triple bottom line a success, and have used high levels of organization and local legislation to create better ways to manage and recover waste. Recology is a for prot corporation that is largest employee owned company in the waste management business. It provides service to 570,000 residential customers and 55,000 commercial customers in the city of San Francisco. Recologys San Francisco customer payment is nanced under the concept of pay as you throw trash meters. The monthly fee for a residential unit for weekly garbage pick up over the month is $27.55. This is for the standard 32-gallon black garbage cart, the 32 once blue recycling cart and the green composting cart are not charged to the residential unit. This initiative to get the people of San Francisco to throw out less, and compost and recycle more, and if done correctly, are ultimately charged less per month. A residential unit may request the larger bins of 64 or 96 gallons, but monthly fees will increase double or triple.

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Businesses are charged on a sliding scale by how they mange their waste, recycling and compost and are charged for all 3 bins and are charged using the Uniform Commercial Rate Structure. This structure is use based and variable rates and a recycling incentive program. This incentive program is on a customer specic basis depending on their diversion rate. The maximum incentive allowed to obtain is a 75% discount. Recology has done many groundbreaking actions in San Francisco, such as providing the rst ever, all city distribution of green bins to all residence and businesses. Recology has the goal of creating zero waste in the city of San Francisco by 2020 and is on it way by having the best landll avoidance rare in the nation with the highly organized waste systems. The process that is put into the green bins is truly what Recology is trying to do with all of it resource recovery work. And the composting program that Recology has is one of it largest and most successful of their programs. San Franciscos green bins are taken to a farm in Vacaville called Jespen Prairies Organics, made into compost and then sold to many organic farmers around the region. As of 2010, San Francisco has composted 757,000 tons of material over a 13-year period. With Recologys outreach and education services to the people of San Francisco, the citizens of this city are diverting 77% of their waste to the recycling plants and not to a landll Recology puts a lot of specialization into its recycling and waste program, and this is needed because there are many hazardous items in the waste stream and recycling that need to be removed, such as orescent light bulbs and paint. Even though many strides have been taken to manage waste in the city in San Francisco, as well as the other municipalities Recology

serves, there are still many improvements that need to be made with regard to what happens to our recycling. We toss it, we organize it, and we sort it, but then what becomes of it? Many local and domestic companies try to take advantage and buy recycled products to produce their goods, but the realty is that waste management companies usually sell around 75% of their goods over seas, especially to China, and this includes Recology. Glass and metal goods tend to stay in the domestic market, but most of the paper and all of the plastic is shipped to manufactures in China. This causes many problems once recyclables go aboard. Recology and other providers, become very dependent on the foreign market, which could be a danger in todays world. Also, shipping becomes a threat to the environment as Recology CEO Mike Sangiacomo states If I had my druthers I wouldnt export to China, shipping anything half way around the world isnt sustainable, but its the lesser of a couple evils. and Recology has no control of the quality of life that the employees have in the factories abroad. When a recycling plant went into Pier 96 in the Bayview Hunters Point Neighborhood, Recology agreed to hire people from surrounding zip code areas. Hiring employees who live close to work is the best way to make it easy to get to work and to keep cars off the road. Along with providing these jobs that include, recycling sorters, managers and truck drivers, Recology provides employees with a living wage in San Francisco. A sorter can make upwards of $29/hour, along with health care for them and their families. Truck drives make anywhere from $50,000 and upward per year. Along with what CEO, Mike Sangiacomo, calls a Cadillac health plan which supports employees family. Recology is 80% unionized

and 100% employee owned organization. A supervisor noticed a lot of BART tickets amongst the recycled materials. But due to the material, the BART cards are not able to recycled. They had to be collected and taken out of the recycling steam, which gave the supervisor the idea that they should begin making a separate container for all the tickets that were thrown away, because most of the tickets thrown away had some amount of fare on them. After four months of collecting and sorting, Recology had collected a total of $1,400 in fare. They were able to redeem the cards and send the proceeds to Friends of the Urban Forest. Now city dwellers can simply tape BART tickets earmarked for donation to the lid of their blue recycling bin or hand them to a Recology recycling collector, who will deliver them to a central donation box in the dispatch ofce. Recology now calls the program Turning Tiny Tickets into Trees and sends convert BART ticket funds to Friends of the Urban Forest, who they also provide with compost. Recology is one of the largest employee owned companies in the United State and the largest in waster management. All of its employees are a member of the Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP), making it a 100% employee owned. The largest single shareholder of the company is their President and CEO, Mike Sangiacomo, who owns less then 1% of the stock. Recology is known for their world renowned Artist in Residency (AIR) program that began in 1990 and now annually receives 100 applicants. They accept 4-8 artists annually who have 24/7 access to 47acres at the San Francisco Solid Waste Transfer and Recycling Center, where everything goes before going to the dump, where they can scavenge materials for sculptures and textiles as well as anything in between. As well as access to materials, they receive a

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monthly stipend and a workspace. As the AIR program explains, the purpose is to make people think of discarded materials in new ways and to heighten awareness about things that get thrown away in the environment. It is another way in which Recology uses resource recovery and tries to beautify garbage. The artists are required to produce a show at the end of their residency that is open to the public, conduct outreach and allow people to tour the facility. The artwork remains at the Recology facility, which is located near Candlestick Park, for up to a year for employees and the public to enjoy. Many creations stay at the facility, where is also home to a three-acre sculpture garden containing work by former artists-in-residence. Over ninety-ve professional artists and twenty student artists have completed residencies, and this program is spreading to other municipalities that is serves.

Bibliography and References Little, Shannon. " San Franciscos Utopic Dump: Visual Artists Remake Citys Trash into Treasure ." Untapped Cities. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http:// untappedcities.com/2012/04/23/san-franciscos-utopicdump-visual-artists-remake-citys-trash-into-treasure/>. "More Jobs, Less Pollution: Growing the Recycling Economy in the U.S." Tellus Institute - For a Great Transition.Web. <http:// www.tellus.org/>. "Order A Green Cart For Curbside Collection." Recology Waste Zer. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http:// www.sunsetscavenger.com/>. Pellissier, Hank. "The Dump." New York Times 25 Dec. 2010. Nytimes.com. Web. <http://www.nytimes.com/ 2010/12/26/us/26bcintel.html>. "Recology - Reduce, Reuse, Recycle." Recology - Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.recology.com/>. Recycling in America's Greenest City. Vimeo. The Big Picture: Film & Video Arts Inc, 2012. Web. <The Big Picture: Film & Video Arts Inc>. Spot Us. "Follow the Trash: What Happens to Your Recyclables?" Spot.us. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://spot.us/ pitches/154-follow-the-trash-what-happens-to-yourrecyclables/story>. Sullivan, Dan. "Zero Waste on San Francisco's Horizon." BioCycle, July 2011. Web. <http:// www.biocycle.net>. Wheeler, Jacob. "Recology Pursues Zero Waste in the Bay Area." BlueGreen Alliance. Web. <http:// www.bluegreenalliance.org/apollo/signature-stories/recologypursues-zero-waste-in-bay-area>. Access to information about this case study resources: http:// www.recology.com/ http://www.sunsetscavenger.com/

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CASE STUDIES : Waste

World Centric Biocompostable Products


By Karen Yu

World ld Centric was established in 2004 as a nonprot t organization offering educational information about social and environmental issues around d the world. They hosted a lm series containing documentaries i d i on an extensive i range of topics such as workers rights to mineral depletion. Their mission statement is to reduce economic injustice and environmental degradation through education, community networks, and sustainable enterprises" (http://www.inc.com/articles/ 201107/applicant-of-the-week-worldcentric.html). Founder and Chief Executive ofcer, Aseem Das moved to the United States from India in 1981 to study computer science at the University of Oklahoma. He had a brief career in the technology eld during the 90s before being laid off in 2000 when the dot com boom went bust. He decided to start the nonprot with a few friends in 2004. In order to fund the nonprot, Das chose to start a business selling compostable products rather than through donor solicitations and grant proposals. He gured that there would be demand for organic Fair trade products that werent normally found in big-box retailers and hard to nd in specialty stores. So in 2005, the nonprot began selling their wares. World Centric headquarters is located at 2121 Staunton Ct Palo Alto, CA 94306. There are currently twenty people employed at the Palo Alto location. But they are also teamed with Accu-Logistics, a warehousing partner, located at 2031 Burroughs Ave San Leandro, CA 94577. Headquarter hours are Monday-Friday 9-5pm and they can be reached at (650) 739-0699. The company provides a variety of products as an alternative to plastic and Styrofoam. World Centric makes containers from renewable resources like sugarcane, corn, and wheat straw ber. Products can be bought through the organizations website at or at retail stores like Whole Foods, Cost Plus World

Markets, and Sams Club. Plastic u utensils, cold beverage cups/lids, takeout containers, souf contai cups/lids are composed of polylactic polylac acid (PLA) which is made from corn starch. Paper plates, P napkins and towels, takeout containers are ki d l k i made from post-consumer waste. Lunch trays are made of wheat straw ber which is the remaining material after wheat grain and chaff have been extracted. The company also sells biodegradable and compostable waste bags as well as compostable toothbrushes. World Centric became a for-prot organization in 2009 when they made over the limit for a tax-exempt nonprot (501(c)3) status. There is no type of venture funding, but there is one benefactor. In 2005 they made $85,000 from products, 2007 saw a prot of $2.2 million, and in 2010 the company proted over $9 million dollars. The company has stated that they donate 25% of their pre-tax prot to social and environmental grassroots organizations annually. In 2011, they gave $48,0090 in cash donations, $15,000 in inventory donations, $32,000 in non-prot discounts, $50, 000 in school (K-12) discounts, and $75,000 in compostable trays (at cost). There are contradictions in the environmental aspect of the company. Because, they make single-use products rather than reusable ones. When asked about why they didnt chose to promote reusable products, the company stated that while they agree that people should be reusing tableware, Americans use a large amount of takeout containers and tableware daily because of the convenience. The company believes that making non-toxic compostable products will be a compromise for the vast use of disposable items and would rather not have landlls lling up with plastics and Styrofoam. Another difculty which arises is that their products decompose best in a commercial composting system and should be disposed into compost bins.

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If an area doesnt offer composting as part of their waste management then it will be difcult to properly compost items. The company has made efforts with various organizations to promote equity around the world. Information regarding whether there is Fair Trade in the companys overseas supply chain can be found through factory audits available on their FAQ page. The company states that the tableware is made in China. The manufacturer claims that they pay workers fair living wages according to living standards in China and provide vacation, housing, normal work hours etc. for workers. We have currently no way of verifying this information (3) After reviewing the Wheat straw factory audit of August 2010 and the Bagasse factory audit of July 2009, some ndings made were safety issues such as re extinguishers being placed on the oor and containers not having a second protective covering to inconsistencies in employee work hours. But factory responses say that these issues have been dealt with. Another contrast comes from the amount of carbon emission that the company makes. Though emissions are between 1-5% from the time the items are being shipped to the United States, to when they get to the warehouse, from the warehouse to headquarters and headquarters to consumers in the U.S. 87% of the carbon emissions created by the company occurs during manufacturing in China.

To offset this contrasting number, the company has made efforts in the amount of carbon emission they make. They have a reimbursement of $250 per month for employees to use public transportation. Their headquarters is powered by renewable wind and solar energy made possible through Palo Alto Green. And they also donate to organizations that work to protect rainforest and plant trees. Other contributions which the company has made include a School Tray Program where the company provides non-toxic lunch trays for accredited schools (K-12) in the United States and Canada. Theyve helped with providing bio-sand water lters to residents of Tamil, India to ensure that they have pure water for use and consumption. Theyve donated to organizations, such as Organic Technology Extension & Promotion of Initiative Centre (OTEPIC), that provide training in biodynamic and organic farming to residents of Kenya in order help increase soil fertility, crop diversication, and increasing crop yield. They donated to Grid Alternatives, a California-based company, who provide energy efciency and solar electricity to low income homeowners in 2009. World Centric has made a good prot from selling their products, but Aseem Das mentions that hed like to someday donate 100% of the prot to organizations. Another point mentioned was that since becoming a for-prot company,

theyve been less focused on the educational aspect of their organization, but their mission statement still remains the same. And it is to reduce economic injustice and environmental degradation through education, community networks, and sustainable enterprises.

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Bibliography "Biodegradable & Compostable Products: World Centric." Biodegradable & Compostable Products: World Centric. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2012. <http:// worldcentric.org/>. "How Turning His Non-prot Into a Protable Company Helped His Social Mission with Aseem Das." How Turning His Non-prot Into a Protable Company Helped His Social Mission with Aseem Das. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http:// causecapitalism.com/how-turning-his-non-prot-intoa-protable-company-helped-his-social-mission-withaseem-das/>. "Company Highlights." B Corp Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bcorporation.net/ community/directory/worldcentric>. Inc. 5000 Applicant of the Week: World Centric." Inc.com. N.p., 5 July 2011. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http://www.inc.com/articles/201107/applicant-ofthe-week-world-centric.html>. "World Centric." Inc.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <http://www.inc.com/inc5000/prole/worldcentric>. "How Turning His Non-prot Into a Protable Company Helped His Social Mission with Aseem Das." How Turning His Non-prot Into a Protable Company Helped His Social Missionwith Aseem Das. N.p., 28 July 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <http:// causecapitalism.com/how-turning-his-non-prot-intoa-protable-company-helped-his-social-mission-withaseem-das/>. Little, Mark. "Facts About Landll & Styrofoam." LIVESTRONG.COM. N.p., 31 Mar. 2011. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/ 159954-facts-about-landll-styrofoam/>. Pinderhughes, Raquel. Alternative Urban Futures: Planning for Sustainable Development in Cities throughout the World. Lanham: Rowman & Littleeld, 2004. Print. "Biodegradable & Compostable Products: World Centric | World Centric." Biodegradable & Compostable Products: World Centric | World Centric. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <http://www.worldcentric.org/>.

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Urban Ore
By Ciera Stratton Urban Ore is a for-prot corporation that salvages and sells reusable goods (1). The mission statement from the Urban Ore website is To End the Age of Waste. Urban Ore offers many services. They salvage goods before they go into landlls and repair them if needed. There are three employees at the Berkeley Transfer Station daily doing oor salvage, taking products directly out of the station for reuse (5). Urban Ore is also open to dropoff of re-useable goods on site, and offers pick-up within a 50 mile radius (1). Their Ecopark store sells cabinets, hardware, lighting, sports gear, furniture, art and media supplies, clothing, household goods, garden supplies, and various construction supplies such as doors, windows, toilets, bathtubs, and raw materials (3). Urban Ore also contributes to building a zero-waste policy in the recycling industry at large through activism, community organization, legislation advocacy, recycling science, and helping with design of other recycling & reuse facilities (1). Urban Ores target audience is any person or entity that sends waste to landll or is concerned with the practice of recycling & reusing (1). In the words of CEO Dan Knapp, Urban Ore serves the very rich and the very poor; the skilled and the unskilled, DIY-ers and professional craftspeople (5). Urban Ore divides customers into two categories: suppliers and buyers. Suppliers are often contractors, designers, de-constructors, and waste haulers looking to avoid landll fees or wanting to give new life to their waste. Buyers range from students, real estate professionals, developers, contractors, collectors, artists, or anyone who has settled in the Bay

Area and needs a place to get inspiration or supplies for their projects (5). A policy, program, or company which promotes the triple bottom line is one which simultaneously promotes economic, environmental, and equity objectives. Urban Ore promotes triple bottom line practices. They were founded on the values of reducing waste and nding local goods to ll the needs of the community. They prot because of low operating costs and sales of salvaged products which would be otherwise thrown out (1). They promote equity through good treatment of their employees (1). To generate economic activity, Urban Ore makes money from their Ecopark. In 2009, Urban Ore brought in 2.5 million dollars in revenue (11). The park is divided into two retail categories: the General Store and the Building Materials Exchange (BMX). The General Store sells everyday household items like clothing, books, and appliances and the BMX sells things like raw materials and garden supplies (3). According to an article published in the New York Times, they sell about 7,000 tons of goods per year (11). They accept drop-off or pickup of reusable goods and materials, sometimes giving the provider monetary compensation or Urban Ore trade credits. Urban Ore employees also go scavenging for nocost materials and goods to sell (3). Fifteen percent of their income is from doors, and ten percent is from windows (11).

To meet environmental objectives, Urban Ore addresses the problem of waste. Their company policy is to get to zero waste (1). The nature of Urban Ores business is to provide a space for people to buy, sell, and trade goods for re-use (1). Dan Knapp, the companys owner, strives to move from waste to commodities (10). By scavenging through waste at the Berkeley Transfer Station, they give new life to products otherwise destined to be forgotten. They also offer on-site drop off of e-waste, car batteries, Christmas lights, microwaves, washers, dryers, etc. (11). Their goal is to divert 99% of Berkeleys waste and get those products to local people who in turn dont have to go buy something brand new (1). Urban Ore describes themselves as bring[ing] to the table a unique combination of business acumen and political savvy (11). Dan Knapps rst task was to inform the Berkeley public about the negative impacts of garbage incineration (11). He wrote a pamphlet which was distributed to all community members. Knapp and other Urban Ore crew continued their public education efforts by creating a childrens comic and continuing to inform the public on waste issues (11). Urban Ore Development Associated (UODA) is a team of professionals familiar with all aspects of Urban Ores business. They have successfully kick-started over 30 other Zero Waste facilities in 5 countries, offering on-site evaluations or via phone (2). These services can cost as little at $15,000 and are often implemented by municipalities (2).

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To meet equity objectives, Urban Ore pays their employees a "living wage." Living wage is dened as a salary which "allows a full time worker to provide food, housing, health care, child care, and basic transportation for themselves and their families" (11). To ensure Urban Ore employees receive a living wage in Berkeley beyond their usual salaries, they are offered income-sharing performance incentives. According to Dan Knapp, this is a complex and very at compensation system that rewards employees equally for selling more stuff, and moving more goods through our systems and out into commerce (5). With each paycheck an employee receives, they receive monetary feedback via this incomesharing. Through income-sharing incentives, when the company prots, so do employees (5). Employees also receive benets which include "paid vacations and fullyemployer-paid health, dental, and vision plans for all full time staff and all their dependents" (4). The waste industry isnt ever exemplied as living wage work, but Urban Ores policies and goals help create a model for a new approach to waste and resource recovery as a necessary and equitable part of a greener economy. Urban Ore is a corporation run by board members Dan Knapp and his wife, Mary Lou Van Deventer (1). Dan Knapp is currently the sole shareholder, but the company plans to undergo change by 2013. The plan is to "sell the business to the employees using a leveraged buyout of the owner(s) provided by an ESOP structure" (5). Urban Ore has 38 paid employees (4). Each division of Urban Ore has a manager, and most have an assistant manager. Retail divisions: Building Materials Exchange, General Store, and Internet Sales. Other: Outside Trader (pickup and delivery service); Salvage and Recycling, General Store Receiving, Administration (5). Weekly meetings of the management occur with the direction of owner Dan Knapp (5). Urban Ore is mostly self-nanced. They receive no government subsides. They pay "property taxes, payroll taxes, license fees, taxes on prots, and of course we collect sales taxes" (5). Their annual taxes paid exceed $600,000. After being rather nomadic, Urban Ore was nally able to purchase property in 2009. The purchase of the 3-acre space at 900 Murray St was bought with "a combination of bank loans, an SBA loan, and a loan from StopWaste" (5). With both grants and loans, Urban Ore was able to convert the property from manufacturing to mercantile and make necessary renovations to house their permanent business.

References

1.(About, 2012) 2.(Consulting, 2012) 3.(Ecopark, 2012) 4.(FAQ , 2012) 5.(Knapp, 2012) 6.(Living, 2012) http://laborcenter.berkeley.edu/livingwage/
overview.shtml

7.(Pellissier, 2010) http://www.baycitizen.org/localintelligence/story/urban-ore-ecopark-west-berkeley/

8. (Policy, 2012) 9.(Salvage, 2012) 10.(Science, 2012) 11.(Zero, 2012)

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Bibliography

1. About Us. Urban Ore. 2012. Web. 7 Nov 2012. <


http://urbanore.com/about-us/>

2. Consulting. Urban Ore. 2012. Web. 7 Nov 2012. <


http://urbanore.com/zero-wasteresources/consulting/>

3. Ecopark. Urban Ore. 2012. Web. 7 Nov 2012. <


http://urbanore.com/ecopark-store>

4. FAQ. Urban Ore. 2012. Web. 7 Nov 2012. <http://


urbanore.com/about-us/faqs/>

5. Knapp, Dan. Personal Interview. 20 Nov 2012. 6. Living Wage Overview. UC Berkeley Labor Center.
2012. Web. 25 Nov 2012. < http://laborcenter.berkeley.edu/ livingwage/overview.shtml>

7. Pellissier, Hank. Urban Ore Ecopark: West Berkeley.


The Bay Citizen. 25 Sep 2010. Web. 25 Nov 2012. < http:// www.baycitizen.org/local-intelligence/story/ urban-ore-ecopark-west-berkeley/>

8. Policy Planning. Urban Ore. 2012. Web. 7 Nov 2012.


< http://urbanore.com/zero waste-resources/policy-planning/>

9. Salvage Operations. Urban Ore. 2012. Web. 7 Nov


2012. <http://urbanore.com/zero -waste-resources/salvage-operations/>

10. Science. Urban Ore. 2012. Web. 7 Nov 2012. <


http://urbanore.com/ zero-waste-resources/science/>

11. Zero Waste. Urban Ore. 2012. Web. 7 Nov 2012. <
http://urbanore.com/zero-wasteresources/>

More Information Urban Ore website: http://www.urbanore.com/ Urban Ore Yelp account: http://www.yelp.com/biz/urbanore-berkeley Urban Ore blog: http://urbanore.com/blog/

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CASE STUDIES : Energy

Case Studies Energy


Southern Energy Management
By Lauren Spalter

Southern Energy Management (SEM) originated in Morrisville, North Carolina and has ofces in Charlotte and Wilmington, as well as in Greenville, South Carolina. This company began with Bob and Maria Kingery, a two-person team, who had previously worked for Burts Bees, which is a company that offers environmentally conscious personal care products. While working with this company the Kingerys became inspired and took the business and environmental lessons they learned to create southern Energy Management (SEM). In 2001 Bob and Maria came up with an effort that would emphasize their belief of leaving a positive mark on this planet. After brainstorming ideas on how to help people become aware of sustainable energy options, they created the rst ofce of SEM in their living room. The underlying goal of SEM is to make it possible and easy for anyone to have the ability to better the planet by using sustainable energy technologies. Southern Energy Management's purpose is to provide residential and commercial buildings, builders, and government facilities with solar powered energy. However, the larger projects for commercial and government buildings are now ran by PowerSecure International, which recently bought out the company.1 The name became Southern Energy Management PowerSecure. From the start the Kingerys focus was on the health of the planet. They believe that what is done today will greatly inuence the outcome of the next generations. Bob and Maria emphasize the importance of doing everything one can to protect the future of the planet. Their mission is To improve the way people make and use energy, and To build a prosperous company that supports people and the planet.2 Southern Energy Management provides customers with renewable energy through solar panels and solar water heating. They also provide ECO-home transformations, and consulting for green building and building performance. Although the company has grown into a larger business, it keeps its goals of being costeffective, having high-quality energy efciency, and providing solutions for green building.3

For green building and home transformations they address building performance, energy efciency, durability, and comfort. Highly qualied employees perform the services provided by SEM. The employees expertise include, LEED certied experts, building scientists, licensed electricians, plumbers, contractors, professional engineers, and architects.4 For the residential and commercial sectors, SEM provides solar energy options, building analysis, and performance improvements. For solar, one option is the solar panels, called photovoltaic systems (PV).5 The other form of solar they offer is solar water heating, known as solar thermal systems. These options save energy and reduce carbon emissions. The type of solar used by a homeowner depends on a variety of aspects such as, shading of the home, energy usage, roof material and the budget of the customer. Another service offered to homeowners is a program called ECO-home transformation, which works with Energy Star and green building consultants. Energy star is apart of the EPA, and creates environmental standards for any given structure.6 The ECO-home transformation is a two-part process that allows for a home to cut down on mold, moisture, air leaks, and other household inconveniences. First, the SEM team does an analysis of the home. Experts in building science and renewable energy analyze all systems of the house including, the air conditioner, ductworks, insulation, causes of indoor air pollution, mold, and mildew. After inspections are complete the homeowner is given an overview and a potential plan for home improvements. The second step of this program gives the customer the option to choose SEM to complete the home performance improvements. The goal of the company is to improve the health, efciency, and comfort of the costumers home.7

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CASE STUDIES : Energy

Southern Energy Management also partners with various builders to create green buildings. The goal of these buildings is to achieve certications with Energy Star, NAHB Green, and LEED-Homes. In 2011 SEM partnered with 200 homebuilders and built more than 2,500 Energy Star and green-certied homes.8 The commercial sector of the company focusses on the creation of sustainable businesses. They help businesses prepare for energy audits, help with energy benchmarking, performance testing, diagnostics, and Energy Star certications. SEM also provides the commercial sector with building performance analysis along with solar technologies. In addition, they work together with businesses to help them with the solar system designing, the engineering of the project, and also the project development and management.9 At the start of Southern Energy Management costumers included a small range of people, mainly small-scale builders. After a few years the business expanded, providing energy efcient products and green building services to home owners, residential and commercial builders, companies, non-prots, utilities and government clients in North Carolina and across the Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Northeast. SEM also reaches out to multifamily facilities and neighborhoods and works to spread the word about sustainable living. Through the companys sustainable practices, such as, recycling, composting, and conserving energy, others can learn of simple actions that reduce the impact on the planet. While, SEMs services are truly aimed at building and homeowners, they are also targeting their surrounding community with the education of sustainable practices. In the beginning the solar energy market in North Carolina, and most of the Southeast, was only available to the afuent homeowners and a small amount of commercial buildings. Initially, it was a bit of a struggle to accumulate the commercial sector as costumers. This was because of the high cost of the solar panels, and the more affordable solar thermal systems already had a competitive market. Over the past several years the price of PV and other solar options has gone down. In 2001 solar power was about $12 a watt and now it is about $2 a watt. This is because there is a higher demand for solar. As costs went down, SEM saw an increase in customers. The Kingerys felt it was important to make this energy available to anyone. Over time as their partnerships with green builders and advocacy groups grew, they reached a national level, which led them to be recognized by the National Home Builders Association. As the company reached their goals they were able to expand to 10 different states in the eastern half of the country, which broadened their targeted audience.11

Southern Energy Management has a business structure that is based on the triple bottom line. They focus primarily on the environment, the community and their team members. Most of the prot for SEM comes by providing easy and affordable sustainable energy. Their devotion to people is exemplied through efforts in helping and partnering with local organizations, local projects and through the treatment of their employees. Simply writing a mission statement that sounds appealing is not what is important to SEM. The certications and partnerships are what provide proof of the true efforts of the company. SEM has achieved status as a B Corporation, which was certied by a third-party. B Corps are businesses that meet strict standards of social and environmental performance, accountability, and transparency and are certied by the B Lab.12 SEM takes great pride in being a B Corp business, which they were certied as in November of 2009.13 The company sees this certication as a perfect t to their goals. B Corps is also benecial to SEM because it shows them where they need to improve and also compare their successes to national and local rms, which further benets the people, planet, and prot. SEM also has certications with Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET), National Association of Home Builders (NAHB), and North American Board of Certied Energy Practitioners (NABCEP).14 These certications reect the positive aspects of SEMs business model and how they are addressing their community and helping the environment. SEM exemplies how solar technologies are a great alternative to fossil fuel power. Promoting the use of solar alone is a great step to reducing the impact one has on this planet, however SEM goes beyond simply selling alternative energies. Some of the things SEM does to function sustainably is driving hybrids and using biodiesel (which is made locally), recycling throughout the ofce, composting, sustainability training and community education, recycled ofce furniture, supporting local vendors, and materials management. 15 SEM also makes sure they are working with local companies within a 100mile radius. An example of a local company is NC green power, which is a program that strengthens the companies commitment to the environment.16 In 2011 SEM reportedly installed more than 7.3 megawatts of solar power, worked with over 150 homebuilders to build over 2,500 Energy Star and green-certied homes, partnered with military bases to improve their energy performance, and helped their costumers prevent an astonishing 234,000,000 pounds of CO2 emissions.17 SEM frequently participates in environmental activities such as, EPA green fair, Earth day fair, and environment expos.

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CASE STUDIES : Energy

The company has two main contributors to greenhouse emissions: electricity used in their ofces and fuel usage through business travel.18 In order to address these two contributors they created a goal to become carbon neutral by using locally produced renewable energy credits and carbon offsets.19 Back in 2009 SEM began calculating their carbon footprint by using the US EPA Climate Leaders Greenhouse Gas Inventory Guidance tool.20 Once they determined a starting point they began to build a plan to become carbon neutral. In 2010, businessrelate travel contributed to about 60% of SEMs greenhouse gas emissions, but by purchasing 168 metric tons of carbon dioxide offsets, SEM was able to mitigate 371,045 pounds of greenhouse gases annually, which equates to 28,541 trees being planted or 525,965 miles not driven in a given year.21 SEMs renewable energy credits used to offset their electricity use, sums up to about 120,000 kilowatt-hour of local renewable energy generated, which equates to replacing about 97,200 lbs. of coal and planting 19,208 trees.22 For SEM, focusing only on the bottom line (prots) is an outdated business model. Businesses are very powerful in molding the future, therefore they should be aware of and responsible of the impact they have on the planet. SEM considers both the environment and community as stakeholders in their company that should be valued greatly. SEMs beliefs are that the bottom line will nearly take care of itself because of the structure of the business. Their prots emerge from their efforts of sticking to their mission and long-term goals. By following the triple bottom line, the business has grown. SEM went from two people running the company to a continuously growing amount of team members. Their mission has helped the growth of the overall business and their prots.

Because of the companys services, not only is energy being saved, but money as well. They are helping people save money by eliminating utility costs. SEM is also saving money through sustainable practices. Many of the companys environmental efforts correlate with the economics. Energy efcient cars and consciousness of electricity use are example of how they are not only reducing their impact on the planet, but also reducing money spent in their business. In addition, using solar energy also helps the company to save money on utility costs. SEM is also working to bring down the soft cost of solar installation, which accounts for architectural, engineering, nancing, and legal fees, and other pre- and post-construction expenses.23 In addition, working with certain organizations and being apart of certain groups, such as B Corps, not only benets the environment and often communities, but also provides a bit of marketing for SEM. For example, being apart of the B Corps community allows for the other companies to be aware of one another, in which they support one another. By having their employees trained on LEAN principles, the company is also able to create revenue by increasing their skills to sell the companys services efciently. LEAN principles include ve steps that help an employee interact with a costumer efciently. These ve steps are: identify customers and specify value, identify and map the value stream, create ow by eliminating waste, respond to customer pull, pursue perfection.24 SEMs strategy for growth in prot is to become expertise in what they do and stick to long-term growth and opportunities.

company will benet in the long run. Instead of instant prot, SEM takes a more patient approach, in which they can benet in more areas than just prot. This opportunity to grow characterizes how SEM approaches the people aspect of the triple bottom line. The company emphasizes how important people are for them to function as a business. SEM shows how all aspects of the company are tied together, and to the Kingerys sustainability is not just about sustaining the environment and prots but also their communities. The companys success is built from their team members individual success and the well being of their community. SEM is a great example of a company who supports social equity among the community and employees. The structure of the company include: stock ownership plans for all team members, openness and transparency, investments in team member development, culture of empowerment, promoting a work/ life balance, and supporting their communities.26 For SEM it is important to build a company that people want to work with.27 They refer to their employees as team members, because they are viewed equally amongst the business. Not only is there the sense that everyone is on the same playing eld, but they are also provided with a plethora of benets. They are provided with competitive salaries, health insurance, an Individual Retirement Account (IRA), training and career development, and stock options in the company.28 In fact, 75% of the stock is available to the employees, and SEM pays for around 75% of the healthcare premiums for their 25 employees.29 In addition, employees are given disability and life insurance Many of the actions SEM takes to help the environment lead to benets. Maria Kingery discusses long-term money savings. By focusing how the company would love to offer more benets but shares the on different aspects of the company complications of doing so with a such as, fuel-efcient autos and small business. 30 employee LEAN training, the

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CASE STUDIES : Energy

The company also makes sure that they not only work with diverse suppliers such as, minorities and woman based businesses, but that they also create a diverse work environment. They make sure to promote equity when hiring their team members. In an interview with Maria Kingery, she states how the company is always conscious of creating a diverse work place. She goes on to discuss the importance of balancing out the leadership roles, allowing for a diverse team of leaders.32 The company incorporates recruitment strategies to make sure people with all backgrounds have an equal opportunity to work with SEM. Amongst all SEM team members, more than 30% of the employees are women, more than 20% are from low-income communities, and more than 50% of the customers are locals.33 SEM is considered to be in the service and construction industry, which is usually a male oriented eld. The company is continuously aware of this and strives to give opportunities to women and others who are not normally considered for these jobs. Maria Kingery explains how the company is cognitive of barriers for women.34 The company makes a very conscious effort to ensure equality among their employees. Even when the United States economy was struggling, they did not to layoff employees, instead the Kingerys took a 15% pay cut to ensure they would keep their team members.35 It is important to SEM to keep the well being of the company and team members in check. Making a positive impact in the surrounding communities is vital to SEM. According to Maria Kingery it is important to be the change.36 Team members engage in community service at the local level and the company supports local businesses and events as often as they can. In fact, SEM team members are given paid time off to volunteer with the organizations within the community.37 SEM partners with other organizations to create more opportunities for a variety of people to have a more sustainable lifestyle. The company also is engaged in advocacy groups who work with social justice issues within the community. Some of these organizations include: Habitat for Humanity, NC Sustainable Business Council, NC Sustainable Energy Association, Bull City Forward, UNC BASE program, SJF Institute, Operation Breakthrough, Abundance Foundation, and Triangle Emerging Green Builders.38 SEM also participates in job fairs and local events such as, the Planet Earth Celebration, Durham Earth Day, and ReDress Raleigh whenever possible. 39 Maria Kingery also sits on the board for North Carolina Sustainable Center, where they not only discuss sustainable activity in North Carolina and build economic prosperity, but also organize educational events and speak to schools, community colleges, and universities, which reach out to the young community to teach for today and for the future.40

One organization SEM has worked with is Habitat for Humanity. Durham, North Carolina which offers people who lack shelter affordable houses regardless of race, religion, ethnicity, and so on.41 SEM decided to work with Habitat for Humanity because of their goal to allow everyone to have access to sustainable energy sources. The participants in Habitat for Humanity are usually on a tight budget; therefore by adding solar energy to a home it will in turn be saving these families money. The SEM teams partners with the organization to build energy efcient and green homes. They helped build the communities rst green Habitat community called Hope Crossing.42 These 31 homes included solar water heating systems and Energy Star certications.43 They are also working towards accomplishing the rst LEED and NAHB green habitat home. Working with Habitat for Humanity fullls the goals of SEM, which allows for people of any income level to use solar energy and reduce their impact on the planet. One project that was special to team member Jamie Hager, who is the Green Building Program Manager at Southern Energy Management, was a project done with the Serenity House, which is a safe house in North Carolina for women and children who are victims of domestic violence or sexual abuse. The shelter experienced a devastating re that left the home in mostly ashes. With the immense importance to keep these woman and children protected, the house needed to be rebuilt. Jaime started planning with Yates Hussey Construction and SystemVision.44 SystemVisions is a program that partners with NC Housing Finance Agency and Advanced Energy, to certify homes based on affordability, health, safety, durability, comfort and energy efciency.45 SEM worked together with these organizations to achieve these standards to gain certication and to also benet the new Serenity House directly. A year after the re the new house was complete. The woman and children came back to a beautifully and well thought out home. Because of the new standards, the home was able to save about $4,000 a year that could be used to help more people and provide counseling and therapy, empowerment sessions and parenting classes, nutritional cooking courses, exercise sessions, and even dog and horse therapy to help children heal.46 Another project that SEM was part of was the building of a home for a Burmese family. Together with The Redwood Group and Burts Bees, SEM worked on a project with Habitat for Humanity. They chose a family in the local community who were immigrants from Myanmar but are now permanent residents in the United States.

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CASE STUDIES : Energy

With many helping hands and intensive work to meet particular standards, this family in need was fortunate to gain a new Energy Star and National Green Building Standard-certied home.47 This is one way that SEM takes advantage of community service and partnering opportunities to make sure they are giving back to their community and in an equitable way. These efforts are possible because of the structure of Southern Energy Management. The company started as a two-person team that ourished into a thriving business in the green economy. The structure of the company has been altered overtime. They were rst recognized at the local level and are now a nationally recognized sustainable business. SEM has grown to the extent that it needed assistance and is now owned partially by PowerSecure. While the company has a growing national reputation, the originating company returned to its local root but continues to be seen as both a national and local company. SEM operates specically in the Southeast of the United States, but much of the business involves working with national organizations. Many of the awards they have received are recognized on the national level as well.48 Two of the major national organizations SEM partners with and are recognized by are Energy Star and National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). SEM also follows the structure of the B Corporations standards very closely, in which the company is structured with the belief that the planet and people are just as important as prot. Energy Star standards better the name of the company and show that what they are doing is truly beneting the planet. According to the Energy Star website the label that certies a building, has undergone a process of inspections, testing, and verication to meet strict requirements set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).49 Energy Star works with SEM to provide training sessions with their employees that keep them up to date with the most sustainable standards. SEM works with their partners and clients to make sure that they are meeting the energy efciency goals set by Energy Star. According to an employee of SEM, residents in North Carolina are more likely to purchase a home with Energy Star ratings because it will not only save the owner money but it will provide more comfort, a quieter living environment, and less maintenance over time.50 SEM has been recognized for several years running by Energy Star. The company strives to provide builders with adequate education that will allow for a building to achieve a certication to the National Green Building

Standard. In 2011 SEM was awarded NAHB Research Center Green Partner of the Year because of the requirements built into the structure of the company. PowerSecure, as mentioned before, now operates the industrial and larger commercial solar services and has become a sector of SEMs structure. PowerSecure is a company that provides energy technologies and services for utility use and large industries such as, industrial and military, commercial and retail, healthcare, and data center facilities. Co-operating a business with a company such as PowerSecure allows SEM to be recognized at higher national level. According to Maria Kingery this new partnership allows for growth in the company. Maria, in addition, states that this new addition provides our industrial and large commercial team with a wellestablished, well-funded platform for growth, as well as complimentary service offerings to deliver even more value for customers. At the same time it allows the residential and small commercial team to focus on serving our individual clients with the utmost care and attention." By structuring the business in this way, the company is able to address a larger quantity of people more effectively. Overall, the awards SEM received and the organizations that they work with directly reect the efforts the company has made to maintain a structure that abides by the triple bottom line. The economics in SEM are also beneted by their well thought out and long-term strategies. Maria Kingery states that building strong relationships and thinking longterm is what leads to prots. She further states that, What our industry needs is strong players who have a long-term view -- be one of those and you will create success for yourself and others.51 While the economic aspect of the company isnt the main focus, it is denitely not forgotten about, and requires a well thought out strategic approach. A good portion of the companys prots is not only in the sales they make with solar technologies or home evaluations, but also in their savings. The companies sustainable practices such as, fuel efcient transportation and energy efciency in their ofces, saves them a good amount of money. Much of there prot can also be attributed to the work they do with their various partnerships. According to Maria Kingery, the key component in building a business in the green economy is to work cooperatively across many different sectors and bring everything together to analyze where the value is.52

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CASE STUDIES : Energy

SEM has worked with SBTDC to create and strengthen their business plan. SBTDC, which stands for Small Business and Technology Development Center, helps businesses with planning, nancial management, human resources, marketing, and operations.53 SBTDC helped SEM to establish benchmarks within the company, relating to performance and the employees. The efforts provided by SBTDC have led to an increase of sales from 2009 to 2010 by 300%.54 SEMs revenue has steadily increased since the beginning. From 2005 to 2010 the company sustained 80% growth rate compounding annually, and from 2010 to 2011 they saw over 50% growth rate.55 With the help from SBTDC they created scorecards for the employees. These scorecards, which serve as a measurement tool for SEM, helped compare the team members operations to the long-term strategies of the company. The result is that the team members receive a share of the prots.56 They also use the scorecards to calculate the team members community involvement. Financial transparency is also a vital part of connecting the team players to the company. Throughout the business anyone from employees to visitors can see the progress that SEM is making nancially.57 PowerSecure, now that they are co-owners, take part in the nances of SEM. In the new subsidiary, Southern Energy Management-PowerSecure, receive 90% of the controlling interest. This was acquired for approximately $4 million. The SEM team continues to have 10% noncontrolling interest. In 2014 PowerSecure will have the option to obtain the other 10% interest, however the price for the non-controlling interest has yet to be decided.58 Since the deal was made, about $25 million has been made on large projects in 2011 and are estimating prots of about $20 million to $30 million in 2013.59The Kingerys believe that this deal with PowerSecure is the nancial and corporate support they need for the industrial sector to ourish. Now that the Kingerys focus primarily on the residential and smaller sectors, perhaps the prots will grow even more so due to the increased focus of particular sales. Southern Energy Management agreed they would keep their core values in place even when the company is sold.60 Before the deal with PowerSecure, SEM had about 135 employees; this sale took half of the employees and half of the prot, leaving SEM with about 55 employees.61 According to the site Lead411.com, the approximate average salary at SEM is $64,971.62 In an interview with Maria Kingery, she states that the lowest

wage, which is usually at the temp, intern, or on-site level, is about $12 an hour and no one is receiving over $120,000.63 According to U.S. Bureau of labor statistics, in 2011 the average salary in North Carolina was $41,250.64 It is important to SEM to remain loyal to their triple bottom line business plan. As Maria Kingery states, they Provide benets to the environment and society while still working as a for-prot business. They keep a B Corp Declaration of Interdependence up on the wall of their ofce to remind the staff of a business model that harnesses the power of private enterprise to create public benet.65 Southern Energy Management exemplies the importance of having a business model that keeps in mind that people and the planet are just as important as prot.

