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SANITARY AND PLUMBING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT A. WATER SUPPLY 1.

SEDIMENTATION A method of purifying water wherein particles of matters that are suspended in the water are allowed to stay in a container so that they will settle in the bottom, then drawing the water out, leaving these matters in the container. 2. Water is treated by giving CHEMICAL TREATMENTS to kill the harmful bacteria present and to cure the turbid taste or mud taste, remove clay, salts, iron, etc. commonly used treating liquids is chlorine. 3. Water is purified by FILTRATION . In various processes, so as to remove the particles of vegetable matter, mud and other particles of matter present in the water, most commonly used materials are sand and gravel. 4. Raw water is made to pass on pipes of tiny sieves (strainers) and exposed to air of fine mist to purify it. This is called AERATION method. 5. A PUMP is water equipment used whenever the water supply at its natural pressure cannot be directly piped to a building, tank or reservoir. 6. LIFT PUMP consist of a piston traveling up and down within a cylinder which is connected with a pipe extending down into the source. The piston and the bottom of the cylinder are each provided with a valve opening upward. Upon the pistons upstroke, valve A closes and valve B opens. Upon the pistons down stroke valve A opens and B closes. 7. FORCE PUMP is used to deliver water at a point higher than the position of the pump itself. When the plunger (a piston) descends, valve A is closed and water in the cylinder is forced out through valve B and up to the storage. When the plunger is raised, valve B is closed and A open to admit water to the cylinder. [A pump that uses pressure to move liquid] 8. SUBMERSIBLE PUMP. This is a kind of pump attached to the end of deep well pipe enclosed in a casing where the pump is capable of functioning while submerged. CESSPOOL (SUMP) - underground container for waste matter: a covered underground tank or well for the collection of waste matter and water, especially sewage. 9. CISTERN TANK. or other liquids A reservoir, tank or vessel for storing or holding water

10. WATER TANK may be used either for the collection of water without consideration of pressure, or for storing water under air pressure or under a static head for future distribution by pneumatic or gravity means. Materials are PVC, G.I., reinforced concrete, stainless steel or plain steel.

11. A SUCTION TANK is a tank constructed of riveted or welded steel plate; the larger tanks often being divided into two compartments. They should be large enough to contain at least one days supply for the entire building in case the city main is temporarily shut off. The pipe from the pump to the tank should be across connected to the city main so that the water may be pumped directly from the main in case of fire. These tanks are used so that the pneumatic tank or other pumps suck the water from this tank and not from the public main, so that it will not deprive the neighbors of water due to pressure. 12. PNEUMATIC TANK A tank using air pressure from a suction tank to distribute water for tall buildings which cannot be reached by normal pressure. 13. UPFEED SYSTEM . Water is distributed from the normal water pressure coming from the public water main, for low rise buildings. 14. DOWNFEED SYSTEM . By gravity, water is distributed from overhead water tanks and is supported either by structural frames or on the roof decks. Fixtures are below the gravity tank . These elevated tanks are installed when normal water supply from main public service pipes is not frequent and when normal pressure from city main is not enough to force the water to the highest fixtures. 15. The pipe from the public water main or source of water supply to the building served is called: SERVICING PIPE. 16. The vertical supply pipe which extends upward from one floor to the next is called a RISER and the horizontal pipes that serve the faucets are called BRANCHES. B. WATER SUPPLY 1. WATER MAIN refers to the public water system laid underground along the streets where the house service is connected. 2. GOOSENECK. One end is 0.30M and the other end is 0.90M long. This prevents the pipe from snapping when the soil settles. [Ushaped?] 3. CORPORATION COCK. A stop valve in a service pipe close to its connection with a water main. 4. BUSHING . A kind of G.I. fitting used as a reducer from a bigger diameter to a lesser diameter. 5. UNION. A G.I. fitting which is used when a pipe has already been installed but dismantling is difficult.

6. Excessive pressure produces a rumbling sound called the WATER HAMMER . This occurs when a valve is suddenly turned off and causes the water to stop, forcing the pipes to shake and to reduce this, an additional 0.30m to 0.90m length of pipe is added to the riser to give air pressure which absorb it. 7. STREET ELBOW or TEE . A kind of G.I. fitting that has one end external threads, while the other end has internal threads. 8. To insure no leakage, a G.I. pipe when threaded has to use lead liquid or TEFLON tape around the thread before tightening the fittings. 9. uPVC means: UNPLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE pipe . 10. GATE VALVES . This consists of a wedge-shaped plug which is screwed down to seat between two brass rings surrounding the inlet pipe so that a double seal is obtained. The inlet and outlet are in a straight line. This valve is used when a normal fully open or closed position is desired. Either end may be used as inlet. CHECK VALVES . These valves are used when it is desired that the flow through a pipe be always in one direction and there is a possibility of a flow taking place in the opposite direction. One type has a pivoted flap which is readily pushed open by the pressure of water from one side but is tightly closed by the force of a reverse flow. CASING . A material used as a covering, such as a pipe bigger than the main pipe of a deep well so that the main pipe can be pulled out for repair. OVERHEAD HEIGHT. This is the vertical distance from the higher source of water or overhead tank to the outlet (faucets, shower head) and is distributed by gravity. WATER TABLE. Subsurface conditions of ground water and rock must be known. Sites with subsurface which are about 1.80m to 2.40m below grade can cause problems with excavations, foundations, utility placement and landscaping. This is described as a level underground in which the soil is situated with water. An opening or space to accommodate a group of

