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Development of High Efficiency CFB Technology to Provide Flexible Air/Oxy Operation for Power Plant with CCS

FLEXI BURN CFB


CO2NET seminar and EU CCS conference, 24th 26th May 2011, London

Project objective
Aim : to develop and demonstrate FLEXI BURN CFB concept enabling to reach the target of near zero emission power plants
The FLEXI BURN CFB concept: High efficiency Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) power plant with CCS capable of air/oxy operation with a wide range of fuels including biomass
The FLEXI BURN CFB concept has a set of important advantages: 1. 2. 3. fuel flexibility in order to decrease dependency on imported coals and in order to improve power plant economics especially with CCS operation operational flexibility in order to apply air-firing and oxygen-firing with CO2 capture lower NOx production due to reduced and more uniform furnace temperature profiles, and lower SOx concentration in flue gases due to in-furnace capture, thus reducing the need for downstream flue gas cleaning overall concept for phased transition into CCS technology with minimised risks through high efficiency air-oxy flexible CFB combustion lower specific CO2 emissions from the reduced consumption of fuel due to the intrinsic high efficiency of the technology . In addition, by substituting e.g. 20% of coal input with renewable fuels, CO2 emissions can further be reduced by 15-20%. Provides utilities an attractive alternative to take into use the new technology and decommission old capacity with lower efficiency and poorer emission performance
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4. 5.

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FLEXI BURN CFB diagram allowing operation under normal air-firing as well as oxygen-firing with CCS
Fluegas (CO2-rich) Switch Flue gas cleaning Stack

The FLEXI BURN CFB concept: High efficiency Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) power plant with CCS capable of air/oxy operation with a wide range of fuels including biomass

Large scale high efficiency CFB boiler with FLEXI BURN design

Fuel Bituminous coal Lignite Biomass Pet coke etc. Switch Air

CO2 capture and storage (CCS) Condensation Compression Purification Transport Storage

Air Separation Unit (ASU)


3

95-97% O2

Mixing Flue gas recirculation

Role of FLEXI BURN CFB Partners


Endesa, EDP, PKE

UAP
Utilities
1st Commercial scale FLEXI BURN CFB Power Plant

Development steps

FWEOY, FWESA, ADEX, Siemens, Praxair

Manufacturers
VTT, LUT, CzUT UNIZAR-LITEC, AICIA
Demonstration Pilot Plant 30 MWth , CIUDEN

Research institutes

Laboratory and small pilot scale test (0.1-1MWth )

Concept

FLEXI BURN CFB project


2009 - 2012 Industrial applicability

FLEXI BURN CFB - General project approach


WP7: Coordination and dissemination WP6 Feasibility and readiness for the utilization of the technology within different regions in EU

WP2 Development of design tools WP1 Comparison of airand oxy-firing Supporting R&D work WP3 Demonstration tests at large pilot unit and commercial scale air fired unit WP4 Boiler design and performance Viable boiler design WP5 Power plant integration, optimization and economics Viable power plant

Technology demonstration and background for the commercial scale design process

Development and demonstration in multiple scales (1/2)


Bench scale
B E N CH S C A LE R E A CT O R (B F B/C F B)
Flue gas recir culation

Pilot scale
PILOT SCALE CFB COMBUSTOR
FTIR sampling port Gas analysator Bag filt er Gas cooling Observation port To stack Sampling port Secondary cyclone Deposit probe port

Boiler scale
A GIS ZA 460 MWe supercritical O TU CFB

C ooler

C yclo ne

To S tack

Filter Fuel batch feed


Zone 4 Sampling port Primary cyclone Sampling port FTIR sampling port

C ooler/heater

Zone 3

EXPERIMENTAL SCALES

Sampling port Sampling port

C o ntinuous fue l fee d S econdary a ir

Zone 2 Sampling port Fuel containers 1 and 2 Zone 1 Additive container Secondary gas O2, CO2, N2

O2, C O2, CO, N 2, S O2, NO


Primary gas heatin g PC control and data logging system Sampling port

Air

PC c ontrol and data logg ing sys tem

Prima ry gas heating

Air

1D-MO DEL
flu e g as to stack

n+ 1

bexp(A/ T)(d / dref )n

n -1 n -2

MODELS AND DESIGN TOOLS

Model analyses

ase rele re istu mo ile, lat Vo COcombustion

Mixing Cha r co mb ust ion

dYCO kef YCO dt


kef 1/(1/ kCO
m)
3

rc

dmc dt

n kmc XO2
Seco n da ry air

2 1 Pr ima ry air

kW/m

k W /m 2

MODELS FOR PHENOMENA 1-D PROCESS MODELS

3-D PROCESS MODELS

Development and demonstration in multiple scales (2/2)