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CASE STUDIES : Energy

7 This paragraph comes from: "Home Performance." Southern Energy Management. 04 Nov. 2012. <http:// 1 As the company has grown exponentially, it has become www.southern- energy.com/content/improve the comfort of your home /9970>. difcult for SEM to run all operations on their own. The 8 "NC Residential Solar Power, Energy Efciency & Green company wanted to stick to its local roots in Morrisville so, on Building. We Can Help." Southern Energy Management. 02 June 5, 2012 PowerSecure International, an energy Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern-energy.com/content/solar technologies and services company out of Delaware, bought power installers and efciency certication for residential part ownership of Southern Energy Management. Southern building in north carolina/1401>. Energy Management still manages smaller commercial 9 "PowerSecure Acquires Part of Southern Energy buildings and residential homes. It is a direct subsidiary of Management." WRALtechwire. 04 Nov. 2012. <http:// PowerSecure and has part ownership of the new company, wraltechwire.com/business/tech_wire/news/blogpost/ Southern Energy Management-PowerSecure (SEM-PS). Co11176489/>. founder of SEM Maria Kingery states that, "We are 10 All information above about solar costs comes from this enthusiastic about this new partnership, which provides our source. Maria Kingery, Phone Interview, December 2012 industrial and large commercial team with a well-established, 11 "Southern Energy Management." Small Business and well-funded platform for growth, as well as complimentary Technology Development Center (SBTDC). 02 Nov. 2012. service offerings to deliver even more value for customers. At <http://www.sbtdc.org/results/success/sem/>. the same time it allows the residential and small commercial 12 "What Are B Corps?" B Corporation. 02 Nov. 2012. team to focus on serving our individual clients with the utmost <http://www.bcorporation.net/what-are-b-corps>. care and attention." B Lab is a 501(c) 3 nonprot that serves a global "Southern Energy Management Focusing Services." movement of entrepreneurs using the power of business to Altenergymag. 02 Nov. 2012. <http:// solve social and environmental problems. B Lab serves these www.altenergymag.com/news/2012/06/06/southern-energyentrepreneurs through three interrelated initiatives that provide management-focusing-services- selling-industrial-and-largethem the legal infrastructure and help them attract the commercial-solar-business/24952>. customers, talent, and capital to scale. http:// 2 We're rm believers that businesses have the power to www.bcorporation.net/what-are-b-corps/the-non-protchange the world for the better, and we're committed to working toward that goal each and every day. We believe what behind-b- corps 13 "People, Planet, Prot." Southern Energy Management. you do is important, and we also believe how you do it matters 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern- energy.com/content/ just as much. Because of that, were proud to be a B southern energy management is a triple bottom line company corporation in NC. Sustainable company practices are vital to %3A people, planet, prot/12101>. both our future and the planets. We would not be who we are 14 "Why Choose Southern Energy Management?" without the awesome team that has joined us to work together Southern Energy Management. 02 Nov. 2012. <http:// for a smarter, better future. We are proud proponents of the www.southern-energy.com/content/why choose us/1563>. triple bottom line: people, planet and prot. 15 Kingery, Maria. Southern Energy Management: A "Our Story." Southern Energy Management. 2 Nov. 2012. Bold Vision for a New Kind of Company. 5 Nov. 2012. PDF. <http://www.southern- energy.com/content/our+story+and 16 SouthernEnergy. "What It Means to Be a B Corp +mission/1367>. Video." YouTube. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/ 3 "Our Story." Southern Energy Management. 2 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern- energy.com/content/our+story watch?v=0o4qvk5JzwU>. 17 "Triple Bottom Line: Planet." Southern Energy +and+mission/1367>. 4 "Sustainable Business Energy Solutions for Companies." Management. 05 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southernenergy.com/content/going carbon neutral%3B using carbon Southern Energy Management. 04 Nov. 2012. <http:// offsets to help alleviate co2 emmissions/12103>. www.southern-energy.com/content/commercial energy 18 "Southern Energy Management Commits to Being solutions - solar installations and energy efciency/1403>. Carbon Neutral." Southern Energy Management. 02 Nov. 5 Solar panels, often referred to as photovoltaic systems 2012. <http://www.southern-energy.com/channel/500>. (PV), convert sunlight into DC electricity, which is then 19 Cowperthwaite, Chris. "Southern Energy Management converted by the inverter to AC electricity for household use. Commits to Being Carbon Neutral." Southern Energy The PV meter counts the kilowatts per hour used and the Management. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://blog.southernelectricity is then sold to electric companies. From this process energy.com/index.php/sem-triple-bottom- line/southernincome can then be generated for the customer. energy-management-commits-to-being-carbon-neutral/>. More information from the source at: http:// Spalter 1620 The US EPA Climate Leaders Greenhouse www.southern- energy.com/content/solar+panels+for+your +home+in+north+carolina+and+throughout+the+southeast/ Gas Inventory Guidance tool based is on an existing protocol developed by the World Resources Institute and the World 1 324 Business Council for Sustainable Development. More 6 "The Little Label with a Big Message. Better Is Better." ENERGY STAR. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.energystar.gov/ information here: http://www.southern-energy.com/channel/ 500 index.cfm?c=new_homes.hm_index>.

References

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21 "Southern Energy Management Commits to Being Carbon Neutral." Southern Energy Management. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern-energy.com/channel/500>. 22 "Southern Energy Management Commits to Being Carbon Neutral." Southern Energy Management. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern-energy.com/channel/500>. 23 Includes all sentences in the paragraph about solar power. Maria Kingery, Phone Interview, December 2012 24 LEAN Principles: 1.Identify Customers and Specify Value - The starting point is to recognize that only a small fraction of the total time and effort in any organization actually adds value for the end customer. By clearly dening Value for a specic product or service from the end customers perspective, all the non-value activities - or waste - can be targeted for removal. 2. Identify and Map the Value Stream The Value Stream is the entire set of activities across all parts of the organization involved in jointly delivering the product or service. This represents the end-to-end process that delivers the value to the customer. Once you understand what your customer wants the next step is to identify how you are delivering (or not) that to them. 3. Create Flow by Eliminating Waste Typically when you rst map the Value Stream you will nd that only 5% of activities add value, this can raise to 45% in a service environment. Eliminating this waste ensures that your product or service ows to the customer without any interruption, detour or waiting. 4. Respond to Customer Pull This is about understanding the customer demand on your service and then creating your process to respond to this. Such that you produce only what the customer wants when the customer wants it. 5. Pursue Perfection - Creating ow and pull starts with radically reorganizing individual process steps, but the gains become truly signicant as all the steps link together. As this happens more and more layers of waste become visible and the process continues towards the theoretical end point of perfection, where every asset and every action adds value for the end customer. -Information from: http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/lean/ principles/index.html -More information on LEAN principles at: http://www.lean.org/whatslean/principles.cfm 25 Kingery, Maria. Southern Energy Management: A Bold Vision for a New Kind of Company. 5 Nov. 2012. PDF. 24 Maria Kingery, Phone Interview, December 2012 26 Kingery, Maria. Southern Energy Management: A Bold Vision for a New Kind of Company. 5 Nov. 2012. PDF. Spalter 1726 Maria Kingery, Phone Interview, December 2012 28 "Triple Bottom Line: People." Southern Energy Management. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southernenergy.com/content/opportunities for employees to volunteer, give back/12102>. 29 "Southern Energy Management." B Corporation. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bcorporation.net/community/ directory/southernenergy>. 28 Maria Kingery, Phone Interview, December 2012

31"Join Our Team: NC Green Jobs." Southern Energy Management. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southernenergy.com/content/green jobs - solar power and energy efciency at southern energy management/1366>. 33 "Southern Energy Management." B Corporation. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bcorporation.net/community/ directory/southernenergy>. 34 Maria Kingery, Phone Interview, December 2012 35 Southern Energy Management: Leadership in North Carolinas Advanced Energy Economy. 4 Nov. 2012. PDF. 33 Maria Kingery, Phone Interview, December 2012 39 Source is also for previous two sentence: "Triple Bottom Line: People." Southern Energy Management. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern- energy.com/content/opportunities for employees to volunteer, give back/12102>. 40 Maria Kingery, Phone Interview, December 2012 41 "Habitat for Humanity - Quick Tour." Habitat for Humanity. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.habitat.org/lc/ quicktour/0_welcome.htm>. 42 Kingery, Maria. "Habitat for Humanity: Building Homes and Relationships." 02 Nov. 2012. <http:// blog.southern-energy.com/index.php/sem-triple-bottom-line/ habitat-for-humanity-building- homes-and-relationships/>. 43 Kingery, Maria. "Habitat for Humanity: Building Homes and Relationships." 02 Nov. 2012. <http:// blog.southern-energy.com/index.php/sem-triple-bottom-line/ habitat-for-humanity-building- homes-and-relationships/>. 44 More information at: http:// www.yateshusseyconstruction.com/ and http:// www.advancedenergy.org/buildings/affordable_housing/ systemvision/ 45 "SystemVision." SystemVision. 02 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.advancedenergy.org/buildings/affordable_housing/ systemvision/>. 46 Hager, Jaime. "Saving More Than Energy." Southern Energy Management. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://blog.southernenergy.com/index.php/sem-energy-efciency/saving-morethan-energy/>. 47 Morse, Ian. "B Corporation Habitat House Helping Burmese Family." Southern Energy Management. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://blog.southern-energy.com/index.php/semenergy-efciency/b-corporation- habitat-house-helpingburmese-family/>. More information on the Redwoods Group: http://redwoodsgroup.com/ 48 National Awards: 2012 One of B Lab's "Best for the World" businesses 2012 EPA Energy Star Sustained Excellence Award (National Energy Star Partner of the Year 6 consecutive years) 2011 NAHB Research Center "Green Partner of the Year" All awards listed here: http://www.southern-energy.com/ content/southern+energy+management+- +a+sustainable+b +corporation+in+nc/1276 49 "The Little Label with a Big Message. Better Is Better." ENERGY STAR. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.energystar.gov/ index.cfm?c=new_homes.hm_index>. 50 SouthernEnergy. "SEM Earns 2009 National Energy Star Partner of the Year from EPA." YouTube. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-1REEFwTbvI>.

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51 "How We Help NC Businesses." SBTDC. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sbtdc.org/about-us/how-we- help-ncbusinesses/>. 52 SJFVentures. "Maria Kingery - Southern Energy Management." YouTube. 02 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNZQZhMe5bY>. 53 "Your Expert Business Advisors." SBTDC. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sbtdc.org/>. 54 "Southern Energy Management." Small Business and Technology Development Center (SBTDC). 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sbtdc.org/results/success/sem/>. 55 Maria Kingery, Phone Interview, December 2012 56 "Southern Energy Management." Small Business and Technology Development Center (SBTDC). 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sbtdc.org/results/success/sem/>. 57 "Southern Energy Management Sees Business Heat up." Triangle Business Journal. 5 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.bizjournals.com/triangle/stories/2009/01/05/ smallb1.html?page=all>. 58 The information from the start of the paragraph came from the same article: "PowerSecure Acquires Distributed Solar Energy System Business." PowerSecure International. 2 Nov. 2012. <http:// investor.powersecure.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=110419&p=irolnewsArticle&ID=1702958&highlight=>. 59 Downey, John. "Southern Energy Management Sells Industrial Solar Division for $4M." Charlotte Business Journal. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bizjournals.com/charlotte/blog/ power_city/2012/06/southern-energy-managementsells.html?page=all>. 60 SouthernEnergy. "What It Means to Be a B Corp Video." YouTube. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=0o4qvk5JzwU>. 59 Information in previous sentence also comes from this source: Maria Kingery, Phone Interview, December 2012 62 "Southern Energy Management." Lead411. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://www.lead411.com/ company_SouthernEnergyManagement_569339.html>. 63 Maria Kingery, Phone Interview, December 2012 64 Wilson, Jen. "Average salary in North Carolina ranks 29th nationally - Charlotte Business Journal." Business News The Business Journals. 2 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.bizjournals.com/charlotte/news/2012/04/17/averagesalary-in-north-carolina- ranks.html>. 65 "Interview: Maria and Bob Kingery, Southern Energy Management: Growing a Good Business." Southern Energy Management. 04 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southernenergy.com/channel/581>. Bibliography "About Us." Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.southern-energy.com/content/southern energy management - a sustainable b corporation in nc/1276>. Cowperthwaite, Chris. "Southern Energy Management Commits to Being Carbon Neutral." Web log post. Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 1 Dec. 2010. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://blog.southernenergy.com/index.php/sem-triple-bottom-line/southernenergy- management-commits-to-being-carbon-neutral/>.

Downey, John. "Southern Energy Management Sells Industrial Solar Division for $4M." Charlotte Business Journal. American City Business Journals, 6 June 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bizjournals.com/charlotte/blog/ power_city/2012/06/southern-energy-managementsells.html?page=all>. "The Five Principles of Lean Thinking." Explore Cardiff University. Cardiff University, n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/lean/principles/index.html>. "Habitat for Humanity - Quick Tour." Habitat for Humanity. Habitat for Humanity International, n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.habitat.org/lc/quicktour/ 0_welcome.htm>. Hager, Jaime. "Saving More Than Energy." Web log post. Saving More Than Energy. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 6 Sept. 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://blog.southernenergy.com/index.php/sem-energy-efciency/saving-morethan-energy/>. "Home Performance." Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 2012. Web. 04 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern-energy.com/content/improve the comfort of your home /9970>. "How We Help NC Businesses." Small Business and Technology Development Center (SBTDC). NC SBTDC, 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sbtdc.org/about-us/ how-we-help-nc- businesses/>. "Interview: Maria and Bob Kingery, Southern Energy Management: Growing a Good Business." Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 18 July 2012. Web. 04 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern-energy.com/ channel/581>. "Join Our Team: NC Green Jobs." Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern-energy.com/content/ green jobs - solar power and energy efciency at southern energy management/1366>. Kingery, Maria. "Habitat for Humanity: Building Homes and Relationships." Web log post. Habitat for Humanity: Building Homes and Relationships. N.p., 5 Nov. 2010. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://blog.southern-energy.com/index.php/semtriple-bottom-line/habitat-for-humanity- building-homes-andrelationships/>. Kingery, Maria. Southern Energy Management: A Bold Vision for a New Kind of Company. North Carolina: n.p., 1 Mar. 2012. PDF. "The Little Label with a Big Message. Better Is Better." ENERGY STAR Certied New Homes : ENERGY STAR. EPA, n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.energystar.gov/ index.cfm?c=new_homes.hm_index>. Morse, Ian. "B Corporation Habitat House Helping Burmese Family." Web log post. B Corporation Habitat House Helping Burmese Family. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 18 Oct. 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://blog.southernenergy.com/index.php/sem-energy-efciency/b- corporationhabitat-house-helping-burmese-family/>. "NC Residential Solar Power, Energy Efciency & Green Building. We Can Help." Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern-energy.com/content/solar power installers and efciency certication for residential building in

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"The Non-Prot Behind B Corps." B Corporation. B Lab, 2012. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bcorporation.net/whatare-b-corps/the-non-prot-behind-b-corps>. "Our Story." Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 2012. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.southern-energy.com/content/our+story+and+mission/ 1367>. "People, Planet, Prot." Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern-energy.com/content/southern energy management is a triple bottom line company%3A people, planet, prot/12101>. "PowerSecure Acquires Distributed Solar Energy System Business." PowerSecure. PowerSecure International, Inc, 6 June 2012. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. <http://investor.powersecure.com/ phoenix.zhtml?c=110419&p=irolnewsArticle&ID=1702958&highlight=>. "PowerSecure Acquires Part of Southern Energy Management." Web log post. WRALtechwire. Capitol Broadcasting Company, Inc., 6 June 2012. Web. 04 Nov. 2012. <http://wraltechwire.com/business/tech_wire/news/ blogpost/11176489/>. "Residential Solar Panels. NC, SC & VA Homeowners Generating Their Own Clean Energy." Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern-energy.com/content/ solar panels for your home in north carolina and throughout the southeast/1324>. SJFVentures. "Maria Kingery - Southern Energy Management." YouTube. YouTube, 24 June 2010. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=kNZQZhMe5bY>. "Southern Energy Management." B Corporation. B Lab, 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bcorporation.net/ community/directory/southernenergy>. "Southern Energy Management Commits to Being Carbon Neutral." Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 1 Dec. 2010. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern- energy.com/channel/500>. "Southern Energy Management Focusing Services." Altenergymag. LJB Management Inc., 6 June 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.altenergymag.com/news/ 2012/06/06/southern-energy- management-focusing-servicesselling-industrial-and-large-commercial-solar-business/24952>. "Southern Energy Management." Lead 411. Lead411, n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://www.lead411.com/ company_SouthernEnergyManagement_569339.html>. Southern Energy Management: Leadership in North Carolinas Advanced Energy Economy. North Carolina: n.p., 24 Oct. 2011. PDF. "Southern Energy Management Sees Business Heat up." Triangle Business Journal. American City Business Journals, 5 Jan. 2009. Web. 5 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bizjournals.com/ triangle/stories/2009/01/05/smallb1.html?page=all>. "Southern Energy Management." Small Business and Technology Development Center (SBTDC). N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sbtdc.org/results/success/sem/>.

SouthernEnergy. "SEM Earns 2009 National Energy Star Partner of the Year from EPA." YouTube. YouTube, 09 Mar. 2009. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=- 1REEFwTbvI>. SouthernEnergy. "What It Means to Be a B Corp - Video." YouTube. YouTube, 19 May 2010. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0o4qvk5JzwU>. Spalter, Lauren. Personal Phone Interview with Maria Kingery. 2 December 2012. "Sustainable Business Energy Solutions for Companies." Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 2012. Web. 04 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.southern- energy.com/content/commercial energy solutions - solar installations and energy efciency/1403>. "SystemVision." SystemVision. Advanced Energy, n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.advancedenergy.org/ buildings/affordable_housing/systemvision/>. "Triple Bottom Line: People." Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern-energy.com/content/ opportunities for employees to volunteer, give back/12102>. "Triple Bottom Line: Planet." Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 2012. Web. 05 Nov. 2012. <http://www.southern-energy.com/content/ going carbon neutral%3B using carbon offsets to help alleviate co2 emmissions/12103>. "What Are B Corps?" B Corporation. B Lab, 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bcorporation.net/what-are-bcorps>. Spalter 23"Why Choose Southern Energy Management?" Southern Energy Management. Southern Energy Management, Inc., 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.southern-energy.com/content/why choose us/1563>. Wilson, Jen. "Average salary in North Carolina ranks 29th nationally - Charlotte Business Journal." Business News - The Business Journals. N.p., 17 Apr. 2012. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://www.bizjournals.com/charlotte/news/2012/04/17/ average-salary-in-north-carolina- ranks.html>. "Your Expert Business Advisors." Small Business and Technology Development Center (SBTDC). NC SBTDC, 2012. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sbtdc.org/>.

Information access Many great videos on the Southern Energy Management YouTube channel: http://www.youtube.com/user/ southernenergy?feature=results_main SBDTC: http://www.sbtdc.org/results/success/sem/ NC GreenPower: http://www.ncgreenpower.org/ NC Sustainability Center: http://ncsustainabilitycenter.org/

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CASE STUDIES : Energy

GRID Alternatives
By RongXian Yu

GRID Alternatives is a non prot organization that works throughout California, with ofces in Bay Area, Central Coast, Central Valley, Greater Los Angeles, Inland Empire, North Valley and San Diego. Bay Area Headquarters ofce is located on 1171 Ocean Avenue, Suite 200 Oakland, CA 94608 [1]. GRID Alternatives mission is to empower communities in need by providing renewable energy and energy efciency services, equipment and training. They believe that making energy choices that are good for the environment go hand-in-hand with improving the lives of those living in low-income communities. GRID Alternatives works collaboratively with communities and local organizations to identify specic needs and to develop renewable energy solutions that are environmentally, socially and economically sustainable [2]. The Single-family Affordable Solar Homes (SASH) Program is one of the California Solar Initiatives two lowincome programs. The overall goal of the SASH Program is to provide existing low-income single-family homes with access to photovoltaic (PV) systems to decrease electricity usage and bills without increasing monthly household expenses. The program provides to train and lead community volunteers and job trainees from all walks of life to install solar electric systems with lowincome homeowners.

systems to qualifying low-income homeowners in the Pacic Gas and Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric territory (SDG&E) service territories [3]. The SASH program will operate either until December 31, 2015, or when all funds available from the programs incentive budget have been allocated, whichever event occurs rst. The SASH program aims to: Stimulate adoption of solar power in the affordable housing sector; decrease electricity use and lower monthly household expenses for lowincome households; Improve energy usage practices and overall quality of affordable housing through solar and energy efciency technologies, as well as education; and support local green-job training and workforce development programs by enabling trainees to participate in solar electric system installations [4].

efciency services to low-income families throughout California [5]. GRID Alternatives helps all these qualied households enroll in these programs prior to installing solar. GRID Alternatives service and help Californias low-income communities, give them a chance of using green energy, train people and help them to nd green jobs. They provide six different languages to help different language speakers understand the SASH program. GRID Alternatives also provides free phone call service to help people to check the program qualications, guild them to complete applications and answer any related questions.

In general, solar electric systems can reduce a family electric GRID Alternatives strongly bill by up to 75%. This means the believes that energy efciency is an system will produce most of the important means to reduce the electricity and the family will have a negative environmental impacts lower electricity bill to pay. The house associated with the current energy will still be connected to the electric use and to save money and improve company, so people have the solar comfort for consumers. GRID system, where there is no sun light at Alternatives integrates energy night or cloudy outside. The cost of efciency into all projects. Our the solar system depends on the Outreach staffs educate consumers household income level. Beside about the benets of energy completes SASH application, efciency, including doing a houseapplicants have to provide the wide energy audit. Projected energy previous years federal income tax GRID Alternatives is the efciency savings are included in the return, most recent electric bill, proof statewide Program Manager for the sizing of all the solar electric systems of homeownership, and the proof SASH Program on behalf of designs. Many of people qualify for that the residence meets the California Public Utilities the Low Income Energy Efciency affordable housing requirement of Commission (CPUC). The SASH (LIEE) or Low Income Home Energy California Public Utilities Code 2852 Program offers incentives on PV solar Assistance Program (LIHEAP) [6]. programs that offer free energy

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In some cases the SASH Program will cover the complete cost of the system. If not, GRID Alternatives will work with the family to identify funding sources including grants and loans. The main determinant of the size of the rebate for the solar electric system is income level. If the family income level is less than 50% of the local median income, they may be eligible for a free 1 kW system. If the income level is greater than 50% and less than 80% of the local median income, they are likely eligible for a highly subsidized system.

triple bottom line results: long-term nancial benets for low-income families who have been struggling with their monthly expenses; hands-on experience for local workers in the growing eld of solar installation; and environmental benets by eliminating greenhouse gas emissions and building support for solar power as a mainstream solution for all of our communities.

Since its inception in 2001, GRID Alternatives has: avoided the release of 200,000 tons of greenhouse gas emissions over the systems expected 30-year lifespan, the equivalent to removing about 18 cars from the road If your application is approved, GRID each year per home based on the U.S. according to Alternatives will schedule a construction visit to Environmental Protection Agencys Greenhouse Gas determine if the roof, sunlight exposure and house direction are suitable for a PV-solar installation. If the site Equivalencies Calculator. is appropriate, a system will be designed for your home. If In California, unemployment, recession and you decide to proceed with the solar installation, GRID pollution have seriously impacted the low-income Alternatives will schedule the installation. After the communities. GRID Alternatives train and lead system installation is complete, the system must be community volunteers and job trainees to install solar inspected and the utility interconnected before the system electric systems with low-income communities. becomes operational. And then you can start saving energy and money using your new solar electric system. Installed solar electric systems on more than 2,200 homes saving homeowners an average of $27,000 The solar panels are covered by a 25-year warranty, and last between 30 and 40 years. The inverter per home in expenses over the systems lifetimes based on average savings of $75 per home each month and will probably need to be replaced in 15 years. GRID assuming electricity prices stay the same. GRID Alternatives provides a 10-year labor warranty [7]. The Alternatives has provided hands-on solar installation solar system requires minimal maintenance. People may experience to 10,000 job trainees, veterans and want to hose down the panels once or twice a year to volunteers. [12]. keep them clean, but it is not necessary. Solar energy presents a viable alternative to fossil fuels that is both environmentally sound and socially empowering. In order for solar energy to be widely embraced, it must be available to people of all income levels, but renewable energy remains out of reach for many lower income households [10]. In order to battle this problem and move the state towards a clean energy future, GRID Alternatives works with the CPUC which oversees four program components of the California Solar Initiative (CSI), one of which is the Single Family Low Income Incentive (SFLI) Program. The SFLI Program provides fully subsidized 1 kW solar power systems to very low income households, and highly subsidized systems to other low income households. GRID Alternatives works to bring the economic and environmental benets of solar power to low-income homeowners while providing community members with hands-on experience in renewable energy technologies. The Solar Affordable Housing Program trains and leads teams of job trainees and other community members to install solar electric systems for low-income families throughout California. The project generates GRID Alternatives Low-Income Solar Project helps Veterans continue the Mission. The six-day event was organized by GRID Alternatives in Oakland, CA. With an exclusive focus on installing solar technologies in low-income communities, GRID Alternatives is expanding its operations to Colorado. The nonprots foray into the Colorado market was launched with the installation of solar on 12 homes in Lakewood, putting one more feather in the cap of renewable energy as an important energy source that lowers costs, lowers greenhouse gas emissions and creates jobs.

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GRID Alternatives has already brought solar power to over 2,500 low-income families in California with projected energy cost savings of more than $68 million. In Lakewood, the solar electric systems on local homes will save 12 families an estimated $360,000 over the systems lifetimes [13]. GRIDs volunteer-based model also provides local job trainees and community and corporate volunteers with hands-on solar installation experience. And that is where Veterans Green Jobs played an important role. Veterans Green Jobs supported GRIDs project by providing the electrical permits for all 12 homes, installing air-conditioning systems, and supporting with warehousing and transportation of solar equipment. Among the volunteers was Danny Moore, a veteran of the U.S. Army. Danny is currently enrolled in Ecotech Institutes Renewable Energy Technology program. He signed up for the GRID Alternatives solar installation to get practical eld experience that will complement his classroom studies. Danny points out, my schooling has set me up for this, but I need more than the schoolhouse knowledge [13],he also plans to look for a career in the green industry and nds the solar industry particularly well suited to his interests protecting the environment, serving local communities and reducing dependence on foreign oil. Danny sees long-term benets of getting into this eld now. Our primary energy sources are coal and gas. But someday well run out. We need a balanced energy plan, and renewable energy is part of that [13].

References

1. CA Ofces Map 2. GRID Alternatives: Mission, History and Future 3. SASH: Single-family Affordable Solar Homes
Program

4. SASH Program: Overview 5. Energy Efciency 6. SASH Program: Application Process 7. SASH Program: Homeowner Frequently Asked
Questions

8. Ron Pernick and Clint Wilder 9. BAELN. 10. Rural Renewable Energy Alliance. 11. Allbritton, Matt 12. Wells Fargo 13. Linda 14. GoGreenSolar Supports Grid Alternatives' SolarThon 15. SASH Program 16. Full Circle Fund 17. Current Supporters 18. CSI

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Bibliography

14. Los Angeles community receives free solar energy,


courtesy of Grid Alternatives and GoGreenSolar. GoGreenSolar Supports Grid Alternatives' SolarThon http://blog.gogreensolar.com/2012/11/gogreensolarsupports-grid-alternatives.html

1. California Ofces Map http://


www.gridalternatives.org/regional-ofces-map

2. GRID Alternatives: Mission, History and Future


http://www.gridalternatives.org/mission-history

15. SASH Program: Sub-Contractor Partnership Program


http://www.gridalternatives.org/sash/subcontractorpartnership-program

3. SASH: Single-family Affordable Solar Homes


Program http://www.gridalternatives.org/sash/ single-family-affordable-solar-homes-program

16. Full Circle Fund 2012 http://fullcirclefund.org/


gridalternatives.php

4. SASH Program: Overview http://


www.gridalternatives.org/sash/overview-and-goals

17. Current Supporters http://www.gridalternatives.org/


current-supporters

5. Energy Efciency http://www.gridalternatives.org/


energy-efciency

18. CSI Rebate Link http://


www.gosolarcalifornia.ca.gov/csi/rebates.php

6. SASH Program: Application Process http://


www.gridalternatives.org/sash/application-process

7. SASH Program: Homeowner Frequently Asked


Questions http://www.gridalternatives.org/sash/faqs

8. "The Clean Tech Revolution" p. 3 (PDF), Ron Pernick


and Clint Wilder (2007).

9. Brainerd Area Environmental Learning Network


(BAELN).

10. Rural Renewable Energy Alliance. 11. Allbritton, Matt How Can Solar Panels Help Protect
the Environment? 2011 http://www.livestrong.com/ article/147143-how-can-solar-panels-help-protect-theenvironment/

12. Wells Fargo Invests $2 million in GRID Alternatives


2012 https://www.wellsfargo.com/press/ 2012/20120815_GridAlternatives

13. Linda, GRID Alternatives Low-Income Solar Project


Helps Veterans Continue the Mission 2012, Veterans Green Jobs My schooling has set me up for this, but I need more than the schoolhouse knowledge Our primary energy sources are coal and gas. But someday well run out. We need a balanced energy plan, and renewable energy is part of that The renewable energy market is burgeoning, and there is a lot of room for veterans to enter it. Veterans are a good t because they are team players, hard workers, dependable, and they like a challenge. They are also looking for ways to continue serving the country. Solar gives me, as a veteran, a sense of a continued mission, http://veteransgreenjobs.org/newsandevents/pressreleases/grid-alternatives-solar-build

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CASE STUDIES : Energy

Jackson Country Green Park


By Laura Daza

The Green Energy Park seeks to engage residents and visitors in the practices of green energy use. As a way to do so, the JCGPE offers tours throughout the park, which include free walks through the following places: landll gas system, rainwater collection system, glassblowing studios, greenhouses, future site of the The mission statement of the project reects the pottery facility, rainwater collection system, blacksmith studio and foundry, Anagama Kiln, and sculpture garden. comprehensive approach of the triple bottom line as follows: The Jackson County Green Energy Park utilizes The number of visitors increases every year, with an clean, renewable energy resources to encourage economic average of 800 visitors not only from the US but also development, provide environmental protection, and offer from overseas. educational opportunities that together will help lead Another service offered by the park is studio towards a more sustainable future for western North 1 rentals for students and artists who want to start using Carolina. renewable energy. There are glass, metals and pottery kiln studio rentals with full equipment, and access on an Funding an energy park in this rural area has hourly, daily or weekly basis. These studios are part of a generated positive transformations in the economy, the unique selection of shops that use landll gas for environment, and the community of Dillsboro, North operations and they are available for both public and Carolina by turning a negative outcome into positive results. In addition, the Jackson Green Energy Park offers private use. In addition to studio rentals, JCGEP offers free and open gallery exhibitions to the public that show different types of services for the community, which can the work that is done at the parks studios. be categorized in two different kinds: Educational and Public Services. Jackson County Green Parks audience can be The Green Energy Park is continuously divided into two categories. The community members establishing partnerships with other local organizations, that benet from the parks training programs and who including local universities, to expand the educational will eventually become new artisans. The visitors of the programs and build community networks in the Jackson park along with the residents of the state of North County region. Some of the services offered by the park Carolina who come to the park every year to learn about are: real-world demonstrations of renewable energy and the use of renewable energy, including those who come to energy conservation; advanced training in pottery, glass enjoy the services of the studios available at the park.

The Jackson County Green Energy Park is located in the rural area of Dillsboro, North Carolina. The park was established in 2006 as a County Renewable Energy Project1 aiming to help reduce the contamination generated by the previous Dillsboro landll, which had been at this site for several years, and transforming this place into an innovative and sustainable area.

blowing, blacksmithing and biodiesel production, the socalled Fire Arts; demonstrations of hydroponics, aquaponics, and other new agriculture techniques to the public; teaching plant identication skills, using native plant gardens to test students. Other educational opportunities for local students are to participate in building and operating greenhouses, along with the development of a community of environmentally concerned artists. 2 The decision to use gas to power art studios was made by public consensus after considering that the Dillsboro region was predominantly touristic and people often go to buy arts & crafts. Therefore, the county and the public decided to build the studios to promote more art in this town and at the same time bring more artists from out of town.3

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The Green Park meets triple bottom line objectives by encouraging economic development by giving people the opportunity to start their own small business and promoting ecotourism; providing environmental protection by implementing a program that captures methane gas from local landlls and transforms it into fuel for small green house and artistic businesses; and by offering educational programs that teach community members how to create their own art work, using environmentally conscious techniques and materials. The program at the GEP incorporates multiple economic aspects such as technical training, the creation of jobs, local economic development through arts and environmental conservation. In addition, the project has helped the state and county to save money, specically waste management and control. Specic objectives and accomplishments of this county program include: -Providing training of renewable energy use and conservation for lowincome community members.

the project. The development of new opportunities for agriculture and green house ventures, also contributed to cost-reduction of landscaping plants beneting the County Grounds Department. The greenhouses are powered and heated with the biofuel also continue to generate chances for local oriculturists to grow native plants and owers and sell them in local markets. The primary goal of the construction of the energy park was to nd a sustainable way to manage the contamination produced by the landll that was located at the site of the project. During the years prior to the construction of the park, the landll had been causing not only environmental damage, but altering the health conditions of neighboring communities. When the methane gas is burned it is converted into CO2; thus reducing the environmental impacts caused by the landll have been by 20 times.5

emissions have been saved annually; this is equivalent to: Removing 916 vehicles off the road, planting 1,305 acres of forest, preventing the use of 11,104 barrels of oil, and replacing and approximate of 520,000 gallons of gas; over 550 tons of loos debris and trash were removed from the project site during construction of the park; the production of domestic fuel continues to offer energy security and protection from sudden price increases; creation of 20 jobs in the local economy7 The Green Energy Park incorporattes affordable training programs for low-income individuals and serves as a small business incubator for local green jobs. The Park has affordable prices and services for artisans who want to use the artisan studios, which are fueled by landll gas. The park is located in the region of the Appalachians which has been historically an area of poverty and underrepresentation. Through the programs and services offered by the park, these communities have been exposed to a different perspective on art and technology, that they would not have otherwise have been introduced to.8 The following are the specic objectives and accomplishments of the county renewable energy program regarding the social equity aspect of the triple bottom line: Train community members how to use renewable energy and about its conservation; provide advanced educational programs that include arts, urban agriculture, greenhouse building and operations, and native plants identication; provide new energy crop options for local farmers; reduce the problems small, rural communities of the area face due to landll gases .9 This program is a recipient of a Creating New Economies Fund Grant, which was used for the

In addition to the creation of the park, Jackson County found a way to educate the community and improve the quality of the environment by taking advantage of -Creating new, environmentally safe the existing conditions. The following and protective job opportunities for are the specic objectives and low-income families. accomplishments of the program. Improve local air quality and the -Promoting ecotourism in the region, environment; prevent methane from and become a prime destination for escaping into the environment, thus artist, while also creating revenue for mitigating contamination of air and local businesses such as hotels, groundwater sources; remove odors restaurants and the sales sector in caused by leaking LFG (landll gas); general. capture waste heat from kilns and - Giving artists from other places, out furnaces to reduce overall gas use; of the local region, the opportunity to transform a trash-covered eyesore into a beautiful public place; renovate earn a living by doing art. the existing greenhouses, warehouse, art studios, and other park facilities The park has provided training using Green Building standards. 6 programs at a low-cost to a diverse low-income population. These JCGEP has prevented 4,440 programs allow people to create jobs tons of methane from entering the that contribute to the local economy. environment, to date. Also, an The following aspects are also approximate of 222 tons of methane additional accomplishments done by

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implementation of all the educational programs that currently take place at the park. The Green Energy Park offers free tours for visitors, as well as art classes for a very low cost. Additionally, the development of an area in environmental decay has spawned the participation of the community and residents that benet directly from the economic and environmental effects of the park. Since The Jackson Green Energy Park is a county-sponsored landll recovery program, it has a director employed by the county who is in charge of the operation of the park at all times. Although the park hires part-time workers during certain parts of the year, there are no other full time employees, or employment opportunities to work directly at the park, other than volunteer based programs. The park has created partnerships with other organizations that have complemented the diverse array of programs offered, and which also provide economic support for the program in terms of curriculum and community outreach. According to Timm Muth, the current director of the Jackson County Green Energy Park, every year Jackson County makes an appropriation of funds, and this is the primary source of funding. Moreover, the park is continuously applying for grants, and they generate some income from the classes that they offer, gallery sales, donations and studio rentals10 Initially, Grant money from the Golden LEAF Foundation, N.C. Rural Economic Development Center and U.S. Department of Agriculture enabled the county to begin cleaning up the site and designing the park, in 2005.11 The total estimated cost of the park was of one million dollars.

13. The Conservation Fund 14. Dillsboro, North Carolina 15. The Conservation Fund

Bibliography "Green Energy Park." Town of Dillsboro, North Carolina. Town of Dillsboro, 02 2012. Web. 4 Dec 2012. http:// www.dillsboronc.info/green.html Jackson Green Park. Green Energy Park Tour Info Sheet 2012. JCGEP.org. Web. 4 Nov 2012. <http:// www.jcgep.org/pdfs/JCGEP-tour-info-2012.pdf>. Muth, Timm. "Jackson County Energy Park An overview." EPA-LMOP Landll Methane Outreach Program. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 4 Nov 2012. <http:// epa.gov/lmop/documents/pdfs/conf/10th/Muth.pdf>. Muth, Timm. "Jackson County Energy Park." EPA-LMOP Landll Methane Outreach Program. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 30 Oct 2012. <http://www.epa.gov/ lmop/documents/pdfs/conf/13th/muth.pdf>. Muth, Timm. Telephone Interview. 30 2012. The Conservation Fund. "Jackson County Green Energy Park: From Environmental Hazard to Economic Opportunity." Resourceful Communities Program. The Conservation Fund, n.d. Web. 1 Nov 2012. University of North Carolina-School of Government. "Dillsboro, North Carolina" www.sog.unc.edu. UNC School of Government, n.d. Web. 6 Nov 2012.

References

1. Muth. Telephone interview. 2. Muth & EPA 3. Muth. Interview 4. Muth. Economic Impact 5. Muth. Annual Environmental Benets 6. Town of Dillsboro 7. Muth. Environmental Protection 8. Muth. & EPA. Education Opportunities 9. JCGEP Mission Statement Project overview. 10. Muth. Interview 11. Muth. Project Goals 12. GEP. Tour Info Sheet

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Bibliography "Green Energy Park." Town of Dillsboro, North Carolina. Town of Dillsboro, 02 2012. Web. 4 Dec 2012. http:// www.dillsboronc.info/green.html Jackson Green Park. Green Energy Park Tour Info Sheet 2012. JCGEP.org. Web. 4 Nov 2012. <http:// www.jcgep.org/pdfs/JCGEP-tour-info-2012.pdf>. Muth, Timm. "Jackson County Energy Park An overview." EPA-LMOP Landll Methane Outreach Program. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 4 Nov 2012. <http:// epa.gov/lmop/documents/pdfs/conf/10th/Muth.pdf>. Muth, Timm. "Jackson County Energy Park." EPA-LMOP Landll Methane Outreach Program. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 30 Oct 2012. <http://www.epa.gov/ lmop/documents/pdfs/conf/13th/muth.pdf>. Muth, Timm. Telephone Interview. 30 2012. References The Conservation Fund. "Jackson County Green Energy Park: From Environmental Hazard to Economic Opportunity." Resourceful Communities Program. The Conservation Fund, n.d. Web. 1 Nov 2012. University of North Carolina-School of Government. "Dillsboro, North Carolina" www.sog.unc.edu. UNC School of Government, n.d. Web. 6 Nov 2012.