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15. PIPE CHASE. pipes. 16.

When the water supply of a very tall building is designed as a unit, the required capacities or tanks, pumps and pipings become unduly large and excessive pressures are developed in lower portions of the downfeed risers. The buildings therefore are divided into

horizontal sections or GROUPING, and to design the hot and cold water supply systems separately for each. C. FIRE PROTECTION, STORM WATER 1. STANDPIPES & HOSES with separate water reserve or up feed pumping are extremely valuable in any buildings but become highly essential in tall buildings. This system, intended for use by building personnel until the fire engines arrive and thereafter by the trained staff of the fire department. 2. Automatic SPRINKLER systems consist of horizontal pattern of pipes placed near the ceilings of industrial buildings, warehouses, stores, theatres and other structures where the fire hazard requires their use. These pipes are provided with outlets and heads so constructed that temperatures of 55-70 degree Celsius will cause them to open automatically and emit a series of time water sprays. 3. WET PIPE SYSTEM. A system of sprinklers with its pipes constantly filling both mains and distribution pipes. 4. DRY PIPE SYSTEM. Generally confined to unheated buildings, there is no water in the distribution pipes except during a fire. Remote valves may be adequate by sensitive elements to admit water to sprinkler heads. 5. SIAMESE TWIN. An inlet placed outside a building close to ground level, having two openings so that fire engines can pump water to the dry stand pipes and sprinkler system of the building. 6. Sprinkler heads are the quartzoid bulb type. The bulb is transparent and contains a colored liquid. At 360 degrees Fahrenheit, the bulb breaks and releases a water stream. One is called UPRIGHT when used above piping when piping is exposed but when it is hidden inside ceilings that show only the bulb it is called PENDENT. 7. The portion of the plumbing system which conveys rainwater to a suitable terminal. This is usually discharged into a street gutter conveyed by a public STORM DRAIN system and carried to some drainage terminal such as lakes or rivers. 8. PEFORATED PIPE. When the soil is not permeable, and it touches a concrete or hollow block wall of a basement, rainwater will seep on it and may flood. The gravel is placed all around this wall 0.30m wide and about 0.30m below the basement floor rainwater from the gravel towards the drainage terminal. D. SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

1. BLACK WATER. Water plus human waste, solid and liquid, urine that is flushed out of toilets and urinals. 2. SOIL STACK PIPE. liquid waste. 3. WASTE PIPES. matter. A vertical soil pipe containing fecal matter and

A pipe which conveys only liquid wastes free of fecal

4. VENT. A pipe or opening used for ensuring the circulation of air in a plumbing system and for reducing the pressure exerted on trap seals. 5. CLEANOUT FERRULE. A metallic sleeve calked (to fill the gaps, to seal or to waterproof) or otherwise, joined to an opening in a pipe, into which a plug is screwed that can be removed for the purpose of cleaning or examining the interior of the pipe. 6. TRAP. A fitting or device so constructed as to prevent the passage of air, gas and materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water through it. 7. HOUSE DRAIN. The part of the lowest horizontal piping of a plumbing system which receives the discharge from soil, waste and other drainage pipes inside of a building and conveys it to the house sewer. It should have a slope of at least to a foot or 6mm for every 300mmor 2%. 8. UNDERGROUND PIT (why not sump pits) . A pit or receptacle at a low point to which the liquid wastes are drained. 9. SHAFT. A vertical opening though a dumbwaiters, light, ventilation and others. 10. 11. building for elevators,

SLEEVE. A sheet metal placed when concrete is poured to accommodate plumping pipes (through the hole made). CAULKING. lugging an opening around pipe joints with oakum (hemp soaked with oil) lead or other materials like epoxy adhesive on vinyl that are pounded place. GRADES OF HORIZONTAL PIPING. All horizontal piping shall run in practical alignment and at a uniform grade of not less than 2% and shall be supported or anchored at intervals not exceeding 3.00M length (10 feet). All stacks shall be properly supported at their bases and all pipes are rigidly hundred (100 inches) length. DREASES TRAP. This kind of trap must be installed wherever oily, lard contained wastes from hotels, restaurants, club houses or similar public eating places are discharged into the sewer or septic