Demonstration of FLEXI BURN CFB CIUDEN 30MW th
- air-/ oxy-firing with fuel flexibility - CO2 separation

Scale up criteria

Field measurements at OTU CFB Lagisza 460 MWe


- scale-up information from the world first and largest OTU CFB - design model validation

Commercial scale FLEXI BURN CFB Technology

WP1
R&D support

WP2
Design tools

WP3
Demonstration

WP4
Boiler design

WP5
Power plant concept

WP6
Commercial Scale FLEXIBURN

Process scale-up
Reference plant for the project
800

Unit Capacity (MWe)

800 MWe

600 500 400 300 200


Tri-State JEA Turow 1 Nova Scotia Vaskiluodon General Motors Lagisza

100
Pilot Plant Oriental Chem

0 1970

1975

1980

1985

1990
Start-Up Year

1995

2000

2005

2010

CFB technology is scaling up with the latest high-efficiency SC-OTU-references Lagisza (460 MWe). The Lagisza power plant (460 MWe), located in the southern Poland, is the world's largest CFB boiler, which is also the world's first supercritical CFB once-through unit (OTU)
CFB800 Furnace - Width - Depth - Height m m m 40 12 50.0 agisza 27.6 10.6 48.0 Turow 4-6 22.0 10.1 42.0 JEA 26.0 6.7 35.1 Turow 1-3 21.2 9.9 43.5

Validation runs at a 460 MWe SC-OTU CFB boiler


Balance test runs at Lagisza CFB boiler Unit loads (100%MCR, 80%MCR, 60%MCR and 40%MCR) High/low level of bed pressure within combustion chamber Measurement parameters during test runs : Temperature within the combustion chamber (rear wall) Vertical pressure profile within furnace (front wall) Gas profiles (at level 13.00m) Process data (including emission data) Solid samples coal, limestone, bottom ash, fly ash , in-furnace sample and circulating material
Load unit: 100% MCR, 80% MCR Solids Bituminous coal Bottom ash Fly ash In-furnace sample Circulating material Limestone Solids Bituminous coal Bottom ash Fly ash In-furnace sample Circulating material Limestone Sampling frequency 4 (every two hours) 4 (every two hours) 4 (every two hours) 4 (every two hours) 4 (every two hours) 1 (in half of test balance) Load unit: 60% MCR, 40% MCR Sampling frequency 3 (in half of test balance) 3 (in half of test balance) 3 (in half of test balance) 3 (in half of test balance) 3 (in half of test balance) 1 (in half of test balance)

Location of measurement ports at OTU-SC 460MWe Lagisza boiler

Validation runs at a 460 MWe SC-OTU CFB boiler


OTU SC CFB Boiler layout at PKE S.A. Lagisza Power Plant

EMISSION ( at 6% O2, dry flue gas) (follows EUs LCP directive), mg/Nm3 SO2 NOx (as NO2) CO Dust
400 350

200 200 200 30


400 350
SO2 measuring data

Low Emissions

NOx measuring data

Concentration of SO 2 [mg/mn]

(at O2 = 6% in dry flue gases)

Concentration of NOx [mg/mn]

250 200 150 100 50

(at O2 = 6% in dry flue gases)

300

300 250 200 150 100 50

200
950

250

300

350

400

450

500 200 180

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

200
Measured

Unit load [MWe]

Unit load [MWe]

925 900 875

175
CO measuring data

calculated by model

160 Concentration of dust [mg/mn]


2

Dust measuring data

Concentration of CO [mg/mn]

(at O2 = 6% in dry flue gases)

(at O2 = 6% in dry flue gases)

150 125 100 75 50 25

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550

Temperature [C]

850 825 800 775 750 0 5 10 15 20

Height [m]

25

30

35

40

45

50

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Unit load [MWe]

Unit load [MWe]

FLEXI BURN CFB Demonstration steps


CIUDEN 30MW Concept for 300 MWe

Demonstration scales

CANMET 1MW Aim : to develop and demonstrate FLEXI BURN CFB concept enabling to reach the target of near zero emission power plants Completed In progress Time 2012

VTT 0.1MW VTT 0.3kW


B EN CH S CA LE RE ACT OR (B FB /CF B)
Zone 3 Sampling port Sampling port

PILOT SCALE CFB COMBUSTOR


Flue gas recirculation FTIR sampling port Gas analysator Bag filter Gas cooling Observation port To stack Sampling port Secondary cyclone Deposit probe port