1. Muth. Telephone interview. 2. Muth & EPA 3. Muth. Interview 4. Muth. Economic Impact 5. Muth. Annual Environmental Benets 6. Town of Dillsboro 7. Muth. Environmental Protection 8. Muth. & EPA. Education Opportunities 9. JCGEP Mission Statement Project overview. 10. Muth. Interview 11. Muth. Project Goals 12. GEP. Tour Info Sheet 13. The Conservation Fund 14. Dillsboro, North Carolina 15. The Conservation Fund

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Additional Resources A Sustainability Case Study of Jackson County, North Carolina. It includes the parks goals as one of the county countys most important sustainability efforts. https://intranet.ecu.edu/cs-acad/sustainabletourism/ upload/ Jackson_County_Sustainability_Case_Study_2010_nal_1 1_9_10.pdf

Partnership with University of North Carolina http:// www.northcarolina.edu/social_business_microcredit/ WCU_Green_Energy_Park.pdf

Art project with university School of Art and Design http://www.northcarolina.edu/ social_business_microcredit/WCU_Green_Energy_Park.pdf An overview of the Park http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZjcBklgvdx8 Media Releases on the Green Energy Park http://www.jcgep.org/media.html Media resource of the City of Dillsboro, NC http://www.dillsboronc.info/index.html Parks facilities expansion http://www.carolinapublicpress.org/5513/pr-jacksoncounty-green-energy-park-installs-second-high-efciencylandll-gas-furnace GEP as and Arts Incubator http://dillsborogreenenergypark.greenerearth4all.com/ glass_blowing_studiosdillsboro_north_carolina_crafts_incubator.html#.UL43_p PjlCc

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Case Studies Transportation


SF Bike Coalition
By Kelsey Roeder The San Francisco Bicycle Coalition is an advocacy organization based in San Francisco, California that promotes bicycle usage and safety in San Francisco. The SFBC works to make San Francisco a safer and cleaner city by promoting the bicycle as a daily transportation method. The SFBC provides bicycle safety classes, works with the local government to design and implement bicycle routes and road upkeep standards, and provides instruction and safety devices like bicycle lights and helmets to underprivileged communities. The target audience for the SFBC is any and all able-bodied residents of San Francisco- essentially anyone who can ride a bicycle. By promoting bicycle use, the SFBC is able to give people an alternative to fossil fuel- burning vehicles, which is immensely benecial to the environment. Economically, bicycles are by far the cheapest form of transportation: very little economic investment is necessary for purchase and upkeep. Equity-wise, the bicycle is the most accessible form of transportation for low-income communities. In addition, the SFBC provides instruction in languages other than English; namely, languages widely spoken in underserved communities, which builds bridges of communication and access across communities. On their website the SFBC says, in reference to its goals for sustainability: "Our environment, and belief that our impact on it must be sustainable". Environmentally, riding bicycles is profoundly more sustainable than driving or even taking public transportation. Dramatically fewer fossil fuels are required to produce and sustain a bicycle. Also, there are none of the dangerous side effects of cars, such as greenhouse gas emissions and high mortality risk. Riding bicycles in San Francisco is highly economical. Owning a car is extremely expensive when all of the costs are factored in, and taking the MUNI and/or BART adds up quickly. In comparison, keeping up a bicycle is relatively inexpensive. The Bicycle Coalition is able to provide many services free of cost, such as bicycle safety classes, free bike valet parking at many events, and bike-centered events and festivals. The SFBC promotes equity in the city. The SFBC website says: "EQUITY: A balanced transportation system that works for people of all means and offers equal access between communities." With the price of public transportation going beyond many residents' reach, bicycles are an economically viable place to turn to. By promoting safe riding and safe conditions, the SFBC is able to be an advocate for those who may otherwise be less able to advocate for themselves. Additionally, the SFBC offers bicycle safety classes in Spanish and Cantonese, as well as in English, which helps provide safe instructions to those who would feel otherwise cut off to this information. Also, this helps to bridge a huge gap in people's perception of what the typical bike rider may look like in San Francisco. In addition, bicycle riding promotes healthy living. By exercising often, people are able to combat a multitude of conditions, such as obesity, depression, and high blood pressure. The SFBC website also states as one of their values: "URBANISM: Our vibrant streets and public spaces; our diverse people & neighborhoods; and our capacity for bringing people together to create a better city."

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The San Francisco Bicycle Coalition is governed by a board of directors, which is entirely voluntary. The board is responsible for ensuring the organization's scal health and achievement of its mission and goals. The San Francisco Bicycle Coalition Board of Directors is elected by the membership, and each member is elected to a 2-year term. Any San Francisco Bicycle Coalition member can run for the board. There is an executive director, and various program directors under her. Under those program directors, there are various volunteers and interns that carry out the tasks of the coalition. The San Francisco Bicycle Coalition is a non-prot organization. Over half of their funding comes from SFBC members and donors. The rest of their funding comes from grants. The San Francisco Bicycle Coalition is considered to be one of the most inuential membership-based advocacy groups in San Francisco (Gordon, 2006).

Works Referenced Gordon, Rachel. "Cycling Supporters on a Roll in S.F." SFGate. SF Gate, 21 Aug. 2006. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/ Cycling-supporters-on-a-roll-in-S-FBicycle-2513550.php>. "San Francisco Bicycle Coalition." San Francisco Bicycle Coalition. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Nov. 2012. < http:// www.sfbike.org/>. Resources for Further Learning SFBC website: www.sfbike.org SFBC wikipedia page:http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ San_Francisco_Bicycle_Coalition Articles on biking from SF Gate: Ruling Paves Way for San Francisco Bike Lanes: http://www.sfgate.com/ bayarea/article/Ruling-paves-way-forSan-Francisco-bikelanes-3256815.php#ixzz0vxks6Upd Cycling Supporters On a Roll in San Francisco http://www.sfgate.com/ news/article/Cycling-supporters-on-aroll-in-S-F-Bicycle-2513550.php

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TransForm
By Mariah Martin Transform CA is a non-prot advocacy rm located in Oakland, California which works to promote sustainable transportation in urban areas of the Bay Area. Following the triple bottom line principals of upholding the prosperity of equitable, environmentally sustainable, and economically protable practices, TransForm works to better Collaborative, which aims to ensure that new communities in California, particularly developments are user-friendly and follow disadvantaged communities. triple-bottom line principals. The Great Communities Collaborative aims to educate TransForm is a non-prot design rm residents of local communities and increase with the mission of creating accessible, healthy equity for those less fortunate. communities by increasing mobility and social equity while limiting the environmental impact They emphasize policy work, from of transportation. The companys work is conducting research and analysis to developing aimed at increasing overall sustainability of alternatives and advocating for them. They transportation infrastructure by integrating the work to identify and promote solutions that are surrounding community; beneting cost-effective, fair, and address a wide range of underserved populations as well as using the issues over the next several years, especially least amount of natural resources and regarding road pricing and regional protecting the environment in a way that transportation planning (3). remains nancially feasible. TransForm is highly inuential in supporting transit-oriented TransForm has launched innovative development (TOD), dened by John Holmes programs such as Safe Routes to Schools which and James van Hemert as a mixed-use limit the use of the private automobile. Green residential or commercial area intended to TRIP is one of the most groundbreaking ways maximize access to public transportation in TransForm is helping city ofcials and their article Transit Oriented Development (10). By developers achieve more people-friendly places working towards limiting automobile plus less driving. dependence within communities, TransForm helps to provide affordable, safe, and easy TransForm lists their objectives as follows: access to jobs, housing services, and nature. (Transform). TransForm operates on the Vastly improving transit service: principles that all people deserve affordable, making it faster and more affordable, safe, and easy access to necessary goods and accessible, reliable, frequent, and services by means alternative to the automobile. extensive. They also strongly believe in community involvement in the planning process, especially Fighting for more funding for transit, for those most impacted and least from the local level to the state acknowledged underprivileged populations. budget and the reauthorization of TransForm attempts to increase access to the federal transportation bill. services while improving existing developments Making the Regional Transportation for the existing residents, without displacement Plan a model in achieving high or unnecessary environmental disruption (1) environmental and equity standards. TransForm is committed to building diverse coalitions by working collaboratively, particularly through the Great Communities

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Engaging people in local planning processes throughout the region as part of the Great Communities Collaborative. By deeply involving a wide range of people in planning, we can create a Bay Area of vibrant neighborhoods with affordable housing, jobs, shops, and services within convenient walking distance of transit. (3)

The Safe Routes to Schools Alameda County Partnership, led by Transform, works in 70 public schools to get tens of thousands of kids walking and biking safely to school more often. Climate impact: emissions drop as dramatically fewer parents drive their kids to and from school, plus thousands of kids establish lifelong climatefriendly transportation habits.(6) Transforms regional advocacy work pushes the Bay Areas Metropolitan Transportation Commission to prioritize funds for public transportation, pedestrian/ bicycling improvements, smart growth, and affordable homes. TransForm recently advocated for and won $80 million for a rst-in-the-nation regional climate grants program that will fund innovative ways to reduce driving. (6) The Great Communities Collaborative, coordinated by TransForm, engages people particularly low-income people and people of color in local land use planning processes in dozens of neighborhoods near public transportation across the Bay Area. When people play a central role in shaping the future of where they live, new development brings things residents want (like more affordable homes, parks, and grocery stores) and makes places near public transportation thrive. Climate impact: huge and lasting emissions reductions are achieved as thousands more people live in walkable communities near public transportation region-wide. (6) TransForm is a nonprot organization which is structured in a way that makes integrated implementation of transportation possible. By utilizing a building block approach (8) of incremental implementation, mobility and accessibility can be achieved after reasonable levels of safety, economic viability, and nancial sustainability have been ensured (8). The bottom-up approach of design calls for community involvement, and planning each facet of inuence that new transit oriented development will exert. By starting locally, and building up to city approval and policy change, TransForm utilizes its diverse staff in the process of undertaking projects. According to their website, TransForm staffs 28 employees, ranging from administrative assistants to coordinators for individual programs. They also have a board of directors which helps to secure grants and develop programs. By employing such a range of staff, TransForm is able to tackle their projects with a variety of perspectives. Transform funds their projects through grants and awards. In 2011, 69% of revenue came from foundations, 25% was provided by government contracts, and the remaining 5% was brought in through independent donations and service fees. The total

According to Joel Ramos, Transforms Senior Community Planner, programs and policies can save residents signicant amounts of money, for comparatively low costs. According to their Windfall For All report, neighborhoods that have very good access to public transportation spend signicantly less on transportation each year. The one-out-of-ve Bay Area households that have the best public transportation access have annual transportation costs that are 39 percent lower than other households, on average. If the other communities had the same level of spending, combined, their residents would save a total of $10.7 billion on transportation each year. That would give the average household $5,450 more to spend on education, health care, etc. (5) TransForm is an economically stable company because their projects are in high demand due to their success rate. This is an example of the functionality of a holistic approach to planning; by ensuring the environmental and socially sustainable practices, they in turn receive economic benets. TransForm catalogs their effects on the climate through each individual project they undertake. They state that by encouraging more people to walk, carpool, and take public transit, they can help to halt the rate of climate change: from the small scale in the Bay Area and beyond. TransForm has won literally billions of dollars and groundbreaking policies in support of public transportation, smart growth, affordable housing, and bicycle/pedestrian safety. (4) Transform is involved with many projects which reduce environmental impacts on the area. , Philanthropedias 97 climate change experts recently identied TransForm as one of the leading climate change-related nonprots in the Bay Area! (6) Among them are: Green TRIP certies new residential and mixed-use developments that keep the number of new parking spaces as low as possible and offer incentives for new tenants to drive less (such as free or discounted transit passes). Climate impact: cities and developers are incentivized to build developments that create less driving and emissions, plus local zoning is changed to support this. (6)

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revenue of Transform in 2011 was $ 3,193, 485. Of this amount, 76% was put directly into the funding of programs such as ClimatePlan, Great Communities Collaborative, and Safe Routes to Schools.

References

(1) TransForm: Our beliefs (http://


www.transformca.org/about-us)

(2) TransForm: Our Approach (http://


www.transformca.org/about-us)

(3) TransForm: Strategic Plan (http://


www.transformca.org/about-us/strategic-plan)

(4) TrasForm: How TransFORM ghts Climate Change


(http://www.transformca.org/about-us/climateexperts-choose-transform)

(5) TransForm: Windfall for All (http://transformca.org/


les/reports/TransForm-Windfall-ReportSummary.pdf) (p. 4)

(6) How TransFORM Fights Climate Change (http://


www.transformca.org/about-us/climate-expertschoose-transform)

(7) TransForm: Advocacy http://www.transformca.org/


advocacy

(8) Eco2 cities p. 268 (9) http://transformca.org/les/


transform_annual_report_2011_nal_0.pdf

(10)Holmes, John & van Hemet, Transit Oriented


Development http://www.law.du.edu/images/ uploads/rmlui/rmlui-sustainabletransitOrientedDevelopment.pdf

Bibliography Holmes, John & van Hemet, James Transit Oriented Development Sustainable Community Development Code. Research Monologue Series. Rocky Mountain Land Institute, 2008. (4). Web. 1 December 2012 Dastur, Arish et. Al; Sector Note 3: Cities and Transport Eco2 Cities: Ecological Cities as Economic Cities. The World Bank, 2010. ( 267- 293) Print. 1 December 2012 Transform.org. Web. 1 December 2012

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Case Studies Food


Growing Power, Inc.
By Jane Becker Growing Power, Inc.s headquarters and primary place of business is located at 5500 W. Silver Spring Drive, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Growing Power is an urban growing organization founded by Will Allen. In the early 1990s Mr. Allen purchased some vacant greenhouses in the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Through mostly trial and error he implemented growing techniques that worked to create a sustainable system of delivering healthy foods to urban communities that traditionally have not had the access to or knowledge of good nutrition. Mr. Allen was aware that members of urban communities (and minority communities) are more disposed to diet-related illnesses (such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease and stroke) than other people. Growing Power became an outlet for training and empowering members of the inner-city community.

Raising sustainable crops in an intensive manner (without using chemicals, fertilizers, or pesticides). Instead, Growing Power uses compost and vermicompost which are made on the site. It also uses benecial insects to combat pests.5 Using an aquaponic technique to raise sh and cultivate plants with the same system. The sh provide fertilizer for the plants while the plants break down the toxic ammonia which is present in sh waste into nitrogen. The water is further ltered through gravel and pumped into growing beds for salad greens and tomatoes.6 Cultivating bees and produces honey for Growing Power is a national nonprot market.7 Raising worms for vermiculture. It also raises organization and land trust supporting people from chickens and other fowl, and goats.8 Operating a store diverse backgrounds, and the environments in which they that sells produce and growing supplies, they also market live, by helping to provide equal access to healthy, hightheir compost and vermicompost.9 quality, safe and affordable food for people in all In addition to the marketing aspect of the communities. Growing Power implements this mission by business, Growing Power has as its mission the providing hands-on training, on-the-ground demonstration, outreach and technical assistance through empowerment of the community. Growing Power is the development of Community Food Systems that help involved with the community not only in Milwaukee (where it is headquartered) but in Chicago where it people grow, process, market and distribute food in a operates urban farms in collaboration with the Chicago sustainable manner. 2 Its stated vision is [I]nspiring Housing Authority. The farms employ local at-risk youth communities to build sustainable food systems that are and adults from the local community and conduct equitable and ecologically sound, creating a just world, 3 training programs. In addition to training, the farms one food-secure community at a time. market the produce, compost and vermicompost, thus According to WhyHunger (a website which serves bringing economic benet to the communities.10 as a clearinghouse for information about organizations In Milwaukee, in addition to the urban farm and that are concerned with hunger-related issues), The store, Growing Power conducts trainings at the Silver mission of Growing Power is to grow food, to grow Spring Drive site in growing, processing, distributing and minds, and to grow community.4 marketing food. Growing Power also operates a rural farm site in conjunction with the Greater Milwaukee Growing Power began with Mr. Allen planting Boys and Girls Club11 where it raises livestock, intensively and growing vegetables in greenhouses. He employed grows vegetables, and grows hay, grasses and legumes. teens from the neighborhood to help with planting and selling the produce in the store on his property. Over time This rural site (the Merton Rural Farm Site at Camp Whitcomb Mason Boys and Girls Club) provides training Growing Power has expanded to include the following: for immigrants and youth from the Milwaukee area.

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In the City of Milwaukee, Growing Power operates the Maple Tree School and Community Garden. This site provides learning experience in farming and in gaining entrepreneurial skills for community members. In addition, community members are able to rent their own plots on the site and grow their own produce. 12 Additional enterprises that Growing Power conducts include offering consultation on school gardens in various schools in Milwaukee. Growing Power also offers training for youth in its Silver Spring location, providing employment and learning opportunities. Growing Power has helped various communities establish community gardens throughout the city of Milwaukee, such as the Sixteenth Street Community Health Center and the Growers of Peace Garden. Growing Power markets the food it grows locally at various farmers markets in the city of Milwaukee. This not only affords access by the community to healthy, nutritious, locally grown food, but it creates a link between farmer and consumer. 13 Growing Powers mission is to provide healthy food and knowledge to the local community. In Milwaukee (and in Chicago) the emphasis is on outreach to the inner-city communities. Growing Powers founder, Will Allen, believes that access to healthy, affordable food should be a civil right equal to access to clean air, clean water, or the right to vote.14 Mr. Allen recognized that nutrition-related diseases are more prevalent among people of color. In many inner-city communities fast-food restaurants outnumber grocery stores. These communities are food deserts. The residents have no access to nutritious and affordable food. Growing Powers mission is to change those conditions. Environmentally, Growing Power grows food sustainably, using its own compost and vermicompost. The compost uses waste from local businesses. Growing Power has installed solar panels on its headquarters, and is developing an anaerobic digester which will provide some renewable energy. 15 Economically, Growing Power prots from its retail enterprises and from various training workshops it conducts. In addition, as a non-prot, Growing Power is the recipient of grants.

Equitably, Growing Power provides job training to inner-city youth and at-risk adults. It supplies healthy, inexpensive food to inner-city communities that have traditionally been food deserts. Growing Power meets the environmental bottom line in several ways. Its crops are all grown sustainably.16 Its composting system uses recycled food waste from businesses in both Milwaukee and Chicago, thus redirecting waste from the cities landlls.17 Growing Power uses its compost and vermicompost instead of chemicals and fertilizers.18 As stated above, Growing Power has innovated more efcient methods of reducing its reliance on fossil fuels by making use of the heat generated through its aquaponic system, compost bins, and wood chips. In addition, Growing Power has recently begun development of an anaerobic digester which could potentially provide a renewable energy source from food waste. Growing Power also has solar panels installed on its urban farm.19 Growing Power meets the economic bottom line through utilizing various income streams, although as a non-prot, it relies heavily on grants for funding. It operates a retail store that sells fresh food to the local community, thus lling a market niche. Growing Power also markets its produce at local farmers markets and to local restaurants in Milwaukee and Chicago.

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According to the information I received from Ms. Erica Hougland, assistant to the Chicago Projects Manager, Growing Power earns around fty percent of its operating budget through its own revenue streams, such as selling produce and fee-for-service projects (for instance, training workshops). The remaining portion of its budget is met through fundraising and grants.20

Growing Powers Market Basket program distributes inexpensive weekly baskets of fresh produce to communities that lack grocery stores.25 One of Growing Powers goals is to provide healthy alternatives to the junk foods that are so prevalent in inner-city communities. Improving the health of inner-city residents through providing access to healthy fruits and vegetables reduces the externality paid by society in the form of health costs, In addition, Growing Power reduces its energy often through federal programs such as Medicare and expenses through implementation of efcient methods of Medicaid. utilizing its space and growing intensively. Growing Growing Power is involved in various food policy Powers aquaculture operation started small but has expanded its scale to where it raises sh in the thousands initiatives. In Chicago, Growing Power is afliated with the Chicago Food Policy Advisory Council (CFPAC), a and markets them to local restaurants. The system is network of organizations that works to address issues of extremely energy efcient and inexpensive. food insecurity.26 Erika Allen, Growing Powers Chicago Growing Powers compost and vermicompost Projects Manager, is the president of the council and business uses very inexpensive raw materials and is meets with city ofcials on behalf of CFPAC.27 A recent successfully marketed. victory CFPAC achieved was to amend the city of Chicagos zoning regulations to allow urban agriculture Growing Power has reduced its energy expenses as a legal land use. 28 by using the heat from the aquaculture system and by applying inexpensive insulating methods such as wood Per information obtained via email exchange chips in the greenhouses.21 with Erica Hougland, assistant to Erika Allen, a current policy challenge is to simplify the permit requirements for Growing Power meets the social bottom line not composting (both at city and state levels). Encouraging only by providing nutritious, inexpensive food to innercomposting would save city and state resources in the city communities, but also through its Youth Corp long run through savings in waste disposal. 29 Will Allen, apprenticeship program which offers training to lowfounder of Growing Power, recognizes the inequities in income youth.22 the farming industry. Large-scale farms are the recipients of the majority of federal subsidies. Traditional family An example of the success of Growing Powers farms are fast disappearing. Mr. Allen believes that by youth training program is Malcolm Evans, a local Chicago resident who lives across from Growing Powers changing the distribution of food to more of a local level, some of those inequities would be resolved. Urban Chicago urban farm location. Mr. Evans was ten years old when the farm was rst built, and he volunteered with farming on a smaller scale can help create jobs, diminish waste in cities, reduce energy costs, and provide access by Growing Power until he was in high school. In high low-income urban residents to affordable food.30 school, he joined the Youth Corps and began working part-time. Last spring, he graduated and now works full time. (According to Erica Hougland, assistant to Growing Powers Chicago Projects Manager, Mr. Evans has been with Growing Power Chicago the longest, second only to the Projects Manager, Erika Allen, Will Allens daughter)
23

Growing Power is a national non-prot organization. Will Allen is the founder and CEO of Growing Power. It has a Board of Directors with president, vice-president, treasurer, secretary, and directors. In addition, it has a Chicago Advisory Board.

In Wisconsin, Growing Power operates its Additionally, Growing Power was awarded an Community Food Center, a rural farm site in the HUD grant in 2011 to help reduce unemployment Heartland area, various community and school gardens among African-American males in the city of Milwaukee. in Milwaukee, and a Youth Corp training center in The grant was expected to create 150 jobs.24 Milwaukee.31

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In Chicago, Growing Power operates various community gardens in various inner-city neighborhoods. It also has an urban farm in Chicagos lakefront Grant Park (in partnership with the Chicago Park District) in which it provides training for disadvantaged youths.32 Growing Power has several income streams. It operates a retail store that sells fresh food to the local community, thus lling a market niche. Growing Power also markets its produce at local farmers markets and to local restaurants in Milwaukee and Chicago. It sells sh raised in its aquaculture system. Among its other retail enterprises are growing supplies, compost and planting supplies, compost and vermicompost, decorative plants and bedding crops, sustainably grown vegetable and ower seedlings, decorative houseplants, and water plants.

In 2012 Growing Power was awarded a $5 million grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation to establish community food centers in cities nationwide that will provide job training for aspiring urban farmers, produce fresh, and locally-grown food, provide healthy produce for children and families in low-income neighborhoods and communities of color.40

Growing Powers and Will Allens mission encapsulates the principles of the triple bottom line. His aspiration is to bring entrepreneurship to small farmers and to disadvantaged inner-city residents (particularly people of color). Growing Power lls a marketing niche as well as a social niche by providing inexpensive, nutritious food to food desert communities. Through trial and error, Growing Power has innovated techniques to increase sustainability not only in its own operations but for the city (for example, by reducing waste and landll in Growing Power also markets its own meats which Milwaukee through its large-scale composting business). is raises at its rural farm site in Heartland, Wisconsin.33 Growing Power helps reduce costs imposed on society by Growing Power established the Rainbow Farmers health-related diseases. Cooperative which currently represents approximately 300 small family farmers from Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, and Illinois in the Midwest and Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, and Florida in the southeast. The cooperative enables small farmers to pool their resources. The members sell for cash so they can invest directly back into their farms.34 Growing Power runs various technical support programs and training workshops. 35 As a nonprot, Growing Power is the recipient of grants. In his book, The Good Food Revolution, Will Allen, founder and CEO of Growing Power admits, The honest truth is that with urban agriculture, we are not there yet. We have not .yet made it reliably protable. (Page 226). 36 Mr. Allen is progressing in nding ways to make Growing Power more sustainable through using more methods of intensive growing and shing systems. At present, however, many of Growing Powers staff are funded through grants. 37 Growing Power entered into an agreement with Walmart in Wisconsin whereby Walmart provided Growing Power with large quantities of organic waste for Growing Powers composting enterprise. In 2011, Walmart awarded Growing Power a $1 million grant.38 In 2008 Mr. Allen was the recipient of a $500,000 grant from the MacArthur Foundation (commonly known as the MacArthur genius grant).39

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1MacArthur

Foundation. Web. Published January 27, 2008. 3 November 2012 <http:// www.macfound.org/fellows/70/>
2Growing

18 Growing

Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 http://www.growingpower.org/ compost.htm


19 Growing

33 Growing Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ our_products.htm> 34 Growing

Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 < http://www.growingpower.org/index.htm> Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 < http://www.growingpower.org/index.htm>

Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ energy_initiatives.htm>


20 Hougland,

Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ rainbow_farmers_coop.htm>

3Growing

4 WhyHunger

Network. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.whyhunger.org/ joinTheNetwork/orgProle/id/21>


5

35 Growing Power, Inc. Web. 3 November Erica. Re: Growing Power's involvement with food policy initiatives. 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ Message to Jane Becker. 28 Nov. 2012. Email. our_products.htm> 21 Allen, Will. The Good Food Revolution. New York, N.Y.: Gotham Books, c2012. Print. 22 Growing 36 Allen,

Will. The Good Food Revolution. New York, N.Y.: Gotham Books, c2012. Print. Will. The Good Food Revolution. New York, N.Y.: Gotham Books, c2012. Print.

Growing Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 < http://www.growingpower.org/ growing.htm>


6 Growing

Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ youth_education.htm>


23

37 Allen,

Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ aquaponics.htm>


7 Growing

Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/bees.htm>


8 Growing

Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ livestock.htm>


9

Growing Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ our_products.htm>


10 Growing

Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ chicago_projects.htm>


11 Growing

Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ milwaukee_projects.htm> Growing Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ milwaukee_projects.htm>
13 Growing 12

38 Allen, Will. The Good Food Revolution. New York, N.Y.: Gotham Books, c2012. Print. Hougland, Erica. Re: Growing Power's involvement with food policy initiatives. Message to Jane Becker. 28 Nov. 2012. Email. 39 Ricardo Pimentel, O. (2008, Sep 24). 'Genius Grant' Urban Plowing A Macarthur 24 "Growing Power Initiative to Create 150 Foundation Grant to Will Allen, Former Pro New Jobs Aimed at African American Males." Basketball Player, is Well-Deserved. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved from Milwaukee Courier: n/a. Apr 16 2011. http://search.proquest.com/docview/ Ethnic NewsWatch; Los Angeles Times; ProQuest Newsstand. Web. 4 Nov. 2012 . 263775711?accountid=10043 <http://0search.proquest.com.opac.sfsu.edu/docview/ 40 "Growing Power awarded $5M grant." Milwaukee Business Journal Online (2012) 872180486/fulltext? <http://sfx.calstate.edu:9003/sfsu? source=fedsrch&accountid=10043> url_ver=Z39.88-2004&rfr_id=info%3Asid 25Growing Power, Inc. Web. 3 November %2Fcalstate.edu%3Axerxes 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ %20%28%20Factiva market_baskets.htm> %29&rft.genre=article&rft_val_fmt=info %3Ao%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx 26 Growing Power, Inc. Web. 21 November %3Ajournal&rft.date=2012&rft.jtitle=Milwa 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ ukee%20Business%20Journal chicago_projects.htm> %20Online&rft.atitle=Growing%20Power %20awarded%20%245M%20grant 27 Hougland, Erica. Re: Growing Power's %20&rft.object_id=2670000000172492> involvement with food policy initiatives. Message to Jane Becker. 28 Nov. 2012. Email. 28 Hougland,

Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ milwaukee_projects.htm>


14 Allen,

Erica. Re: Growing Power's involvement with food policy initiatives. Message to Jane Becker. 28 Nov. 2012. Email.
29 Hougland,

Will. The Good Food Revolution. New York, N.Y.: Gotham Books, c2012. Print.

Erica. Re: Growing Power's involvement with food policy initiatives. Message to Jane Becker. 28 Nov. 2012. Email.
30 Allen,

15 Growing Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ growing.htm>

Will. The Good Food Revolution. New York, N.Y.: Gotham Books, c2012. Print.

16 Growing

Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ growing.htm>


17 Growing

31 Growing Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ milwaukee_projects.htm> 32

Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 http://www.growingpower.org/ compost.htm

Growing Power, Inc. Web. 3 November 2012 <http://www.growingpower.org/ chicago_projects.htm>

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Bliss Unlimited, LLC


Luna and Larrys Organic Coconut Bliss
By Journie Bent

cream, the option to enjoy a high quality organic dessert that is ice cream like. Coconut Bliss is a healthy choice as it contains no modied milk ingredients, dairy, sugar, salt, or additives.5 The target audience served by this company is anyone who enjoys frozen desserts and also people who prefer organic or a vegetarian/vegan diet. Coconut Bliss is also an appealing option to those who are lactose intolerant. Bliss Unlimited, LLC wasfounded by Luna Marcus and Larry Kaplowitz to create a healthier alternative to ice cream and crafted their own take on frozen dessert which is known today as Luna & Larrys Coconut Bliss. Coconut Bliss is a vegan frozen dessert made with wholesome organic ingredients. It is soy free, gluten free, dairy free and low glycemic. 1 In addition to their passion for tasty desserts, Luna and Larry strongly believe that respect for people and the planet is valuable. They have created a company which holds steadfast ethics in their business practices and strives to build harmonious relationships with their suppliers, manufacturer and distributor that share the same values.2 In 2010, the founders Luna and Larry decided to sell a majority of the company to Lochmead Farms, who had been producing their ice cream because the demand for their product was increasing beyond what they felt they wanted to oversee. Luna and Larry had been asked by a private equity company to buy their company, but declined because they felt their values would be compromised. Larry and Luna felt great loyalty to their staff and they wanted to nd a company that would not replace them. They ultimately sold the majority of the company to Lochmead farms, but still retain a small minority of the company. They still consult with Lochmead to guard the values on which they founded their company.3 In an article from Oregon Business, Larry explains that, [Their] biggest fear was that the company would go in a direction [they] would feel regretful about and would lose the culture, spirit, and values [they] created it with. 4 The primary services of this company is the production of a healthier frozen treat that gives people, who have health or ethical reasons for not eating dairy ice Bliss Unlimited, LLC is an example of a triple bottom line company because they have created a successful sustainable business that has less impact on the environment and promotes social equity within their company. Additionally, they have found ways to give back to their community through fundraising events and donations to causes that support health, wellness, education, and the environment. 6 Bliss Unlimited, LLC makes every effort to incorporate sustainable practices into all levels of their operation as well as in their personal lives. Their home ofce is located in Eugene, Oregon inside a 100 year-old farmhouse, which is powered 100% by wind power and has been upgraded with full spectrum lighting, organic wool carpets, and natural no VOC paint.7 To take responsibility for their water consumption at their ofce they have joined the Bonneville Program (BEF) to purchase Water Restoration Credits (WRC) which returns the amount of water equal to what was used at their ofce back into the environment.8 The company is also a member of EWEBs Green power, which has been considered a national leader for 30 years because of their innovative programs of conservation. Their Energy Smart programs offer energy management services which enable more efcient use of electricity.9 Bliss Unlimited, LLC offers their staff biker incentives to bike to work and may be reimbursed for using alternative transportation options. They strive for a reduction of waste at the ofce and compost is taken to the food for lane county gardens. They also ensure that all recycled waste is in fact recycled and also solely purchase recycled paper products. For their printing needs, they work with an eco-friendly printing company.10

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The employees of the company are regarded as fellow human beings part of the larger family and living wages, fair labor Bliss Unlimited, LLC has practices and inclusiveness are accomplished economic success due to the high demand for their product. standard practice for the company. 19 When Luna and Larry began to Bliss Unlimited, LLC also demand make their coconut based ice cream, that these beliefs are held as standard there was nothing like it in the practice for their suppliers, market. After selling it by scoops manufacturer and distributor. 20 through a friends store in town, they They really believe in joyful living started receiving requests from and organize the workplace to be Bliss Unlimited, LLC values customers that wanted to buy whole team oriented. Everyones thoughts pints from the store. They saw this as and opinions are valued and a the quality of their product and majority of the decisions are made carefully chooses ingredients with the an excellent opportunity to expand their operation and began to create through discussion and consensus. 21 highest standards. 95% of the their love into a business. After their ingredients in Coconut Bliss are Additionally, Bliss Unlimited, LLC logo had been created, they went to USDA certied organic. Their offers employees Health local whole food stores with samples Reimbursement Agreements (HRA), certied organic coconut milk is and asked if they wanted to buy the produced on a family farm in a vegan locally sourced lunch ice cream. They found it very easy to program, weekly meditation, and Thailand which Luna and Larry get their ice cream into the stores personally visited to ensure that buying clubs including a local CSA. because not only is it a great product, They also source fair trade organic standards were met. On the family farm there are termite mounds but the area in Oregon where they ingredients whenever possible. live is very community based and the Currently, their cocoa, coffee, under the coconut trees and the whole food stores support local termites eat the decomposed matter chocolate, and vanilla are certied that falls to the ground. The farmers products. Their product spread fair trade, by Trans Fair USA. These are very proud of the termite mounds throughout Oregon, and as it spread regulations ensure that the farmers because it is proof their coconuts are they started receiving letters from are treated fair throughout all aspects people in other parts of the country organic.13 The farm has been of their business.22 requesting their product. Luna and recognized with many awards for Bliss Unlimited, LLC has their organic standards and practices. Larry did not want their company to 14 nine staff members at their grow outside of Oregon, but after headquarters that focus on receiving multiple requests from Their distributor is UNFI, people explaining that Coconut Bliss administrative, marketing and sales of United Natural Foods Inc., which is was the only ice cream they could eat their product. The extended teams are the people at Lochmead that North Americas leading distributor without getting ill, ultimately made of natural, organic, and specialty them decide to expand. To meet the manufacture their product. The shipping and distribution of their products. They have installed three larger demands for their product, product is done by UNFI, United major solar electric systems on the they started manufacturing their ice rooftops of their warehouses which cream at Lochmeads facilities which Natural Foods Inc. There are 30-50 people around the country that give collectively produces 2.2 million kWh increased the quality of the product of clean energy annually.15 In 2010, making it creamier with the facilities out samples and eld representatives that are responsible for events that they pledged to reduce their carbon ability to freeze the ice cream faster. they sponsor.23 emissions by 5% over ve years. On They also started distributing with their 2011-2012 CSR report, their UNFI and now are in over 2,000 emissions have stabilized throughout stores in U.S. and Canada.17 The company makes its the company even though they have money from customers who buy the Coconut Bliss costs more than other continued to grow their company product. The price of their ice cream frozen desserts because they are size. They explain that this is a little higher than most ice cream dedicated to using high quality

Luna and Larrys Coconut Bliss ice cream is manufactured by Lochmead, which is located in Eugene, Oregon and is a third generation family-owned dairy facility. Every batch of Coconut Bliss is tested for dairy proteins to make sure it is 100% vegan and is packaged in containers made from unbleached paper, printed with food safe inks.11 Sustainability and community are the foundations of this family business and have been in practice for over three generations.12

stabilization is due to their transportation team which has reduced the idle time of their trucks, which in turn has made the fuel used more effective, increasing the average miles per gallon.16

certied organic ingredients, some of which are fair trade ingredients, which are more costly.18

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so that they can pay their employees livable wages and also pay for fair trade ingredients.24 Bliss Unlimited, LLC is dedicated to supporting local community and every year they put on an ice cream social for all of Eugene which they call, A Night of Bliss. All of the donations that they get at the door for the event go to local education and groups focused on sustainability and well-being for all. 25

Bibliography Bliss Unlimited, LLC (2010). About Luna and Larrys Coconut Bliss. Retrieved from http:// coconutbliss.com/about/about-us Bliss Unlimited, LLC. (2010). Frequently Asked Questions. Received from http:// coconutbliss.com/info/basic-faq Bliss Unlimited, LLC. (2010). Sustainability. Retrieved from http:// coconutbliss.com/about/sustainability Burningham, L. (2010). Natural food makers face challenge of growth. Retrieved from http://www.oregonbusiness.com/articles/85june-2010/3557-selling-out Eugene Water and Electric Board. (n.d.). Energy savings for your business. Retrieved from http://www.eweb.org/saveenergy/business Gray, C. (2010). Coconut Bliss Smart Ups Presentation [Video le]. Retrieved from http://vimeo.com/14886703 Lochmead Farms. (n.d.). Lochmead Farms A tradition of sustainability. Retrieved from http://www.lochmead.com/ sustainability/sustainability Ochel, E. (2012, Sept 22). Review: Luna and Larrys Organic Coconut Bliss Frozen Dessert. Retrieved from http://evolvingwellness.com/posts/ 4606/review-organic- coconut-blissfrozen-dessert/ Reilly, E., personal communication, November 27, 2012 United Natural Foods Inc. (2012). Green Initiatives. Retrieved from https:// un.com/Sustainability/Pages/GreenInitiatives.aspx United Natural Foods Inc. (2012) CSR Report: Responsibility. [PDF File]. Retrieved from https://www.un.com/Sustainability/Documents/ UNFI_CSR_2012-2012.pdf

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References
1

(Bliss Unlimited, LLC, 2010) (Reilly, E., personal communication, November 27, 2012) (Vimeo, LLC, 2010) (Burningha, 2010) (Ochel, 2012) (Reilly, E., personal communication, November 27, 2012) (Bliss Unlimited, LLC, 2010) (Bliss Unlimited, LLC, 2010) (Eugene water and Electric Board, EWEB n.d.) (Bliss Unlimited, LLC, 2010) (Bliss Unlimited, LLC, 2010) (Lochmead Farms, n.d.) (Vimeo, LLC, 2010) (Reilly, E., personal communication, November 27, 2012) Natural Foods Inc., UNFI, 2012)

3 4 5

7 8 9

10 11 12 13

14

15(United 16

(United Natural Foods Inc., UNFI, 2012) LLC, 2010)

17(Vimeo, 18(Bliss 19

Unlimited, LLC, 2010)

(Reilly, E., personal communication, November 27, 2012) (Reilly, E., personal communication, November 27, 2012) (Reilly, E., personal communication, November 27, 2012) (Bliss Unlimited, LLC, 2010) LLC, 2010)

20

21

22

23(Vimeo, 24 25

(Bliss Unlimited, LLC, 2010) (Bliss Unlimited, LLC, 2010)

Links http://coconutbliss.ctom/about/about-us http://coconutbliss.com/about/sustainability

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CASE STUDIES : Food

Green Mountain Coffee Roasters


By James Doyle

Green Mountain Coffee Roaster's origin and main headquarter are located in Vermont, at Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc., 33 Coffee Lane, Waterbury, VT 05676 Green Mountain Coffee Roaster's mission is to provide quality specialty coffee products to customer, and consumer markets while focusing on and addressing environmental, social, and economic impact reduction and benets within company practices . As the founder Bob Stiller advocates, within company management a focus on sustainability and triple bottom line approaches can be used to form a successful competitive company that as well aims to further benet the environment, and social market in which it thrives. Our success continues to be rooted in our inclusive business model of creating an exceptional beverage experience for customers and consumers, in a socially and environmentally responsible way, leading to sustainable nancial success. Green Mountain Coffee Roasters strives for a sustainable existence in the food market sector by implementing triple bottom line practices in the various services that the company offers. The services begin with product sourcing, in which GMCR has continually been the largest supplier of Fair Trade coffee in 2010 and 2011 by directly partnering with farm suppliers that are fair trade certied3. To further support fair trade farm communities and increase the availability of fair trade coffee products, GMCR also engages in local supply chain community support initiatives. Some of the services practiced that make fair trade growth possible are grant services and community and leadership training in sustainable triple bottomline advantageous farm practices. By sourcing both fair trade coffee growers as well as funding non prot organizations that can assist community growth towards sustainability GMCR has successfully been able to position itself as one of the largest provider of fair trade coffee. Final services at the end portion of the coffee supply chain include services provided to consumers. These services include the sale of

fair trade and organic coffee products as well as employee and local community support initiatives similar to those provided to supply communities. Green Mountain Coffee Roasters produces an array of products for specialty coffee consumers that have a preference for socially and environmental accountable coffee products, and as well a high variety of available coffee brews. Rather than using a bottom-line business model that focuses on low costs to reach a entirely cost concerned consumer base, GMCR forms product sales prices based on a broad range of services that are funded and implemented across the companies supply chain areas of inuence. GMCR's value proposition combines goods and services that aim to positively affect the supply chain through triple bottom line practices from farm to, rather than product cost alone at minimal prices that can cause adverse supply chain effects with high unaccounted for external costs.4 GMCR meets environmental bottomline goals through supply community, and facility based environmental impact reduction initiatives. Initiatives include sustainability farming practices, carbon offsetting programs, and waste reduction measures. The economic bottom-line is met through coffee sourcing partnerships, and coffee and product related sales in GMCR business unit branches. Last Equity based bottom-line standards are met through supply-chain living standard improvement projects and employee directed benets and workplace business ethics.