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vault. Sand traps shall be placed as near as possible to the fixture from which it receives the discharge and shall have an air-tight cover, easily removable to permit its cleaning. 14. TRAP SEAL. This is the vertical distance between the dip and the crown weir (an embankment or levee) built to hold water in its course or to divert it to a new course of a p-trap. Also it is the water in the trap between the dip and the crown weir to prevent unpleasant and odorous gases to enter the room through the fixtures. SIPHONAGE. The result of a minus pressure in the drainage system. (Pressure is a force required to move gas or liquid) when a large amount of the trap (seal) is absolutely discharged. When the seal is lost, back flow of gases from the sewer line will pass into the trap, finds its way to the fixture drain outlet and spread into the room. Upon the completion of the entire water distribution system including connections to apprentices, devices, tanks, or fixtures, it shall be tested and inspected by means of WATER & AIR TEST .

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E. SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM, REFUSE HANDLING 1. SEPTIC TANK. A receptacle or water tight vault used to collect organic waste discharge from the house sewer and designed and constructed so as to separate solids from the liquid, digest the organic matter through a period of detention, and allow the effluent to discharge a storm drain. 2. CATCH BASIN . A receptacle in which liquids are retained for a sufficient period of time to deposit settleable materials. 3. PUBLIC SEWER MAIN . A public sanitary waste disposal system consisting of a treatment unit which conveys the raw waste to the disposal system. 4. A common way of disposing solids is by INCINERATION . This is a controlled burning of combustible waste. This can be an effective waste reduction method for 70 percent of all municipal wastes. If this is operated properly, it can reduce bulk by 90 to 95 percent. Ash left over is generally disposed off in a landfill. 5. Another method of disposing municipal solid wastes is by dumping of refuse at a pre-planned site, compacted and covered with a layer of earth. This method is called a SANITARY LANDFILL. 6. When garbage from different floors of a high-rise building is disposed off from an opening and is directly led to the basement garbage bin. This is called the RUBBISH CHUTES.

7. GARBAGE DISPOSER. This is a contraption inverted to dispose leftovers straight from the kitchen sink. Simply turn on the faucet, flick the power switch and place the leftovers such as bones, fruit pits, rotten vegetables, spoiled bones and washed down the drain pipes. 8. After the ground preparation, a LINER should be laid out on the area enclosed for sanitary landfill. The main purpose is to prevent the seepage of leachate (dirty water, to cause liquid to percolate) deep down to the ground water strata. This consists of soil or composite material such as synthetic plastic or asphalt sheets. 9. TRENCH METHOD . A method of landfill wherein a tractor digs a trench with a bulldozer blade and trucks dump the refuse to it. Then the tractor compacts the refuse thoroughly and covers it with earth that was dug up earlier. This method is primarily used on ground level. 10. AREA METHOD. This method of landfill is generally used on rolling terrain where the existing slope of the land can be used as a basin. In this method, trucks deposit refuse over the selected area. Huge, heavy tractors with special compacting wheels press down the refuse. Then the refuse is covered with earth hauled in from elsewhere. Collection of human wastes is done by elaborate systems to carry most liquid sewage to WATER TREATMENT PLANTS , where the sewage undergoes a series of treatment steps to remove polluting materials, biological and chemical contaminants that can harm human health or ecological systems. The first stage is the trapping or screening of coarse suspended matter into a grit chamber . Then the use of aerobic microorganisms to break down the organic matter left in the sewage called the biological oxidation . Then the third phase, chemical treatments used to remove undesirable constituents that remain. What results is drinking quality water.

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12. BIDET. A fixture that appears like a water closet, since a person sits down on it. But it is designed as a combination lavatory which can plug the drain and collect hot & cold water, with an inverted water sprayer to clear the most delicate and well-guarded parts of the body. F. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS 1. What determines the size of a leaching field? PERCOLATION TEST 2. What is an important concern in private water supply? HARDNESS. 3. What part of water supply design is affected by building height? STATIC HEAD

