Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

Extract from To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee ( from Ch 10) Background to novel: The novel is set in 1930s Alabama

. This is a time when black Americans suffered much discrimination. Six year old Scout is the storys narrator. Her father , Atticus, a well respected lawyer in the town of Maycomb, defends a black man, Tom Robinson, against a trumped up charge of rape, even though he knows that he wont be able to win because of the strong racial prejudice in the town. Atticus was feeble: he was nearly fifty. When Jem and I asked him why he was so old, he said he got started late, which we felt reflected upon his abilities and manliness. He was much older than the parents of our school contemporaries, and there was nothing Jem or I could say about him when our classmates said, My father Jem was football crazy. Atticus was never too tired to play keep-away, but when Jem wanted to tackle him Atticus would say, Im too old for that, son. Our father didnt do anything. He worked in an office, not in a drugstore. Atticus did not drive a dump-truck for the county, he was not the sheriff, he did not farm, work in a garage, or do anything that could possibly arouse the admiration of anyone. Besides that, he wore glasses. He was nearly blind in his left eye, and said left eyes were the tribal curse of the Finches. Whenever he wanted to see something well, he turned his head and looked from his right eye. He did not do the things our schoolmates fathers did: he never went hunting, he did not play poker or fish or drink or smoke. He sat in the livingroom and read. With these attributes, however, he would not remain as inconspicuous as we wished him to: that year, the school buzzed with talk about him defending Tom Robinson, none of which was complimentary.

Questions Answer part (a) and either part (b) or part (c). You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on part (a), and about 40 minutes on part (b) or part (c). (a) Read the extract on the opposite page. Then answer the following question: Look closely at how Atticus speaks and behaves here. What does it reveal about his character? [10] Either, (b) Imagine you are Jem. Some time after the end of the novel, you think back over its

events. Write down your thoughts and feelings. Remember how Jem would speak when you write your answer. [20] Or, (c) How does Harper Lee present the theme of justice in To Kill a Mockingbird? [20] I was beginning to notice a subtle change in my father these days, that came out when he talked with Aunt Alexandra. It was a quiet digging in, never outright irritation. There was a faint starchiness in his voice when he said, Anything fit to say at the tables fit to say in front of Calpurnia. She knows what she means to this family. I dont think its a good habit, Atticus. It encourages them. You know how they talk among themselves. Everything that happens in this towns out to the Quarters before sundown. up to You see, dont you, said Aunt Alexandra, what comes of things like this. Dont say I havent told you. Atticus said hed never say that, pushed out his chair and got up. Theres a day ahead, so excuse me. Jem, I dont want you and Scout downtown today, please. WJEC Answer part (a) and either part (b) or part (c). You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on part (a), and about 40 minutes on part (b) or part (c). (a) Read the extract on the opposite page. Then answer the following question: With close reference to the extract, show how Harper Lee suggests Aunt Alexandras character here. [10] Either, (b) For which character in To Kill A Mockingbird do you have the most sympathy? Show how Harper Lees presentation of your chosen character creates sympathy for him or her. [20] Or, (c) How does Harper Lee present childhood in To Kill A Mockingbird? [20 Put my bag in the front bedroom, Calpurnia, was the first thing Aunt Alexandra said. Jean Louise, stop scratching your head, was the second thing she said. Calpurnia picked up Auntys heavy suitcase and opened the door. Ill take it, said Jem, and took it. I heard the suitcase hit the bedroom floor with a thump. The sound had a dull permanence about it. Have you come for a visit, Aunty? I asked. Aunt Alexandras visits from the Landing were rare, and she travelled in state. She owned a bright green square Buick and a black chauffeur, both kept in an unhealthy state of tidiness, but today they were nowhere to be seen. Didnt your father tell you? she asked. Jem and I shook our heads. Probably he forgot. Hes not in yet, is he? Nome, he doesnt usually get back till late afternoon, said Jem. Well, your father and I decided it was time I came to stay with you for a while. For a while in Maycomb meant anything from three days to thirty years. Jem and I exchanged glances.