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CASE STUDIES : Food

Environmental health stands as one of the triple bottom-line goals that Green Mountain Coffee Roasters aim to understand and meet. GMCR acknowledges the Environmental bottom-line and actively works to meet it in all company spheres of inuence. GMCR works towards environmental sustainability and impact reduction by undertaking various environmental management initiatives in production facilities, as well as sustainable farming training and practices with partner coffee growers. These initiatives and results are shared in annual corporate social responsibility reports. By producing annual social responsibility reports GMCR is able to record progress, present future goals, and plan company changes to continually meet and improve their environmental bottom line. A large portion of GMCR's environmental impact can be accounted for in green house gas emissions. In order to reduce the companys carbon foot print impact GMCR as of 2010 have annually maintained 100% carbon emission offsetting for direct facility emissions, Additionally, the Company offsets 100% of its direct greenhouse gas emissions and allocates at least ve percent of its pre-tax prots to social and environmental projects.5 GMCR currently only accounts for CO2 emissions in greenhouse gases, their main method of carbon offsetting includes forward stream offsets. By purchasing energy from companies such as Native Energy, GMCR funds the production of renewable energy that does not emit carbon emissions. Energy sources include wind, biogas, and hydroelectric. Forward stream offsets reect future energy production that will be created from current energy facilities and as further infrastructure sources are established.6 Combined with carbon offsetting efforts in forward stream methods, GMCR as well makes use of solar instillation in

its Vermont Distribution center, at peak performance it can generate about half of the facilities needed energy for daily required energy.7 Outside of energy related impacts directly caused from facilities, land and resource impacts have to be taken into consideration for GMCR's environmental bottom line efforts also. Green Mountain Coffee Roasters has focused on landll divergence efforts to ensure recyclable and compostable materials are diverted from landlls. By implementing waste to energy, composting, recycling, and as well coffee machine and single serve cup return programs GMCR has managed to increase higher levels of landll waste diversion relative to revenue, but increased overall sales has met with a higher level of landll waste disposal. One of GMCRs nal environmental initiatives is present in how their coffee products are sourced and grown. Fair trade certied coffees as well as organic certied coffees that are sold by GMCR are harvested with practices and tools that reduce environmental impacts by meeting standards within soil & water , Biodiversity, agrochemical use focuses to obtain those certications.8 Coffee growing methods outside of fair trade and organic certied measures may implement the use of slash and burn farming, this removes trees that act as carbon sinks and further increases greenhouse gas related issues, as well it can lead to soil erosion as root systems are removed that maintained soil stability. GMCR meets its economic bottom-line goals through several retail branch units it owns and manages. The branches include GMCR's specialty coffee unit, Canadian unit, and Keurig single serve unit. Through these several branches GMCR sources various coffee blends for their product lines, which have a demand in the coffee market for their distinct qualities.

Some qualities may include the method in which they are grown or harvested, such as organic or fairtrade, or specialty blends for certain avor proles. Then by forming direct relationships with growers, supply agreements are made, in which GMCR then makes their product lines available. Through the retail sales of their coffee products, nancial management, and advertisement of company standards and product value, such as coffee quality and environmental consideration taken in product sales are met that maintain company protability. In scal 2011, we continued to support initiatives that directly benet supply-chain communities. Our aim is to fund organizations and their work through monetary grants that promote food security, clean water for consumption and irrigation, economic development, health, education, and environmental stewardship. By supporting funding in these crucial areas of living standards, supplychain communities are able to further develop sustainable farming practices and overall coffee growth, that otherwise may have been neglected do to a lack of resources and funding. An example of such programs include the support of Heifer International, which in 2011 helped an approximate 4140 families improve food security through sustainable works and education9 Workers directly employed by GMCR are provided various benets. GMCR provides medical, dental, and vision plans 90% employer payed on average for eligible part time and full time employees, and 100% payed insurance packages. GMCR provides up to 4,500 dollars for adoption assistance, education funding up to $3,000 dollars per eligible work tuition fees, and a donation matching program up to $1,000 dollars per year.10

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9 http://www.gmcr.com/~/media/Sustainability/PDF/CSR GMCR is comprised of 3 business units including specialty coffee blends, Keurig single serve, and %20Report/GMCRCSRReport2011.ashx a Canadian Business unit. Various executive ofcers 10 http://gmcr.com/GMCR/pdf/careers/ maintain and guide department specic tasks within 2012_Benets_In_A_Scoop.pdf departments such as an international business development branch, human resources, and nances. GMCR is a for prot company that has been public since 1993. It's funded through public and investor Bibliography stock holdings, and through retail sales in each of its . "Environmental Standards Fairtrade USA PDF." business units.

fairtradeusa. N.p.. Web. 4 Dec 2012. <http://fairtradeusa.org/ sites/all/les/wysiwyg/lemanager/ Environmental_Standards_Fair_Trade_USA.pdf>.

Gittell, Ross, Matt Magnusson, and Michael Merenda. "The Sustainable Business Case Book, v. 1.0." Flatworld Knowledge. N.p.. Web. 4 Dec 2012. <http:// catalog.atworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/3157? e=gittell_1.0-ch07_s02 "GMCR Purposes and Principles." GMCR.com. Green Mountain Coffee Roasters. Web. 4 Dec 2012. <http:// www.gmcr.com/purpose-and-principles.html>. "Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc. Deepens Its Commitment to Fair Trade and Sustainable Coffee Sourcing." investor.gmcr.com. N.p., 20 2012. Web. 4 Dec 2012. <http:// investor.gmcr.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=708245>. "GMCR Benets in a Scoop." GMCR. N.p.. Web. 4 Dec 2012. <http://gmcr.com/GMCR/pdf/careers/ 2012_Benets_In_A_Scoop.pdf>. References Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc http:// www.gmcr.com/purpose-and-principles.html 2 Bob Stiller http://catalog.atworldknowledge.com/bookhub/ reader/3157?e=gittell_1.0-ch07_s02#gittell_1.0-ch07
3

Stiller, Bob. "The Sustainable Business Case Book, v. 1.0." Flatworld Knowledge. N.p.. Web. 4 Dec 2012. <http:// catalog.atworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/3157? e=gittell_1.0-ch07_s02 GMCR.com atworldknowlege.com fairtadeusa.org

Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc http:// investor.gmcr.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=708245


4

Ross Gittell, Matt Magnusson, and Michael Merenda The Sustainable Business Case Book, v. 1.0 http://catalog.atworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/ 3157?e=gittell_1.0-ch07_s02#gittell_1.0-ch07
5

Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc http:// www.gmcr.com/~/media/Sustainability/PDF/CSR %20Report/GMCRCSRReport2011.ashx


6

Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc http:// www.gmcr.com/~/media/Sustainability/PDF/CSR %20Report/GMCRCSRReport2011.ashx


7 Green

Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc http:// www.gmcr.com/~/media/Sustainability/PDF/CSR %20Report/GMCRCSRReport2011.ashx


8 FairtradeUSA

http://fairtradeusa.org/sites/all/les/ wysiwyg/lemanager/ Environmental_Standards_Fair_Trade_USA.pdf

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Guayak Sustainable Rainforest Products, Inc.


By Emily Leutzinger

America. In response to the perpetuation of multinational corporations that are legally bound to the exclusive purpose of maximizing prots to the shareholders, the founders of Guayak formulated a different approach when devising their business model. They pioneered an award winning market-driven restoration business model that supports the local communities in which the company's yerba mate is produced while still remaining economically viable. By developing and funding reforestation projects that benet both the forest and the indigenous people while still making a prot, Guayak exemplies the triple bottom line business model. Guayak yerba mate products include loose-leaf teas, bottled beverages and organic energy shots, as well as handcrafted fair-trade traditional drinking gourds. Guayak Sustainable Rainforest Products, Inc. is Printed on the packaging of every Guayak product is the companys mission statement. As part of their business the leading North American provider of yerba mate model, Guayak builds nurseries to grow native hardwood loose-leaf teas and bottled beverages. The yerba mate used in the companys products are organic, fairly traded, species of the Atlantic Rain forest and the seedlings are eventually transplanted to the forest near the yerba mate and rainforest grown. Guayak has corporate headquarters as well as a packaging and processing plant plants to provide shade for the growing seedlings and existing plants. This cycle of planting and harvesting and in Sebastopol, California. This company partners with re-planting provides the growers with a renewable income yerba mate farmers in the Atlantic Rain Forest in the stream. Guayak is currently the only yerba mate countries of Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil of South company that grows organic fair-trade certied plants, America. passing this benet along to consumers. All plants are Alex Pryor of Buenos Aires and David Karr of harvested using non-invasive, shade grown methods Northern California founded Guayak in 1996. They measures and farmers are paid a living wage, allowing established a for-prot business that purchases and them to support their families and strengthen their packages organic yerba mate leaves and packages the communities through economic vitality. Every Guayak leaves into loose-leaf teas and bottled yerba mate beverages. Stemming from a shared love for the naturally product purchased, currently available only in the United States and Canada, helps improve the lives of native invigorating beverage, the owners created a protable business that produces fair-trade, organic products while people within the Atlantic rainforest and directly funds rainforest restoration efforts. By voting with their dollars, fullling social and environmental goals. Guayak consumers of Guayak yerba mate show their products are fair-trade certied by the International commitment to the triple bottom line: people, planet Marketecology (IMO) as Fair for Life, a member of the Fair Trade Federation, certied organic by the California prot. People who desire a healthy caffeinated beverage Certied Organic Farmers (CCOF), certied organic by while supporting fair-trade products are the target the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), a audience for this company. These products are certied B corporation, and a partner in the Non-GMOs comparably priced to competing drinks, yet their project. The company employs thirty-four people in their dedication to the triple bottom line sets them apart from the competition. headquarters and approximately 120 farmers in South

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Their mission is to steward and restore 200,000 acres of South American Atlantic rainforest and create over 1,000 living wage jobs by 2020 by leveraging [the companys] Market Driven Restoration business model. Guayak is a certied B (Benet) corporation. This accreditation allows for Guayak to exist as a for-prot entity but their B corporation status allows them to also commit themselves to high standards of social and environmental performance, accountability, and transparency (1). Unlike C corporations that are legally required to pursue the singular purpose of maximizing prots for its shareholders, a B Corporation creates a legal framework for businesses to remain true to their social goals while still pursuing prot. Guayak is working to meet a number of stated social, environmental, and economic goals within their business charter. As a for-prot entity, Guayak has social and environmental goals that can only be accomplished if the company remains economically viable. Established in 1996, Guayak now earns about 15 million dollars annually, almost doubled from 8 million dollars annually in 2008 (2). Guayak is dedicated to protecting the environment and they show their commitment in a number of ways. Each Guayak project in the rain forest has an accompanying hardwood and fruit tree nursery that grows seedlings to eventually transplant into the forest and introduce new growth into the forests to help maintain bio-diversity. Hardwood trees and fruit trees are planted to attract birds and other animal species and re-establish ecological pathways for migrating animals. Every year, Guayak plants on average an additional 50,000 trees. The trees planted through their reforestation projects developed by Guayak and carried out by the native people in the rainforest help restore the rainforest for both human and

animal species. At the Guayak headquarters in Sebastopol, multiple measures are taken to reduce harm to the environment. Guayak pioneered a new type of shipping boxes that are 100% recyclable, non-petroleum based, and 100% post-consumer recycled corrugated cardboard. The company claims that virtually all waste generated at their headquarters and factory is either recycled or salvaged. Their facility is chemical free, including the usage of only cleaning agents that are approved for use within certied organic facilities. The company has determined through third-party analysis that their business is responsible for an estimated twenty-eight tons of CO2 every year. To combat this, Guayak purchased enough Renewable Energy Credits to offset two years worth of company CO2 emissions (fty-seven tons). Energy usage consists of electricity, natural gas, and refrigerant emissions. The source for the offsets is a local solar energy power plant located forty miles from Guayak headquarters (3). 100% of the company's electrical power usage in its headquarters comes from renewable solar energy, purchased from a nearby solar energy plant. The packaging is made 100% recyclable, with a minimum 30% post consumer waste, though most is 100% post consumer waste. Much of the packaging is also biodegradable. Guayak has clearly stated social goals that promote equity in the world, an intrinsic aspect of meeting the triple bottom line as a business. Clear-cutting rain forests for commercial agriculture is destroying rain forests across the world at alarming rates, wreaking havoc for plant and animal species as well as indigenous people of the rainforest. Industrial logging and farming have drastically changed many aspects of life for indigenous people of the Atlantic Rainforest. As the size of the rainforest dwindles, many indigenous

landowners have resort to cutting down trees and planting crops or raising livestock as a source of income because of the greatly reduced bio-diversity of their land, generating a non-renewable income stream as nutrients are depleted from the soil and plant and animal species disappear. Guayak provides an alternative to this, providing economic opportunities to native people. Providing the people with a market for organic, shade grown rainforest yerba mate, demonstrates that as a source of renewable income, the rainforest is more valuable standing than it is cut down. Providing economic incentives to the inhabitants to protect and restore the rain forest, Guayak offers an alternative to clear cutting. Yerba mate plants grow naturally at the bases of hardwood trees in the shade of the rainforest and the company demonstrates to the native people that shade-grown yerba mate can be used as an economic driver for sustaining the rain forest while also providing a stable renewable income stream. By investing in technologies that help the local people harvest the yerba mate and replant trees, Guayak is teaching them the technical skills necessary to make a decent living through preserving the rainforest. Guayak pays the organic farmers twice as much as the marketrate for harvested yerba mate, refusing to compromise quality and also ensuring the farmers earn a fair wage. Allowing the native people to generate a decent living for their families while providing incentives to protect the rainforest, Guayak names this model "Market-Driven Restoration" (4).This model empowers the native people to be stewards of their own land and allows them to once again become prosperous in their native land through reforestation efforts promoted by Guayak.

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Guayaks corporate headquarters are in Sebastopol, California. The packaging and distribution of the products is conducted here. A vertically integrated company, Guayak sources, imports, distributes, markets and sells yerba mate. Guayak does not own the yerba mate plants or land; instead they purchase the raw material from the farmers and create products from the imported dried plant leaves. Ships and bio-diesel trucks transport the raw material from South America to Sebastopol. When the company was founded in 1996, the owners took out a small business loan of $50,000 to help build their company By 2008, their annual revenue stream was eight million dollars but the company was still not protable enough to stay in business. At this time, RSF Social Finance loaned Guayak $500,000, allowing them to launch their canned beverage line and devise a small store delivery distribution model. RSFs line of credit to Guayak helped them become competitive with other companies such as Red Bull and Gatorade and expand their name brand recognition. RSF Social Finance is dedicated to ll the gap of providing growth capital for social impact businesses, exactly what Guayak needed. Guayaks positive impact on the Atlantic Rainforest is based directly on the companys growth; the more economically successful Guayak is, the more positive social and environmental impact they provide. With its stronger nancial position, Guayak now qualies for RSFs Social Enterprise Lending Program and has a $1.9 million line of credit (5). Guayak's goal is to create 1,000 jobs and restore 200,000 acres of rainforest by the year 2020. To do so, the company will have to grow by at least 25% annually for the next decade (6). As a for-prot company, Guayak does an outstanding job meeting the goals of the triple bottom. With every Guayak product purchased, consumers can be sure they are making a positive contribution to the world by voting with their dollars to promote environmental sustainability and social equity.

References 1. http://www.bcorporation.net/ 2. http://rsfsocialnance.org/2012/08/Guayak-pioneers/ 3. http://Guayak.com/about/2231/Sustainability.html 4.http://www.fastcompany.com/1547695/guayak %25C3%25ADs-ceo-chris-mann-importance-runningtransparent-company 5. http://www.thegiin.org/cgi-bin/iowa/print/21.html 6. http://www.fastcompany.com/1690766/yerba-matewonder-drink-business-social-good Bibliography "Company Highlights." B Corp. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.bcorporation.net/community/directory/ Guayak>. Guayak Organic Yerba Mate." Guayak Organic Yerba Mate. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://Guayak.com/>. "How Sustainability Drives Prots at Guayak." Sustainable Brands. Web. 04 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.sustainablebrands.com/digital_learning/videointerview/how-sustainability-drives-prots-Guayakinterview-chris-mann-ceo>. "Sustainability." Guayak. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. <http://Guayak.com/about/2231/ Sustainability.html>. "The GIIN: RSF Social Finance / Guayak Sustainable Rainforest Products Prole." The GIIN: RSF Social Finance / Guayak Sustainable Rainforest Products Prole. Web. 02 Nov. 2012. <http://www.thegiin.org/cgibin/iowa/print/21.html>. "Yerba Mate: The Wonder Drink for Business & Social Good." Fast Company. 23 Sept. 2010. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fastcompany.com/1690766/yerbamate-wonder-drink-business-social-good>. Additional Resources http://www.bcorporation.net http://www.fairforlife.net http://www.fairtradefederation.org http://www.nongmoproject.org www.ccof.org

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Organic Valley similarly seeks to foster humane animal husbandry techniques, by implementing humane By Jordan Austin practices in their operations. Animals are well fed, given nutrition supplements, and kept in sanitary conditions, as well as never injected with synthetic hormones. They seek to fuel the market for organic and sustainably produced agriculture in hopes to sway businesses away from heavily polluting practices and towards more environmentally and socially sound alternatives. Organic Valley aims to stimulate healthy communities and promote equity by keeping operations--thus jobs--local, and fairly compensating all employees. At a time where the national food production has become characterized by big corporations and monoculture, Organic Valley seeks to promote diversity and save family Organic Valley is a cooperative of family farms operating farms, allowing them to maintain in North America. What once began ownership. The cooperative started out as a few family farms coming growing and selling organic together to serve their local vegetables serving the greater Wisconsin communities has Southern Wisconsin area. Once developed into a national leader in revenues permitted, Organic Valley the production and sale of organic expanded, now producing eggs, foods. Organic Valley headquarters juices, soy milks, and a number of is located in La Farge, Wisconsin, organic dairy products. The dairy however farms are dispersed line consists of various milks, creams, throughout North America, with more than 1766 farmer-owners in 33 yogurts, cheeses, and butters. states and four Canadian provinces. Eventually Organic Valley created a sister company, Organic Prairie, and Organic Valley Farms began producing and selling meats. Cooperative aims to provide The target audience Organic customers with high quality, healthy, and great tasting organic products in Valley serves are health conscious individuals and families who seek a way that is not detrimental to the organically, sustainably, locally grown environment and preserves the land food and favor practices that lessen for future generations of farmers negative environmental impacts, through maintaining soil fertility. The company was started in 1988 by while being able to afford the cost. Wisconsin farmer George Siemon, as As part of their philosophy regarding local farmer ownership, each farmer a cooperative of local vegetable farmers. Originally CROPP (Coulee serves the market in their specic region, lowering shipping costs of Region Organic Produce Pool), the food and cutting the carbon emission brand name Organic Valley was that would be necessary to transport established once a market demand was identied. Farmers provide food them. Although Organic Valley seeks free of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, to provide everyone with nutritious organic food, the increased cost in antibiotics, and various hormones.

Organic Valley

production of organic food must be reected in the cost to consumers, which therefore limits their possible market. This target markets needs are met all while adhering to triple bottom line principles. In business, a companys bottom line refers to prot. With the increasing interest in sustainable development and the dawn of green business, the triple bottom line was introduced. The triple bottom line refers to how a business or organization meets its equity, environmental, and economic goals (also referred to as people, prot, planet) goals. In the environmental sector, Organic Valley meets its goals through producing organically, investing in renewable energy projects, waste reduction and reuse, humane animal treatment, and water conservation techniques. Economically speaking, their bottom line is met through operations in the form of sales, cost-cutting techniques and practices, seeking competitive advantage, and various government aid in the form of subsidies, grants, and loans. Finally, Organic Valleys social goals are met through employee compensation such as wages and benets, and through small farmer operation and ownership. While the triple bottom line principles frame all of Organic Valleys operations, their focus seems to have been in the environmental sector. Since 1988, they have prevented nearly 59 million pounds of synthetic nitrogen and approximately 950,000 pounds of herbicides and pesticides from entering the soil. This is reective of their goal to maintain soil fertility for future farmers. Organic Valley also realizes the abundance of methane gas produced from dairy farming and have been partnering with universities for the research and development of manure digesters in hopes to alleviate the problem.

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In 2011, forty Organic Valley farmers conducted energy efciency audits on their properties in order to get a grasp on their carbon footprint. This led to the dedication to utilize more renewable energy sources, and the decision to produce some on-site. Their on-site renewable energy installs total to 191 over the last four years. According to Organic Valleys 2011 Annual Report, On-farm renewable energy installations (solar, microgeneration, digesters, and wind turbines) now generate up to 470,000 Kilowatt hours annually. Of this 470,000 kWH, around 385,000 was produced on farms, while approximately 75,000 was produced at headquarters. This was enough to offset seventy percent of the energy used to heat water at HQ annually. As a result, Organic Valleys 2011 report states that they were able to decrease total energy consumption per case shipped by thirty-one percent as well as a twelve percent decrease in energy consumption per person from 2008-2011, while simultaneously increasing units shipped per year by over three million. In May 2012, Organic Valley began operating two, 2.5 Megawatt wind turbines at their distribution center in Cashton, Wisconsin. These turbines are expected to produce 6 million kW per year, enough clean energy to offset 100% of all electricity consumed in 2011 at the Cashton DC, Chaseburg Creamery and La Farge HQ combined. Along with energy production, Organic Valley has also begun producing its own sustainable fuel. Growing camelina and sunowers, they were able to realize a very high yield of oil to be used as bio-fuel (80-110 gallons per acre). The oil collected from these crops has been used to power vehicles as well as farm equipment, lessening their dependence on heavily polluting fossil fuels. According to Sustainability Program Manager Jonathan Reinbold, farmers designate 10% of their land to grow oil seeds. From this, each farmer is able to offset approximately 70% of their fuel needs. Not only is sustainability practiced on- farm, but also in business operations and logistics. Organic Valley recently replaced all of their refrigerators with equipment that uses environmentally friendly refrigerants. The boxes used to ship their products boast a minimum of 81% recycled content, 72% of which is post-consumer waste. They were also able to print 95% of materials on paper that is 100% postconsumer recycled. Similarly, Organic Valley took initiative in limiting its waste. The company now operates a baler that allows for easier recycling of their shrink wrap. They now divert 1,500 pounds of shrink

wrap monthly from the landll. Water stewardship is also important to OV. In order to lter out solid wastes from their waste water, thus freeing space in the local wastewater treatment system, they installed a Dissolved Air Filtration unit at their Chaseburg site. Organic Valley also operates a rideshare/carpool program to get employees to work. According to their data, around 31% of employees participated in 2011. The companys headquarters is also environmentally conscious. OVs LaFarge headquarters was a 5.9 million dollar project completed in 2011. Cecil Wright, Organic Valleys Director of Sustainability/Local Operations writes that the new company HQ is loaded with green, energy-efcient design features that offset more than 10% of energy consumed at the HQ: a 50 kW solar electric system on the roof, a revolutionary 1.25 kW solar window system and a 400-gallon solar hot water system. The design attempts to maximize natural light and minimize heat gain. Sensors are used in the lights to automatically adjust brightness depending on the amount of available natural light. All of the materials used for the building were found locally, many of which were recycled and low in volatile organic compounds (the ceilings are made of 75% recycled materials). Similarly, all of the ofce furniture in the head quarters is second-hand. Incorporated energy efciencies include waterless urinals, solar-powered lights in the parking lot, as well as motion sensors in lights and faucets. The contractor that constructed the building saw to it that 100% of construction waste was recycled. Over all, the LaFarge headquarters is designed to be 30% more efcient than state building codes require. Their headquarters is currently undergoing the LEED certication process.

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Organic Valley meets their economic bottom line in a few ways, primarily through the prots received from retail sales. Vegetables are grown on various farm sites and shipped to local grocery stores and markets to be sold. In 2011, they made a total of 690,485,621 dollars in revenue, 103,035,156 of which was prot. The company does what it can to cut costs of operation in order to meet the bottom line. Their investments in renewable energy have been able to signicantly lower their costs, thus increasing prots. They have also begun producing their own biofuel on site, which has allowed them to lower their fuel budget. Different forms of aid are also an important aspect to Organic Valley economically. For example, to complete their LaFarge headquarters, The Wisconsin Dept. of Commerce gave the Village of LaFarge a $750,000 grant to develop infrastructure for the site. Similarly, The USDA facilitated Organic Valley's $2.8 million Business & Industry Loan. Last but not least, are the techniques and strategies Organic Valley uses to meet its social goals. At the base of Organic Valleys commitment to equity is the idea of a farmer-owned coop. The agricultural sector has come to be dominated by big business and corporations, especially in the U.S. This has driven countless numbers of family farms out of business, over 600,000 family farms since 1960, or forced them to sacrice sustainable practices and farm diversity in order to stay viable. Organic Valley seeks to maintain local farmer ownership, which gives the farmers and consumers more of a choice on what products are grown and how. Therefore, more of each dollar goes directly into the hands of

the farmers, as opposed to the wealthy businessmen who typically own the factors and means of production. The company also promotes equity through employee benets and compensation. Organic Valley dairy workers are paid an average of $10.55 more than the conventional base pay for midwestern dairy workers. Organic Valleys health care system also differs from typical packages, for example their wellness program is focused on prevention. According to their site, employees take advantage of regular, on-site screenings for diabetes, heart, colon, and breast health, as well as informational lunch-and-learns and smoking cessation groups. At the top of the Organic Valley hierarchy is the Board of Directors, consisting of a President, Vice President, Treasurer, Secretary, and multiple Directors. The Board is elected by the farmers themselves. Next is the Management level, made up of a CEO, CFO, Director of Manufacturing and Quality Assurance, Director of Marketing and Sales, a Cooperative Coordinator, National Sales Director, and nally a Director of Operations. Under Management is the Farmer Relations level, leading nally down to the individual family farms and farmers. Funding is primarily realized through operation and sales. Farmers grow crops and raise animals organically and sell them on the open market. Being part of the organic food sector, Organic Valley also receives some government grants and loans. As of 2009, three of their farmer-owners have received $120,171 in federal and state grants for on-farm renewable energy projects not including the grants and

loans received to fund the construction of their Lafarge headquarters. In the past, some funding was recognized through investors, however since September 30th, 2010, sale of their stock has been closed. Organic Valley continues to seek their triple bottom line throughout operations. They provide high quality organic products across the nation, and do so in ways that lessen environmental impacts and diverge harmful chemical from our soils in an attempt to maintain the world for future generations. Their investments in renewable energy set an example for what our energy future looks like. Organic Valley has become a major leader in organic produce in the nation, while maintaining local farmer ownership, thus maintaining the wealth in the community.

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References 1 http://www.organicvalley.coop/newsroom/about-organic-valley/ 2 http://www.organicvalley.coop/why-organic/overview/ 3 http://www.organicvalley.coop/why-organic/humane-treatment/ 4 http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/sustainability/on-farm-sustainability/ 5 http://www.organicvalley.coop/leadmin/pdf/CROPP_Annual_Report_11.pdf 6 http://www.organicvalley.coop/leadmin/pdf/CROPP_Annual_Report_11.pdf 7 http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/sustainability/on-farm-sustainability/ 8 Reinbold, J. (2012, December 07). Interview by J Austin [Personal Interview] 9 http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/sustainability/operations/ 10 http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/sustainability/operations/ 11 http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/sustainability/water-stewardship/ 12 http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/sustainability/employees/ 13 http://www.organicvalley.coop/leadmin/pdf/CROPP_Annual_Report_11.pdf 14 http://www.organicvalley.coop/newsroom/about-organic-valley/organic-valley-headquarters-building-information/ 15 http://www.organicvalley.coop/leadmin/pdf/Audited_Financial_Statement_2011.pdf 16 http://www.organicvalley.coop/newsroom/about-organic-valley/organic-valley-headquarters-building-information/ 17 http://www.organicvalley.coop/newsroom/about-organic-valley/organic-valley-headquarters-building-information/ 18 http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/our-cooperative/co-op-faqs/ 19 http://www.organicvalley.coop/leadmin/pdf/CROPP_Annual_Report_11.pdf 20 http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/sustainability/employees/ 21 http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/sustainability/employees/ 22 http://www.organicvalley.coop/newsroom/photos/images/people-of-organic-valley/viewsubcategory/board-of-directors/ 23 http://www.organicvalley.coop/newsroom/photos/images/people-of-organic-valley/viewsubcategory/management/ 24 http://www.organicvalley.coop/newsroom/press-releases/details/article/three-organic-valley-farmer-owners-receivenearly-120000-in-renewable-energy-grants/ 25 http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/invest/stock-prospectus/

Bibliography About organic valley. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.organicvalley.coop/newsroom/about-organic-valley/ Why organic. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.organicvalley.coop/why-organic/overview/ Humane animal treatment: A cornerstone of organic. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.organicvalley.coop/why-organic/humanetreatment/ On-farm sustainability. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/sustainability/on-farm-sustainability 2011 annual report. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.organicvalley.coop/leadmin/pdf/CROPP_Annual_Report_11.pdf Business operations. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/sustainability/operations/ Water stewardship. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/sustainability/water-stewardship/ Taking care of business. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/sustainability/employees/ Organic valley headquarters building information . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.organicvalley.coop/newsroom/about-organicvalley/organic-valley-headquarters-building-information Financial statement. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.organicvalley.coop/leadmin/pdf/Audited_Financial_Statement_2011.pdf Ovfaqs. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.organicvalley.coop/about-us/our-cooperative/co-op-faqs/ Board of directors. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.organicvalley.coop/newsroom/photos/images/people-of-organic-valley/ viewsubcategory/board-of-directors/ Management. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.organicvalley.coop/newsroom/photos/images/people-of-organic-valley/ viewsubcategory/management/

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The Clif Bar Company


By Adam Scarbrough

The Clif Bar Company was founded in 1991 by bakery owner and avid cyclist, Gary Erickson, and his wife Kit Crawford. In 1990, Erickson, who was tired of the energy bars available at the time, came up with the idea for a new type of energy bar while on a 175 mile bike ride. (7) He wanted to concoct a bar that was easily portable, nutrient dense, and great tasting unlike the options which were available at the time. By September of 1991 Erickson and Crawford started marketing their product at bicycle shows and shops, posting revenues of $700,000 in the rst year. (7) Since then sales have doubled every year and by 2011 the company had a net worth of over $230 million. (2) Along the way The Clif Bar Company has developed a business model which promotes the sustainability of ve factors: planet, community, people, business, and brand. Through minimal ecological impact, community awareness, the exceptional treatment of its employees, the ability to make money, and the goal of making quality products which are tailored to what people want The Clif Bar Company successfully satises the triple bottom line objectives.

During its rst years The Clif Bar Company marketed its products specically towards bicycle enthusiasts, selling Clif Bars in bike shops and bike shows. As sales grew, the company expanded to selling its products in health food and grocery stores. Currently the company markets its products to anyone who is active and in need of a portable, healthy, and great tasting food source while on the go. The Clif Family Winery targets a similar consumer group, people with active lifestyles, as its carton is touted as more durable and portable.

In 2011 the company reported $235 million in revenues. (2) From an ecological standpoint, the company puts a lot of effort to reduce its impact on the environment. The company invests in various practices that promote a healthy environment. Research in organic The Clif Bar Company produces and markets nutrient dense bars and gels most of which are made with farming, reconstruction of disaster areas, and funding at least 70% organic ingredients; the gels and bars geared wind power projects are some of the strategies the company uses to protect the environment. The main to youth are all over 90% organic. (4) The company areas in which the company promotes equity is through refrains from using high-fructose corn syrup, partially its excellent treatment and pay for employees as well as hydrogenated oils, and trans fats. Many of Clif Bars products are kosher, vegan, gluten-free, and caffeinated as good working conditions for the farmers that produce Clif Bar ingredients. Clif Bar meets the triple bottom line well enabling virtually anyone, regardless of their values because the company actively promotes business individual food specic needs, to buy Clif Bar products. practices that both nurture equity within the company as The cocoa used in Clif Bar products comes from the well as adopting methods of operation that are more Rainforest Alliance Certied Farms which grows their friendly to the environment. With steadily increasing cocoa sustainably to benet families, wildlife, and the environment.(4) Aside from their traditional products the revenues and meeting ecologic and social goals, the company is a genuine triple bottom line company. company also owns the Clif Family Winery which produces and markets wine in alternative containers. (11) To achieve high revenues, e.g., $235 million in The company provides employment to over 250 people 2011, The Clif Bar Company markets over 12 different and sponsorship to over 1,500 athletes associated with products. The company also owns and operates a winery Team Clif Bar. It also provides support for events like the called the Clif Family Winery as well as a womens activeEnvironmental Film Festival and the 2 Mile Challenge wear clothing line. (2) Over the past ten years, the (an event geared towards promoting alternate modes of company has seen a compounded growth rate of 23% transportation, specically the bicycle). (6)(4) The which speaks to the growing popularity of the companys company is an In Good Company participant which is product as well as its potential for continued revenue a coalition of companies with similar ideas for their roles growth. (7) with regard to community and the environment. (4)

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The Clif Bar Companys main headquarters in Emeryville is a LEED Platinum Certied building. The roof is covered with solar panels which provide enough energy to power the entire building. Water heated within the building gets 70% of its energy from a solar thermal system. Wood salvaged from old barns constitutes some of the interior as well as recycled denim for sound barriers within the building. (13) The company has a wide variety of strategies to preserve our environment thus fullling the ecological triple bottom line. At its headquarters, The Clif Bar Company recycles 70% of the waste produced and has the ultimate goal of reaching a 90% waste recycling rate by 2015. (4) The trucks used for distribution were replaced by a biodiesel truck eet in 2007. (8) The company has planted 45,000 trees, in partnership with American forests to help protect watersheds and reforest wildre areas. (4) In 2011 the company launched a partnership with the Trees For The Future organization to help restore devastated lands in Haiti with the goal of planting 50,000 trees. (4)The company offers $5,000 forgivable loans to employees who are willing to purchase hybrid or biodiesel cars and up to $500 for a bicycle. (14) Since 2003 the company has supported over 29 wind projects and estimates that over 92,000 tons of CO2 have been offset. (4) In 2009 the company joined the Business for Innovative Climate and Energy (BICEP) alliance which has the ultimate goal of persuading the government to pass sustainable energy and climate legislation. (5) On the social level, The Clif Bar Company is committed to providing equitable environments for their employees and farmers. Also, company is committed to using organic ingredients which promote better health for the farmers who

would otherwise be exposed to pesticides, In addition, the company is dedicated to a full range of ethical trading issues based on labor rights; including safe environment, the right to organize, freedom to leave the premises, and the absence of forced labor, slavery, human trafcking, and discrimination in the workplace. (4) A good example of these ethical workplace values, the farm workers of Rainforest Alliance Certied farms are provided safe working conditions, housing, medical care, and access to school for their children. At the company headquarters, employees were each given bicycles to mark the twentieth anniversary of the company. (9) The employees also have access to a nutritional counseling, life coaching, thirty two complementary types of tness classes per week, a rock wall, and a full tness center where each employee is allotted two and a half hours of paid time a week to work out. The employees collectively own 20% of the company through the purchase of family owned private stock. (4) Also, to date, the company has donated over 40,000 hours of volunteer work to hundreds of charitable organizations. (4) The Clif Bar Company is a private company, co-owned by Gary Erickson and his wife Kit Crawford. The company operates under a hierarchy with Erickson and Crawford as co-CEOs, Kevin Cleary the current president and COO, and Michelle Ferguson as the executive vice president of marketing. In June of 2010, Erickson and Crawford made 20% of the company available for the employees to purchase. The headquarters is located in Emeryville, California, however, all of their products are produced in Southern California.

The Clif Bar Company has several different revenue streams. The bulk of the companys sales come from the various Clif Bar energy bars and gels, however, the company also gains revenue from The Clif Family Winery and a womens clothing line. In the companys rst year they made around $700,000 and sales have been increasing ever since with the company posting huge sales of over $230 million. (2)

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References

7. 3p Guest Author. "Good Companies Like Clif Bar:


How They Do It." Online Posting. www.triplepundit.com. Triple Pundit, 17 July 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.

1. www.nytimes.com 2. www.smallbusiness.aol.com 3. www.clifbarfamilyfoundation.com 4. www.clifbar.com 5. www.greenbiz.com 6. www.triplepundit.com 7. www.triplepundit.com 8. www.tellurianbiodiesel.com 9. www.triplepundit.com 10. www.outsideonline.com 11. www.triplepundit.com 12. www.triplepundit.com 13. www.triplepundit.com
Bibliography

8. Tellurian Biodiesel. CLIF Bar Converts Its Southern


California Fleet to Biodiesel with Help From Tellurian Biodiesel. Tellurian Biodeisel. N.p., Dec. 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <www.tellurianbiodiesel.com/content/ release/ClifBar-PR.pdf>.

9. Smith, Paul. "Clif Bar Gives Every Employee a 20th


Anniversary Bike." www.triplepundit.com. Triple Pundit, 12 Jan. 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.

10. "The Best Places to Work | Best Outdoor Jobs |


OutsideOnline.com." Outside Online. N.p., 30 Apr. 2010. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.outsideonline.com/outdoor-adventure/bestjobs/3--Clif-Bar---Company.html>.

11. Smith, Paul. "Clif Bar Makes Wine? Yes, and Its All
Terrain." Www.triplepundit.com. Triple Pundit, 19 Apr. 2011. Web. 30 Nov. 2012.

12. Mickle, Ryan. "What Is Responsible Business, Really?


Perspectives from Stonyeld Farms and Clif Bar Founders." Www.triplepundit.com. Triple Pundit, 1 May 2008. Web. 30 Nov. 2012.

1. Hays, Constance L. "From Out of the Gym, Into the


Grocery Store; Energy Bars Jump Into the Mainstream." The New York Times. The New York Times, 22 Nov. 1997. Web. 08 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.nytimes.com/1997/11/22/business/from-outof-the-gym-into-the-grocery-store-energy-bars-jumpinto-the-mainstream.html?pagewanted=all>.

13. Kaye, Leon. "Clif Bar Celebrates Its 20th Birthday


With LEED Platinum Headquarters." Www.triplepundit.com. Triple Pundit, 18 May 2012. Web. 30 Nov. 2012.

2. Dahl, Darren. "Clif Bar: How a Husband-Wife Team


Built a $235 Million Empire." SmallBusiness. AOL, 14 June 2010. Web. 08 Nov. 2012. <http:// smallbusiness.aol.com/2010/06/14/clif-bar-how-ahusband-wife-team-built-a-235-million-empire/>.

3. Clif Bar Company. "CLIF BAR FAMILY


FOUNDATION." CLIF BAR FAMILY FOUNDATION. Clif Bar, 2012. Web. 08 Nov. 2012. <http:// clifbarfamilyfoundation.org/Grants-Programs>.

4. "Clif Bar & Company | Soul | Who We Are |." Clif 5.


Bar. Clif Bar, n.d. Web. 08 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.clifbar.com/soul/who_we_are/>. ClimateBiz Staff. "News." Aspen Skiing, Clif Bar, Seventh Generation Strengthen BICEP Climate Coalition. GreenBiz Group, 16 Apr. 2009. Web. 08 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.greenbiz.com/news/2009/04/16/aspen-skiingclif-bar-seventh-generation-strengthen-bicep-climatecoalition>. Announces Grant for Organic Plant Breeding." Online Posting. www.triplepundit.com. Triple Pundit, 19 Jan. 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.