4. Statements: a. Correct *Dry pipe sprinkler systems are more efficient than wet pipe systems. *The hazard classification does not necessarily affect sprinkler layout. b. Incorrect *Siamese connections serve both sprinklers and standpipes *Standpipes must be located within stairways or vestibules of smokeproofed enclosures. *Standpipes are required in buildings four or more stories high or those exceeding 150 feet. 5. The pressure in a city water main is (0.39273 MPa). If the pressure loss through piping, fittings, and the water meter has been calculated as 231 psi (o.15847 MPa) and the highest fixture requires 12 psi (0.08268 MPa) to operate, what is the maximum height the fixture can be above the water main? 50 FEET (15M) 6. You have been retained by a client to design a house in a suburban location. The nearest water main is one block away (about 1000M) and the city has no plans to extend the line in the near future. City and county regulations do permit the drilling of wells. What should you recommend you client regarding water supply? ESTIMATE THE COST OF EXTENDING THE MUNICIPAL LINE, SINCE THE WATER QUALITY IS KNOWN AND IT WOULD ENSURE A LONG-TERM SUPPLY. CONSULT WITH NEARBY PROPERTY OWNERS WHO PLAN TO BUILD IN THE AREA TO SEE IF THEY WOULD BE WILLING TO SHARE THE COST OF EXTENDING THE LINE. 7. Which statements about drainage are correct? a. Correct *Vents help prevent the drainage of water from traps *The house drain cannot also be called the building sewer *Cleanouts are always a necessary part of a drainage system b. Incorrect *Drains should always slope at a minimum of 1/8 inch per foot (.0099 per meter) or 9.9mm/meter. [0.99%] 8. Water hammer most often occurs when: WATER SUDDENLY STOPS WHEN FLOW IS TURNED OFF. 9. One component of a plumbing system that every building has is a : STACK VENT 10. Select the incorrect statements:

a. Correct *Several types of plastic can be used for cold water piping, but only PVDC is used for hot water supply where allowed by local codes. *Steel pipe is more labor intensive and requires more space than copper pipes in plumbing chases. *ABS is suitable for water supply. b. Incorrect *Type M pipe is normally specified for most interior plumbing

ESSENTIAL PARTS OF PLUMBING SYSTEM

(SANITARY DRAINAGE)

1. HOUSE SEWER OR BUILDING SEWER - That horizontal run of pipe, starting from 5 outside the building which receives the sewage from the house drain or building and conveys the same to the sewer main or approved point of disposal. 2. HOUSE DRAIN OR BUILDING DRAIN -The lowest horizontal run of pipe inside the building which receives the discharge from fixtures and other branches and conveys the same to the house or building sewer. 3. PRIMARY BRANCH -The Primary Brach of a building drain is the single sloping drain from the base of a stack up to its junction with the main building drain or with other branches. The primary branch is also called a Lateral . 4. SECONDARY BRANCH -That horizontal run of pipe emanating from a fixture or group of fixtures up to its junction with the primary branch. 5.HORIZONTAL BRANCH -That t horizontal run of pipe, which receives the distance from fixture and convey the same to the stack.

6. BRANCH INTERVAL -That length of pipe of a stack no less than eight feet which receives the discharge from the horizontal branch. 7. SOILSTACK -The vertical run of pipe, which receives discharge from fixture without fecal matter. 8. WASTE STACK -That vertical matter run discharge from fixtures without fecal matter. of pipe, which receives

9. LATERAL - In lateral plumbing - a secondary pipe line. In sewerage a common sewer to which no other common sewer is tributary. It receives sewage only from building sewer. 10. FIXTURE DRAIN -The drain from the trap of the fixture to the junction of the fixture to the drain of the pipe. 11. SPECIAL WASTE OR INDIRECT WASTE PIPE - Waste water pipe from fixtures or appliances which is allowed to discharge into a properly vented fixture and with no direct connection with the drainage system.

PLUMBING CODE: DEFINITION OF TERMS


ALLEY - any public space, public park moroughiare less than three (3) meters but not less than two (2) meters in width which has been dedicated or deeded to the public for public use. ALTER OR ALTERATION - any change, addition construction or occupancy. (Change or repair) or modification in

APPROVED - accepted or acceptable under an applicable specification stated or cited in this Code, or accepted as suitable for the proposed use under procedures and powers at the authority. AUTHORITY - Authority in this Code is mean to be the individual official, board, department or agency established an authorized by the office of the President (R.A. No. 1378) to administer and enforce the provisions of this National Plumbing Code as adapted or amended. (Prof. Sanitary Engineering) Plans and specs, (Master Plumber) - Install BACKFLOW - The flow of water into a water supply system from source other than its regular source. Back siphonage is one type of backflow.