Zone 4 Sampling port

Pr imary cyclone

Sampling por t FTIR sampling port

C ooler

Cyclone
Sampling port

Zone 2

To Sta ck

Filt er Fuel ba tch fee d

Fuel container s 1 and 2 Additive container

Zone 1

Secondar ygas O2, CO2, N2

Co oler/hea ter
M

Primary gas heating

Air

Con tin uou s fu el fee d S econ dary air

PC control and data logging system

Sampling port

O 2, C O2 , CO, N2 , SO 2 , NO

P C con trol and d ata lo gging system

Prima ry g as hea tin g

A ir

2009

Small pilot scale CFB experiments (0.1MW) under air- and oxygen-firing conditions

Operational point of views: Combustion process dynamics Transition between air- and oxygen firing

Air-firing

Oxygen-firing

Oxygen-firing

Air-firing

Small pilot scale CFB experiments (0.1MW) under air- and oxygen-firing conditions
Small pilot scale CFB experiments (0.1MW) under air- and oxygen-firing conditions have been completed with totally 33 experiments Transition between air- and oxygen firing conditions could be carried out smoothly and safely with the renovated automation system which included an automated transition mode between air- and oxygen-firing Combustion process could be operated in the both modes without any major drawbacks Based on the dynamic tests the reliable control of oxidant oxygen concentration is very important from the safety operation and process controllability point of view If the inlet gas (oxidant) oxygen concentration is controlled effectively the combustion process stability seems to be comparable to corresponding air-firing conditions If flue gas emissions are expressed in milligrams per megajoules the emission levels between air- and oxygenfiring have not remarkable differences
Bottom ash Air-firng (Test 19)

CaCO3 [%] CaO [%] CaSO4 [%]

Bottom ash Oxygen-firing (Test 20)

CaCO3 [%] CaO [%] CaSO4 [%]

Model based analysis of the CANMET test data

Test program at CanmetENERGY, Ottawa


15 test weeks Runs: 88 of which 35 in air combustion 53 in oxy combustion

Detailed analysis of solids mass balance Furnace vertical temperature profile Combustion and energy release profile Solids density profile Heat flux profile Furnace heat transfer
1000 950 900 850

Temperature

800 750 700 650 600 550 500 0 2 High load OXY High load AIR

Furnace height
4

Demonstration runs at a 30 MWth CFB pilot plant

FLUE GAS CLEANING

GASES RECIRCULATION AND MIXTURE

DCS

CFB BOILER

PC BOILER

FUEL PREPARATION

CO2 COMPRESSION & PURIFICATION

TECHNICAL & INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

Demonstration runs at a 30 MWth CFB pilot plant


CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FLOW DIAGRAM
FLY ASH RECIRCULATION AMMONIA, DeNOx BOILER FEED WATER FLY ASH FEEDING SYSTEM LIMESTONE SILO LIMESTONE, DeSOx LIMESTONE FEEDING SYSTEM SAND SILO MIXER SAND FEEDING SYSTEM FAN FUEL SILO MIXER SECUNDARY OXIDANT PRIMARY OXIDANT FLY ASH SYSTEM FLUE GAS

FLY ASH SILO

LIMESTONE

FUEL FEED

SAND

CB1
FAN

FUEL FEEDING SYSTEM

MIXER

CB2

NATURAL GAS

START-UP BURNER SKID

OXYGEN

BOTTOM ASH

Demonstration runs at a 30 MWth CFB pilot plant

NEXT STEPS
PLANNING OF TEST MATRIX FLEXI BURN TEST PERIOD FLEXI BURN PROJECT DEADLINE

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2011

2012

CFB CONSTRUCTION & COMMISSIONING

CFB FUNCTIONALITY TEST

COMPILATION OF RESULTS

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Specifications for a FLEXI BURN CFB demonstration plant

Plant size: Two cases considered: Flexi Burn CFB demonstration plant: 300-350 MWe gross. (Detailed technical scope, main focus) Full Commercial plant - post-2020: 800 MWe gross (techno-economical feasibility study)

Specifications for a FLEXI BURN CFB demonstration plant

Steam parameters:
Main steam temperature Main steam pressure Reheated steam pressure Reheated steam temperature 598 C 270 bar 57 bar 600 C

CO2 compressed to transport by pipeline


H2O CO O2 + N2 + Ar SOx NOx CO2 CONCENTRATION < 500 ppm < 2000 ppm < 4 vol% < 100 ppm < 100 ppm >95.5 %