6. Vijayaraghavan, Akhila. "Clif Bar Family Foundation

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New Belgium Brewing Company


By John Bakaldin

New Belgium Brewing Company (NBB) is located in Fort Collins, Colorado. NBBs purpose is to operate a protable brewery which makes our love and talent manifest. As a company NBB seeks to provoke environmental, social, and cultural change by being a business role model. By honoring nature at every turn of business, the company rmly believes in practicing environmental stewardship, while using their prots to invest in community organizations and support sustainability goals in the local community. NBB brews and distributes a variety of craft beers within the U.S. and overseas. NBB serves beerdrinking adults around the globe. They strive to meet its triple bottom line objectives in a variety of ways. From their local grants program, to their internal sustainability management department, NBB is always pressing forward to become more sustainable as a company and more inuential as an environmental leader. Portions of their prots are always being directed back to the community through non-prots and environmental groups. Community festivals and their employee driven approach to business encourages involvement, equity, and environmental stewardship. Their state of the art sustainably focused facilities close as many resource loops as they can, and continue to improve as the company and its capacity for improvement grows 1(NBB, 2012). The company has huge environmental goals, and is very aware of the environmental impacts of its operations. NBB not only strives to reduce its own environmental impact, but funds other organizations with its prots to promote sustainable goals and raise awareness among other businesses and the community at large. In 2007, NBB joined 1% for the Planet, an alliance of businesses that donate 1% of their total sales to environmental groups around the world. Contributions from this program surpass the $5 million already donated through their commitment to giving $1 per barrel brewed to non-prots fostering environmental stewardship. Internally, the company launched a Sustainability Management System (SMS), which assesses the companys current environmental impact, sets specic targets for improvement, and makes plans to achieve those targets. NBB has focused their efforts around four target areas: carbon footprint reduction, water stewardship, closing loops, and advocacy. Within these target areas, goals such as waste reduction, reducing

transportation impacts, generating renewable energy, and building community in the areas they sell beer are all discussed and methods for their attainment are then enacted. Creating the most sustainable brewery possible is a goal taken to heart by the company founders and its employees. At the brewery the company uses alternative lighting sources, ofce furniture made from recycled materials, renewable heating and cooling systems, and world-renowned, energy-efcient brewing equipment. In 1998, by a unanimous vote by the employees, the company became the rst brewery in the U.S. to switch completely to wind power for all their electrical needs. The employees made the decision at an employee meeting even after the company owner, Jeff Lebesch, explained that the company would have to pay a premium for the wind power and the switch would cut into prots, potentially affecting their wages (numbers undisclosed) 2(Wann, 2010). The level of dedication the company has for sustainable practices, both from its principle owners and employees, is commendable. The brewery treats all of its wastewater on site, which generates reusable byproducts such as methane, which is used to fuel a co-generation plant, and a nutrient rich sludge, which is used for composting. In 2010 they reached a 95% waste stream diversion rate, reaching their 95% diversion rate target 6 years earlier than expected. With the inclusion of spent grain or sludge, the diversion rate is actually 99.9% as of 2009.

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NBB embraces the social aspect of the triple bottom line, and truly wants to take care of its employees. Whether through participation in one of the companys numerous committees or taking on challenging new roles, employees are pushed to create a fullling and dynamic experience for themselves. Once hired, employees sit down with a supervisor to begin establishing their own Personal Work Objectives, which are personal and professional goals intended to encourage employees to follow their passion at work. Internal development programs further strengthen this notion of individual growth with the provision of self-leadership training NBB has consistently grown their sales over the programs, communication training sessions, and on site years, and makes consistent efforts to reinvest the prots computer learning labs available for employee use 24 back into the communities they serve. In 1995, NBB hours a day. These practices engage the individual launched their own Local Grants Program; for every employee and provide them with the tools needed for selfbarrel of beer produced, NBB pledged to give one dollar development. This approach encourages the individual to non-prot organizations that foster environmental to seek out more opportunities, and ultimately contributes stewardship. To date the company has donated over $5 to the experience of the companys community at large. million through this program alone. To date contributions The high involvement culture at NBB is manifested by to environmental causes have already exceeded those this strategy, and can be attributed in part to why the from their own Local Grants Program. These two companys employee retention rate nears a remarkable programs, along with a variety of annual festivals and 97% to this date 1(NBB, 2012). fundraisers hosted by the company, generate a signicant The companys commitment to employee wellamount of money that is invested straight back into the being is also evident through the numerous perks that are communities the company serves 1(NBB, 2012). provided in the employee benets packages. These Being a privately held and employee owned include medical insurance with no co-pay, on site tness company, NBB does not share any of its nancial activities, exible work arrangements, and a paid trip to information with the public. Although the companys Belgium after ve years of employment. By paying nancial information is readily available to and viewable attention to the well-being of the employees, by company employees, nancial information regarding management has found that aside from creating a more wages or company earnings is not disclosed to the public, caring atmosphere, community participation among coand therefore is either hard to nd or potentially workers increases and workplace stress and absenteeism untrustworthy. However, an informative brief on the decreases. Employees health, tness, retirement, company conducted by the non-prot Winning vacations, and mental well-being are all addressed in one Workplaces did present some basic nancial gures way or another by the benets provided by NBB. regarding employee wages. The brief stated that the Mobility within the company is highly average entry level wage for production employees is $12- encouraged by the companys management and $14 an hour, and that 30% of the workforce earn at or opportunities for employees at NBB to be promoted or below $40,000 annually 3(Stoneman, 2011). try out new job positions are made readily available to Social equity for NBB is as much a part of its those that seek them. Employment at NBB can begin at business model as beer is. The company is employeeone of the companys entry level positions, which does owned, with coworkers owning a 44% share in the not require much more than a high school diploma or company. After one year of an employees employment GED, as well as some basic communication and with the company, they are awarded a custom cruiser computer skills. Production and manufacturing positions bicycle at one of the inclusive monthly staff meetings. have additional skill requirements, but employees can Around the same time at a separate ceremony, they learn the necessary skills through training processes and become employee owners in the company, allowing them self-paced competency checklists that bring them up to deepen their involvement within the company. With this speed. Once hired, employees can begin to take employee owner philosophy in place, NBB is largely advantage of the companys multitudinous benets driven by employee goals, and fosters a responsible and elaborated above. Among those is a unique company participatory culture within the company. practice entitled Moving around NBB, which facilitates a way for employees to move into other positions of NBB is a growing company, with annual production growth rates reaching upwards of 15% over the last few years. Since 2008, the company has opened up distribution in 7 new states, for a total of 26, and is in the process of building a second brewery on the east coast to expand their production. Their current sales are generally limited by the capacity of their brewery in Fort Collins, however NBB was still able to sell over 700,000 barrels of beer in 2011. In contrast, a typical microbrewery sells less than 15,000 barrels of beer a year 1(NBB, 2012).

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interest. From 2008 to 2010, approximately 20% of production employees utilized this opportunity. This practice allows employees to nd positions that may be more suitable to their skill sets or personal passions, and keeps employees from feeling stuck in their current job position. Opportunities for upward mobility are also presented clearly for all employees, and those with initiative already taking on more responsibilities are often rewarded with promotions within their respective departments. There are a few typical progression tracks for employee positions, although employees are always encouraged to create their own paths. With the selfdirected philosophy NBB promotes for its workplace, employees are given more power and are more motivated to take an active role in advancing themselves and their careers 1(NBB, 2012). NBB believes in a high involvement, ownership culture within the company. They foster a motivated and self-directed workforce through a strong emphasis on their cultural foundation and shared values. They operate as an ESOP (Employee Stock Ownership Plan), and believe in transparency at all levels. The company promotes employee involvement through their open decision making processes and discussions. All departments within the company practice open books management, with managers disclosing all nancial information of the company to the employees on a regular basis. The company also hosts an intranet for the companys employees, in which they can access a variety of information about the companys nancials and dashboard metrics, as well as access and contribute to a variety of forums allowing the employees to interact and share ideas. The management structure is comprised of a Board of Directors, a

Compass Management Group, Departmental Managers, and the Individual Contributors. NBBs Board of Directors includes the CEO and CFO, as well as 3 members outside the company. The Compass Management Group is essentially the senior management group, whom oversee each area of the brewery such as Sales, Production, Sustainability, and Supply Chain. The Departmental Managers serve the positions delegated by their name, and manage the co-workers and business of each of the 20 different departments within the company. The Individual Contributors comprise the rest of the company, and essentially are any of the employees not considered to be managers 1(NBB, 2012). NBB is nanced through the sale and distribution of their beer throughout the nation, and to select countries worldwide. As of March 2012, NBB has 424 employees 1(NBB, 2012). NBB is the 7th largest brewery in the United States and the 3rd largest craft brewery in the world 1(NBB, 2012).

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References 1. New Belgium Brewing Co. www.newbelgium.com 2. Wann, 2010. www.terrain.org 3. Stoneman, 2011. www.winningworkplaces.org

Bibliography New Belgium Brewing Company. Archived company reports and information. Retrieved from http://www.newbelgium.com/ Stoneman, D., Novak, N., Harbeke, M. (2011). New Belgium Brewing Company: Brewing Product, Passion, and Possibilities. Winning Workplaces. Hitachi Foundation. Retrieved from http:// www.winningworkplaces.org/library/success/ NewBelgium.pdf Wann, David. (2010). Brewing a Sustainable Industry: New Belgium Brewing Aims for Zero Emissions. Terrain.org: A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments. Retrieved from http:// www.terrain.org/articles/9/wann.htm.

Access to information about this case study

http://www.foodengineeringmag.com/articles/ sustainable-plant-of-the-year-new-belgium-brewingco-hits-the-spot http://www.triplepundit.com/2010/12/brewhahasustainability-new-belgium/ http://www.newbelgium.com/Files/NBB_studentinfo-packet.pdf http://www.newbelgium.com/Files/New%20Beligum %20Brewing%202007%20Sustainability %20Report.pdf http://www.newbelgium.com/culture/faq.aspx

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Eastern Market Corporation


By Alicia Pisani The Mission of Eastern Market Corporation is to provide an atmosphere and environment for local and regional fresh produce, quality owers and goods for all people by gathering stakeholders, residents and leadership to stimulate southeast Michigans economic growth by strengthening community and increasing the availability of locally sustainably grown food (regionally, including Ontario, Canada), quality goods and needed services. 3 The Eastern Market Corporation was given the rights to operate Detroits Eastern Market (established in 1891) from the Detroit Recreation Department on August 1, 2006. 2 The City of Detroit remains the owner of the property and vendor sheds. 2 The Eastern Market Corporation is in charge of funding, everyday operations, organizing market days, vendor diversity, outreach (including education), marketing and joining diverse stakeholders in the southeast Michigan/Ohio/Ontario region together for the common good of Detroit and Metro Detroits food network. The Eastern Market Corporation is in charge of the Tuesday and Saturday public markets and the daily wholesale market days for vendors. The market provides locally grown produce, fresh-cut and grown owers, homemade jams and grassfed meats for sale as well. 3 About 50% of the markets customers at Tuesday and Saturday public markets are local residents of the City of Detroit. A good number of the participants and customers in Eastern Markets farmer and artisan market come from the surrounding Detroit Metropolitan area. 5 In addition to public market days, Eastern Market serves about 300 businesses including 175 that are vendors in the market and 125 that are businesses in the surrounding Eastern Market District. 5 Eastern Market Corporation alongside collaborative partners, C.S. Mott Group for Sustainable Food Systems at MSU, Downtown Detroit Partnership, Detroit Food and Fitness Collaborative, Detroit Food Policy Council, Detroit Garden Resource Collaborative, Earthworks Urban Farm, Edible WOW, Gleaners Food Bank, Greening of Detroit, Local Harvest, Michigan Department of Health, Michigan Farmers Market Association, Michigan Food and Farming Systems, Michigan Organic Food and Farm Alliance, Michigan State University Extension, Midtown Detroit, Inc., National Association of Produce Market Managers, Preservation Wayne, W.K. Kellogg Foundation have supported local, sustainably produced products with low environmental impacts at the markets. 3 The market has spurred economic growth in the area surrounding the market by providing surrounding businesses with a customer base of at least 30,000 people on any given Saturday market day. Payment systems at the market include the ability to pay by government benets and free local double your buck food for low income individuals. Credit cards are also accepted by many vendors. Future plans are in place to increase the amount of food given to surrounding food banks, the Detroit Public School system and delivery systems for seniors and incapacitated individuals to ensure they have access to healthy fresh foods. Detroit is home to no large grocery stores and the Eastern Market has been a product of necessity throughout its 100+ years of operation. It has survived urban redevelopment, the bulldozing of Detroits Black Bottom neighborhood and many attempts at its dismantlement over the years. Many immigrant groups in neighboring areas receive their low cost produce in their neighborhoods through the wholesale distributions through the week. These groups are prominently of Mexican or Arabic descent found across southwest Detroit and Dearborn (5 and 10 miles away).

Economic benets of the Eastern Market Corporation involvement has increased investment of more than $10 million in capital improvements and the completion of a master plan and completion of extensive renovations to Sheds 2 & 3. Completing Shed 5 renovations including opening of a shared-use Community Kitchen that will increase our ability to incubate new food processors and provide educational opportunities about healthy eating The market has increased job opportunities and attracted investment to grow the local food economy by incubating specialty food processors and helping food-related companies near the market expand. 1

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The Eastern Market Corporation increased awareness of the accessibility issues Detroiters face to fresh, quality foods as the Eastern Market Corporation serves a neighborhood of 20,000 residents that live in households with among the highest poverty rates in all of Wayne County. The Corporation has been a partner and aggregator of a food network that includes local food banks, retraining programs, emergency services and local business owners. Scheduled food safety programs and healthy cooking demonstrations as a regular market feature in the market increase healthier food opportunities through education. Payment systems have developed to provide better access healthy food by including the Bridge Card (EBT), government aid use at the market as well as credit cards for vendors. The Eastern Market Corporation has improved access to healthy food throughout Detroit by developing a neighborhood farmers market network and operating farm stands in distant neighborhoods, both of which help connect area farmers from the wholesale market to those in the region who live in neighborhoods without healthy food. The corporation is strengthening transportation options to and from the market with shuttles from the main downtown transportation hub and Hart Plaza to the market four miles away. Future plans include working with Detroit Public Schools and other area schools to increase the content of fresh food in school meals to ensure healthy options exist for students. The Corporation is dedicated on increasing the number of neighborhood markets and farm stand sites to improve access to fresh food in Detroit. Eastern Market Corporation also strengthened the seasonal Tuesday Market, as a way to increase the accessibility to a variety of food products at the market for

paid by market vendors (see rates below). Income increases during the spring and summer months but falls Environmental benets from off in the winter months, as the the Eastern Market Corporation are growing season in the region is roughly April-October. A line of the inclusion of sustainably grown owers, produce, meats working with credit from Bank of America is used to sustain operations throughout the Michigan State Universitys seasonal ups and downs. 2 Grants agriculture extension. Working with RecycleHERE! and Detroit Dirt, the from the Kellog and Kresge foundations have made more than 10 Eastern Market Corporation has million dollars available for structural made composting and recycling a capital improvements to the Eastern major pillar in helping vendors with sustainable practices. The inclusion of Market facilities. Bank of America has given a $500,000 grant as well, local and regional organic growers has increased awareness of healthier the 10 million dollars is a food options from an environmental conglomeration of grants applied for perspective in an urban core city. The through the chief grant writer and outreach specialist on staff at the Eastern Market is one of the only places in Detroits 200 square miles to Eastern Market Corporations ofces. Rates are typically for a 7.5x20 purchase organic produce. When stall in both the indoor and outdoor food, produce, owers are not top sheds and are subject to change. quality and would normally go to waste, they end up going to secondary vendors or food banks to be distributed at low or no cost instead of landll as well. 3,4 people who cannot come to the Saturday market. 1,3,5 The Eastern Market Corporation is a non-prot umbrella organization created to equally include representatives of the City of Detroit, Eastern Market stakeholders and persons with a special interest in the market, including corporate and foundation funders. 2 As a registered 501.c, The Eastern Market Corporation is an example of a private non-prot agency working alongside the public sector in order to operate and maintain a public good. The advisory board of directors and operators include people from many different organizations varying from universities, nonprot agencies dedicated to serving underprivileged populations in Detroit, food banks, surrounding business owners and legal rms from across the entire Metropolitan Detroit Area. Working capital for Eastern Markets operating budget relies largely upon rental income that is

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Resources 1 .Bank of America. http://about.bankofamerica.com 2 .City of Detroit. http://www.detroitmi.gov 3 .Detroit Eastern Market. http:// www.detroiteasternmarket.com 4 .Fair Food Network. http://www.fairfoodnetwork.org 5. Michigan CU Capital. http://www.michigancucapital.com _____________________ Bank of America. http://about.bankofamerica.com http://about.bankofamerica.com/en-us/partnering-locally/ eastern-market.html#fbid=msbQh9qz_ey City of Detroit. http://www.detroitmi.gov . http:// www.detroitmi.gov/Departments/ CommunicationsandCreativeServices/NewsReleases/tabid/ 576/ctl/Details/mid/1362/Default.aspx?NewsArticleId=221 Detroit Eastern Market. http://www.detroiteasternmarket.com Double Up Food Bucks. http://doubleupfoodbucks.org/ Fair Food Network. http://www.fairfoodnetwork.org. http:// www.fairfoodnetwork.org/list/eastern-marketcorporationhttp://www.fairfoodnetwork.org/list/easternmarket-corporation Kresge Foundation. http://www.kresge.org/funding/granthighlights/grants/grant/eastern-market-corp-0 Michigan CU Capital. http://www.michigancucapital.com http://www.michigancucapital.com/? module=Page&sID=success-stories-eastern-market-corporation Recycle HERE! http://www.recyclehere.net/ http://www.detroiteasternmarket.com/ Ofce Hours: Mon-Sat 8a.m. - 4p.m. Public Market Hours: Sat 5a.m. - 5p.m. 2934 Russell Street Detroit, MI 48207 PH: 313.833.9300 FAX: 313.833.9309 admin@detroiteasternmarket.com New Vendor Handbook http://www.detroiteasternmarket.com/media/les/ 55_2012_2013_em_vendor_handbook_new_vendors.pdf

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Case Studies Funding


Kiva Microfunds
By Margaux Carpenter Kiva Microfunds is a non-prot organization that provides an online Microlending platform for users. Kiva.org allows lenders to fund loans to entrepreneurs in developing countries in increments of $25 or more. Its mission is to connect people through lending to alleviate poverty. The model used by Kiva follows that of Nobel Peace price winner Muhammad Yunus- it provides what Yunus calls a sustainable solution to poverty initiatives, Michelle Kreger, highlights the companys primary goal: To have the most impact that we can have in terms of improving the lives of the borrowers we serve. We of course seek to do this in a cost-effective manner, thus economic goals are factored into our work, but these goals remain clearly in service of impact.We think of impact as breadth x depth, breadth being the # of borrowers and partners that we serve, and depth being how well we serve them, in terms of their own satisfaction and also how much our loans have made a difference in their lives. 5 Kiva Microfunds provides a platform for the developed world to help those in need in developing countries by way of loans. Kiva does not offer return on these loans. Because microcredit is something inaccessible in traditional and commercial banks due to high risk, Kiva.org is the link that connects the haves with the havenots while eliminating the element of charitable handouts. This way an opportunity is created for poverty stricken individuals to gain capital for some entrepreneurial venture, gain returns on this business, repay the loan, and be able to live based on selfsustainable behaviors as opposed to constant reliance on charity. An amazing opportunity is given to lenders in the developed world to help their fellow man in a way that promotes dignity and connectivity. 66 different countries. A majority of the entrepreneurs who receive nancial capital as a way to increase their standard of living are low income individuals in developing countries with high rates of poverty. 1 It is clear from the transparency of the Kiva website as well as statements made from Kiva employees that social impacts are the companys number one focus. Although Kiva recognizes environmental goals as least focused on among the triple bottom line objectives, it is not completely neglected. Kiva has piloted green lending and beginning to focus efforts on expanding green loan offerings going forward. Kiva is working on nding new Field Partners who offer green loans as well as providing incentives for current Field Partners to post more green loans as a way to accomplish expansion in this area. These efforts to increase green loans on the Kiva site have led to ecological progress such as reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and promoting clean energy through solar loans. One way Kiva hopes to better measure the impact of their loans in the future is by rating business on the site by how friendly they are to the environment, to the well being of their workers and to the health and safety of their communities.

Because the nature of the Kiva model relies on growing partnerships with Field Partners in different parts of the world, information and measurement practices regarding impact and progress vary greatly among these institutions. These variations limit Kivas ability to establish any formal and consistent evaluations of Field Partners in regards to animal rights and environmental sustainability. Although Kiva recognizes that ecological goals are not the primary focus of the company, they also denounce the idea that they simply dont care about this. Kivas Senior Director of Strategic Initiatives speaks Kiva serves both the lenders and the to this point by highlighting the emphasis of Kivas entrepreneurs as its main achievement is providing a mission to truly have an impact on poverty by increasing platform to connect these two. The eld partners, or micronance institutions, are the entities with which Kiva the number and quality of opportunities available to the poor. 2 partners to administer the loans to the entrepreneurs in

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vulnerable groups focus badge recognizes those partners who do extra work to include specic populations within a country who have been excluded from nancial and social services for various reasons. The client voice badge recognizes those partners who do more than expected of them when it comes to listening to the needs of the people. Partners are given the family and community empowerment badge when they offer support services to address the needs and well-being of the clients and their families. The eld partners who offer training and support to help people start, manage and grow their businesses are recognized with the entrepreneurial support badge. The facilitation of savings badges recognize those organizations which focus on offering client-focused savings products which aim to facilitate greater nancial stability for previously excluded people. Partners awarded with Innovation badges embrace The people at Kiva make it technology and innovation to better clear that they envision a world where address the needs of the people they all people- even in the most remote serve. 4 areas of the globe- hold the power to The loan themes that create an opportunity for themselves and others. providing safe, affordable Michelle referred to as measurements of social performance also provide access to capital to those in need to incentives for Field Partners to act help them create better lives for more socially responsible. For themselves and their families is the example, a partner will get an mission of the Kiva site. 1 additional line of credit for, say, loans When asked how Kiva so that farmers can concert from measures their social performance, conventional to organic production. Senior Director Michelle Kreger Tracking the percent of loans that are answered by referring to Social associated with a theme can also help performance badges, loan themes, Kiva measure the impact of percent of loans that are associated incentivizing social performance via with a theme and journal rate. Social themed loans. 5 performance badges consist of seven The Kiva model is not only different categories, or focuses, which are awarded to Kivas Field Partners creating awareness and opportunities to recognize them for their respective for connection, but also creating opportunities to change behavior. social performance strengths. The Anti-poverty focus badge is awarded Kiva has done this by leveraging all the magical elements of the internet. to those partners who do a bit more than others in this area by specically 3 including poverty alleviation as part Kiva Microfunds is a of their guiding principles. The nonprot organization based out of The Kiva model uses the internet as a vehicle of nancial service accessibility by providing a user friendly platform which inherently familiarizes users with the concept of Micronance. In this way, as more and more people become involved in and aware of Micronance, the practice has potential to become mainstream in the global economy. The transfer of funds from the developed world to fund Microloans in the third world is a newly tapped source of global economic stimulation. To make Micronance a mainstream and commercial practice could have the potential to drastically change the course of the global economy in a direction which promotes the romantic but possible goal of social and income equity. As working models for Micronance continue to grow and improve, opportunities for income gaps to narrow will become more frequent.

San Francisco that partners with micronance institutions in 66 different countries right now. Field partners are responsible for administering the loans posted to the Kiva website. Essentially these institutions, along with Kivas fellows in the eld, help to screen borrowers, post loans requests to Kiva, disburse loans and collect the repayments. Kiva operates with the help of Kiva Fellows, Micronance Institution partnerships, their board, team of employees, contractors and a network of over 450 volunteers. 3 On the Kiva website, lenders can choose an entrepreneurs loan to fund in increments of $25 or more. Over time, the entrepreneur pays back the loan with no interest added to the lenders return. The lender can use these funds in his or her Kiva account to fund another loan on Kiva or take the funds out. Kiva is primarily funded by optional donations given by lenders. Funds are also raised through grants, corporate sponsors and foundations. The organization does not take a cut of the funds loaned on Kiva.org, nor does it charge interest to the eld partners with which they work. This issue of revenue generation and company nancing is a unique challenge in the Kiva model as it is a non-prot organization. During my interview with Michelle Kreger, she revealed this as an objective the people at Kiva are making a point of improvement and focus this year. She says the people at Kiva- the product managers, fundraising team, marketing and communications as well as the executives- are spending more time looking at the options available to cover operational costs, aside from the tip asked of lenders to contribute during the loan checkout-ow and the institutional grants as well as individual contributions that cover the majority of Kivas

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expenses right now. Because many companies are fans of Kiva, one option being explored among is the idea of corporate lending accounts. The idea consists of a loan fund that the company creates of X amount of dollars to match any loans that come up in a country or sector that they care about. Kiva employees are starting to think about how they can either 1) convert their loan funds to a donation once the loans are paid back, 2) charge a fee for administering this loan fund on Kiva, 3) tacking on revenue to the service of working with them on their loan fund. (interview) The purpose of focusing on guring out different options to raise this money is so KIVA can continue to grow their impact and improve social performance. 3
Bibliography References 1. http://www.kiva.org/about/how 2. http://www.kiva.org/help (FAQs) Mankiewicz, Sam. "Kiva." Kiva Microloans. 2005. 15 Oct. 2012 <http://www.kiva.org/>. Michelle Kreger, "Strategic Initiatives." E-mail interview. 28 Nov. 2012.

3. http://www.kiva.org/about (Why we do what we do) 4. http://www.kiva.org/about/socialperformance 5. Strategic Initiatives Senior Director, Michelle Kreger
Interview Access to information about this case study resources, links, etc: http://www.kiva.org/ http://www.kiva.org/updates/kiva https://twitter.com/Kiva http://www.facebook.com/kiva http://www.stanforddaily.com/2012/10/14/kiva-founderstalk-beginnings-nding-meaning-after-stanford/ http://kivanews.blogspot.com/2009/11/todays-new-yorktimes-article.html http://www.foxandhoundsdaily.com/2012/11/kiva-and-themicro-lending-boom-in-california/

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Resourceful Communities Program


By Michelle Gallemore

Resourceful Communities Program works in North Carolinas most distressed communities, including Southern Appalachian Mountains, Sandhills, and Coastal Plains. They also have an ofce in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. North Carolina is infamous for its natural resource-rich and low income communities. Resourceful Communities is a grassroots network that implements the triple bottom line in low-wealth communities by building capacity and a statewide movement that advocates for sustainable economic development, social justice, and environmental stewardship.1 Resourceful Communities is a network of community-based organizations and support. For the past 15 years, Resourceful Communities has provided services to communities and built prosperous working partnerships with more than 165 grassroots organizations to integrate the triple bottom line approach.2 Their goal is to deliver the tools and care for rural communities to be successful through innovative programs that create opportunities to preserve rural land and water while at the same time lift people out of poverty. They have a variety of programs and projects. The rst program helps grassroots partners to build their capacity. The program is called, Direct Technical Assistance and is a consulting platform for leaders and organizers to receive information, build leadership, and apply for funding to plan and implement their sustainable vision. The community organizers work closely with the Technical Assistance staff to receive guidance to develop and design their projects, support their development, fund their projects and work with the community to reach goals. The Technical Assistance includes a workshop on grant writing. This service allows organizers to gain access to grants with little or no grantwriting experience. In 2001, Resourceful Communities started a grant program, Creating New Economies Fund, which offers small grants of $5,000 - $15,000 for projects in North Carolina.3 All approved grants must integrate the triple bottom line approach.4 Those who go through the Technical Assistance program benet greatly and are likely to receive funding from the Creating New Economies Fund. Cynthia Brown, a Program Specialist at Resourceful Communities, estimates that 65-75% of people whom go through the Technical Assistance program get funding through the Creating New Economies Fund.5 Brown claried that community organizers do not have to go through the Technical

A i i f di b h d Assistance program to receive funding, but they do h have to participate in the process and become partners with Resourceful Communities.6 This helps to ensure that organizers are taking a triple bottom line approach. When community organizers get funding they also receive Technical Assistance.7 The second program of Resourceful Communities is to provide leadership and organizational development training workshops to empower and educate community partners. These workshops train leaders how to advocate for triple bottom line funding and policies. Over 250 grassroots organizations come together to tackle related challenges, such as geographic isolation, limited resources, demanding schedules and overwhelming demands for programs.8 These workshops are valuable because they help bring the community together to work for common interests. Once a year, Resourceful Communities holds a statewide gathering, called Grassroots Convening. This workshop provides networking with peers, resource providers and funders, education and leadership development.9 They also sponsor a semi-annual workshop called Regional Leadership Workshops. Whose focus is on building skills to sustain organizations like fundraising, board recruitment and leadership transition.10 The Resourceful Community Program works very closely on several specic projects including the Hoke Community Forest. This 532-acre forest, just one mile south of Fort Bragg, is managed by a partnership between county, state, federal government, community groups, and youth leaders11 The Hoke Community Forest is a community-owned and managed forest. The Hoke Community Forest engages residents in forest planning, management and stewardship while improving forest habitat, sustainable revenues and social benets for the community.12 Resourceful Communities has a unique role with Hoke Community Forest as Resourceful Communities brought the land for the community forest. The Hoke Community Forest includes paths, outdoor classrooms, and native species restoration.

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Another program is called, Conservation-Based Affordable Housing. The Resourceful Community Program and other development groups are developing affordable housing, through a grant by the Clean Water Management Trust Fund in seven locations in North Carolina.13 These efforts not only provide affordable housing but also consider conservation measures. Conservation benets include high water quality, wildlife habitat protection, and preserving working farms and forest.14 Likewise, affordable housing provides homes for a diverse workforce and secures economic benets in the community.15 Each of the seven sites are located in areas which low income people are struggling. The sites for the projects are in underdeveloped areas so site planners have to consider the natural environment, such as ood plains and wetlands for designing neighborhoods. One of the strategies to developing Conservation-Based Affordable Housing is to design all the homes to be clustered together allowing for large open space16 and reducing the cost of development and creating a stronger sense of community. The Resourceful Communities Program acts as stewards serving over 250 grassroots organizations located in North Carolina. Many of these organizers, leaders, and members live in underserved communities. These areas include the Southern Appalachlian Mountains, Sandhills, and Coastal Plains. North Carolina has disproportional high rates of poverty. For example, in Hoke County, the poverty rate is 20%, substandard housing rate is 32%, and there per capita income is $16,831.17 Resourceful Communities takes a unique approach to community development. Looking at all three aspects of the triple bottom line approach allows community organizers to visualize long term solutions. Because Resourceful Communities help serve multiple organizations and communities they have adapted to being exible and innovative when creating new economies that protect, enhance and restore natural, cultural, historic and community resources.18 With every organization they partner with, they demonstrate and encourage triple bottom line thinking for projects and solutions. The Resourceful Communities Program promotes environmental stewardship by protecting the land and water resources, supporting locally-owned working lands, improving water quality, and propagating native plants. One example of this is through the Hoke Community Forest which helps preserve, protect, and improve forest habitat. One of the projects is to remove invasive species like the Loblolly pine. Loblolly pine is sustainable harvested to generate revenues for the local economy and allows restoration of the native longleaf pines; in return the longleaf pines will then create habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker.19 By this very

simple effort, they are able to generate income, restore native species, and create new habitat for an endangered species. This forest is the rst of its kind and will benet the community. The Resourceful Communities Program provides economic support to the community through their Creating New Economies Fund which creates jobs, supports small businesses, engages environmentally responsible industries, and reduces or alleviates poverty. For example, the Creating New Economies Fund provides small grants to grassroots projects that integrate triple bottom line principles. The program is based off of a workshop atmosphere that helps community leaders and organizers to write grants, help design and plan projects, develop a nancial plan, and assess the impacts.20 Since the program started it has awarded over $2 million to 221 grants which have benetted more than 50,000 residents of North Carolina.21 Through these grants, the power is put in the hands of grassroots leaders, organizers and members. The Resourceful Communities Program truly values social justice and equity. They will engage people of color or low-wealth, improve education systems, dismantle racism, and share the power. This is demonstrated in there Creating New Economies Fund. Where all of the grants have a social equity dimension to the project. This greatly benets the underserved communities which badly need funding to improve conditions within the community. Entrepreneurial projects help preserve culture, historic sites, human behaviors in a region, and create local jobs and small business which promoting sustainable economic development. Resourceful Communities is a nonprot organization. They have a small staff of seven employees including program assistant, program specialist, consultant, associate director, and program director.23 They have several volunteers that help on all of their programs and projects including a web developer and a youth eagle scoots troop that works at the community forest. Resourceful Communities Program is a program of the Conservation Fund. The Conversation Fund allows Resourceful Communities to raise money and operate as a non-prot.

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References

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Mission and Values (RCPs website) What We Do (RCPs website) Capacity Building (RCPs website) Brown, Interview Brown, Interview Brown, Interview Brown, Interview Movement Building (RCPs website) Movement Building (RCPs website) Movement Building (RCPs website) Hoke Community Forest (RCPs website) Hoke Community Forest (RCPs website) Conservation-Based Affordable Housing (RCPs website) Conservation-Based Affordable Housing (RCPs website) Conservation-Based Affordable Housing (RCPs website) Conservation-Based Affordable Housing (RCPs website) Hoke Community Forest (RCPs website) The Triple Bottom Line Approach (RCPs website Hoke Community Forest (RCPs website) Creating New Economies Fund (RCPs website) Capacity Building (RCPs website) CNEF Grant Program (PDF) Pg. 9, 11, 13, 15, & 17 Staff (RCPs website) An Idea, a Grant and a Challenge (The Conservation Funds website) Vaughan (The Conservation Funds website) Fitzsimon (NC Policy Watchs website) Brown, Interview Chitewere, Pg. 323 Chitewere, Pg. 324

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Bibliography "An Idea, a Grantand a Challenge: How Our Resourceful Communities Program Began."The Conservation Fund. The Conservation Fund, 2012. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.conservationfund.org/who_we_are/ staff/resourceful-communities-program>. Brown, Cynthia. Personal Interview. 28 Nov. 2012 "Capacity Building." Resourceful Communities Program. The Conservation Fund, 2012. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.resourcefulcommunities.org/ Capacity_Building>. Chitewere, Tendai. "Equity in Sustainable Communities: Exploring Tools from Environmental Justice and Political Ecology." Natural Resources Journal 50.2 (2010): 315-39. Print. "Conservation-Based Affordable Housing." Resourceful Communities Program. The Conservation, 2012. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.resourcefulcommunities.org/CBAH>. "CNEF Grant Program." Resourceful Communities Program. The Conservation Fund, 2011. Web. 5 Nov. 2012. <http://www.resourcefulcommunities.org/sites/ resourcefulcommunities.org/les/ CNEF_RCP_nal_July%2022_web.pdf>. "Creating New Economies Fund (CNEF) Grant Program." Resourceful Communities Program. The Conservation Fund, 2012. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.resourcefulcommunities.org/CNEF>. Fitzsimon, Chris. "Meeting the Need for Affordable Housing and Land Conservation." NC Policy Water. NC Policy Watch, 7 Aug. 2007. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.ncpolicywatch.com/2007/08/07/meeting-theneed-for-affordable-housing-and-land-conservation/>. "Hoke Community Forest." Resourceful Communities Program. The Conservation Fund, 2012. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.resourcefulcommunities.org/ Hoke_Community_Forest>. "Mission and Values." Resourceful Communities Program. The Conservation Fund, 2012. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.resourcefulcommunities.org/? q=mission_and_values>. "Movement Building." Resourceful Communities Program. The Conservation Fund, 2012. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.resourcefulcommunities.org/ movement_building>. "Staff." Resourceful Communities Program. The Conservation Fund, 2012. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.resourcefulcommunities.org/?q=who_we_are/ staff>. "The James Family, Dogwood Acres and NC Willing Workers: Sustainable Agriculture and a Sense of Community." Resourceful Communities Program. The Conservation Fund, 2012. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.resourcefulcommunities.org/node/ 291>. "The Triple Bottom Line Approach." Resourceful Communities Program. The Conservation Fund, 2012. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.resourcefulcommunities.org/? q=triple_bottom_line>. Vaughan, Vanessa. "The Fund's North Carolina-based Resourceful Communities Program Awarded a $500,000 Grant by the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation." The Conservation Fund. The Conservation

Fund, 10 Jan. 2010. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.conservationfund.org/news/ resourceful_communities_program_z_smith_reynolds _foundation_grant>. "What We Do." Resourceful Communities Program. The Conservation Fund, 2012. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.resourcefulcommunities.org/? q=what_we_do>. Related Information

http://www.resourcefulcommunities.org/ http://www.resourcefulcommunities.org/ http://www.resourcefulcommunities.org/sites/


resourcefulcommunities.org/les/ CNEF_RCP_nal_July%2022_web.pdf http://www.ickr.com/photos/resourcefulcommunities/ http://www.conservationfund.org/ http://www.conservationfund.org/news/ resourceful_communities_program_z_smith_reynolds _foundation_grant http://www.cwmtf.net/ http://www.ncpolicywatch.com/2007/08/07/meetingthe-need-for-affordable-housing-and-landconservation/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Conservation_Fund http://gillingsproject.wordpress.com/tag/resourcefulcommunities-program/ Buying a Forest. (2007). Ford Reports, 37 (1), 7. Little, J (2009). Ensuring a Timberland Legacy. American Forests, 114 (4), 32-37. Weil, M. O. (1996). Community building: building community practice. Social Work, 41, 481-499 http://www.facebook.com/theconservationfund?ref=ts http://online.sfsu.edu/tendai/papers.html http://recyclery.org/ http://www.jcgep.org/index.php http://www.seedsnc.org/ http://www.toxicfreenc.org/ http://shwpark.com/ triple_bottom_line

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economical objectives, in addition to the social equity component of the banks operations, One PacicCoast Bank (OPCB) is an example of an By Chris Morris institution meeting triple bottom line measures. Being knowledgeable about underserved communities enables OPCB to better manage accounts that other banks may not be willing to, or capable of, consequently enhancing and promoting equitable economic opportunities. The added expertise of understanding groundlevel community challenges within business planning potentially lowers investment risk with clientele, giving One PacicCoast Bank a comparative advantage over other One PacicCoast Bank is located banks unfamiliar with such issues. Founding Director, Tom Steyer talks at 1438 Webster Street #100, about one of the directions of the Oakland, CA 94612. Opening in bank in a YouTube video honoring 2007, One PacicCoast Bank the bank as 2010 Recipient of the (formerly OneCalifornia Bank) is a USF California Prize for Service and certied Community Development the Common Good. In reference to Financial Institution (CDFI) and starting the bank he states, I think it registered B-corporation (Benet). really came out of concern on our One PacicCoast Foundation, established in support of the bank, is part that there wasnt going to be a a non-prot organization receiving all source of support for poor parts of our state. (3) By assisting dividends netted by the bank which development to include triple bottom are then used to support the bank line measurements and then investing and fund foundation programs. in that business, OPCB claims to be Their website states The condent that such sustainability Mission of One PacicCoast Bank, principals lead to practices that are FSB, is to build prosperity in our not only good for the environment, communities through benecial and society, but can also be banking services delivered in an economically protable. economically and environmentally OPCB central focal point of sustainable manner. (1) Services business is dependant on lending. provided by One PacicCoast Bank These lending programs provide center around providing access to access to working capital and funding nancial services for all communities, for new equipment, energy upgrades particularly the traditionally and green construction. The bank underserved. OPCB continues by stating that a healthy environment works with business owners to help is necessary for economic prosperity. them be more protable, minimize environmental impact, and increase We also believe that we can be a community development leadership. catalyst for positive change in our (4) Lending programs include lines of communities by providing fair, transparent, and sustainable banking credit, term loans and commercial mortgages. Both non-prot and products and services. (2) Through private rms have specic benets practicing environmental and

One PacificCoast Bank

and constraints with the associated lending programs they qualify for. Patrons of the bank may be briefed on federally guaranteed loans, lines of credit or other means of support appropriate to help small businesses expand, purchase equipment or increase working capital. Regular individuals also have the opportunity to bank with OPCB, having a range of personal banking options offered. Individuals, private business and nonprot organizations are welcome to apply for checking, savings, IRAs, CDs, CDARS, and Credit lines. OPCB states that their general commercial lending policy goal is not to lend to the "perfect" business, but to help each business to move toward a healthier future. (5) Criteria for development funding is described in their Mission Reporting Strategy on their website as making available a stable of preferred providers that not only complement bank services but increase our borrowers' capacity to measure their mission impact, including those who might offer discounted or rst-timefree metrics agreements. The strategy continues by adding that If we can aggregate those impacts by borrower across our entire loan portfolio, we hope to achieve a better understanding of the impact of our loan dollars on the triple bottom line. (6) In regards to what is quantied as moderate or low income, OPCB, Vice President of Customer Intelligence, Cara Wick reports in a telephone interview that these denitions are synonymous with the US Census Bureau for the region. (7) General lending markets comprise of individual, commercial and non-prot sectors. Target markets for lending have included but have not been limited to; agriculture, education, manufacturing, real estate, service, and sustainable energy industries. (8)

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Some of the typical businesses engaged in lending practices with OPCB have consisted of; Watershed Garden Works, The Oregon Natural Step, The Joinery, Johnson Creek Commons, Environmental Engineering, and The Climate Trust. (9) A list of non-prot and private business associates can be found on their website. One PacicCoast Bank meets its triple bottom line objectives by two primary means, lending to increasingly sustainable business development, and internal operations of the bank itself. The principal mechanism of meeting sustainable objectives as a bank is through the mechanism of lending. According to the OPCB website, we take a broad approach. We ask if our communities and businesses can continue what they are doing for the next 100 years and still be viable. A business does not operate in isolation (10) The bank is the 2010 recipient of the USF California Prize for Service and the Common Good. (11) One PacicCoast Bank has met environmentally conscience benchmarks such as LEED building standards. Also the ofce in Oakland is certied as an environmental leader through the Bay Area Green Business Program. (12) The Bay Area Green Business Program is a program supported by the Association of Bay Area Governments which, veries that participating businesses conserve energy and water, minimize waste, prevent pollution, and shrink their carbon footprints. (13) In addressing the economic portion of triple bottom line operations, according to the American University School of Communication OPCB has a troubled assets ratio of 34.8 as of the end of June 2012 with the national median at 13.7. This demonstrates the strong economic vitality within One PacicCoast Bank. (14) Social equity issues are addressed through policies based on market research that illuminates lending opportunities based on the expected social and environmental return by sectors. (15) The environmental measure of operating a business with the triple bottom line criteria is addressed by several programs and policies through the bank and foundation. OPCBs approach to environmental sustainability includes initiatives that address recycling and waste prevention, sustainable purchasing, and the built environment. (16) The Portland ofce is certied as meeting gold LEED standards for commercial interiors while the Seattle ofce is certied LEED silver. The Oakland based ofce is recognized as participating and meeting standards for the Bay Area Green Business Program (BAGBP). BAGBP is a program coordinated by the Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) which veries businesses have meet environmental operating standards and goals of conserving energy and water, minimizing waste, preventing pollution, and shrinking carbon footprints. (17)

The bank also considers its environmental impact though lending to other businesses, encouraging the use of impact analysis by borrowers and depositors to better understand the impact of the lending services provided by the bank. OPCB acknowledges that nancial services provided can potentially enable business activities that ultimately affect the environment and these impacts should be identied for the purpose of minimizing environmental impacts by having a more detailed summary of the proposed investment opportunity. (18) The economic aspect of the triple bottom line measures has performed very well. In addition to the potential environmental benets of using impact analysis in lending ventures, the implementation of impact analysis functions by highlighting scal impact which results in lower nancial risk for both debtor and creditor. Operating as a certied B corporation puts One PacicCoast bank in a category most banks unable to claim. Benet corporations facilitate a rm in creating a material positive impact on society and the environment by expanding the duciary duty to require consideration of non-nancial interests when making decisions. (19) Benet corporations are also required to report on its overall social and environmental performance using recognized third party standards. Furthering their economic agenda, according to the Global Alliance for Banking on Values (GABV) report, values-based banks delivered higher nancial returns than some of the worlds largest nancial institutions, with a return on assets averaging (between the years of 2007-2010) above 0.44 percent, compared to just 0.33 percent for the Globally Systemically Important Financial Institutions (GSIFI). Returns on equity averaged 7.26 percent, compared to 6.06 percent for the GSIFI. Sustainable banks appear to be stronger nancially than GSIFI, with higher levels of capital earning potential. (20). Below is a table detailing the 2012 earnings for One PacicCoast Bank.