BAK PRESSURE - Air pressure in drainage pipes greater than atmospheric pressure. BACK VENT PIPE - the part of a vent line which connects directly with an individual trap underneath or behind the fixture and extends to the branch or main, soil, or waste pipe at any point higher than the fixture or fixture trap it serves. This is sometimes called an individual vent. BALL COCK - A faucet opened or closed by the fall or rise of a ball floating on the surface of water. - A float valve with a spherical float. BALL JOINT - A connection in which a ball is held in a cuplike shell that allows movement in every direction. BATTERY OF FIXTURES - Battery of fixtures is any of two or more similar adjacent fixtures which discharge into a common horizontal soil branch. BELL OR HUB - That portion of a pipe which for a short distance, is sufficiently enlarged to receive the end of another pipe of the same diameter for the purpose of making a joint. BENDING PIN (OR IRON) - A tool used for straightening or expanding lead pipe. BIBB - Synonymous with faucet is preferred. Faucet or Spigot. BIDET - A plumbing fixture used for washing the middle part of the body, specially the genitals. Also a sitz bath (Used to wash posterior parts of the body). BLANK FLANGE - A flange that is not drilled. BLIND FLANGE - A flange that closes the end of a pipe. There is no opening for the passage of water. (Used for black iron pipes). BLOW OFF - A controlled outlet on a pipe line used too discharge water or detritus. (In Sanitary house trap). BRANCH - A branch is any part of a piping system other than the main, riser or stack. MWSS - Installation of national local water works. DPWH - For installation & excavation

BRANCH INTERVAL - A length of soil or waste stack corresponding in general to a story height, but in no case less than eight (8) feet, within which the horizontal branches from one floor or story of a building are connected to the stack. BRANCH VENT - A vent pipe connecting from a branch of the drainage system to a vent stack. BUILDING - any structure built, erected and framed of component structural parts designed for the housing, shelter, enclosure or support of persons, animals, or property of any kind. BUILDING DRAIN BUILDING SEWER - See house Drain. - See House Sewer.

BUILDING SUBDRAIN -That portion of a drainage system which cannot drain by gravity into the building sewer. ( Any piping system which needed to be elevated from basement to the N.G.L.) CAULKING - Plugging an opening with oakum, lead or other materials that are pounded into place. Also, the material that is pounded into the opening. CAP - A fitting into which the end of a pipe is screwed for the purpose of closing the end of the pipe. CATCH BASIN - A receptacle in which liquids are retained for a sufficient period to deposit settle able material CESSPOOL - A pit for the reception or detention of sewage. CHECK VALVE - A valve that automatically closes to prevent the flow of water in reverse direction.(Prevents reverse flow) CIRCUIT VENT - A group vent extending from in front of the last fixture connection on a horizontal branch to the vent stack. See also loop vent. (Loop vent, Branch vent) COMMON VENT - See unit vent and dual vent CONDUCTOR, LEADER, OR DOWNSPOUT - A vertical pipe to convey rain water. CONTINUOUS VENT - a vertical vent that is a continuation of the drain, to which the vent connects. (or VSTR) CORPORATION COCK - A stop valve placed in a service pipe close to its connection with a water main.

COURT - an open , unoccupied space bounded on two (2) or more sides by the walls of the buildings. An inner court is a court entirely within the exterior walls of a building. All other courts are outer courts. CROSS CONNECTION - Any physical connection or arrangement of pipes between two otherwise separate building water-supply pipes or a system through which or by means of which water supply may flow from one system to the other, the direction of flow depending on the pressure differential between the two systems. DEAD END - The extended portion of a pipe that is closed at one end to which no connections are made on the extended portion, thus permitting the stagnation of water or air therein. (Water hammer arrester or air gap or air chamber). DEVELOPMENT LENGTH -The length along the center line of the pipe and the fittings. DIAMETER - Diameter of a pipe or tube shall mean the nominal internal diameter (I.D.) of such pipe; except brass and copper tubing wherein the term shall mean the outside diameter (O.D.) of tubing. DOMESTIC SEWAGE - See sanitary sewage.

DOUBLE-BEND FITTING - A pipe fitting shaped like the letter S. DOUBLE OFFSET - Two offsets in succession or in series in the same line. DOWNSPOUT - The vertical portion of a rainwater conductor. DRAIN - A sewer or other pipe or conduit used for conveying ground water, surface water, storm water, or sewage. DRAINAGE SYSTEM -The drainage pipes of a plumbing system take the water from the plumbing fixtures and deliver it to the sewer or some other outlet. The drainage pipes must be gas-light, and water-light. The passage of air, odors or vitamin from the sewer into the building must be prevented. DRY VENT - A vent that does not carry water or water- borne wastes. DUAL VENT - See unit vent. EXISTING WORK - The term existing work shall apply to those portions of plumbing system which have been installed and approved prior to the contemplated additions, collections, or corrections.