Operating parameters:
Dynamic requirements for the power plant Operational Mode Load change rate Minimum load Start-up time (cold) Start-up time (ASU cold) Base Load Max ramping 4%/min 40% <24h <8h
Oxy mode Air mode TOTAL Annual equivalent operating hours 6500 h 500 h 7000 h

Specifications for a FLEXI BURN CFB demonstration plant


Other oxycombustion criteria: Air inleakage: Base case 1% (sensitivity analysis up to 3%). O2/CO2 ratio: close to air concentration (24% O2 wet). Oxygen purity:
Oxygen purity Pressure Temperature 96,6 % vol 1,2 bar 20 C

Current status (1/2)


During the first half of the project a lot of experimental work has been carried out in order to support the development of FLEXI BURN CFB concept Combustion tests in different scales and field measurements in a commercial scale power plant provide a base for development and validation of the design tools needed in the concept development Demonstration tests at different scales: VTT 0.1MW, CANMET 1MW has been completed (totally over 100 test balances) with encouraging results If flue gas emissions are expressed in milligrams per megajoules the emission levels between air- and oxygen-firing have not remarkable differences Emission limits based on the concentrations and volumetric units are not applicable for the CCS processes. Emission limits in CCS applications should be expressed in energy basis.
Fluegas (CO2-rich) Switch Flue gas cleaning Stack

Large scale high efficiency CFB boiler with FLEXI BURN design Fuel Bituminous coal Lignite Biomass Pet coke etc. Switch Air

CO2 capture and storage (CCS) Condensation Compression Purification Transport Storage

Air Separation Unit (ASU)

95-97% O2

Mixing Flue gas recirculation

Current status (2/2)


The basic design parameters for a FLEXI BURN CFB plant, from a technical and functional point of view, have been determined
Two cases considered: 1) Flexi Burn CFB demonstration plant: 300-350 MWe gross 2) Full Commercial plant - post-2020: 800 MWe gross

The initial conceptual design of the FLEXI BURN CFB boiler has been developed The first conceptual design for the FLEXI BURN has been implemented including a preliminary integration with the Air Separation Unit (ASU) and the Compression and Purification Unit (CPU)
Boiler
Oxidant Flue gas

ASU

CPU

Integration Power Utilities

Steam Cycle

Integration Power Utilities

Next steps
The second test campaign at Lagisza Power Plant is carried out during the first half of 2011 Demonstration tests at CIUDEN in the beginning of 2012 Concept optimisation for the boiler island and the integrated power plant unit including dynamic simulation of the plant Health and safety assessment related to oxygen-firing conditions Estimate economics for the new concept and evaluate their feasibility on a commercial scale range Identification of the key success factors of the FLEXI BURN CFB technology covering the process efficiency, operability, maintainability, environmental impact and responsiveness to the market requirements, all leading to the economic performance of this new approach for power generation

Co-operation with Utility Advisory Panel (UAP)

FLEXI BURN CFB - Summary


1) What has been achieved, what do we now know and what can we now do, technically and commercially? Flexible operation under air- and oxygen-firing modes have been successful demonstrated in the small scales (0.1MW-1MW) The first validation test campaign with the world first and the largest (460 MWe) OTSC-CFB has been successfully completed Final concept and demonstration in the large scale (30MW-300MWe)

2) What is NOT yet achieved? 3) What are the next logical steps, i.e.: what do we still need to do within the subject of the presentation towards the implementation and commercialisation of CCS? Next logical steps: demonstration tests at CIUDEN (30MW) and development of final concept for 300MWe Development of 2nd generation oxyfuel concept with significantly higher overall plant efficiency Transportation and storage part is not in the scope of the project but it will be the key issue in the implementation and commercialisation of CCS Emission limits for CCS plants must be reconsider (concentration based limits are not valid) Demonstration of FLEXI BURN CFB concept: FLEXI BURN CFB consortium and OXYCFB300 consortium Development of 2nd generation oxyfuel concept: Organizations who have been involved in the development of the 1st generation oxyfuel concepts Transportation and storage: all together, public acceptance and political decisions are very important Emission limits for CCS: European Commission is working on the issue

4) Who do you think is best placed to take these next steps forward?

FLEXI BURN CFB Workshops


1st Flexi Burn CFB Workshop was held in Brussels 24th March 2011 More information: http://www.vtt.fi/sites/flexiburncfb/ 2nd FLEXI BURN CFB Workshop will be held in summer 2012 highlighting the final results of the project Welcome! Thank You !