Source: FDIC, FRB, NCUA, OCC, OTS, SEC, U.S. Department of the Treasury (http://www.ibanknet.com)

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From the social equity perspective of triple bottom line sustainability, OPCB has offered different incentives aimed at offsetting potential hardships that various marginalized populations may face. Lending is aimed at providing community oriented businesses the nance and support that otherwise may not readily be available or nancially viable for individuals or developers in the long run. Individuals of poverty stricken communities often nd themselves trapped in circular lending schemes that exploit the difculties of their nancial situation. Co-Founder Tom Steyer states in a 2011 Social Capital Markets Conference (SOCAP) conversation/interview that we are working really hard to come up with an alternative to payday lending, where basically were lending up to a thousand bucks a person, doing it through employers, and charging a fraction so that we may make a little bit of money as a bank, but charge a fraction of what payday lenders are doing.(21) The program referred to by Tom Steyer is known as the OnePac Pal Loan and the loan provides an easy alternative to employer paycheck advances and a manageable alternative to expensive nancial products like payday loans, pawn shops, auto title loans. (22) However, micro credit experts like David Roodman of the Washington Post point out that while there are actual cases of individual prosperity increasing due to microloans, these are the few exceptions that have been selectively screened and vastly over-hyped. (23) He goes on to cite two studies of micro-credit (one done by MIT economists) that were found to have no signicant effect on raising families out of poverty. (24) OPCBs economic interest stock is owned entirely by the non-prot foundation so that all prots of the bank can be reinvested in their mission. The nonprot One PacicCoast Foundation was founded specically for the purpose of creating and supporting programs and initiatives to help eliminate discrimination, encourage affordable housing, alleviate economic distress, stimulate community development and increase nancial literacy. (25) The One PacicCoast Foundation holds the economic rights of the bank, which means when dividends are declared the funds support the Foundations programs. (26) The non-prot website describes programs such as OneCAL SAFE, Oakland Education Childrens Fund, and OnePac Pal Loans. One Cal SAFE provides nancial tutoring in small classes and one-onone coaching coupled with free individual bank accounts for one year after establishing an account with the branch. Oakland Education Childrens Fund is an option for community minded people and organizations to invest in CDs that are designated to match funds saved by lowincome individuals participating in savings programs supported by One PacicCoast Foundation. (27) Funds

received from CDs are dedicated to the Acorns to Oaks program supported by the foundation. The Acorns to Oaks program will assist 30 families with children ages 3 to 5, by creating an account with an initial $25, matching deposits of up to $450, 1:1 during the rst twelve months. (28) One PacicCoast Bank, in tandem operation with the national REO Property Acquisition Program through Asian Inc. SF, are promoting economic equity and reducing disparities by of purchasing properties and reselling them to the low to moderate income rst-time home buyers. Low and moderate income levels are set by federal standards for the region. (29) The mission of OPCB and the initiatives of One PacicCoast Foundation have placed them in alignment with goals of Asian Inc. SF supporting the headway made in there REO program. In 2012, Asian Inc. SF awarded OPCB the Recipient of their prestigious Community Reinvestment Visionary Award. OPCB corporate internal employment structure is structured with the president as Chief Development Ofcer (CDO), Co-Chair as Chief Executive Ofcer (CEO), a Chief Lending Ofcer (CLO), Chief Credit Ofcer (CCO) Two Senior Vice President positions with one as the Compliance Ofcer and the other as the Chief of People.(30) OPCB, FSB, is an FDIC-insured Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). Non-prot One PacicCoast Foundation holds the economic rights to all dividends procured through the bank. The foundation is used to support the bank in developing and supporting initiatives and programs that alleviate economic distress, strengthen community development, and improve nancial literacy. (32) OPCB is a Benet corporation which means that it is legally permissible to put mission goals ahead of shareholder interest. The bank acquired ShoreBank Pacic in December of 2010, moving the economic agenda of the bank forward. According to Tom Steyer in his conversation at the 2011 SOCAP convention, he states that Mark Neeks suggests that if youre going to do in California what has been done in North Carolina through the SelfHelp Credit Union, your going to need a billion dollars worth in equity.(33) In order to meet this billion dollar goal, OPCB has determined that it will expand its region across the whole west coast of the continental United States. Acquisition of banks across this region is therefore a necessary part of the plan in meeting a billion dollars in equity.

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References

1. About Us/Mission." One PacicCoast


Bank, This is a short statement about the mission of One PacicCoast Bank. <http://www.onepaciccoastbank.com/ mission.aspx>. "About Us/History." One PacicCoast Bank, This is a brief outline on the history of One PacicCoast Bank. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/ history.aspx>. 2010 Recipient of the USF California Prize: OneCalifornia Bank and Foundation. YouTube. This is a video of One PacicCoast bank being honored by USF with a description of bank vision and operations by the founding members. <http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=rPNp60E6vrY&hd=0&rel=0&autoplay= 1>. "Business/Commercial Lending." One PacicCoast Bank, This portion of the website describes commercial lending practices. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/ commercial-lending.aspx>. "Business/Commercial Lending." One PacicCoast Bank, This portion of the website describes commercial lending practices. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/ commercial-lending.aspx>. "Learn More about Our Mission Reporting Strategy." One PacicCoast Bank, This section of the website describes how lending practices are meeting the triple bottom line criteria. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/ ContentPage.aspx?name=Mission +Reporting+Strategy>. Wick, Cara. Telephone interview by Chris Morris. 24 Nov. 2012. "Our Customers/Industries Served." One PacicCoast Bank, This a part of the web site that describes customers and industries served. <http://

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15.

7. 8.

www.onepaciccoastbank.com/bizstories.aspx>. "Our Customers/Industries Served." One PacicCoast Bank, This a part of the web site that describes customers and industries served. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/bizstories.aspx>. "About Us/Sustainability." One PacicCoast Bank, This part of the web site denes the sustainability measures of the bank. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/ sustainability.aspx>. 2010 Recipient of the USF California Prize: OneCalifornia Bank and Foundation. YouTube. This is a video of One PacicCoast bank being honored by USF with a description of bank vision and operations by the founding members. "About Us/Sustainability." One PacicCoast Bank, This part of the web site denes the sustainability measures of the bank. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/ sustainability.aspx>. "Working Together." Bay Area Green Business Program. This is a description of the purpose and mission of the Bay Area Green Program. <http:// www.greenbiz.ca.gov/>. "One PacicCoast Bank, FSB." Investigative Reporting Workshop. This is a graph and small description of The Troubled Assets Report between 2007 and 2012. <http:// banktracker.investigativereportingworkshop .org/banks/california/oakland/ onecalifornia-bank-fsb/>. "Learn More about Our Mission Reporting Strategy." One PacicCoast Bank, This section of the website describes how lending practices are meeting the triple bottom line criteria. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/ ContentPage.aspx?name=Mission +Reporting+Strategy>.

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16. "About Us/Sustainability." One PacicCoast Bank, This part of the web site denes the sustainability measures of the bank. <http://www.onepaciccoastbank.com/ sustainability.aspx>. 17. Bay Area Green Business Program This is a description of the purpose and mission of the Bay Area Green Program. <http://www.greenbiz.ca.gov/>. 18. "Learn More about Our Mission Reporting Strategy." One PacicCoast Bank, This section of the website describes how lending practices are meeting the triple bottom line criteria. <http://www.onepaciccoastbank.com/ ContentPage.aspx?name=Mission+Reporting+Strategy>. 19. "What is a Benet Corporation?" Benet Corp Information Center. This is a website dedicated that describes the aspects of benet corporations. <http:// benetcorp.net/>. 20. Financial Capital and Impact Metrics of Values Based Banking Global Alliance for Banking on Values. This is a report about the comparisons between Globally Systemically Important Financial Institutions (GSIFI) and sustainable banks. <http://www.gabv.org/wp-content/ uploads/Full-Report-GABV-v9d.pdf>. 21. SOCAP 2011 CONVERSATION Drummond Pike AND Tom Steyer YouTube. This a video about 20 minutes long that has Tom Steyer describing the banks mission and some of its programs at the SOCAP convention. <http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZ4H6hz0Qjc>. 22. "Personal/OnePac Pal." One PacicCoast Bank, This describes the micro lending program called OnePac Pal Loan. <http://www.onepaciccoastbank.com/onepacpal.aspx> 23. Roodman, David. "Micro-credit Doesnt End Poverty, despite All the Hype." Washington Post, Article arguing that micro-credit does not alleviate poverty. <http:// www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/microcredit-doesntend-poverty-despite-all-the-hype/2012/01/20/ gIQAtrfqzR_story.html>. 24. Banerjee, Abhijit, et al. The Miracle of Micro-nance? Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, This is a research paper that questions the validity of raising families out of poverty though micro-nance. <http://www.povertyactionlab.org/ sites/default/les/publications/The%20Miracle%20of %20Micronance.pdf>. 25. One PacicCoast Foundation, This section of the website describes the general vision of One PacicCoast Foundation. <http://www.onecalfoundation.org/ index.html>. 26. "About Us." One PacicCoast Bank, This part of the website describes the general vision of the bank. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/about-us.aspx>. 27. "Individuals/Banking Initiatives/Oakland Childrens Education Fund."One PacicCoast Foundation, This part of the website talks about The Oakland Childrens Education Fund. <http://www.onecalfoundation.org/ individual/edfund.html>. 28. OAKLAND CHILDRENS SAVINGS FUND. One PacicCoast Foundation. This PDF describes the Acorns to Oaks program. <http://www.onecalfoundation.org/docs/ OaklandChildrensSavingsFund.pdf>. 29. Asian Inc SF. Bill Imada IW group. YouTube, This is a video of One PacicCoast Bank receiving the Community Reinvestment Visionary Award. <http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=zA4h38XJQwE>.

30. "About Us/Our People." One PacicCoast Bank, Describes the corporate structure of the bank. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/our-people.aspx>. 31. "About Us/Board of Directors." One PacicCoast Bank, This section of the website tells who is on the Board of Directors. <http://www.onepaciccoastbank.com/boardof-directors.aspx>. 32. "About Us." One PacicCoast Bank, This part of the website describes the general vision of the bank. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/about-us.aspx>. 33. SOCAP 2011 CONVERSATION Drummond Pike AND Tom Steyer YouTube. This a video about 20 minutes long that has Tom Steyer describing the banks mission and some of its programs at the SOCAP convention. <http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZ4H6hz0Qjc>. 34. Alliance for Banking on Values. This is a report about the comparisons between Globally Systemically Important Financial Institutions (GSIFI) and sustainable banks. <http://www.gabv.org/wp-content/uploads/Full-ReportGABV-v9d.pdf>.

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Works Cited "About Us." One PacicCoast Bank. One PacicCoast Bank, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/about-us.aspx>. "About Us/Board of Directors." One PacicCoast Bank. One PacicCoast Bank, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/board-ofdirectors.aspx>. "About Us/History." One PacicCoast Bank. One PacicCoast Bank, n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/history.aspx>. "About Us/Mission." One PacicCoast Bank. One PacicCoast Bank, n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/mission.aspx>. "About Us/Our People." One PacicCoast Bank. One PacicCoast Bank, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/our-people.aspx>. "About Us/Sustainability." One PacicCoast Bank. One PacicCoast Bank, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/sustainability.aspx>. "About Us/Sustainability/ Learn More about Our Mission Reporting Strategy." One PacicCoast Bank. One PacicCoast Bank, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/ContentPage.aspx? name=Mission+Reporting+Strategy>. Asian Inc SF. Bill Imada IW group. YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=zA4h38XJQwE>. Banerjee, Abhijit, et al. The Miracle of Microu0085nance? Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation. Research rept. N.p.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009. Poverty Action Lab. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.povertyactionlab.org/sites/default/les/ publications/The%20Miracle%20of %20Micronance.pdf>. Browse|Movies |Upload 2010 Recipient of the USF California Prize: OneCalifornia Bank and Foundation. Prod. Kontent Films. YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.youtube.com/watch? v=rPNp60E6vrY&hd=0&rel=0&autoplay=1>. "Business/Commercial Lending." One PacicCoast Bank. One PacicCoast Bank, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/commerciallending.aspx>. "Individuals/Banking Initiatives/Oakland Childrens Education Fund." One PacicCoast Foundation. One PacicCoast Foundation, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http://www.onecalfoundation.org/individual/ edfund.html>. Korslund, David, and Laurie Spengler. Financial Capital and Impact Metrics of Values Based Banking. Research rept. Global Alliance for Banking on Values. Global Alliance for Banking on Values, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.gabv.org/wp-content/uploads/Full-ReportGABV-v9d.pdf>. "Oakland Childrens Education Fund." One PacicCoast Foundation. One PacicCoast Foundation, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http://www.onecalfoundation.org/ individual/edfund.html>. OAKLAND CHILDRENS SAVINGS FUND. N.p.: OPCF, n.d. One PacicCoast Foundation. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.onecalfoundation.org/docs/ OaklandChildrensSavingsFund.pdf>.

"One PacicCoast Bank, FSB." Investigative Reporting Workshop. Ed. Charles Lewis et al. American University School of Communication, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// banktracker.investigativereportingworkshop.org/ banks/california/oakland/onecalifornia-bank-fsb/>. One PacicCoast Foundation. One PacicCoast Foundation, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.onecalfoundation.org/index.html>. "Our Customers/Industries Served." One PacicCoast Bank. One PacicCoast Bank, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/biz-stories.aspx>. "Personal/OnePac Pal." One PacicCoast Bank. One PacicCoast Bank, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.onepaciccoastbank.com/onepac-pal.aspx>. Roodman, David. "Microcredit Doesnt End Poverty, despite All the Hype." Washington Post. Washington Post, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/microcreditdoesnt-end-poverty-despite-all-the-hype/ 2012/01/20/gIQAtrfqzR_story.html>. SOCAP 2011 CONVERSATION Drummond Pike AND Tom Steyer and Interview. By RENACERCHANNEL. YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZ4H6hz0Qjc>. "What is a Benet Corporation?" Benet Corp Information Center. B Lab, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http:// benetcorp.net/>. Wick, Cara. Telephone interview. 24 Nov. 2012. "Working Together." Bay Area Green Business Program. Association of Bay Area Governments, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. <http://www.greenbiz.ca.gov/>.

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Case Studies Job Training


Veteran Green Jobs Training
By Matthew Keene Green jobs training programs available to veterans of the United States Military range from national and regional to local community based training programs. Four organizations; Veterans Green Jobs, Archis Acres, Swords to Plowshares and Green Collar Vets stand out in this eld. Veterans Green Jobs focuses on specic regions; training is based in a few select Colorado counties; Denver, Jefferson and the San Luis Valley. They have a partnership with Bucks County Community College in Pennsylvania where electrical and solar training services are offered. Archis Acres is a small scale organic farming organization based in Escondido, California but is expanding nationwide with plans to expand to global locations in the future. Swords to Plowshares is based in the San Francisco Bay Area and focuses on veteran advocacy work, counseling, training and education. Green Collar Vets offers training programs nationwide, largely through local community colleges in Texas, New Mexico, Iowa, Oregon, Wisconsin and New York. They also offer green building certication and education online. Green Collar Vets is based online and is a source for available opportunities all over the country. The number of separating veterans using educational benets for technical or vocational training has risen from under ten percent in 2008 to nearly forty percent in 2010; expenditures towards education and training have risen by over $1.5 billion US during the same period. United States military veterans who have successfully completed their military contract are the target audience. Veterans are discharged from the military; often many have few skills that will translate into a viable income; consequently, just above 12% are below the poverty line upon discharge1. This number jumps to over 21% for those veterans between the ages of 18-242. Veterans are among the highest unemployed groups in America and this case study focuses on getting them trained and ready to work and begin a new career in the green jobs sector where they can earn competitive living wages. Training provided by these programs gives veterans the information and skills required to enter the workforce and be competitive in many green jobs and industries and provide the tools necessary to maintain employment. Most of the training provided to veterans is technical and based around on the job training; many of the programs incorporate classroom education as well. Veterans Green Jobs offers Weatherization and Building Performance Institute certication training to increasing home and building efciency and reduce energy consumption. Outdoor conservation and wildre training are both on the job training programs in an outdoor setting. Photovoltaic (PV) pre-apprenticeship training is offered as an in-class and hands on program. Archis Acres has developed a Veterans Sustainable Agriculture Training program (VSAT) which trains veterans in organic, sustainable agriculture. Swords to Plowshares offers training programs focused on clean energy, green marketing, green technology and green job training and certication. Green Collar Vets offers numerous training programs in the elds of wind technology, green construction, fuel cell technology and solar technology (PV and thermal technology) in a classroom setting with hands on teaching as well.

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Veterans Green Jobs not only trains personnel but also directly hires veterans to operate their organization and Veterans Green Jobs works with organizations that employ and hire veterans. Many of Veterans Green Jobs training programs are on the job programs allowing personnel to earn a wage while learning a new skill or profession. Archis Acres teaches veterans all aspects of sustainable organic farming; this includes greenhouse production, irrigation techniques, management, maintenance, sales and many other programs. Archis Acres works directly with Whole Foods Market in the Southern California area to sell produce. Whole Foods Market is an organic and natural food grocery chain, this experience allows trainees to work directly with a major distributor, increasing their knowledge and furthering their training and marketability. Resume building, networking and follow up employment and business opportunities are all part of Archis Acres VSAT program and all help ensure employment and nancial stability to those who complete the program. Tuition assistance is available to those who cannot afford the training cost. One of the main focuses of the VSAT program involves business model education and entrepreneurship. Swords to Plowshares employs veterans and provides many resources to assist veterans upon completion of a training program. These resources assist veterans with the training to obtain a job but also help them maintain their jobs by offering counseling, if necessary or desired. Green Collar Vets provides information regarding available training programs and employment opportunities but offers minimal assistance in job placement. They work with any training program

available to veterans and are more of a resource to other opportunities. Veterans are among the highest unemployed groups; therefore training provides a means to raise their social status because training is needed to ensure economic success. In addition, information and skills taught by these programs increase quality of life for the veterans and those in these industries. It is also important to remember there were over three million disabled veterans reported in 2010. This group is not only under and unemployed but they also have backgrounds that make training and employment difcult personally. Veterans Green Jobs promotes on the job training and the weatherization and energy efciency training is done on the homes of income-qualifying community members allowing them to receive home upgrades free of charge. This allows veterans to obtain quality training in a real world setting, all while helping out low income communities. Archis Acres emphasizes family farming and teaches the importance of a healthy lifestyle while educating veterans who routinely have some service connected disability such as post traumatic stress disorder9. Part of the VSAT program addresses these concerns and Archis Acres provides resources to veterans that need them. Swords to Plowshares advocates on behalf of veterans as well as educating and employing them. They offer numerous counselors and education on topics not directly related to training but related to social issues that may be hampering employment. Nearly 75% of those looking for jobs found work through Swords to Plowshares6. Green Collar Vets provides information to veterans to nd the right training program

based on personal preference and availability. Government involvement in the programs is centered on the state and federal Veterans Affairs Departments who have resources available through many other government organizations such as One Stop Career Centers and the Employment Development Department; both are community based resources found in most major cities. All of these training programs utilize other organizations and their infrastructure and resources in addition to their own. Private and Non-Prot assistance comes in the form of specialized training in various green job elds and funding specically for veterans. Veterans Green Jobs is comprised of a board of directors, a Veterans Green Jobs team and numerous volunteers. The volunteers are made up of individuals from other organizations in addition to Veterans Green Jobs. Multiple organizations work together to pool resources, such as personnel, in order to be more effective. Archis Acres is run by a husband and wife team along with a group of graduates and professionals. The students and graduates work to maintain the organization while being educated. Organic crops are grown specically for certain distributors and buyers, including Whole Foods Market. Swords to Plowshares is managed by a Board of Directors and leadership team along with volunteers, a paid staff and an advisory board. Green Collar Vets is based online. Recently, they opened a chapter in Texas and plan to continue opening more as funding becomes available. Green Collar Vets is operated by a Board of Directors who coordinate information and hiring events through job recruiters.

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Many of the green job specic grants and programs have lost all of their funding but nearly half of a billion dollars was allocated to them in 20095. The funding was used fully and stopped late in 2011 and thousands of veterans were trained and provided jobs in many green elds including solar and wind production. Financing now comes from private and public sources. Government nancing comes from specialized veteran funding. This funding is used for the training and employment assistance of veterans, not specic to green jobs but green job training programs are incorporated. The funding comes in the form of Veterans Employment Related Programs, Veterans Education Assistance Program (VEAP) and Veterans Workforce Investment Program (VWIP), through state and federal Veterans Affairs and state Employment Development Departments (EDD)3. Financing for Veterans Green Jobs comes from public and private donations, contracts and grants. The Colorado Governors Energy Ofce, Wal-Mart Foundation, Activisions Call of Duty Endowment, Sierra Club, Bob Woodruff Foundation, Anschutz Foundation, El Pomar Foundation and the City of Denver are all partners of Veterans Green Jobs and combined for a total of just under four million dollars US in 20117. Archis Acres previously received the majority of its funding through the federal and state veteran affairs (VA) ofces. The local VA had been paying the hourly wages of $13 US to the seven full time personnel but funding was exhausted in 2010. Scholarships are available through Mira Costa College and in 2011 a $100,000 US was awarded by the Disable American Veterans Charitable Services Trust for scholarship use10. The bulk of funding now comes from private and individual sponsors and donors. Tuition assistance is available to those who qualify through the veteran affairs ofce to active duty personnel during off duty hours. Swords to Plowshares received nearly ve million dollars US in 2011 from government grants and contracts and over one million dollars US from private donors6. They also receive income from program fees and investors for a total just over eight million dollars US in funding in 2011. Green Collar Vets reports zero assets and zero income. The ling code for tax purposes is led as less than $25,000 (US) 8 and their only source of nancial assistance is from public funding. They have more partners than they have donors or nancial supporters.

References/Notes 1. http://www.jec.senate.gov/public/? a=Files.Serve&File_id=628ca26b-7433-4fca-8f53aa713eb3e756 2. http://www.jec.senate.gov/public/index.cfm? p=PressReleases&ContentRecord_id=3d9b002f-d9f3-4cd2b8d4-9065dee6cc0c&ContentType_id=66d767ed-750b-43e8b8cf-89524ad8a29e 3. http://www.edd.ca.gov/Jobs_and_Training/ Services_for_Veterans.htm 4. http://veteransgreenjobs.org/ 5. http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2009/11/18/green-jobsgrants 6. http://www.swords-to-plowshares.org/wp-content/ uploads/Audit-FYE-June-30-2011.pdf ?9d7bd4 7. https://www.givingrst.org/veteransgreenjobs/nancials 8. http://non-prot-organizations.ndthebest.com/l/ 1364015/Green-Collar-Vets 9. http://www.va.gov/vetdata/Quick_Facts.asp 10. http://www.dav.org/news/NewsArticle.aspx?ID=529

Bibliography Swords to Plowshares. Swords to Plowshares, 1 Oct. 2012. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. <http://www.swords-to-plowshares.org/>. LA Works. LA Works, 15 Sept. 2012. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. <http://www.laworks.org/ nResourceCenter.asp>. CA.gov. State of California, 7 Mar. 2012. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. <http://www.edd.ca.gov/ Jobs_and_Training/ Veteran_Employment_Assistance_Program.htm>. Rimphanli, Jamie. "EPP-March-2011.pdf." South Bay Center for Counseling. SBCC, 25 Oct. 2012. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sbaycenter.com/wind_faq.php>. Green Collar Vets. Green Collar Vets, 2012. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. <http://www.greencollarvets.org/ education>. Veterans Green Jobs. Veterans Green Jobs, 2012. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. <http://veteransgreenjobs.org/ programs>. Archie's Acres. Archie's Acres, 2012. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. <http:// archisacres.com/page/ vsat-program>. http://www.turbotap.org/register.tpp http://semperfund.org/assistance/#service-member, http://www.kiraconstruction.com/Services.html

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Goodwill Industries International Inc.


By Jane Deming

Goodwill has 165 independent locations in the United States and Canada.1 As well as 13 afliate programs overseas.1 Goodwill was founded in 1902 in Boston by Rev. Edgar J. Helms.2 His mission was to bring people out of poverty through self reliance. He did this by creating an organization that collected donated items for the poor and marginalized to repair and sell, in order for them to be able to support themselves.2 Goodwills mission - and the way in which they achieve it - is much the same today. Goodwill strives to eliminate the barriers that people face in nding employment.3 By doing so, they help make the ability to enter the workforce more equitable. Goodwills ultimate goal is to alleviate poverty and create more vibrant communities.1 Goodwill provides many services to help bring people out of poverty. For immigrants, Goodwill provides job skills training, language classes, and community support services.4 People with criminal backgrounds are helped with job skills training, and support with reintegrating back into society.4,5 Veterans and their families are offered vital community networking services and job skills training.6 At-risk youth may nd help obtaining their high school diplomas and job skills training.7 Goodwill Industries of Northern New England reimburses employers for on the job training of its participants.8 Depending on the location, people with disabilities may receive job training, rehabilitation services, and job support services.9 Each location has the exibility to focus on the local population in order to address their specic job skill training and community networking needs. People whom, for various reasons, are having difculty nding work are offered varying support services to help enable them to overcome barriers to employment through Goodwill Industries. Goodwill's headquarters' web page lists that the communities that Goodwill International serves includes: seniors, former criminal offenders, immigrants, at-risk youth, people with disabilities, and veterans.4 Goodwill has a long history of serving those with disabilities. After WWI, disabled veterans began to be trained and work at the repair and resale workshops.2 After training, workers were referred to factories and commercial stores.2 In the mid-30s, during the Great Depression Goodwill began specically focusing on people with disabilities in order to ease their unemployment.2 Many were able to go on to nd part or full time employment, or open their own shops.2 By the

1990s, Goodwill expanded its target audience to include the socially and economically disadvantaged.2 Craig Anderson from Goodwill Northern New Englands Human Resources Department describes the services that they offer to people with disabilities: Goodwill provides case management, residential, community support, rehabilitation and workforce services to people with disabilities all designed to help increase each individuals level of self sufciency and personal satisfaction. Last year we provided assistance to over 1000 people with disabilities and our workforce solutions program provided job training and placement assistance to another 2500 people with disadvantages.10 Anderson explains that the types of disabilities can be mental, physical or cognitive, and that the severity of the disabilities of the people that they serve varies; some of the people with disabilities that they serve live in assisted living residences, but most care for themselves.10 Among those with the most difculty nding employment are people who have a criminal background. 5 Federal Bonding helps with this, but many states allow for discrimination against those with criminal backgrounds when it comes to nding employment.5 Reintegration and reentry programs are vital to this community in order to prevent recidivism.5 Goodwill also helps to divert people with drug charges away from the prison system. Development & Communications Manager for SF Goodwill, Scott Bruner explains that the San Francisco Goodwill works in partnership with the San Francisco DAs ofce to offer a program called Back on Track which offers alternatives to incarceration for people who are arrested for rst-time non-violent drug sale charges.11

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Veterans often have difculty transferring skills obtained from military jobs over to civilian jobs.6 Navigating the system, accessing resources, and networking the available services can be difcult once they return home.6 At-risk youth are considered by Goodwill to be youth who have dropped out of high school.7 They are often low income and from disadvantaged communities. This demographic has a four times greater chance of being incarcerated than those who receive a high school diploma. Elderly people may need to update their job skills or need help transitioning to a new eld due to limitations caused by the aging process.12 Language barriers can make it difcult for immigrants to nd gainful employment and can make them more vulnerable to wage exploitation.13 In addition to reaching out to the unemployed and underemployed, Goodwill targets the business community. By working closely with the local business community, Goodwill is better able to prepare their participants for the jobs that are available now. Goodwill reimburses businesses for on the job training for the people they serve.8 Local business people sit on the boards of Goodwill regional corporate ofces.14 Goodwill also targets and sells items too damaged for retail to salvage brokers.
15

The people they serve are those who are having a difcult time entering the workforce. Through Goodwills various programs, they are able to meet their goals of helping people transition out of poverty. Goodwill meets its environmental goals in several ways. Goodwills business is in value recovery. They resell items that would normally go into the landll. On a national level, they divert billions of pounds from landlls each year through resale, recycling or repurposing.16 Because landlls are most often located in poor communities, this diversion of waste keeps it out of those communities. Through government stimulus grants, EPA grants and local partnerships, Goodwill is able to offer green job training. One of Goodwill's locations, Goodwill SF feels that their participants will be a good t for up and coming Green Collar Jobs.17 ReCompute is a Goodwill computer refurbishing program that keeps computers out of the waste stream and reduces e-waste.17 Reconnect is a partnership that Goodwill has with Dell to recycle and refurbish computers.17 Unsalvageable computer components are sent to Dell for recycling.18 In the past, Goodwill has also been able to train people, who are living near lands that are contaminated with hazardous wastes from industry and commercial use, in remediation, and pay them for cleaning up the sites.19 Through its training in remediation, and through its waste diversion program, Goodwill helps to mitigate the environmental injustices of landlls and hazardous waste sites being located in poor communities - that are often also minority communities. In regards to green workplace practices, Goodwills head

quarters was designated an EPA Green Power Partner in 2011 due to its purchase of renewable energy certicates.20 These certicates will offset all of the energy that their head quarters in Rockville, Maryland uses.
20

Goodwill reaches its triple bottom line objectives through workforce creation through our environmental value recovery business platform.16 Goodwill meets its environmental goals through its primary business strategy of waste diversion. Goodwill successfully creates jobs, contributing to employment and economic growth. Goodwills mission is one of equity.

One of Goodwills main goals is to bring economic stability and security to individuals who are poor.1 84% of Goodwills revenue is spent directly on programs for employment, classes, rehabilitation, the integration and the reintegration of inmates, veterans, the disabled, youth, immigrants and the elderly into the workplace.1 Low income and poor people often lack the job skills or educational background needed to nd employment. If they come from low income neighborhoods, there may not be many employment opportunities where they live, nor public transportation to seek jobs elsewhere. Goodwill helps to reduce the unemployment of those groups who have barriers to employment, which in turn helps the economy. For example, by training people with criminal backgrounds and helping them to get their high school diplomas, they reduce recidivism of ex offenders, which saves taxpayers money due to the fact that prisoners who aren't provided with re-entry programs have a 67.5% chance of recidivating.5 Goodwill pays for the training of workers who need specic job skills, from janitorial and construction to IT, banking, and healthcare.21 Annually, Goodwill helps almost 170,000 people nd jobs.1 While people receive their job training through Goodwill, Goodwill can offer them part time jobs at either their retail stores or through businesses and government ofces that Goodwill has contracts with.22

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CASE STUDIES : Job Training

Goodwill Industries International also partners with HelloWallet to help employees and the unemployed and underemployed budget and save their money.23 Personal nancial planning services are typically only available to about 20% of the population.23 By helping people to save their money, Goodwill hopes to enable marginalized people to better support their families needs.23 In order for people to access HelloWallet, they need to access the internet, which could prove to be a barrier to the success of this initiative, however some Goodwill locations have One Stop Career Centers where marginalized people can access computers and the internet. An additional economic benet of Goodwill's stores is that they provide inexpensive used goods to people with lower incomes, so they can stretch their dollars further. This leaves more money for necessities such as food and housing. Another way that Goodwill helps people with low incomes to save money for other necessities is through a clothing voucher program. People who are in One Stop Career programs or who receive services from other community outreach programs, can receive vouchers to get work outts from Goodwill for free, so that they can have the appropriate attire for job interviews and work.24 Goodwills meets its equity goals by choosing to serve underemployed and unemployed demographics. Again, 84% of Goodwills revenue is spent directly on programs such as training and job placement services for people with disabilities, veterans, the elderly, immigrants, at-risk youth, and former inmates.5 Goodwill is rated a top charity by Charity Navigator.25 All of their job training and placement services are offered free of charge. This includes help in obtaining a high school diploma through WIA funds, resume writing, computer technical support certication, and job interview classes.22 Goodwill helps people with signicant barriers to employment to earn a living wage by closing gaps in specic job skills, language barriers, and job networking strategies. They also advocate for legislation in Congress. They advocated for The Second Chance Act, legislation that will secure $330 million dollars in funding for reentry programs for those about to be released from prison.5 They petition for the coordination and collaboration of veterans services whereby the VA, the Department Of Defense, and the Department Of Labor can more readily reach the communities where people need to be served.6 Goodwill International employs 7,000 people with signicant disabilities under the JavitsWagner-ODay Act.9 These individuals face signicant challenges when it comes to job placement in a competitive environment. Goodwill also advocates for legislation to help the marginalized of the United States,

and publishes materials concerning social justice issues related to their barriers to nding employment. A weak point of Goodwill's equity can be seen when it comes to hiring people who work for their stores; there is a large wage gap at some locations. In Oregon, for example a CEO has been criticized for making over $800,000, while sales representatives are paid minimum wage, and at part time.26 Some Goodwill locations such as those who are part of Goodwill North New England, do not pay anyone below the minimum wage; whereas, other stores use section 14c of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 to employ people with disabilities below the minimum wage.27,28 SF Goodwill pays an average of $13.57.11 Goodwill Industries International argues that those who they hire with signicant disabilities would not be able to be hired competitively otherwise. House Bill H.R.3086.IH, presented on October 4th of 2011, would reverse the 14(c) exlusion.29 Goodwill Industries International, Inc. is a 501(c) (3) charity.14 There is a corporate headquarters in Maryland that works with an "autonomous member network," similar to a franchise.14 "Each local Goodwill has a volunteer Board of Directors," and managers. 14 Goodwill also has paid staff that executes job training, as well as paid employees. Goodwill Industries International Inc. partners nationally with HelloWallet(c), and stores can partner locally with private businesses such as Dell, as well as other nonprots and government agencies, such as: One Stop centers, the Dept. of Veterans Affairs, and schools.14,23 Goodwill makes most of its money through its retail stores.1 The following is a breakdown of Goodwills funding streams. Revenue generated by Goodwill organizations: $4.43 billion. Revenue sources: Retail sales: $2.59 billion. Industrial and service contract work: $641 million. Individual/Corporate/foundations: $71million. Government support for mission services: Other revenue: $45 million.30 Goodwill relies on many federal and state policies to nance its programs to serve populations with barriers to employment, including: the Javits-Wagner-ODay Act; title V of the Older Americans Act (OAA); and the Workforce Investment Act (WIA).9,12,31,32 Goodwill fullls more than 350 contracts through the Javits-Wagner-ODay Act, which was passed in 1971 by the republican senator Jacob Javits.9 This expanded the original Wagner ODay Act which was passed in 1938, which enabled the federal government to purchase work contracts for the purposes of employing blind people, to include work contracts for individuals who have signicant disabilities.9 The new program is called AbilityOne.9

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Title V of the Older Americans Act (OAA), which authorizes and funds the Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP), allows for Goodwill to provide job training to low income individuals over 55 years of age.12 In 1973, under Title IX of the OAA, amendments were passed which allow for the Department of Labor to grant funds to non-prots and states, for the purposes of creating job opportunities for poor and unemployed, older adults in the US.33 The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) allows for Goodwill to provide job training, placement and retention services to hard to serve populations.31,32 The WIA was passed by the 105th Congress in 1998, and it is the federal governments largest workforce development program in regards to funding.34 The communities they serve through this act include the poor, including youth, and dislocated workers.34 In addition to the WIA, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided grants to Goodwill for green job training through the Pathways Out of Poverty program in the amount of $7,303,634.35 Another green job grant was awarded in 2005, when the EPAs Browneld Job Training Grant allocated $200,000 to Goodwill to train people living near industrial pollutant sites in remediation.19 Jobs from this training can pay $13 per hour.19 In order to reach its equity goals and provide necessary social and community support services to people who are having difculty nding employment, Goodwill depends on legislation passed by Congress.

References 1 Goodwill Industries Intl., Goodwill Q & A, 2011 2 Goodwill Industries International, Inc. History, 2004 3 Goodwill Industries Intl., Goodwill Receives Award for Recycling Achievement, 2012 4 Goodwill Industries Intl., Who We Serve, 2012 5 Goodwill, and Turner, Road to Reintegration, 2011 6 Goodwill, and Marionaccio, "From Deployment to Employment, 2011 7 Goodwill Industries Intl., Youth, 2012 8 Goodwill NNE, and Campbell, On the Job Training, 2012 9 Goodwill, and Walling, Javits-WagnerODay Act, 2012 10 Anderson, 2012 11 Bruner, 2012 12 Goodwill Industries Intl., Older Americans Act (OAA), 2012 13 Goodwill Industries Intl., "Immigrants," 2012 14 Goodwill Industries Intl., "Frequently Asked Questions," 2012 15 Van Der Voo, 2012 16 Goodwill Industries Intl., How to Move the Needle, 2012 17 Goodwill Industries Intl., Goodwill Receives Award, 2012 18 Goodwill Industries Intl., et al, E Waste, 2010 19 Sternberg, 2005 20 Goodwill Industries Intl., EPA Green Power Partner, 2012 21 Goodwill Industries Intl., "Business Skills Solutions," 2012 22 Goodwill Industries Intl., "Jobs and Careers," 2012 23 Goodwill Industries Intl., "Goodwill and HelloWallet, 2012 24 Goodwill of Northern Arizona, 2009 25 Charity Navigator, 2012 26 Kish, 2011 27 Goodwill NNE, "Jobs," 2012 28 Hrabe, 2012 29 Stearns, and Bishop, 2011 30 Goodwill Industries Intl., Our Mission, 2012 31 Goodwill Industries Intl., Decit Reduction and Sequestration, 2012 32 Gibbons, 2012 33 Walter, 2010 34 National Skills Coalition, 2012 35 Garcia, and Trupo, 2012

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goodwill%C2%AE-receives-award-for-recyclingachievement/>. "How to Move the Needle on Poverty." SF Goodwill. 2012. Web. 7 Nov. 2012. <http://sfgoodwill.org/solutions/how-tomove-the-needle-on-poverty/>. "Immigrants." Goodwill Industries International, Inc. 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goodwill.org/goodwill-foryou/specialized-services/immigrants/>. "Jobs and Careers." Goodwill Industry International, Inc. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goodwill.org/goodwillfor-you/jobs-and-careers/>. "Older Americans Act (OAA): Reauthorize OAA to Protect and Support Americas Older Workers." Goodwill Industries International, Inc. Apr. 2012. Web. 9 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/ Goodwill-Industries-International-Issue-BriefOAA.pdf>. "Our Mission." Goodwill Industries International, Inc. 2012. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goodwill.org/about-us/ourmission/>. "Who We Serve." Goodwill Industries International, Inc. Jan. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goodwill.org/ goodwill-for-you/specialized-services/>. "Youth." Goodwill Industries International Inc. 2012. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goodwill.org/goodwill-for-you/ specialized-services/youth/>. Goodwill Industries International Inc., Jordan Abushawish, and Seth Turner. "E-Waste and the Environment: the Case for Electronics Recycling Legislation." Goodwill Industries International, Inc. 23 Apr. 2010. Web. 4 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2011/01/Ewaste-Paper.pdf>. Goodwill Industries International Inc., and Janet Marinaccio. "From Deployment to Employment: Goodwills Call to Action on Supporting Military Service Members, Veterans and Their Families." Goodwill Industries International, Inc. Nov. 2011. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/ From-Deployment-to-Employment-ExecSum.pdf>. Goodwill Industries International Inc., and Seth Turner. "Road to Reintegration: Ensuring Successful Community ReEntry for People Who Are Former Offenders." Goodwill Industries International, Inc. Jan. 2011. Web. 1 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2011/01/ Road_to_ReIntegration_Exec_Summary.pdf>. Goodwill Industries International Inc., and Laura Walling. "Javits-Wagner-ODay Act AbilityOne Program Increase Employment Opportunities for People with Signicant Disabilities." Goodwill Industries International, Inc. May 2012. Web. 4 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/ Goodwill-Industries-International-Issue-BriefAbilityOne.pdf>.