FAMILY - Family is one person living alone or a group of two (2) or more persons living together, whether related to each other by birth or not. FAUCET - A valve on a water pipe by means of which water can be drawn from or held within the pipe. The valve is placed on the end of the pipe. FERRULE - A metallic sleeve, called or otherwise, joined to an opening in a pipe, into which a plug is screwed that can be removed for the purpose of cleaning or examining the interior of the pipe. FIXTURE - A receptacle attached to a plumbing system other than a trap in which water or wastes may be collected or retained for ultimate discharge into the plumbing system. FIXTURE BRANCH - The supply pipe between the fixture and the water distributing pipe. FIXTURE DRAIN - The drain from the trap of a fixture to the junction of the drain with any other drain pipe. FIXTURE UNIT - One fixture unit is equivalent to a flow rate of one (1) cubic foot of water per minute or seven and a half (71/2) gallons of water per minute. FLASHING - A piece of sheet metal fitted under another piece of flat metal or wood over which water is expected to run. FLOOD LEVEL - The level in a fixture at which water begins to overflow the top or rim of the fixture. FLOOR AREA - The area included within surrounding walls of a building (or portion thereof), exclusive of vent shafts and courts. FLUSH VALVE - A valve used for flushing a fixture by using water directly from the water supply pipes or in connection with a special flush tank. GATE VALVE - A valve in which the flow of water is cut off by means of a circular disk, fitting against machine-smoothed faces, at right angles to the direction of flow. The disk is raised or lowered by means of a threaded stem connected to the handle of the valve. The opening in the valve is usually as large as the full bore of the pipe. GLOBE VALVE - A valve in which the flow of water is cut off by means of a circular disk that fits against the valve seat. The plane of movement of the disk is parallel to the normal direction of flow of water, which is turned through a tortuous passage to direct the flow normal to the face of the disk. GOOSE NECK - A return bend of small-sized pipe one end of which is about one (1) foot long and the other end is about three (3) inches long. It is commonly used as a faucet for a pantry sink. Also, the lead connection between a service pipe and a water main.

GRADE - The slope or fall of a line of pipe in reference to a horizontal plane usually expressed in percent. GROUND WATER - The water that is standing in or passing through the ground. GROUP VENT - A branch vent that performs its function for two (2) or more traps. HEIGHT OF BUILDING - The vertical distance from the Grade Line to the highest point of the coping of a flat roof or to the deck line of a mansard roof or to the average height of the highest gable of a pitch or hip-roof. HORIZONTAL BRANCH - A branch drain extending laterally from soil or waste stack, with or without vertical sections or branches, that receives the discharge from one or more fixture drains and conducts it to the soil or waste stack or to the building drain. HOUSE DRAIN - part of the lowest horizontal piping of a plumbing system which receives the discharge from soil, waste, and other drainage pipes inside of a buildings conveys it to the house sewer. HOUSE STORM SEWER - A house storm sewer is the pipeline from the building to the public storm sewer system. INDIRECT WASTE PIPE - A waste pipe that does not connect directly with the building drainage system but discharges into is through a properly trapped fixture or receptacle. INDIVIDUAL VENT - See back vent. INDUSTRIAL WASTES - Industrial waste are liquid waste resulting from the processes employed in industrial establishments and are free from fecal matter. INSANITARY - Contrary to sanitary principles or injurious to health. INTERCEPTOR - A receptacle designed and constructed to intercept or separate, and prevent the passage of oil, grease, sand, or other materials into the drainage system to which it is directly or indirectly connected. INVERT - The lowest portion of the inside of any pipe conduit that is not vertical. LATERAL - In plumbing, a secondary pipe line. In average, a common sewer to which no other common sewer is tributary, receives sewage only from building sewers.

LATRINE - A water closet consisting of a continuous though containing water. The trough extends under two (2) or more adjacent seats. Prohibited by most authorities for permanent installations. LAVATORY - A fixture designed for the washing of the hands or face. Sometimes called a wash basin. LEACHING CESSPOOL - A cesspool that is not watertight. LEADER - See conductor. LENGTH OF PIPE - The length as measured along. LOCAL VENT - A pipe or shaft serving to convey foul air from a plumbing fixture or a room to the outer air. LOOP OR CIRCUIT VENT - A continuation of a horizontal soil or waste pipe beyond the connection at which liquid wastes from a fixture or fixtures enter the waste or soil pipe. The extension is usually vertical immediately beyond its connection to the soil or waste pipe. The base of the vertical portion of the vent may be connected to the horizontal portion of the soil or waste stack between fixtures connected thereto. MAIN - The main of any system of continuous piping is the principal artery of the system, to which branches may be connected. MAIN VENT - See vent stack. MANHOLE - An opening constructed in a sewer or any part of a plumbing system of sufficient size for a man to gain access thereto. MASTERPLUMBER - A person with knowledge of and experience in plumbing who employs journeymen plumbers or who conducts a plumbing business. OAKUM - Hemp or old hemp rope soaked in oil to make it waterproof. OCCUPANCY - Occupancy is the purpose for which a building is used or intended to be used. The term shall also include the building or room housing such use. Change of Occupancy is not intended to include change of tenants or proprietors. PERSON - A natural person, his heirs, executors, administrators, its or their successor or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid. PITCH - See grade. PLUMBING - The art and technique of installing in buildings the pipes, fixtures, and other apparatuses for bringing in the water supply, liquids,