Jems growing up now and you are too, she said to me. We decided that it would be best for you to have some feminine influence. It wont be many years, Jean Louise, before you become interested in clothes and boys I could have made several answers to this: Cals a girl, it would be many years before I would be interested in boys, I would never be interested in clothes ... but I kept quiet. What about Uncle Jimmy? asked Jem. Is he comin, too? Oh no, hes staying at the Landing. Hell keep the place going. The moment I said, Wont you miss him? I realized that this was not a tactful question. Uncle Jimmy present or Uncle Jimmy absent made not much difference, he never said anything. Aunt Alexandra ignored my question. I could think of nothing else to say to her. In fact I could never think of anything to say to her, and I sat thinking of past painful conversations between us: How are you, Jean Louise? Fine, thank you maam, how are you? Very well, thank you; what have you been doing with yourself? Nothin. Dont you do anything? Nome. Certainly you have friends? Yessum. Well what do you all do? Nothin. It was plain that Aunty thought me dull in the extreme, because I once heard her tell Atticus that I was sluggish. There was a story behind all this, but I had no desire to extract it from her then: today was Sunday, and Aunt Alexandra was positively irritable on the Lords Day. I guess it was her Sunday corset. She was not fat, but solid, and she chose protective garments that drew up her bosom to giddy heights, pinched in her waist, flared out her rear, and managed to suggest that Aunt Alexandras was once an hour-glass figure. From any angle, it was formidable. WJEC (a) Read the extract on the opposite page. Then answer the following question: With close reference to the extract, show how Harper Lee creates mood and atmosphere here. [10] Either, (b) Imagine you are Miss Maudie. At the end of the novel, you think back over its events. Write down your thoughts and feelings. Remember how Miss Maudie would speak when you write your answer. [20] Or, (c) One of the themes in To Kill A Mockingbird is prejudice. How does Harper Lee present this theme in her novel? Ours were adjoining rooms; as I shut the door between them Jem said Night, Scout. Night, I murmured, picking my way across the room to turn on the light. As I passed the bed I stepped on something warm, resilient, and rather smooth. It was not quite like hard rubber, and I had the sensation that it was alive. I also heard it move. I switched on the light and looked at the floor by the bed. Whatever I had stepped on was gone. I tapped on Jems door.

What, he said. How does a snake feel? Sort of rough. Cold. Dusty. Why? I think theres one under my bed. Can you come look? Are you bein funny? Jem opened the door. He was in his pyjama bottoms. I noticed not without satisfaction that the mark of my knuckles was still on his mouth. When he saw I meant what I said, he said, If you think Im gonna put my face down to a snake youve got another think comin. Hold on a minute. He went to the kitchen and fetched the broom. You better get up on the bed, he said. You reckon its really one? I asked. This was an occasion. Our houses had no cellars; they were built on stone blocks a few feet above the ground, and the entry of reptiles was not unknown but was not commonplace. Miss Rachel Haverfords excuse for a glass of neat whisky every morning was that she never got over the fright of finding a rattler coiled in her bedroom closet, on her washing, when she went to hang up her negligee. Jem make a tentative swipe under the bed. I looked over the foot to see if a snake would come out. None did. Jem made a deeper swipe. Do snakes grunt? It aint a snake, Jem said. Its somebody. Suddenly a filthy brown package shot from under the bed. Jem raised the broom and missed Dills head by an inch when it appeared. God Almighty. Jems voice was reverent. We watched Dill emerge by degrees. He was a tight fit. He stood up and eased his shoulders, turned his feet in their ankle sockets, rubbed the back of his neck. His circulation restored, he said, Hey. Jem petitioned God again. I was speechless. Im bout to perish, said Dill. Got anything to eat? Some issues to think about: Write about the way Harper Lee presents the relationship between Atticus and his children. How does she present the relationship between Atticus and the town? The children and the town? What themes does this bring out? What does the [extract chosen] reveal about Atticus character? About Scouts character? About Jems character? About the relationships between the characters? Why is [this extract] so dramatic? How does Harper Lee build tension? How are the themes presented here? Harper Lee was proud to be from the South. But ashamed too. How are mixed feelings about place and community presented in To Kill a Mockingbird? How does Lee present Maycomb and its inhabitants in To Kill a Mockingbird?

How do you respond to Harper Lees presentation of [any character / place] in the novel? Extract Questions taken directly from AQA Every town the size of Maycomb had families like the Ewells. No economic fluctuations changed their status people like the Ewells lived as guests of the county in prosperity as well as in the depths of a depression. No truant officers could keep their numerous offspring in school; no public health officer could free them from congenital defects, various worms, and the diseases indigenous to filthy surroundings. Maycomb Ewells lived behind the town garbage dump in what was once a Negro cabin. The cabins plank walls were supplemented with sheets of corrugated iron, its roof shingled with tin cans hammered flat, so only its general shape suggested its original design: square, with four tiny rooms opening on to a shotgun hall, the cabin rested uneasily upon four irregular lumps of limestone. Its windows were merely open spaces in the walls, which in the summertime were covered with greasy strips of cheesecloth to keep out the varmints that feasted on Maycombs refuse. The varmints had a lean time of it, for the Ewells gave the dump a thorough gleaning every day, and the fruits of their industry (those that were not eaten) made the plot of ground around the cabin look like the playhouse of an insane child: what passed for a fence was bits of tree-limbs, broomsticks and tool shafts, all tipped with rusty hammer-heads, snaggle-toothed rake heads, shovels, axes and grubbing hoes, held on with pieces of barbed wire. Enclosed by this barricade was a dirty yard containing the remains of a Model-T Ford (on blocks), a discarded dentists chair, an ancient ice-box, plus lesser items: old shoes, worn-out table radios, picture-frames, and fruit jars, under which scrawny orange chickens pecked hopefully. One corner of the yard, though, bewildered Maycomb. Against the fence, in a line, were six chipped-enamel slop jars holding brilliant red geraniums, cared for as tenderly as if they belonged to Miss Maudie Atkinson, had Miss Maudie deigned to permit a geranium on her premises. People said they were Mayella Ewells. (a) How does Lee use details in this passage to present the position of the Ewells in Maycomb society? and (b) How does Lee present Mayella Ewell in the novel as a whole? (a) How does Lee use details [in the extract] to show the feelings and attitudes of [any given character] in this passage? and then Part (b) (b) How far does [Scout or Jems] Southern upbringing affect their attitude to negroes in the novel? AQA Extract Question a) Which techniques does Lee use to build up a sense of fear in this passage? and then Part (b)