Anderson, Craig. RE: Social justice and the triple bottom line at Goodwill NNE. Message to the author. 7 Aug. 2012. E-mail. Bruner, Scott. RE: General Inquiry. Message to the author. 7 Aug. 2012. E-mail. Charity Navigator. "Goodwill Industries of San Francisco, San Mateo and Marin Counties." Charity Navigator. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm? bay=search.summary&orgid=3764>. Garcia, Lina, and Mike Trupo. "US Department of Labor Announces $150 Million in Pathways Out of Poverty Training Grants for Green Jobs." United States Department Of Labor. 13 Jan. 2010. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.dol.gov/opa/media/press/eta/ eta20100039.htm#.UL4-D5Pjl5m>. Gibbons, Jim. "Appeal to Congress to Reauthorize WIA." Goodwill Industries International. 26 Apr. 2012. Web. 7 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goodwill.org/wp-content/ uploads/2012/04/042612-Comments-House-WIABills.pdf>. Goodwill Industries International Inc. "Business Skills Solutions." Goodwill Industry International, Inc. 2012. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goodwill.org/businesssolutions/>. "Frequently Asked Questions." Goodwill Industries International Inc. 3 Sept. 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.goodwill.org/uncategorized/faqs/>. "Decit Reduction and Sequestration: Protect Non-Defense Discretionary Investments in Job Training That Leverage Goodwill." Goodwill Industries International. Aug. 2012. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/ Sequestration-Fact-Sheet.pdf>. "Goodwill and HelloWallet to Provide Financial Assistance to Enhance Peoples Lives." Goodwill Industries International Inc. 25 Oct. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.goodwill.org/press-releases/goodwill%C2%AEand-hellowallet-to-provide-nancial-assistance-toenhance-people%E2%80%99s-lives/>. "Goodwill Industries International Named an EPA Green Power Partner." Goodwill Industries International. 17 Mar. 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.goodwill.org/press-releases/goodwill-industriesinternational-named-an-epa-green-power-partner/>. "Goodwill Receives Award for Recycling Achievement." Goodwill Industries International. 7 July 2012. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goodwill.org/press-releases/

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Goodwill Industries International Inc., and Lauren L. Zilai. "Goodwill Q&A." Goodwill Industries International, Inc. Jan. 2011. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/ QandA.pdf>. Goodwill Industries of Northern Arizona. "Jobs and Careers." Goodwill Industries of Northern of Arizona. 2009. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goodwillna.org/ndhelp.html>.

Van Der Voo, Lee. "Goodwill Beefs up Recycling Revenue." Sustainable Business Oregon. 12 July 2012. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sustainablebusinessoregon.com/ articles/2012/01/goodwill-beefs-up-recyclingrevenue.html?page=all>.

Walter, Kelsey. "A Primer for State Aging and Disability Directors: the Senior Community Service Employment Program." National Association Of States United For Aging And Disabilities (NASUAD). 2010. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nasuad.org/ documentation/nasuad_materials/SCSEP Goodwill Industries of Northern New England. "Jobs." Goodwill %20Primer.pdf>. Industries of Northern New England. 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goodwillnne.org/jobs/>. Goodwill Industries of Northern New England, and Bethany Campbell. "On the Job Training." Goodwill Industries of Northern New England. 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.goodwillnne.org/programs/workforcesolutions/business-services/job-training/>. Hrabe, John. "Goodwill's Charity Racket: CEOs Earn TopDollar, Workers Paid Less than Minimum Wage." Huff Post Politics. 25 Sept. 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.hufngtonpost.com/john-hrabe/theworst-corporation-in-_b_1876905.html>. International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 66. St. James Press, 2004. "Goodwill Industries International, Inc. History." Funding Universe. 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fundinguniverse.com/companyhistories/goodwill-industries-international-inchistory/>. Kish, Matthew. "Goodwill CEO Miller Highest-paid in State." Portland Business Journal. 7 Oct. 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bizjournals.com/portland/printedition/2011/10/07/goodwill-ceo-highest-paid-instate.html?page=all>. National Skills Coalition. "Workforce Investment Act Workforce Investment Act." National Skills Coalition. 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.nationalskillscoalition.org/federal-policies/ workforce-investment-act/materials/SCSEP %20Primer.pdf>. Stearns, and Bishop. "Bill Text 112th Congress (2011-2012) H.R.3086.IH." The Library Of Congress: Thomas. 4 Oct. 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://thomas.loc.gov/ cgi-bin/query/z?c112:H.R.3086:>. Sternberg, David. "EPA Announces $200,000 Brownelds Job Training Grant to Goodwill Industries." United States Environmental Protection Agency. 22 Dec. 2005. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/ admpress.nsf/d0cf6618525a9efb85257359003fb69d/ 74657f6b041aad0b852570df0071d24e! OpenDocument>.

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Useful Links http://www.goodwill.org/about-us/our-mission/ http://sfgoodwill.org/solutions/how-to-move-the-needle-onpoverty/ http://www.goodwill.org/press-releases/goodwill%C2%AEreceives-award-for-recycling-achievement/ www.goodwill.org/about-us/our-mission/ http://www.goodwill.org/wpcontent/uploads/2011/01/ Road_to_ReIntegration_Exec_Summary.pdf http://www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/ From-Deployment-to-Employment-ExecSum.pdf http://www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/ Goodwill-Industries-International-Issue-Brief-AbilityOne.pdf http://www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/ Goodwill-Industries-International-Issue-Brief-OAA.pdf http://www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/ Sequestration-Fact-Sheet.pdf http://www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2012/04/042612-Comments-House-WIA-Bills.pdf http://www.goodwill.org/press-releases/goodwill-industriesinternational-named-an-epa-green-power-partner/ http://www.goodwill.org/goodwill-for-you/specializedservices/ http://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm? bay=search.summary&orgid=3764 http://www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/ QandA.pdf http://www.nasuad.org/documentation/nasuad_materials/ SCSEP%20Primer.pdf http://www.nationalskillscoalition.org/federal-policies/ workforce-investment-act/ http://www.goodwill.org/business-solutions/ http://www.goodwill.org/goodwill-for-you/jobs-and-careers/ http://www.goodwill.org/press-releases/goodwill%C2%AEand-hellowallet-to-provide-nancial-assistance-to-enhancepeople%E2%80%99s-lives/ http://www.goodwillna.org/nd-help.html

http://www.goodwillnne.org/programs/workforce-solutions/ business-services/job-training/ http://www.goodwill.org/goodwill-for-you/specializedservices/immigrants/ http://www.goodwill.org/goodwill-for-you/specializedservices/youth/ http://www.sustainablebusinessoregon.com/articles/2012/01/ goodwill-beefs-up-recycling-revenue.html?page=all http://www.goodwill.org/uncategorized/faqs/ http://www.goodwill.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/ Ewaste-Paper.pdf http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/ d0cf6618525a9efb85257359003fb69d/ 74657f6b041aad0b852570df0071d24e!OpenDocument http://www.dol.gov/opa/media/press/eta/ eta20100039.htm#.UL4-D5Pjl5m http://www.hufngtonpost.com/john-hrabe/the-worstcorporation-in-_b_1876905.html http://www.goodwillnne.org/jobs/ http://www.bizjournals.com/portland/print-edition/ 2011/10/07/goodwill-ceo-highest-paid-in-state.html?page=all http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c112:H.R.3086: http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/ goodwill-industries-international-inc-history/

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skills pre-apprenticeship training program in 1997 4, RichmondBUILD eventually By Julia Michel included additional training in ecological construction practices in 2007, especially in solar panel installations, creating a green-job training academy. In order to adapt the green-collar components to the program, the organization began collaborating with non-prot organizations such as RichmondSolar, the Rising Sun The city of Richmond, California has struggled economically Energy Center and REACH, as well as community colleges to provide and socially since the end of World students with instructors leading War II. Due to severe deindustrialization after the war and training programs in the clean and renewable industries, ultimately the recent economic downturn, expanding their career options5. Richmond suffers from high Students are educated in practices unemployment, poverty and high that promote energy efciency, water school dropout as well as 25 conservation, home performance browneld sites covering 14 million 1 testing, retrotting, and solar square feet of the citys area . th Located at 330 25 St. in Richmond, installation6. RichmondBUILD supplies California, RichmondBUILD is a job the green-collar market with skilled training program, focused on construction and green job practices. workers who are trained in renewable and energy efcient practices, serving RichmondBUILD strives to address the green economy. Over 130 local issues suffocating the citys participants have enrolled in the growth and deteriorating the lives of program since 2007 and 122 have its residents, who are primarily from graduated7. The organization minority groups. achieved an 80% job placement rate RichmondBUILDs mission for graduates, some of those is to create career opportunities for placements pertaining to green jobs8. Richmond residents that would RichmondBUILD is typically not pursue careers in the developed for Richmond residents construction and renewable energy who are 18 years or older; however, elds. The organization is dedicated depending on the amount of funding to growing the local economy and the program receives they also allow providing alternatives to violence in Berkeley and Emeryville residents to the community2. Subsequent to apply. Age groups are typically Richmonds green initiatives and between 18 and 35, average at 26. policies, particularly in building 3 Additional requirements include a ordinances , the program is also high school diploma or GED, a valid dedicated to increasing the Califronias drivers license, a social participants knowledge about environmentally sustainable practices security card or right to work status, in order to engage in the citys policy and passing a drug, tness and basic changes and give participants a head math test. In addition applicants need to have a resume and complete an start in the growing green-collar interview9. All of these steps narrow market. down the number of applicants to a RichmondBUILD was group of individuals who are truly initiated to attend the demands of motivated to participate in the unemployed Richmond residents, program that they trust will help primarily from low-income households. Starting as a construction them achieve a better lifestyle.

RichmondBUILD

Statistics have shown that 95 percent of RichmondBUILD students are minorities, and over 30 percent have a history with the justice system10. RichmondBUILDs 12 to 15 week intensive training program, a cycle length that depends on the individuals chosen electives, meets triple bottom line objectives by providing the work force with skilled workers trained to practice within sustainable elds and give Richmond residents from lower-income households the accessible opportunity to make the choice to improve their lifestyles and seize the chance to realistically pursue jobs with higher wages and a rewarding career. A major component of the organizations program is its partnerships with city agencies that provide funding, job placements, and other resources for program participants. The Green-collar jobs campaign website provides several examples illustrating the local support. Richmonds Redevelopment Agency, for example, provides funding to improve the RichmondBUILD training facility. Other partners help provide various portions of the RichmondBUILD training curricula that need instructors and materials for the workshops. Some partners even secure jobs for the program participants once they graduate11. This permits an outcome of well trained workers willing to give back to the city. RichmondBUILD creates a cycle where the local economy provides the partial funds and other resources to support a training program for building construction and retrotting that includes green components. Targeted for residents from low-income households, the program supplies local businesses with skilled workers who will stimulate the local economy, especially through the green industries. With an average starting wage of $18.33 an hour12, graduates from the program nd themselves in a much better life position and career than they ever imagined.

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In 2007, RichmondBUILD took advantage of the opportunity to expand its basic construction developing skills program into a program that promotes the learning of environmentally sustainable practices in building remodeling and construction. Along with the basic training in construction skills, such as plumbing, roong, welding, scaffolding, etc the program integrated courses that fulll an extended learning in energy efciency, solar thermal and solar installation. Richmonds green initiatives have encouraged the students to learn and apply the practices that their city development requires and thus be able to gratifyingly participate in Richmonds city environmental progress. Additionally, the outcome of applying the acquired skills learned in the green job training academy indirectly results in a larger green-collar workforce within Richmond, ultimately minimizing the citys carbon footprint by reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions13. In addition to supporting the citys green initiatives, RichmondBUILD strongly supports the local economy. The organization is providing human capital for the regional as well as national economy, particularly in construction, engineering and green jobs. According to the EPA, RichmondBUILD has established strong connections with a variety of environmental and green employers in the regions, construction trade unions and community based organizations that ultimately help the participants to obtain and maintain employment14. For example, the citys Public Works Department has committed to hire graduates into 6-month Public Works job assignments15. According to an interview with program manager Fred Lucero, the reputation of the RichmondBUILD program has in fact increased the odds of program graduates obtaining jobs. Most local companies and organizations know about the programs great success and tend to rst approach program graduates for job opportunities in the elds they have been trained in. Many of the programs participants are hired by regional businesses and organizations that have invested in the program, participating in sustaining Richmonds local economy but most importantly enabling the now skilled workers to give back to their own communities. RichmondBUILDs ultimate focus is to guide Richmond residents away from the burdens of unemployment, violence, and a destructive lifestyle16. The organization has provided the community with not only a free education to learn the skills that will qualify them for higher paying jobs but also counseling and support services, both basic math and reading skills, resume reviews, and basic computer skills. RichmondBUILDs several offered opportunities have very often resulted in important overall lifestyle improvements.

To ensure the graduates have access to the best job opportunities, many local unions such as the Carpenters Union and the Laborers and Operating Engineers Union automatically accept a certain amount of graduates directly into apprenticeship programs17. The citys green initiatives include a program entitled the R3 Richmond Recovery Energy Upgrade & Solar Rebate that offers free solar energy systems upgrading the efciency of 42 qualifying low-income households18. In fact, other nancial incentives for installing solar panels are attributed if RichmondBUILD participants are hired to perform the installations19. Thus, RichmondBUILDs green career academy allows the graduates to participate in these programs that promote social equity within the citys environmental initiatives. In order for the program to be accessible to all Richmond residents, transportation restrictions and current job obligations also need to be addressed. The facilitys close proximity to a BART station, Amtrak station and local 72 and 71 bus routes allows any Richmond resident without private ways of transportation to participate in the program. Also, the training is scheduled Monday through Friday from 8a.m. to 2p.m., giving the employed program participants the afternoons and weekends to attend their current side jobs. According to Fred Lucero, those who are unemployed and dedicate their time to RichmondBUILDs training program usually live off of unemployment insurance. RichmondBUILD is a non-prot organization. Executive director Steve Duran within the Community and Economic Development department and director of employment and training Sal Vaca are RichmondBUILD representatives in the city of Richmond. Fred Lucero is RichmondBUILDs program manager, working alongside senior employment specialist Nicholas Alexander and case manager Candra Muhammad, who, according to the RichmondBUILD video interview with Muhammad, is in charge of choosing the now 50 students, recently increased from 30, out of over 300 applicants20. The certied and experienced instructors of RichmondBUILD play a very important role in the organizations structure. As of recently, the faculty consists of Santiago Bornel, specializing in carpentry work, and Demarco Wooten who is an educator in math. The green job academy is put on hold due to the programs dwindling funds and as a result, previous instructors leading in solar installation, electrical, and home performance testing are no longer working with the program. From what the RichmondBUILDs video reveals, all of these different mentors are important components to the organizations success outside of their appointed positions, each establishing a trustworthy relationship with the students.

129

Like any educational and skill developing program, funding is essential to the performance and maintenance of the programs expected services. The RichmondBUILD program costs between $5,000 and $6,000 per student, or about $400,000 per 15- week cycle21. Therefore, to survive as a non-prot organization, RichmondBUILD is largely supported by stimulus funds, federal grants and state funds, which account for about $2 million of a $2.5 million budget22. A $500,000 Job Training Brownelds grant of the $2 million total grants was received from the EPA to especially train program participants in environmental jobs23. The organization also depends on the nance of its many private/public partnerships. Private funds largely originate from Richmonds big employers such as Chevron, Pankow Builders, The Home Depot, Mack 5, etc In fact in 2011, according to Richmond Condential, Chevron, with the additional contributions of PG&E and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, announced a $115,000 grant to the program24. The public partnerships with the citys Redevelopment Agency, Housing Department, and Housing Authority have also helped RichmondBUILD to pay for the facilities and training25. Ultimately, the funding is provided at federal, state, city and private levels. In response to the programs successful construction and green-collar training program, RichmondBUILD has achieved many awards and honors, granting RichmondBUILD an impressive national recognition. In chronological order since 2008, the program won the 2008 FBIs Directors Community Leadership Award for the programs strive for community improvement, a Conservation Champion award by Senator Barbara Boxer, was selected as a semi-nalist for the 2009 Harvard Innovations in American Government award, was awarded an Honorable Mention for Outstanding Community Organization of the year by the U.S. Green Building Council (Northern California Chapter) and only last year won the Green Community College Summit Award for their outstanding curriculum. And according to the City of Richmonds website, the Apollo Alliance and Green For All deemed the program a national best practice in Green For Alls publication, Green-Collar Jobs in Americas Cities26. Wanting to reach out to a larger demographic range, RichmondBUILD also provides programs like YouthBUILD and the Summer Youth Program that offer opportunities to the younger demographic aged between 16 and 24 to get involved in the RichmondBUILD curriculum and gain job skills at a younger age as well as nd the guidance to complete their high school diplomas or GEDs and achieve the right transformations in life. Another program called the CRAFT program is a short but intensive training solely meant to upgrade the skills of residential construction workers27. To give graduates an even stronger foundation for the green economy, additional opportunities provided

by Richmond BUILD include the opportunity for trainees to take the nationally-recognized NABCEP solar certication test as well as learn about environmental literacy with the Roots of Success Environmental Literacy Curriculum developed by Dr. Raquel Pinderhughes28. Although RichmondBUILD has shown an outstanding performance in all areas, there are always challenges to maintaining an impressive program. Funding limits the acceptance of applicants in each cycle. As a result, a waiting list is continuously expanding. Director of Employment and Training Sal Vaca is hoping that with new sources of funding, despite the dwindling stimulus funds, they will not only continue to provide the current levels of training29 but also increase the amount of acceptances30, giving Richmond residents a better chance to access the programs benets. As of recent notication, the missing funds forced the discontinuation of certain training programs such as CRAFT or YouthBUILD. But despite the lack of funds, RichmondBUILD has increased the programs available spots from 30 to 50, illustrating RichmondBUILDs dedication to keep the program running and continuously provide great opportunities for Richmonds community. Another challenge highlighted in an interview with Fred Lucero brought up the misfortunate state of the economy stating that the jobs need to be there. Job placement has become more challenging, especially in the green industry. The need for green initiatives such as solar panel installations is not yet seen as a necessity to Richmonds lower-income residents who still have access to relatively cheap utilities, even though Mr. Lucero strongly believes in the importance of adjusting homes to be energy efcient. RichmondBUILDs mission states that the life improvement and job placement of an individual is the programs main focus. Consequently, the program needed to adapt to present job opportunities and reluctantly maneuver the training focus back to only construction skills, which is also a result of RichmondBUILDs tight budget. In contemplating the return of the programs green job training academy, Mr. Lucero brought up the valid problems that came with focusing the green job training on residential housing and not on commercial structures, which are owned by businesses that actually have the resources to make changes. Businesses that are located in bigger and heavier energy consuming and waste producing buildings could perform impacting results in Richmond if retrotted with the appropriate technologies promoting energy efciency and water conservation learned about in the RichmondBUILD training. If there were to be a green focus shift from residential to commercial within the green job training program and the citys commercial building ordinances, graduates would possibly be offered more local green job opportunities.

CASE STUDIES : Job Training

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Although RichmondBUILD has shown an outstanding performance in all areas, there are always challenges to maintaining an impressive program. Funding limits the acceptance of applicants in each cycle. As a result, a waiting list is continuously expanding. Director of Employment and Training Sal Vaca is hoping that with new sources of funding, despite the dwindling stimulus funds, they will not only continue to provide the current levels of training29 but also increase the amount of acceptances30, giving Richmond residents a better chance to access the programs benets. As of recent notication, the missing funds forced the discontinuation of certain training programs such as CRAFT or YouthBUILD. But despite the lack of funds, RichmondBUILD has increased the programs available spots from 30 to 50, illustrating RichmondBUILDs dedication to keep the program running and continuously provide great opportunities for Richmonds community. Another challenge highlighted in an interview with Fred Lucero brought up the misfortunate state of the economy stating that the jobs need to be there. Job placement has become more challenging, especially in the green industry. The need for green initiatives such as solar panel installations is not yet seen as a necessity to Richmonds lowerincome residents who still have access to relatively cheap utilities, even though Mr. Lucero strongly believes in the importance of adjusting homes to be energy efcient. RichmondBUILDs mission states that the life improvement and job placement of an individual is the programs main focus. Consequently, the program needed to adapt to present job opportunities and reluctantly maneuver the training focus back to only construction skills, which is also a result of RichmondBUILDs tight budget. In contemplating the return of the

programs green job training academy, Mr. Lucero brought up the valid problems that came with focusing the green job training on residential housing and not on commercial structures, which are owned by businesses that actually have the resources to make changes. Businesses that are located in bigger and heavier energy consuming and waste producing buildings could perform impacting results in Richmond if retrotted with the appropriate technologies promoting energy efciency and water conservation learned about in the RichmondBUILD training. If there were to be a green focus shift from residential to commercial within the green job training program and the citys commercial building ordinances, graduates would possibly be offered more local green job opportunities. Overall, RichmondBUILD proves to be a triple bottom line program, even though the programs green component is not as apparent as of recently. However, the members and faculty of RichmondBUILD are always trying to push the nancial boundaries in order to perform the best they can in all three environmental, economic and social components.

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References
1

23

EPA, 2012 & Orsburn, 2011

EPA, 2010 2012 2010

24Rogers 25Ella 26City 27City 28Ella

2Gutman, 3Connelly, 4Ella 5Ella

Baker Center, 2012 of Richmond, 2012 of Richmond, 2012 Baker Center, 2012 2010

Baker Center, 2012 Baker Center, 2012 2012

6RichmondWORKS, 7

29Connelly, 30Ella

EPA, 2012 to a New York Times article published in 2011

Baker Center, 2012

8According

entitled Number of Green Jobs Fails to Live Up to Promises, Richmond BUILD has found jobs for 159 of the 221 students who have entered its clean-energy program but only 35 graduates are employed with solar and energy efciency companies, with the balance doing more traditional building trades work. Nevertheless, Mr. Lucero said he considered each placement a success because his primary mission was to steer residents from the citys most violent neighborhoods away from a life of crime.
9EPA, 10City 11Ella

2012 of Richmond, 2012 Baker Center, 2012 2012 2010

12EPA,

13RichmondWORKS, 14EPA, 15Ella

2012

Baker Center, 2012 2011

16Glantz, 17

Ella Baker Center, 2012 of Richmond, 2012 Baker Center, 2012 2012

18City 19Ella

20Muhammad, 21Ella 22Ella

Baker Center, 2012 Baker Center, 2012

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Bibliography City of Richmond. RichmondBUILD Academy. Department of Employment & Training. City of Richmond, 2012. Web. 25 Oct. 2012 http://www.ci.richmond.ca.us/index.aspx? NID=1243 City of Richmond. R3: Richmond Recovery Solar Rebate. Department of City Management. City of Richmond, 2012. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. http://www.ci.richmond.ca.us/ index.aspx?NID=2491 Connelly, Christopher. Richmond Mayors Green Dream Still Distant. The Bay Citizen. (29 Nov. 2010): 1. www.baycitizen.org. Web. 1 Nov. 2012. Ella Baker Center. Richmond Build & Solar Richmond Making Green Work: Best Practices in Green-Collar Job Training. Ella Baker Center, 2012. Web. 30 Oct. 2012 < http:// makinggreenwork.ellabakercenter.org/case-studies/richmondbuild-solar-richmond> EPA. Senior EPA Ofcials Tour Construction Training Site, Stimulus Funding at Work in the Bay Area. RichmondBUILD E-Media Kit. EPA, 2012. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/region9/mediacenter/ richmond EPA. EPA Region 9 Brownelds Program Success Stories, RichmondBUILD, Richmond, CA. US EPA; OSWER; Ofce of Brownelds and Land Revitalization. EPA, 2012. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/region9/ brownelds/land-revitalize/pdf/r9-fs-richmond-build.pdf

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Environment Now
By Miguel Guerrero

Environment Now is run by the San Francisco Department of the Environment, located in the heart of San Franciscos Civic Center neighborhood; within close proximity to the Tenderloin and Hayes Valley neighborhoods this area is home to many low-income families. Although the Civic Center contains some of the citys largest municipal and cultural buildings it also experiences a high level of drug and criminal activity and inhabits a considerably large population of homeless residents. The Environment Now program is currently headquartered in the historic War Memorial Veterans building on Van Ness Avenue just a few blocks from the Civic Center BART Station, which is a vital public transportation hub for the estimated 7.15 million people living in Californias San Francisco Bay Area. Jobs Now, a subsidized employment program, was created In 2009 by the city of San Francisco in response to federal funding that was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) (1). The program was later renamed Environment Now in 2010. Environment Nows mission is to grow the green economy through green job training, ensuring that San Francisco residents have the necessary knowledge and skills needed to succeed in this emerging industry (2). The twelve-month training program prepares underserved residents of San Francisco for green jobs by providing soft skills development, technical on-the-job training, while building a strong foundation of environmental education and stewardship principles. Environment Now equips its participants to be leaders in the green economy by offering a multitude of services. Participants are offered a full time 40 hour a week position, living wages, medical benets, and an opportunity to extend their residency by an additional twelve months based upon a positive performance evaluation after the rst year of employment (3). Since its creation, Environment Now has had two graduating classes and is currently in its third cycle of trainees. The rst Jobs Now group was composed of 80 participants. However, due to lack of federal funding the subsequent classes were made up of a signicantly smaller size with 20 participants in each group. New members begin with an introduction to environmental literacy by utilizing The

Roots of Success curriculum. This eco-literacy curriculum is composed of nine different modules that begin by introducing trainees to the natural systems of the Earth, the human impacts on these natural systems, climate change science and ultimately provides an understanding of how they can improve the wellbeing of their communities through the implementation of green collar jobs (4). In addition to cultivating a culture of environmental stewardship trainees are also provided with professional and personal life skills. Throughout the length of training Environment Now staff are able to develop strong professional communication skills through continual computer assignments, email correspondence, daily feedback from supervisors, and weekly team meetings. Since its infancy Jobs Now was created to reach lowincome families in underserved communities. The target audience included underemployed San Francisco residents that were parents of a minor. In order to be eligible for this program parents must have earned less than 200% of the federal poverty level. According to the San Francisco Human Services Agency (SF-HAS), 200% of federal poverty level varies by household size but is about $3,000 per month for a family of three (5). Most recently, Environment Now no longer calls for its participants to be parents, yet still requires applicants to be residents of San Francisco when hired, and strives to serve residents from lower income communities. Since almost 45% of residents in San Francisco speak English less than very well special consideration is given to bi-lingual applicants that are uent in Spanish, Mandarin, or Cantonese (6). Additionally, Environment now has also shifted from hiring a primarily ecoilliterate population to hiring top performers of other citysponsored green job training programs in San Francisco creating a career pipeline for these workers. Recent participants include graduates of local solar apprenticeship programs, Asian Neighborhood Design, SF Clean City and the San Francisco Conservation Corps (7). By acting as the next step in the green job sector, Environment Now is able to ensure that trainees entering the program already contain basic understanding of sustainability principles and are more passionate about environmental conservation.

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Environment Now meets the environmental, economic, and social equity objectives of the triple bottom line by actively seeking and employing underemployed residents that typically face barriers to employment. By doing this, the program reduces levels of unemployment and crime therefore improving the overall quality of life for those living within underserved communities in San Francisco. Additionally, graduates of the program leave with a deeper appreciation for natural resource management and conservation that they are then able to share with members of their residing communities, which in turn will help foster a new generation of eco-conscious residents. There are multiple ways that Environment Now contributes to environmental health. Environment Now is a program offered through The San Francisco Department of the Environment. SF Environments ultimate mission is to create visionary policies and innovative programs that promote social equity, protect human health, and lead the way toward a sustainable future (8). The scope of its programs include: clean transportation, climate change, eco products and services, energy, environmental justice, green building, green business program, school education, toxics reduction, urban nature and zero waste. Participants of the Environment Now training program promote many of these programs through ongoing community outreach and canvassing activities. On October 1, 2012 the city of San Francisco began a new checkout bag ordinance requiring all retailers to discontinue distributing single use plastic bags. This new policy was created to eliminate the use of single use plastic bags, which have been shown to harm marine life, clog street drains, and are challenging to recycle. To promote this new ordinance Environment Now trainees participated in over fty community outreach canvass bag giveaways to help residents avoid the 10cent per bag charge at the counter. Those interested in receiving a free bag were asked to sign a pledge to promise to do their best to reuse their new canvas bag. As of December 2012 Environment Now staff and the Department of the Environment were able to distribute over 9,000 locally produced, reusable, scrap-cloth canvas bags with nearly 8,000 pledges made by residents (9). This outreach not only educates members of the community about the new policy, but also helps San Francisco get closer to reaching its aggressive goal of zero waste by the year 2020. Another ongoing project that Environment Now staff participate in is residential bin monitoring and outreach. This is essentially a program where trainees examine residential green (compost), blue (recycling) and black (landll) bins and report any notable bin contamination. If there are multiple items that have been placed in the wrong colored bin then residents receive a tag that communicates this discrepancy. The Environment Now team will continue to monitor the same neighborhood for an extended period of time, and if the same household receives three tags for non-compliance, then staff will personally visit the address to help educate the people living in that residence about proper disposal of items in order

to ensure that they are in compliance with the citys composting and recycling ordinance moving forward (10). Some other programs that help contribute to San Franciscos environmental health include: free energy assessments and installation of more energy efcient equipment through SF Energy Watch, educating contractors about the city ordinance that requires them to recycle at least 65% of materials that are created through construction and demolition, and working with event planners to guarantee that they conduct zero waste events. Expanding green economy is the ultimate mission that Environment Now stands to serve. By training low-income, underemployed residents for relatively good paying jobs Environment Now is directly contributing to the economic well being of the communities participants reside in. As a result of programs like Energy Watch, where energy assessments are conducted, Environment Now is also able to help small businesses save money on energy costs and generate economic revenue for third party companies in the green economy through residential upgrades therefore creating additional green job opportunities within this growing industry (11). Additionally, reports have shown that increased diversion rates in the citys recycling and reuse programs increased demand for new green jobs. In fact, waste diversion models like the Recology artist in residence program at San Franciscos waste diversion station have helped inspire a new market of artists that reuse and refurbish discarded materials that would otherwise be sent to landll. Environment Now continues to enhance social equity in the city of San Francisco. By continuing to offer fair living wages and medical health benets for its trainees participants are able to provide a better quality of life for their families. It is a proven fact that when families are able to enjoy a higher standard of living this in turn offers a cyclical reward to the community as a whole. Its as simple as that. Happier, healthier families help reduce the amount of desperation that is often associated with higher crime rates in cities. In mid 2011 San Francisco Mayor Ed Lee announced a signicant drop in total overall crime rates. Statistics showed that that violent crimes in San Francisco dropped by 17% since 2008. Mayor Ed Lee is quoted saying, Violent crime in San Francisco is at historic lows and these latest statistics show that we are on track to reduce crimes rates in our City even more this year (12) A book written by green jobs champion, Van Jones, titled The Green Collar Industry points out that green collar opportunities should be offered to the underserved, which then directly affects the social well being of the communities they live in. He writes, We want to ensure that those communities that were locked out of the last centurys pollution-based economy will be locked into the new clean and green economy...we dont have any throwaway children or neighborhoods (13) By providing green job training programs like Environment Now, the City of Francisco has been able to prove that its levels of social equity continue to contribute to improved levels of social equity.

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As we look to the future of the green economy it is vital to study models like the case of Environment Now. In order to continue offering their services smaller scale non- prots are almost entirely nancially dependent on local and federal support because they do not directly generate high levels of revenue for their organizations. Federal funding that was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) must continue to be streamed from the federal level to local green job training programs. Since funding from programs like ARRA have since run out, Environment Now must be fully funded through grants and city refuse rates. In addition to large grants made available through organizations like the EPA The Department of the Environment has managed to generate some funding for this green job-training program through revenue generated from its growing refuse collection program. Recently, San Francisco announced an unprecedented 80% diversion rate for recyclable and compostable materials that would otherwise be thrown into landlls in the past (13). This is the highest waste diversion rate in the country and shows that a city can improve its overall environmental, economic, and social equity by creating programs like Environments Now green job training that strive to follow the triple bottom line objectives therefore creating the cleaner greener cities of our future.

References (1) San Francisco Human Services Agency (SF-HSA) (2) San Francisco Department of the Environment (3) Pauli Ojea - Environment Now Green Jobs Coordinator (4) Raquel Pinderhughes- Roots of Success Curriculum (5) San Francisco Human Services Agency (SF-HSA) Jobs Now infopacket (6) U.S. Gov. 2011 census report (7) San Francisco Department of the Environment website (8) San Francisco Department of the Environment website (9) SFE Outreach Data Sheet (10) James Slattery- Environment Now Assistant Coordinator (11) Donnie Olivera- SF Environment Communications and Outreach Director (12) Ed Lee- San Francisco Ofce of the Mayor (13) Van Jones The Green Collar Economy Bibliography Jones, Van, Ariane Conrad, and Robert Francis Kennedy. The Green-collar Economy: How One Solution Can Fix Our Two Biggest Problems. New York: HarperOne, 2008. Print. Ojea, Pauli. "Environment Now Interview." Personal interview. 2 Nov. 2012. Olivera, Donnie. "Environment Now Interview." Personal interview. 3 Dec. 2012 Slattery, James. "Environment Now Interview." Personal interview. 2 Nov 2012

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Cypress Mandela Training Center, Inc.


By Linda Becker

The Cypress Mandela Training Center is located in West Oakland, California. West Oakland is a disadvantaged community that suffers much higher unemployment than the rest of the region. The unemployment rate in the San FranciscoOakland-Fremont metropolitan statistical area was a little over 10% in 2010, but in Oakland alone, that number was closer to 17%, and in parts of West Oakland in 2010, that rate was approaching 44% (1) (2). The poverty rate is also much higher in Oakland (22%) than in the region in general (11%)(3). In addition, it is a community with several severe environmental problems and environmental justice issues. For example, West Oakland has much higher levels of particulate matter than the region in general due to its close proximity to truck, train and ship trafc to and from the Port of Oakland, which is nearby, and from freeway trafc. The residents of West Oakland have been found to have higher rates of heat disease in comparison with other areas in the region, which has been linked to the high particulate matter levels (4). The Cypress Mandela Training Centers mission is to assist disadvantaged Oakland residents by providing adults with construction job training, including for green construction jobs, along with life skills training to its residents free of charge. The training is coupled with employment assistance to ensure graduates end up in meaningful jobs and obtain ongoing services and follow-up to increase job retention rates. The Cypress Mandela Training Center was founded in 1993 in the wake of the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake in an effort to keep construction jobs related to the clean up and rebuilding of the destroyed segment of the freeway running through West Oakland (the Cypress Freeway) within the local community. Community groups and the City of Oakland lobbied the California Department of Transportation (CalTrans), which was responsible for the project, to re-route the freeway in order to lessen the impact on the West Oakland community, and to have local residents, minorities, and women make up 45% of the workforce on the project. The Cypress Mandela Training Center was established to train local residents for construction jobs. CalTrans met the 45% hiring goals, and although certain

groups were still underrepresented, the Cypress Mandela Training Center had 65 people from its program hired for the project (90% of the graduates from the rst group of trainees)(5)(6). Based on this success, the Cypress Mandela Training Center has continued its work, and has, since its inception trained over 2,400 people, most of whom have been placed in jobs. Even at the height of the recent recession, Cypress Mandela Training Center graduates maintained a 75% placement rate (6)(7). In 2008, the Cypress Mandela Training Center launched a new green jobs training program. This program prepares graduates for environmental jobs within the green sector and teaches them skills such as solar installation and building weatherization (8). To ensure employment of their graduates, the Cypress Mandela Training Center tailors its training programs to reect skills needed by green rms (9). The main service provided by the Cypress Mandela Training Center is construction job training. They offer a free (but unpaid) 16-week program that introduces participants to basic applied construction skills, such as cement work, framing, steel and ironwork, plumbing and electrical, to mention just a few (8). In addition, they offer a 10week program that allows participants to earn a green building certication (7). In this course participants are taught environmental cleanup, green construction skills, and standards like hazardous waste operations and emergency response standards, disaster site work, chemical spill cleanup, mold inspection, mold and asbestos abatement, and solar installation (10). In all, students can graduate with up to 8 different certicates and up to 8 units of college credit (6)(8).

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In both programs, the training is both hands-on and classroom-based. Examples of more theoretical curriculums include the fundamentals of solar technology, applied math for construction, how the construction industry operates, and the role of apprenticeships within it. However, one of the keys to the Cypress Mandela Training Centers success is that, in addition to the vocational training, it also focuses on teaching life skills, such as time management, budgeting, nutrition, chemical dependency avoidance, job survival skills, and anger management (8). The programs mentors participants throughout the training and through their rst year of employment, and help them in other ways, such as expunging criminal records (10). To reinforce life skills, the program requires its participants to be clean, drug free, to show up on time, and follows a bootcamp format (7). Another critical service that the Cypress Mandela Training Center provides is job placement. Though its original partnership was with CalTrans, the program has gone on to partner with many other rms and agencies to place their graduates in jobs. Many participants go into paid union apprenticeship positions, while graduates of the green jobs program are placed in local green businesses, such as solar companies (with whom the Cypress Mandela Training Center has worked closely to ensure their graduates skills are closely matched to the employers needs). One of the challenges facing green construction job training programs like the one offered by the Cypress Mandela Training Center is that graduates are not always able to nd jobs within the green sector upon graduation. They compete with the many other unemployed but experienced tradespeople looking for work, and the competition for available positions within this desirable eld is thus erce (7). Nonetheless, in its rst year, 25 of 40 graduates from the Centers green jobs program were placed in solar and other green construction jobs (20). And, according to the programs executive director Arthur Shanks, the Cypress Mandela Training Center place more green jobs graduates in actual green jobs than other similar local job training programs. By the second year of

operations, in 2010, all the graduates from the green jobs program had been placed in union apprentice positions, and over 60% of those placements were in green construction jobs (solar installation, weatherization, and so on) (21). The target audience served by the Cypress Mandela Training Center is economically disadvantaged, mostly young, minority men and women over the age of 18 from West Oakland. Residents of several other nearby communities are also served, including those from Oakland, San Leandro, Berkeley, Richmond, and Emeryville (10). The Cypress Mandela Training Center staff also work with the judicial system, offering young (18-22 year olds), rsttime drug offenders the opportunity to have their criminal record expunged, in exchange for participation in the program (6). No previous construction experience is needed to enter into the program. The goal is to provide job training, and ultimately job opportunities for people who ordinarily face barriers to employment. The Cypress Mandela Training Center meets the social, environmental and nancial objectives of the triple bottom line by training low-income and disadvantaged people for work in the green sector, in construction and in environmental cleanup work. The Centers work reduces unemployment, crime, and health-related illnesses in the community in which it is located, and thus provides nancial benets over and above social and environmental ones. On a larger scale, the green construction work results in lower carbon emissions, which is of social, environmental, and nancial importance for everyone. The Cypress Mandela Training Center meets the environmental part of the triple bottom line objective in two ways. First, its green jobs program readies its participants for environmental construction and cleanup work. Graduates go into jobs installing solar panels, weatherizing homes, and are knowledgeable about materials recycling and energy saving construction techniques, to mention but a few skills. As a result, participants are able to work on construction projects that result in lower carbon emissions. The environmental cleanup skills taught by the Cypress Mandela Training Center benet the

environment. Graduates are able to participate in chemical spill and hazardous waste cleanup efforts, and mold and asbestos abatement, all of which help protect the environment (and consequently human health) anywhere graduates are hired. The Cypress Mandela Training Center has even partnered with a company called Global Diving and Salvage, the largest diving contractor on the West Coast, and an approved EPA contractor. Global Diving has hired several of Cypress Mandelas graduates for various projects, and has plans to offer additional training around marine cleanup/emergency response for up to 100 more graduates (11).