substances or ingredients and removing them and such water, liquid, and other carried-wastes affecting health and sanitation and hazardous to life and property; also the pipes and fixtures after they have been installed, i.e. the plumbing system. PLUMBING FIXTURE - A receptacle attached to a plumbing system other than a trap in which water or wastes may be collected or retained for ultimate discharge into the plumbing system. PLUMBING SYSTEM - The plumbing system of a building, institution,, factory or industrial establishment, includes the water-supply, liquids, substances and or ingredients distributing pipes; and those pipes removing them and such water, liquid, and other carried-wastes; the fixtures and fixture traps; the soil, waste, and vent pipes; the house drain, the foundation drain, and the house sewer; the storm water drainage; drainage ejectors, all with their devices, appurtenances, and connections within or on a building, a factory, or an industry. PLUMBING OFFICIAL - The authority or the officer charged with the administration and enforcement of the National Plumbing Code, or his regularly authorized deputy. POTABLE WATER - Potable water is water which is satisfactory for drinking, culinary, domestic purposes and meets the requirements of the health authority having jurisdiction. PRIMARY BRANCH - A primary branch of the building drain is the single sloping drain from the base of a stack to its junction with the main building drain or with another branch thereof. PRIVATE OR PRIVATE USE - Private applies to fixtures in a residence where the fixtures are intended for the use of a family or an individual. PRIVATE SEWER - a sewer privately owned and not directly controlled by public authority. PRIVY - An outhouse or structure used for the deposition of excrement. PRIVY VAULT - A pit beneath a privy in which excrement collects. PUBLIC OR PUBLIC USE - In the classification of plumbing fixtures, public applies to fixtures in general toilet rooms of schools, gymnasiums, hotels, railroad stations, public buildings, bars, public comforts stations, or places to which the public is invited or which are frequented by the public without special permission or special invitation, and other installations (whether pay or free) where a number of fixtures are installed so that their use is similarly unrestricted. PUBLIC SEWER - a common sewer directly controlled by public authority to which all abutters have equal rights of connections.

RELIEF VENT a vent the primary function of which is to provide circulation of air between drainage and vent system. REPAIR - The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance. The word repair or repairs shall not apply to any change of construction. RETURN BEND - An open return bend, usually with inside threads, but applied also to a one hundred eighty (180 degree) bend in a pipe. REVENT PIPE - See back vent pipe. RISER - A water supply pipe that extends vertically one full story or more too convey water to branches or fixtures. ROUGHING-IN - The installation of all pipes in the plumbing system that are in partitions and under floors. It includes the plumbing work done before the setting of the fixtures, or finishing. SANITARY SEWAGE - The sewage containing human excrement and liquid household waste; also called domestic sewage. SANITARY SEWER - A sewer intended to receive sanitary sewage with or without industrial wastes and without the admixture of surface water, storm water, or drainage. SEAL - The vertical distance between the dip and the crown weir of a trap. Also, the water in the trap between the dip and the crown weir. SECONDARY BRANCH - And branch in a building drain other than the primary branch. SEPTIC TANK - A septic tank is a watertight receptacle, which receives the discharge of a plumbing system or part thereof, and is designed and constructed so as to separate solids from the liquid digest the organic matter through a period of detention, and allow the effluent to discharge into a storm drain; or directly to the ground outside the tank through a system of open joint or perforated piping. SERVICE PIPE - The pipe from the water main or source of water supply to the building served. SEWAGE - The liquid wastes conducted away from residences, business buildings, institutions, industrial establishments; and with such ground, surface, and storm water as may be present. SEWER - A pipe or conduit for carrying sewage and waste liquids.

SEWERAGE, OR SEWERAGE WORKS - A comprehensive term, including all construction for collection, transportation, pumping, treatment and final disposition of sewage. SHAFT - A vertical opening through a building for elevators, dumb-waiter, ventilation or similar purpose. SHALL - As used in this Code, is mandatory. SIAMESE CONNECTION - A wye connection used on fire lines so that two lines of hose may be connected to hydrant or to the same nozzle. SIPHONAGE - A suction by the flow of liquids in pipes. A pressure less than atmospheric. SOIL PIPE - A soil pipe is any pipe which conveys the discharge of water closets, urinals, or fixtures having similar functions. Also, a cast-iron pipe, with bell and spigot ends, used in plumbing to convey fecal matter or liquid wastes. SOIL STACK PIPE - A vertical soil pipe conveying fecal matter and liquid waste. SPIGOT - The end of a pipe, which fits into a bell. Also a word used synonymously with faucet. STACK - A general term used for any vertical line of soil, waste, or vent piping. STACK VENT - A stack vent is the extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack. STANDPIPE - A vertical pipe usually used for the storage of water, frequently under pressure. STORM WATER - Storm water is that portion of the rainfall or other precipitation, which runs off over the surface after the storm and for such a short period following a storm as the flow exceeds the normal runoff. STORY - Story is that portion of a building included between the upper surface of any floor and the upper surface of the floor next above, except that the topmost story shall be that portion of a building of a building included between the upper surface of the topmost floor and the ceiling or roof above. If the finished floor level directly above a basement or cellar is more than six (6) feet above grade such basement or cellar shall be considered a story. SUBSOIL DRAIN - Subsoil drains are underground drain pipes that receives only sub-surface or seepage water and convey it to place of disposal.