a. How does Lee use [some other character or key scene] to show racial injustice in America in the 1930s? I simply want to tell you that there are some men in this world who were born to do our unpleasant jobs for us. Your fathers one of them. Oh, said Jem. Well. Dont you oh well me, sir, Miss Maudie replied, recognizing Jems fatalistic noises, you are not old enough to appreciate what I said. Jem was staring at his half-eaten cake. Its like bein a caterpillar in a cocoon, thats what it is, he said. Like somethin asleep wrapped up in a warm place. I always thought Maycomb folks were the best folks in the world, least thats what they seemed like. Were the safest folks in the world, said Miss Maudie. Were so rarely called on to be Christians, but when we are, weve got men like Atticus to go for us. Jem grinned ruefully. Wish the rest of the county thought that. Youd be surprised how many of us do. Who? Jems voice rose. Who in this town did one thing to help Tom Robinson, just who? His coloured friends for one thing, and people like us. People like Judge Taylor. People like Mr Heck Tate. Stop eating and start thinking, Jem. Did it ever strike you that Judge Taylor naming Atticus to defend that boy was no accident? That Judge Taylor might have had his reasons for naming him? This was a thought. Court-appointed defences were usually given to Maxwell Green, Maycombs latest addition to the bar, who needed the experience. Maxwell Green should have had Tom Robinsons case. You think about that, Miss Maudie was saying. It was no accident. I was sittin there on the porch last night, waiting. I waited and waited to see you all come down the sidewalk, and as I waited I thought, Atticus Finch wont win, he cant win, but hes the only man in these parts who can keep a jury out so long in a case like that. And I thought to myself, well, were making a step - its just a baby-step, but its a step. ts all right to talk like that - cant any Christian judges an lawyers make up for heathen juries, Jem muttered. Soons I get grown Thats something youll have to take up with your father, Miss Maudie said. How does Lee use details in this passage to present Miss Maudies view of Maycomb? and then Part (b) In the novel as a whole, how does Lee show what life was like in a small town such as Maycomb in 1930s southern America? Read the following passage and then answer part (a) and part (b) (From Whatd you get for..... page 87 to ....shed never had one. Page 88 Heinemann edition)

Part (a) In this passage, what methods does Lee use to present Scouts feelings about Aunt Alexandra and Francis? Refer closely to the passage in your answer. and then Part (b) In the novel, how does Lee show that other people expect Scout to behave in particular ways? What do you think these expectations show about the society in which the novel is set? Answers may include the following: AO1 Scouts attitudes to Francis and Aunt Alexandra e.g. reluctant tolerance of Francis, frustration of Aunt Alexandras efforts to change her Scouts tomboyish behaviour which irritates Aunt Alexandra Conflict between Aunt Alexandra and Scout Scouts irritation that Aunt Alexandra misjudges her AO2 Use of humour in the passage, e.g. the sensation of slowly settling to the bottom of the ocean Use of dialogue in the passage to show lack of understanding between Scout and Francis Use of Scout as narrator her repeating of Aunt Alexandras words e.g. ray of sunshine and Atticus reaction, her lack of enthusiasm for Alexandras vision AO4 Scouts determination not to be a girl and Jems attitude to this Women not on the jury Attitudes of the women at the missionary circle to Scout and how she should behave Southern womanhood [Atticus] Status of women in that society Lee does not always conform to stereotypes OCR Either 2 (a) Or 2 (b) How does Lee create such vivid impressions of the black community of Maycomb in this passage? [40] How does Lee make the appearance of Arthur (Boo) Radley at the end of the novel such an important and moving moment? Remember to support your ideas with details from the novel. [40]

Verwandte Interessen