The second way it meets the environmental component of the triple bottom line objective is by participating in environmental cleanup projects in its own community. The Cypress Mandela Training Centers original objective to train workers for construction jobs within the local community still stands, though theres been an added emphasis on environmental remediation and green jobs, with a goal of improving the very community inhabited by program participants and graduates. As an example, the Cypress Mandela Training Center is participating in a lead abatement project in the South Prescott neighborhood in West Oakland. This low-income residential area was built on landll containing lead debris (paint and pipes) following the San Francisco 1908 Earthquake. The neighborhood is also located close to heavy industry and highways, both which have added to the lead problem. As a result lead levels in the soil there have been found to be twice the recommended federal limit. To address this issue, a cleanup project has been launched, and instead of using the standard technique of removing and replacing the topsoil, ground up sh bones are being tilled into the soil to neutralize the lead and make it bio-unavailable. Not only is this a much cheaper approach, it is also less disruptive to the residents.

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The EPA oversees the project, and has worked closely with the community, and graduates from the Cypress Mandela Training Center have been hired to perform the work (12). The hope is that these workers will become experts at this technique, such that they can eventually teach the community how to do it on its own (9). So far the project has cleaned up more than 100 residential properties (13). The Cypress Mandela Training Center is a nonprot organization, so it does not generate direct revenues and prots from its operations. But it still meets the economic part of the triple bottom line objective in several ways. Most importantly, it reduces the unemployment in its community by training individuals who otherwise would be unlikely to secure employment. As mentioned, even in the recession years, two thirds of graduates moved into jobs after graduation (prior to the recession, that rate was closer to 90%)(7). The job retention rates for graduates are also very high. The resulting reduced unemployment has several economic benets. First, it reduces the amount of benets and assistance paid out by local, state, and federal governments. Further, these working individuals contribute to the public coffers through their payroll and income taxes. Finally, reduced unemployment leads to lower crime rates in the community, especially when you consider that some of the participants in the program were diverted from the criminal justice system. There are also economic benets of the environmental cleanup work that the Cypress Mandela Training Center is involved in. Property values will increase in the community as contamination is removed, and the health of the residents will improve, lowering healthcare costs. The Cypress Mandela Training Center has partnered with many green businesses, providing them with employees that are trained in the specic areas for which they have needs. Some of these partners have agreed to provide paid apprenticeship for graduates, while others have agreed to interview and potentially hire them. Some of these partners are SolarCity, Sunlight & Power, Borrego Solar, Weather Tight, and Canyon Construction (14). The Cypress Mandela Training Center also partners with unions, like IBEW Local 1245, to teach participants about the value of unions, and to set them up with union apprenticeships upon graduation (15). The social, or equity objective of the triple bottom line aligns well with the Cypress Mandela Training Centers main objective of providing job training for community members who might face barriers to employment. As previously mentioned, the Oakland area has higher unemployment and poverty rate than the surrounding region, and thus by training and preparing

disadvantaged members of this community for jobs that pay a living wage, it is promoting equity. The Centers green jobs program, in particular, helps meet the social and equity goals of the triple bottom line. First, green jobs offer workers long-term career possibilities since it is an emerging and fastgrowing industry. Green construction jobs also pay well and have high levels of job satisfaction (16). In addition, the environmental cleanup work that some Cypress Mandela Training Center graduates are involved in within their own community is meaningful work, and work that makes a difference for the both the worker and for the health of their community. Equity is also promoted when environmental hazards like lead and particulate matter are cleaned up or reduced in the community, because this kind of pollution often leads to health issues, which are in turn further barriers to employment for economically disadvantaged people. Life-skills education provided by the Cypress Mandela Training Center also helps to promote equity. It implicitly acknowledges that many of its students come from difcult circumstances, and that these past experiences can act as barriers to employment. This is why the program teaches skills such as anger management, teamwork, job survival skills, substance abuse problems, and mentoring throughout the program and through graduates rst work experiences (15). The staff at the center also act as inspiration for the program participants. In a 2005 CBS 5 program on the Center, for example, one African-American student interview indicated how inspired and encouraged she had been by the success of the all-African-American staff, and how as a consequence she sought to position herself for success as well (18). Furthermore, the training itself is free to participants, thus making it more accessible than conventional trade school or community college. However, it is unpaid and participants must be able to support themselves while attending the program. To enable participants to work while going through the training program, classes are held early and end at 3:30 PM everyday. To further improve accessibility, the Cypress Mandela Training Centers 38,000 square-foot training facility is located close to public transit and they offer transportation assistance to those who need it (8). As mentioned, over 2,400 people have already graduated from the Cypress Mandela Training Center. The program has a long waiting list, and there is a oneweek long vetting process to ensure those who enter the program are truly committed. Once accepted, only about 5% drop out, and of those that graduate, 75% nd work in construction (including in green construction) (15). In other words, the Cypress Mandela Training Center is very successfully meeting its social objective.

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Finally, the Center promotes equity by partnering with unions, and by teaching their participants about the role unions play in safeguarding safe working conditions, wages, and benets (15). The Cypress Mandela Training Center was originally part of the Oakland Private Industry Council when it was launched in 1993. In 1998, it merged with the Women in Skilled Trades Program from Laney Community College, and then in 2004 it became an independent, non-prot organization (8)(5). It has an Executive Director, Arthur Shanks, who has been there since its inception, and a Board of Directors (6). The board is made up of professionals working in several different elds that complement the mission of the Cypress Mandela Training Center. For example, there are board members who work within the judicial system, within labor unions, private construction, human resources, community based organizing, and social and environmental justice (8). The Cypress Mandela Training Center also has paid staff and instructors. In addition to the board and paid staff, the Cypress Mandela Training Center has partnered with several public and private entities. For example, it has partnered with the Oakland Housing Authority, the Alameda County Workforce Investment Board, East Bay One-Stop Career Centers, CalTrans, the Peralta Community College District, and several union organizations (8). The Centers green jobs program is structured as a three-way partnership between itself, Laney Community College, and a non-prot organization called Growth Sector Inc.. Laney Community College manages the nancing and design of the program; the Cypress Mandela Training Center recruits trainees and conducts the actual training, and Growth Sector works with green business, (e.g. solar companies), to nd employment for the program graduates (14). The Cypress Mandela Training Center Corporation is a 501c3 non-prot organization. This status exempts it from some federal taxes, and more importantly makes donations to it tax-deductible. The training and services offered is free to participants, so they do not have revenues from their core business activity. Like many other non-prots, their main source of funding is from both grants and donations. Much of the Centers initial funding came from the Federal Highway Administration (through CalTrans), which provided $500,000 to launch the program, and another $1 million to keep it going following completion of the freeway re-construction project (5). The U.S. Department of Labor, the State of California, and private funds, including grants from other non-prots like the Strive For Change Foundation and the East Bay Community Foundation have kept the program going

after its initial objective was met (6)(22)(23). The Cypress Mandela Training Center has also been the recipient of multiple EPA grants. In 1998 it received its rst EPA Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training Program grant (which runs for two years), and it has since continued to receive this grant in every year it has applied (6). The Cypress Mandela Training Center green jobs training program was started with $250,000 of funding from the City of Oakland, out of money from the Recovery and Reinvestment Act stimulus fund. The Center obtained job-training grants of nearly $2 million from the Department of Labor, as well as a few other large grants (including one from the state and one from a private fund) (14). The green jobs program has also received the EPA Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training Program grant, the most recent one for $200,000 in June of 2012 (10). The cost per student for the green jobs training program is approximately $12,000 per student (19). The Cypress Mandela Training Center also conducts fundraisers, like a golf tournament held in Danville and hosted by the Alameda County and Contra Costa Builders Exchange (17). The Cypress Mandela Training Center has received several awards over the last 19 years for the work they have done to improve their community. Two examples, for instance: It received the Civil Rights Partnership Award from the Department of Transportation for its work around enabling minorities and women to enter the construction trade. And it was awarded the Exemplary Public Interest Contribution Award (EPIC) from the Department of Labor for work to improve equal employment access (8).

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References (1) U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2) East Bay Alliance for a Sustainable Economy (3) National Telecommunications and Information Administration (4) Johns, Bailey and Delfn-Polk (5) U.S. Dept. of Transportaion Federal Highway Administration (6) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011 (7) Shanafelt (8) Cypress Mandela Training Center (9) Oakland Local, 2011 (10) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012 (11) Oakland Local, 2012 (12) Barringer (13) Young (14) Ella Baker Center (15) Wolfe (16) Pinderhughes (17) Builders Exchange of Alameda County (18) CBS 5 (19) Jones (20) Van Lenning (21) Lo (22) East Bay Community Foundation (23) Strive For Change Foundation

Bibliography - Barringer, Felicity. "To Nullify Lead, Add a Bunch of Fish Bones." The New York Times 20 July 2011. - Builders Exchange of Alameda County. "The Weekly Bulletin." 24 September 2012. Builders Exchange of Alameda County. 4 October 2012 <http://www.beac.com/>. - CBS 5. "30 Minutes - Bay Area: Oakland School Builds Homes, Success Stories ." 16 September 2005. <http:// www.cypressmandela.org/videos>. - Cypress Mandela Training Center. Cypress Mandela Training Center. 30 October 2012 <http:// www.cypressmandela.org>. - East Bay Alliance for a Sustainable Economy. The state of work in the East Bay and Oakland. Oakland: East Bay Alliance for a Sustainable Economy, 2012. - East Bay Community Foundation. East Bay Community Foundation gives $500,000 for jobs. 14 June 2010. 2 December 2012. <http://www.ebcf.org/east-bay-community-foundationgives-500000-for-jobs/>. - Ella Baker Center. Oakland Green Jobs Corps. 2012. 3 November 2012 <http:// makinggreenwork.ellabakercenter.org/case-studies/oaklandgreen-jobs-corps/>. - Johns, Kasandra, et al. "A Comparison of Particulate Matter Concentrations in West Oakland and Berkeley, California." January 2012. East Bay Academy for Young Scientists. 3 November 2012 <http:// www.lawrencehallofscience.org/ays/downloads/2011Particulate-Matter-abstract.html>. - Jones, Carolyn, Oakland Green Job Corps grads get to work. 23 June 2009. 30 November 2012 <http:// www.sfgate.com/business/article/Oakland-Green-Job-Corpsgrads-get-to-work-3228238.php>. - Lo, Puck, Jobs, Yes. Green Collar Ones, No. 16 June 2010. 1 December 2012 <http://www.eastbayexpress.com/

ebx/jobs-yes-green-collar-ones-no/Content? oid=1834168&showFullText=true>. - National Telecommunications and Information Administration. National Broadband Map. 31 December 2011. 31 October 2012 <http://www.broadbandmap.gov/ summarize/state/california/msa-metropolitan-statistical-area/ san-francisco-oakland-fremont,ca-metro-area>. - Oakland Local. Residential lead pollution cleanup in West Oakland will use new green technology. 24 June 2011. 2 November 2012 <http://oaklandlocal.com/article/residentiallead-pollution-cleanup-west-oakland-will-use-new-greentechnology-toxic-tour-2>. . Salvage company partners with Cypress Mandela to help grow future workforce. 21 March 2012. 2 November 2012 <http://oaklandlocal.com/article/oakland-salvage-companypartners-cypress-mandela-help-grow-future-workforce>. - Pinderhughes, Raquel. "Pathways Out of Poverty through Green Collar Jobs." 18 February 2009. 4 November 2012 <www.accca.org>. - Shanafelt, Callie. Cypress Mandela Training Center High unemployment, toxic environment; one solution. 16 August 2011. 30 October 2012 <http://kalwnews.org/facility/ cypress-mandela-training-center>. - Strive For Change Foundation. What we do. 2 December 2012. <http://www.striveforchangefoundation.org/ grants.html>. - U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Local Area Unemployment Statistics - Unemployment Rates for Metropolitan Areas. 2010. 31 October 2012 <http:// www.bls.gov/lau/lamtrk10.htm>. - U.S. Dept. of Transportaion Federal Highway Administration. Environmental Justice Case Studies Cypress Freeway Replacement Project. 29 August 2011. 29 October 2012 <http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/ environmental_justice/case_studies/case5.cfm>. - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2012 Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training Grant Fact Sheet. June 2012. 1 November 2012 <http:// cfpub.epa.gov/bf_factsheets/gfs/index.cfm? xpg_id=7927&display_type=HTML>. . "Brownelds: Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training Success Story." October 2011. EPA: Brownelds and Land Revatilization. 1 November 2012 <http://www.epa.gov/brownelds/success/success_jtss.htm>. - Van Lenning, Ryan. Back to school. 2009. 30 November 2012 <http://ecologycenter.org/terrain/issues/winter-2009/ back-to-school/ - Wolfe, Eric. "Will Green Jobs Be Good Jobs?" 17 September 2009. IBEW Local 1245. 3 November 2012 <www.ibew1245.com/news.../ Green_Jobs_Good_Jobs_9-17-09.pdf>. - Young, Stephanie. Battling lead contamination, one sh bone at a time. 9 July 2012. 2 November 2012 <http:// coastguard.dodlive.mil/2012/07/battling-lead-contaminationone-sh-bone-at-a-time/>.

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Additional links and resources - Anthony, Laura. Assignment 7: Training center offers a fresh start. 19 March 2009. 31 October 2012 <http:// abclocal.go.com/kgo/story?section=news/ assignment_7&id=6719333>. - Benjamin, Cassandra and Sara Kimberlin. "Putting the East Bay to work: Sustainable jobs for the underemployed." East Bay Community Foundation, 2009. - City of Oakland California. City Administration. 26 October 2012 <http://www2.oaklandnet.com/Government/ o/CityAdministration/DOWD005832>. - Claiborne , Ron. 'Going Home': Ron Claiborne Returns to Oakland, Calif. 29 September 2010. 2 November 2012 <http://abcnews.go.com/WN/home-ron-claiborne-returnsoakland-calif/story?id=11756296#.UJlU_YU1bk1>. - Cypress Mandela Training Center. Cypress Mandela Training Center. 30 October 2012 <http:// www.cypressmandela.org>. - Oakland Local. Residential lead pollution cleanup in West Oakland will use new green technology. 24 June 2011. 2 November 2012 <http://oaklandlocal.com/article/residentiallead-pollution-cleanup-west-oakland-will-use-new-greentechnology-toxic-tour-2>. - PG&E. Oakland: Aspiring Utility Workers Learn Pole Climbing Skills During High Voltage Cirque du Soleil. 11 June 2012. 1 November 2012 <http://www.pgecurrents.com/ 2012/06/11/oakland-aspiring-utility-workers-learn-poleclimbing-skills-during-%E2%80%98high-voltage-cirque-dusoleil%E2%80%99/>. - Slaper, Timothy F. and Tanya J. Hall. The Triple Bottom Line: What Is It and How Does It Work? 25 October 2012 <http://www.ibrc.indiana.edu/ibr/2011/spring/ article2.html>.

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COLORS Detroit Restaurant and Hospitality Opportunities for Workers Institute (CHOW)
By Meg Howie

COLORS is a non-prot restaurant and training institute that has triple bottom line objectives. It opened September 12th, 2011. Their mission is to contribute to the environmental, economic and social sustainability of the food industry in Detroit by providing free training and employment to local workers, and by supporting local food production. 1 COLORS impacts on its community in many ways. COLORS equips unemployed community residents with the life skills, job training, and work experience they need to pursue careers in the hospitality and food service industry2. The COLORS Hospitality Opportunities for Workers Institute (CHOW) is a ten week in-house training program at the restaurant. It provides free training in practical restaurant and hospitality skills and career coaching to workers from the industry who are unemployed. An eight week paid internship in the restaurant is also available. CHOW started in January 2012, as a program of the Restaurant Opportunities Center (ROC) of Michigan and is recognized by the National Restaurant Association.ROC-Michigan is an independent afliate of ROC-United, an organization who advocates for low wage restaurant and food service workers. 3 COLORS also nurtures entrepreneurship and teaches the skills necessary to set up small businesses. This not only provides jobs, but advancement opportunities for workers in an industry where there are typically low levels of education and little upward mobility within workplaces. 4

earning below the poverty line. Workers, because of their training and education levels, are perceived as easily replaceable and often experience very poor working conditions. 5 COLORS aims to demonstrate that just and fair treatment of workers is possible and necessary in the food service sector, and directly improve the lives of the workers they hire and train. They primarily target women, people of color and other minorities through their outreach to community groups, but the explicit conditions for being accepted to the program are only that the applicant is currently unemployed and has been working in the food service industry.6

The secondary audience served by COLORS are the local urban farms and businesses who are provided with a buyer for their produce. COLORS has a goal of using COLORS provides a market for local produce to 80% locally sourced ingredients. The current percentage urban farmers and provides fresh, healthy, organic food to that is bought locally is not available, but they are consumers. It serves as a model of best or 'high road' sourcing food from a variety of local businesses, including practice to the rest of the food service industry in Detroit. Brother Nature Produce, Avalon International Breads, It also functions as a venue for other community group Trafc Jam cheeses, and several other urban farms within events, building and supporting community networks in Detroit. 7 By purchasing locally, COLORS is the city. contributing to Detroit's local economy, keeping spending within the city. The primary target audience of COLORS are unemployed workers in Detroit's food service industry. COLORS serves other restaurant owners with a best The industry is mostly a low wage industry, with a practice example of how to run a just, sustainable food median wage of $8.32 an hour, and 37% of workers institution. It participates in the Detroit Business Roundtable which exists to facilitate sharing of ideas on 'high road' practices.

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COLORS-Detroit has triple bottom line goals of reducing its impact on the planet, contributing to Detroit's economy and promoting equity in the food service industry. COLORS uses locally sourced, organic ingredients wherever possible. It follows best practices to ensure a quality dining experience, contributing to its nancial sustainability, and strengthens the economy by purchasing locally and by providing skilled, employable workers to the food service industry. It aims to give opportunities to those who are discriminated against within the industry, specically women, workers of color and immigrants. COLORS Restaurant meets its environmental goals by sourcing as much produce as possible from local farms. Their salad greens come from Brother Nature Produce, an organic urban farm located one mile from downtown Detroit. They serve grass fed lamb and beef and organic bread from local bakery Avalon Breads.8 Locally grown food strengthens local economies by providing jobs and prots close to home. Urban agriculture in Detroit is in a promising situation as local government policies are being considered to make it easier to site and run urban gardens and farms.9. For Detroit to maximize its urban gardening however, it needs support from local businesses to ensure produce will have a consistent market. Locally grown organic food is benecial to human health and the health of the environment. The food is often of higher quality, as it does not need preservatives, processing, and excess packaging to get from production to consumption. It

reduces air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions which lowers ill health and climate change effects. 10 The restaurant also uses energy efcient appliances to minimize its energy use, which is cost effective as well as having less impact on the environment. 11 While COLORS is reducing its impact on the environment by using local foods, its primary focus is on promoting equity rather than environmental goals. The restaurant planned to keep track of the percentage of food bought locally and make it available online, but they have failed to do this as yet.12 This is an area that COLORS is challenged in, transparency creates accountability and is important if the restaurant is to act as a role model for other businesses. COLORS is a not-for-prot enterprise, but it functions as a business and revenue generated from the restaurant is an important part of its nancial make up. The COLORS Hospitality for Workers Institute trains workers and interns in skills needed to run successful hospitality and food service businesses. This means that there is a high skill level amongst the staff, resulting in quality food and good service. As well as offering hospitality skills, CHOW offers resume assistance, career coaching and job placement services. Through this approach, it is feeding qualied workers with excellent employment skills back into Detroit's economy.

workers in the industry had worked while sick due to a lack of paid and even unpaid sick days. The majority of the workers interviewed reported that they would lose their jobs if they took time off due to sickness. 13 The spread of illness caused by sick staff, particularly in the food service industry, has signicant public health and productivity costs. Another negative economic impact is the costs related with high staff turnovers. Replacing and training new staff is costly for employers because of lost productivity. However, the primary reason that people leave jobs in the food service industry is because of the poor working conditions and wages. ROC-Michigan's report found that it is possible to follow best practices for employment conditions and be economically successful. They pay culinary staff $11 to $15 an hour14, with a goal of being able to pay living wages of $15.50 an hour 15. COLORS' practice of paying well above average wages and quality training make it an attractive place to work, reducing turnover costs and maximizing the value and productivity of each employee.

As an initiative of the Restaurant Opportunities Center, COLORS has explicit social goals. COLORS equips unemployed community residents with the life skills, job training, and work experience they need to pursue careers in the hospitality and food service industry16. Racial segregation and discrimination occurs in the food service industry, workers of color and minority ethnic groups are There are also negative economic concentrated in the lowest paying costs created by the existing positions with the worst health and conditions of the food service safety conditions and highest rates of industry in Detroit. According to employment violations and abuse.17 ROC-Michigan's report, 60.9% of

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COLORS has a goal of helping low wage immigrants and workers of color attain living wage employment, with fair and just working conditions. 18 ROCMichigan has identied that the groups who are not given opportunities for career advancement in the industry are racially dened. 19 COLORS is therefore increasing equity for these racial groups by allowing them to up-skill in an environment where justice and equality are explicitly practiced. When advertising the position of General Manager for the restaurant, they stated people of color and women are encouraged to apply reinforced their goal of promoting equity, and their choice of employee reected this. 20

CASE STUDIES : Job Training

On the other hand, COLORS has been an inspirational model. It is acting as a valuable community space, engaging in community food COLORS received grants from nine foundations including Michigan events and organizations such as the ROC-Michigan Business Roundtable, Works! and the Detroit Regional the Detroit Food Policy Council and Workforce Fund, who has contributed $281,000 to date. Both of the Fair Food Network. 28 these are regional public/private partnerships who receive some The disappearance of federal funding from federal stimulus funds. funding for workforce development 24They also received a $25,00 grant will be difcult for COLORS and other similar programs. It is from the Detroit Local Initiatives benecial that the COLORS Support Corporation (LISC). restaurant attaches a revenue source COLORS supplement the grants to the program, but without with prot from the restaurant and COLORS also advocates and support from ROC-Michigan, which continued support from federal and demonstrates employer 'high road' practices. These include paying above pays the salaries of the culinary staff state funding, COLORS-Detroit is unlikely to be able to continue they employ. The site is rented for average wages, providing healthcare providing such valuable opportunities them by the Detroit Economic benets and paid sick days, and to those who otherwise cannot. Growth Corporation. 25 opportunities for upward mobility within the workplace. COLORS Detroit has now been COLORS-Detroit functions as a open for thirteen months. The initial restaurant with an in house training goals of the restaurant are ambitious program. It is modeled after and have not been achieved yet. They COLORS-New York, a restaurant set aim to: (1) train at least 100-150 lowup in 2006 to provide employment to wage workers per year, placing at workers who had previously worked least 75% into living wage jobs; (2) in the World Trade Center. support the development of 20 lowCOLORS-Detroit has a goal of wage restaurant workers to own their being worker-owned, but has not own locally-sourced, sustainable food achieved this and is currently a restaurant in downtown Detroit; (3) program of ROC-Michigan, 21 generate a restaurant, training facility and garden that will provide Detroit whose members of the board of directors are restaurant workers who residents with a source of local, fresh, and healthy foods. 26 are elected by its members at large. The management of COLORS Currently, 52 workers have reports to the ROC-Michigan cocompleted and 70 workers are ordinator, Minsu Longiaru. The currently receiving training. 27 The general manager and head chef is restaurant is only open 11am-3pm Phillip Jones, who is also responsible four days a week, but is aiming to

for CHOW, the training program. CHOW works in partnership with other local non-prots to provide job placement and career coaching services to trainees. 22 The other non-prots it partners with include Human Resources Development, Inc. and the Michigan One-Stop Career Centers. 23

open in the evenings when possible. The goal of providing affordable healthy food to Detroiters is also still only a goal, the menu's prices would be prohibitive to low income residents.

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1. Restaurant Opportunities Centers-Michigan (ROCMichigan), n.d. 2. COLORS-Detroit, 2011 3. Restaurant Opportunities Centers-Michigan (ROCMichigan), n.d. 4. 68% of restaurant workers do not receive regular raises, and 67% have not been promoted at their current job. The industry also contains a large number of workers who have not completed high school, in 2008 26.6 % of workers had not attained a high school degree, compared with 8.5% of the overall workforce in Detroit. ROC-Michigan, pg, 17. 5. ROC-Michigan, 2010. 6Dang, C, 2012. 7. Abrahams, M, 2011, Williams, R, 2011, Bridges, A, 2012. 8. Abraham, M, 2011 9. A study by Kathryn Colasanti found that with high biointensive use of eld, storage and season extension techniques, it would be possible to produce 76% of vegetables and 42% of fruit Detroiters currently consume each year within the municipal area alone. Detroit Food System Report, 2011, pg. 39. The Detroit Urban Agriculture Ordinance is currently having public hearings. It is designed to make it easier to site and maintain urban agriculture within the municipality, Detroit Food Policy Council, 2012. 10. Detroit Food System Report, 2011, Pinderhughes, R, 2004 11. Bridges, A, 2012. 12Longiaru, M, 2010. 13. ROC-Michigan, 2010. 14Dang, C, 2012. 15. A living wage affords the earner and her or his family the most basic costs of living without need for government support or poverty programs and was calculated based on theEconomic Policy Institutes Basic Family Budget Calculator at $15.50 an hour. ROC-Michigan, 2010, pg. 14. 16. COLORS-Detroit, 2011 17. While 9% of workers in the industry make below the minimum wage, 75% of these are workers of color. ROCMichigan, 2010, pg. 47. 18. Longiaru, M, 2011, para. 1. 19. ROC-Michigan, 2010. 20. Longiaru, M, 2010. 21. Williams, R, 2011. 22. Bridges, A, 2012. 23. Longairu, M, 2011. 24. Detroit Regional Workforce Fund, n.d., Michigan Works!, n.d. 25. Abrahams, M, 2011, Detroit Regional Workforce Fund, 2011, Bridges, A, 2012, Longiaru, M, 2011. 26. Longiaru, M, 2011. 27. Detroit Regional Workforce Fund, n.d. 28. Detroit Harmonie is a non-prot group of young leaders working to break down racial barriers and enhance the social environment within the city. COLORS-Detroit, 2011.

Reference List Abraham, Molly. COLORS-Detroit Fosters Personal Growth. A Broad Spectrum. Hour Detroit, April 2012. Web. 3 November. 2012. Bridges, Angela. COLORS Restaurant serves up more than just good food. Neighborhood Stories. Our Detroit. 27 March, 2012. Web. 3 November. 2012. COLORS-Detroit. Restaurant Opportunities Centers Michigan, 2011. Web. 19 October, 2012. Dang, Cathy. National High Road Co-ordinator, Restaurant Opportunities Center United. Personal Communication. 13 November. 2012. Longiaru, Minsu. Project team: COLORS of Detroit, Detroit, MI. Making Good Food Work. Google Groups, 22 February 2011. Web. 23 October 2012. Longiaru, Minsu. General Manager Job Application. ROC- Michigan. 2010. Web. 5 November. 2012. About our board, Michigan Works!N.d. Web. 30 November. 2012. Pinderhughes, R. Alternative Urban Futures. Rowman and Littleeld Publishers, Inc: Maryland. Print. 2004. Pothukuchi, Kami. The Detroit Food System Report, 2009-2010. The Detroit Food Policy Council, 15 May 2011. Web. 16 October . 2012. Restaurant Opportunities Centers - Michigan. Behind the Kitchen Door: Inequality and Opportunity in Detroit's Growing Restaurant Industry. Our Reports. ROC-United, 9 February 2010. Web. 19 October. 2012. Restaurant Opportunities Centers - Michigan. ROCUnited, n.d. Web. 19 October. 2012. Restaurant Opportunities Center of Michigan (ROCMI). Timely Opportunities. Detroit Regional Workforce Fund, n.d. Web. 30 October. 2012. Williams, Ron.Cafe COLORS Brings Just Good Food to Harmonie Park. Happy Frog. 9 September, 2011, Web. 5 November, 2012.

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Bibliography Abraham, Molly. COLORS-Detroit Fosters Personal Growth. A Broad Spectrum. Hour Detroit, April 2012. Web. 3 November. 2012. Bridges, Angela. COLORS Restaurant serves up more than just good food. Neighborhood Stories. Our Detroit. 27 March, 2012. Web. 3 November. 2012. Channon, Chef. Detroit Reborn in Colors Worker Owned Restaurant. Community News. The Eclectic Kitchen, 21 April, 2011. Web. 23 October . 2012. COLORS-Detroit. Restaurant Opportunities Centers Michigan, 2011. Web. 19 October, 2012. DUFB Summer 2012 Launch: Detroit Edition. News and views blog. Fair Food Network, 19 July 2012. Web. 3 November . 2012. Hernandez, Dorothy. Volunteer Spolight: Phil Jones. Cooking Matters Michigan. Share Our Strength, 7 November 2011. Web. 3 November. 2012. Jones, Phil. Detroit Food Policy Council and You. Fresh Ideas. The Michigan Citizen, 11 October 2012. Web. 30 October. 2012. Kwon, Bonnie. A Dream Come True! Food Justice. ROC-United, 18 August, 2011. Web. 19 October. 2012. Longiaru, Minsu. Project team: COLORS of Detroit, Detroit, MI. Making Good Food Work. Google Groups, 22 February 2011. Web. 23 October 2012. Longiaru, Minsu. General Manager Job Application. ROC- Michigan. 2010. Web. 5 November. 2012. Making Good Food Work. N.d. Web. The Making Good Food Work Organizing Team, 1 November. 2012. Pinderhughes, R. Alternative Urban Futures. Rowman and Littleeld Publishers, Inc: Maryland. Print. 2004. Pothukuchi, Kami. The Detroit Food System Report, 2009-2010. The Detroit Food Policy Council, 15 May 2011. Web. 16 October . 2012. Restaurant Opportunities Centers - Michigan. Behind the Kitchen Door: Inequality and Opportunity in Detroit's Growing Restaurant Industry. Our Reports. ROC-United, 9 February 2010. Web. 19 October. 2012. Restaurant Opportunities Centers - Michigan. ROCUnited, n.d. Web. 19 October. 2012. Restaurant Opportunities Centers - New York. Colors Hospitality & Opportunities for Workers Institute Celebrates 5 Years! News. ROC-United, January 14 2012. Web. 23 October. 2012. Restaurant Opportunities Center of Michigan (ROCMI). Timely Opportunities. Detroit Regional Workforce Fund, n.d. Web. 30 October. 2012. Restaurant Opportunities Centers United. ROC-United, n.d. Web. 19 October. 2012. Sands, David. COLORS-Detroit Restaurant Cooks Up Local Foods, Labor Rights. Huffpost Detroit. The Hufngton Post, 11 January 2011. Web. 23 October. 2012. Williams, Ron.Cafe COLORS Brings Just Good Food to Harmonie Park. Happy Frog. 9 September, 2011, Web. 5 November, 2012.

Zemke, Jon. Downtowns Colors Restaurant goes local with food, worker training. News. Detroit Regional Workforce Fund, 20 September, 2011. Web. 4 November. 2012.

Useful Links COLORS-Detroit: http://www.colors-detroit.com/ Restaurant Opportunities Centers- Michigan: http:// michigan.rocunited.org/ Restaurant Opportunities Centers United: http:// rocunited.org/ COLORS-New York: http://www.colors-newyork.com/ Detroit Regional Workforce Fund: http:// www.detroitregionalworkforcefund.org/ Detroit Food Policy Council: http:// www.detroitfoodpolicycouncil.net/Home_Page.html The Greening of Detroit: http://greeningofdetroit.com/ The Greening of Detroit - Urban Agriculture and Openspace: http://detroitagriculture.net/ Brother Nature Produce: https://www.facebook.com/ pages/Brother-Nature-Produce/152167309159 Detroit Black Food Security Network: http:// detroitblackfoodsecurity.org/ Detroit Harmonie: http://www.detroitharmonie.com/ Earthworks Urban Farm: http://www.cskdetroit.org/ EWG/ Making Good Food Work Conference: https:// sites.google.com/a/makinggoodfoodwork.com/2011/

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IMAGE CITATIONS

Image Citations
Title Page
1) http://reecthislight.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2012/03/Path-of-Green-Trees.jpg 2) http://www.sunpack.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/ 2011/08/green_world.jpg 3) http://mattress.springintoactionnyc.com/images/ uploads/SIA_venn-diagram2.jpg 4) http://www.propertyoz.com.au/library/economy %20environment%20street%20sign.jpg William McDonough and Partners Architecture and Design Firm 1) http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/ 2) http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com/sites/default/ les/imagecache/project_image/projects/ Comm2_NASA_14.jpg

Introduction
1) http://www.ehdwalls.com/plog-content/images/ 1440x900/cities/green-city-wallpaper.1440x900.jpg

HOK Global Design: 1)https://twimg0-a.akamaihd.net/prole_images/ 1239473921/HOK_logo_RGB-web_jpg_lg.jpg 2) http://www.fastcompany.com/pics/multisite_les/pics/ imagecache/slideshowlarge/slideshows/artic-2.jpg

Goods

Case Studies
Services
Betterworld Books: 1) http://responsiblenomad.les.wordpress.com/ 2011/02/betterworldbooks-gif.png 2) http://gamechangers500.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2011/12/BetterWorldBooks_cara3.jpg Thinkshift Communications: 1) http://bcorp.nonprotsoapbox.com/storage/images/ proles/thinkshift_logo_LRG.jpg 2) http://farm8.staticickr.com/ 7152/6669138957_453e194212_o.jpg Heart of the City Farmers Market: 1) http://cdn2-b.examiner.com/sites/default/les/styles/ image_content_width/hash/06/92/homepage_0.jpg 2) http://i3.stay.com/images/venue/737/1/a77b1ee9/ image-from-heart-of-the-city-farmers.jpg Ecology Center: 1) http://www.projectpeaceeastbay.org/site/uploads/ originals/EC.LOGO.PMS533_b(1).jpg 2) http://ecologycenter.org/erc/

Dr. Bronners Soaps 1) http://i4es.org/Images/drb_horiz_logo_color.jpg 2) http://evolvingwellness.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2012/10/drbronners-soap-3jpg.jpeg TOMS Shoes 1) http://25.media.tumblr.com/ tumblr_m838fxLHGr1qe831co1_1280.png 2) http://www.toms.com/our-movement-why Jacks Soap 1)http://qph.cf.quoracdn.net/main-thumb-4191251-200YD8GeWhCTnWN7r88uASH4DglKAzJ3d82.jpeg 2) http://www.onegreenplanet.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2010/10//2012/03/Jacks-Soap.jpg Patagonia 1) http://www.designmob.de/wp-content/uploads/ 2011/07/Patagonia_Logo.jpg 2) http://blog.stylesight.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2011/09/ Patagonia_eBay_Common_Threads_Initiative04.jpg Open Arms Shop 1) http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_JtsLhEdmoic/ TSeDy_hNTxI/AAAAAAAAAcU/w9UkFFb_owg/S220/ Badge%2528color%2529withtag_MED.jpg 2) http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-ohZq3eUGiSY/ TainYsrZx5I/AAAAAAAACgM/qBzM4HOF3wY/s1600/ Open+Arms+3.jpg

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Waste
Recology 1) http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Z02e0zK_WkI/ T3HwwJQ4-zI/AAAAAAAABg4/5SOaULhZA_Y/s1600/ recology.jpg 2) http://www.recologyauburnplacer.com/images/ front_loader.png World Centric Biocompostable Products 1) http://dbfestival.com/db-admin/uploads/__displaysIMG_Partner_WorldCentric.png 2) http://www.go-green.ae/uploads/ CompostableProducts.jpg Urban Ore 1) http://urbanore.com/wp-content/themes/UrbanOre/ images/UOR-logo-620.jpg 2) http://gallivant.com/p/2012/10/urban-ore-1.jpg

Food
Growing Power, Inc. 1) http://ebmedia.eventbrite.com/s3-s3/eventlogos/ 2062055/637303191.jpg 2) http://ionenewsone.les.wordpress.com/2012/05/ good-food-revolution-nal.jpg Bliss Unlimited: Luna and Larrys Organic Coconut Bliss 1) http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_Eo15XbQL_jE/ TD8iI9T1qVI/AAAAAAAAGNw/jtrJNCOpxBM/s1600/ coconut+bliss.jpg 2) http://www.koopmanostbo.com/images/clients/ luna.jpg Green Mountain Coffee Roasters 1) http://cdn2.insidermonkey.com/blog/wp-content/ uploads/2012/09/Screen-Shot-2012-09-12-at-4.25.36AM.png 2) https://cdn2.content.compendiumblog.com/ import_uploads//2fd85626-489c-49ddb5a5-5d598b9f6f30/786a36af3545a611cba311b74ac9ef30/ FH08FTOsamplerEY.jpg Guayak Sustainable Rainforest Products, Inc. 1) http://www.organicnation.tv/storage/Guyaki %20Yerba%20Mate%20logo.png? __SQUARESPACE_CACHEVERSION=1284486175034 2) http://guayaki.com/images/uploads/pages/Image/All %20About%20Guayaki/sustainability-chart-web(2).jpg Organic Valley 1) https://pilots.up.edu/image/image_gallery? uuid=a9ed5cc6-f312-4c6b-bef4e18c448c9f63&groupId=5255653&t=1300397764055 2) http://www.organicvalley.coop/uploads/ RTEmagicC_d724e450cd.jpg.jpg The Clif Bar Company 1) http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Dk_dhdzzcCA/ TmWRD4cLpJI/AAAAAAAAO60/6Fmkoh5XQac/ s1600/clif+logo.jpg 2) http://www.clifbar.com/images/site/soul. 5aspirations.who.png New Belgium Brewing Company 1) http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-T2HKlcj2MUg/ T99KpQr9lgI/AAAAAAAAKEs/UEFVg9hFinA/s1600/ new+belgium+brewery+logo.jpg 2) http://c767204.r4.cf2.rackcdn.com/ee866c08aa93-43ba-abde-034711bf548f.jpg

Energy
Southern Energy Management 1) http://blog.southern-energy.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2010/06/SEM_logos_V.jpg 2) http://www.news.appstate.edu/wp-content/uploads/ 2008/06/RaleySolar.jpg GRID Alternatives 1) http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-4wE0t3RdH9Q/ T9pIjh3OqiI/AAAAAAAAAI8/lcrpW_H1TLY/s1600/ GRID_Logo_with_Text.jpg 2) http://blogs.miis.edu/montereystart/les/2012/11/ New-Opening-Pic-GRID.jpg Jackson County Green Park 1) http://www.deepcreekarts.com/images-design/Logos/ GEP-logo.jpg 2) http://www.jcgep.org/location.html

Transportation
SF Bike Coalition 1) http://www.otheravenues.coop/wp-content/uploads/ 2010/11/1.jpg 2) http://www.sfbike.org/?about TransForm: 1) http://www.gjel.com/01new/media/TransformCALogo1.jpg 2) http://www.reconnectingamerica.org/assets/Uploads/ greentrip.jpg

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IMAGE CITATIONS

Eastern Market Corporation 1) http://semichiganstartup.com/galleries/ companyLogos/Eastern%20Market.jpg 2) http://about.bankofamerica.com/assets/images/ partnering-locally/local-markets-3/video-stills/easternmarket_07272012_878x494.jpg

Funding
Kiva Microfunds 1) http://www.guidestar.org/organizations/71-0992446/ kiva-microfunds.aspx 2) http://www.miis.edu/media/view/23685/standard/ gtd_at_kiva_microfunds_in_san_francisco.jpg Resourceful Communities Program 1) http://ebmedia.eventbrite.com/s3-s3/eventlogos/ 516345/1478404949-1.jpg 2) http://www.resourcefulcommunities.org/sites/ resourcefulcommunities.org/les/u29/ Cynthia_CNEF_TA.jpg One PacicCoast Bank 1) http://www.fullcircle.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2011/06/OnePacicCoastBank_logo.png 2) FDIC, FRB, NCUA, OCC, OTS, SEC, U.S. Department of the Treasury (http://www.ibanknet.com)

Cypress Mandela Training Center 1) http://www.cypressmandela.org/images/cypress/ logo.gif 2) http://msnbcmedia.msn.com/j/MSNBC/ Components/Photo/_new/pb-120608-polejb-01.photoblog900.jpg COLORS Detroit Restaurant and Hospitality Opportunities for Workers Institute (CHOW) 1) http://prole.ak.fbcdn.net/hprole-aksnc4/372971_104182513013360_1668439209_n.jpg 2) http://www.michigannightlight.com/galleries/ programs/colors-restaurant-02-549.jpg

Job Training
Veterans Green Jobs Training 1) http://www.solarbuildermag.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2012/07/Veterans-Green-Jobs-Logo.jpg 2) http://veterans.colostate.edu/Data/Sites/1/ GalleryImages/Thumbnails/veteran%20green%20jobs.png Goodwill Industries International, Inc. 1) http://watchdog.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wpcontent/blogs.dir/1/les/2012/09/goodwill.jpg 2) http://www.nyc.gov/html/sbs/images/newsletter/ naa_program_2009/goodwill.jpg RichmondBUILD 1) http://reachthefuture.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2012/08/RichmondBUILD-logo.jpg 2) http://www.ci.richmond.ca.us/images/pages/N1243/ RichmondBUILD.jpg Environment Now 1) http://www.verdexchange.org/les/EnvNowLogo.jpg 2) http://www.sfenvironment.org/sites/default/les/ article/square/ee-006.jpg

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