SUMP - A pit or receptacle at a low point to which the liquid wastes are drained. SUPPORTS - Supports, hangers, anchors, brackets, cradles are devices for holding and securing pipes and fixtures to walls, ceiling, floors, or structural members. SURFACE WATER - portion of a rainfall or other precipitation which runs off over the surface of the ground. SWIMMING POOL - A water receptacle used for swimming designed to accommodate more than one bather at time and properly connected to a disposal system. TAPED TEE - A cast-iron bell-end tee with the branch tapped to receive a threaded pipe of fitting TRAP - A fitting or device so constructed as to prevent the passage of air, gas, and some vermin through a pipe without materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water through it. TRAP SEAL - See seal. UNIT VENT - An arrangement of venting so installed that one vent pipe will serve two (2) traps. VACUUM - An air pressure less than that atmospheric. Also, siphonage. VENT - A pipe or opening used to ensuring the circulation of air in plumbing system and for reducing the pressure exerted on trap seals. WET VENT - portion of a vent pipe through which liquid waste flow. WASTE PIPE - a pipe, which conveys only liquid waste, free of fecal matter. YARD - A yard is an open, unoccupied space, other than a court, unobstructed from the ground to the sky, except where specifically provide by this Code, on the lot on which a building is situated.

STANDARD COMMERCIAL SIZE OF GI PIPE FOR WATER SUPPLY: a) 1 b) 2 c)4 LOCATION FOR CLEAN OUT: 1. any horizontal waste or soil pipe exceeding 15m 2. at upper end of every branch 22.5 & over ZEOLITE- treatment of hard water

MAIN VENT- principal artery of venting system to which vent branch pipe maybe connected COMMON VENT- single vent that ventilates multiple traps of back to back fixture AIR OUTLET- air generated device to open or close a damper or valve SEPTIC TANK: location and features 15 meters away from potable water if theres a public sewer pipe, septic tank is not allowed no septic tank under house inlets & outlets are submerge bottom tank should have slope of 1:10 mm towards center top cover 0.15 m above soil 0.30 m air space 0.50 lower- inlet 0.025 lower- outlet VOLUME OF SEPTIC TANK a. min width- 0.90 b. min length- 1.50 c. min depth- 1.20 d. for residential- 0.14 to 0.17 per person e. 12 persons- not more than 2.0 cum f. schools, industrial- 0.057 cum per person minimum 0.86 cum maximum MATERIALS FOR PLUMBING INSTALLATIONS 1. galvanized iron- (G.I) steel pipes - 15-20 years life span - deteriorates fast when used for hot water - corroded w/ alkaline and acid water - made out of mild steel 2. plastic or synthetic pipe rigid 1. polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 2. chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) 3. unplastesized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) 4. polypropylene (PP) 5. acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 6. styrene rubber plastic (SR) b. flexible 1. polyethylene (PE)- coil form at 30 mts 2. polybutylene (PB)- up to 150 mts long in coil form 3. cast iron pipe- durable use for less than 25 storey because water leak due to vibration 2 types:

a.

1. SV- for building installations 2. XV- for underground installation 4. acid resistant cast iron pipe- made of alloy, cast iron & silicon - installed in chemical labs for acid waste disposal 5. asbestos pipe- made of asbestos fibers & Portland cement - suitable for embedment on concrete structures 6. bituminous fiber sewer pipe- cheapest and lightest - for house sewer 7. vitrified clay pipe- made of clay & w/ length of 0.75 m threaded w/ glazed compound. High resistant to acid & suited in underground installation. Brittle, cracks easily when laid on unsuitable ground 8. lead pipe- one of the oldest plumbing material . not recommended to convey water for human consumption 9. galvanized wrought iron pipes- better than steel pipes for plumbing because it is more resistant to acid waste 10. brass pipe- most expensive. Made of alloy of zinc & copper mixed 15% :85% highly suitable for waste & water because of its smooth surface aside from its high resistance to acids 11. copper pipes- durable material w/c is extremely corrosive resistance. Easiest to install Type K- heaviest for underground installation L- lighter than K, comes in flexible & rigid type M- thinner & available only in rigid form