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9/5/13

Transformers | Explaining The Basics of Transformers

TransformersPower,Distribution,Autotransformer,potential,isolation,singlephase,threephase

ExplainingDifferentTypesofTransformers
Atransformerisanelectricaldevicewhich,bytheprinciplesofelectromagneticinduction,transfers electricalenergyfromoneelectriccircuittoanother,withoutchangingthefrequency.Theenergy transferusuallytakesplacewithachangeofvoltageandcurrent.Transformerseitherincreasesor decreasesACvoltage. Transformersareusedtomeetawidevarietyofneeds.Sometransformerscanbeseveralstories high,likethetypefoundatageneratingstationorsmallenoughtoholdinyourhand,whichmight beusedwiththechargingcradleforavideocamera.Nomatterwhattheshapeorsize,a transformerspurposeremainsthesame:transformingelectricalpowerfromonetypetoanother. Therearemanydifferenttypesoftransformersinusetoday.Thisresourcewilltakeacloserlookat PowerTransformers,AutoTransformers,DistributionTransformers,InstrumentTransformers, IsolationTransformers,PotentialTransformersandCurrentTransformers. HowTransformersWork TransformerConfigurations PowerTransformer DistributionTransformer Autotransformer IsolationTransformer InstrumentTransformer CurrentTransformer PotentialTransformer TransformerVideoOverview

Transformers

HowTransformersWork.
Itisimportanttorememberthattransformersdonotgenerateelectricalpowertheytransfer electricalpowerfromoneACcircuittoanotherusingmagneticcoupling.Thecoreofthe transformerisusedtoprovideacontrolledpathforthemagneticfluxgeneratedinthe transformerbythecurrentflowingthroughthewindings,whicharealsoknownascoils. Therearefourprimarypartstothebasictransformer.ThepartsincludetheInputConnection, theOutputConnection,theWindingsorCoilsandtheCore. InputConnectionsTheinputsideofatransformeriscalledtheprimaryside becausethemainelectricalpowertobechangedisconnectedatthispoint. OutputConnectionsTheoutputsideorsecondarysideofthetransformeris wheretheelectricalpowerissenttotheload.Dependingontherequirementofthe load,theincomingelectricpoweriseitherincreasedordecreased. WindingTransformershavetwowindings,beingtheprimarywindingandthe secondarywinding.Theprimarywindingisthecoilthatdrawspowerfromthe source.Thesecondarywindingisthecoilthatdeliverstheenergyatthetransformed orchangedvoltagetotheload.Usually,thesetwocoilsaresubdividedintoseveralcoilsinordertoreducethecreationofflux. CoreThetransformercoreisusedtoprovideacontrolledpathforthemagneticfluxgeneratedinthetransformer.Thecoreisgenerallynot asolidbarofsteel,ratheraconstructionofmanythinlaminatedsteelsheetsorlayers.Thisconstructionisusedtohelpeliminateandreduce heating. Transformersgenerallyhaveoneoftwotypesofcores:CoreTypeandShellType.Thesetwotypesaredistinguishedfromeachotherby themannerinwhichtheprimaryandsecondarycoilsareplacearoundthesteelcore. CoretypeWiththistype,thewindingssurroundthelaminatedcore. ShelltypeWiththistype,thewindingsaresurroundedbythelaminatedcore. Whenaninputvoltageisappliedtotheprimarywinding,alternatingcurrentstartstoflowintheprimarywinding.Asthecurrentflows,achanging magneticfieldissetupinthetransformercore.Asthismagneticfieldcutsacrossthesecondarywinding,alternatingvoltageisproducedinthe secondarywinding. Theratiobetweenthenumberofactualturnsofwireineachcoilisthekeyindeterminingthetypeoftransformerandwhattheoutputvoltagewill be.Theratiobetweenoutputvoltageandinputvoltageisthesameastheratioofthenumberofturnsbetweenthetwowindings. Atransformersoutputvoltageisgreaterthantheinputvoltageifthesecondarywindinghasmoreturnsofwirethantheprimarywinding.The outputvoltageissteppedup,andconsideredtobea"stepuptransformer".Ifthesecondarywindinghasfewerturnsthantheprimarywinding,the outputvoltageislower.Thisisa"stepdowntransformer".

TransformerConfigurations.

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9/5/13

Transformers | Explaining The Basics of Transformers


Therearedifferentconfigurationsforbothsinglephaseandthreephasesystems. SinglephasePowerSinglephasetransformersareoftenusedtosupplypowerforresidentiallighting,receptacle,airconditioning,and heatingneeds.Singlephasetransformerscanbemadeevenmoreversatilebyhavingboththeprimarywindingandsecondarywinding madeintwoequalparts.Thetwopartsofeitherwindingcanthenbereconnectedinseriesorparallelconfigurations. ThreephasePowerPowermaybesuppliedthroughathreephasecircuitcontainingtransformersinwhichasetofthreesinglephase transformersisused,oronthreephasetransformerisused.Whenaconsiderableamountofpowerisinvolvedinthetransformationof threephasepower,itismoreeconomicaltouseathreephasetransformer.Theuniquearrangementofthewindingsandcoresavesalotof iron. DeltaandWyeDefinedTherearetwoconnectionconfigurationsforthreephasepower:DeltaandWye.DeltaandWyeareGreekletters thatrepresentthewaytheconductorsonthetransformersareconfigured.Inadeltaconnection,thethreeconductorsareconnectedendto endinatriangleordeltashape.Forawye,alltheconductorsradiatefromthecenter,meaningtheyareconnectedatonecommonpoint. ThreephaseTransformersThreephasetransformershavesixwindingsthreeprimaryandthreesecondary.Thesixwindingsare connectedbythemanufactureraseitherdeltaorwye.Aspreviouslystated,theprimarywindingsandsecondarywindingsmayeachbe connectedinadeltaorwyeconfiguration.Theydonothavetobeconnectedinthesameconfigurationinthesametransformer.Theactual connectionconfigurationsuseddependupontheapplication.

PowerTransformer.
Apowertransformerisusedprimarilytocoupleelectricalenergyfromapowersupplylinetoacircuitsystem,ortooneormorecomponentsofthe system.Apowertransformerusedwithsolidstatecircuitsiscalledarectifiertransformer.Apowertransformer'sratingisgivenintermsofthe secondary'smaximumvoltageandcurrentdeliveringcapacity.

DistributionTransformer.
Apoletypedistributiontransformerisusedtosupplyrelativelysmallamountsofpowertoresidences.Itisusedattheendoftheelectricalutility's deliverysystem.

Autotransformer.
Theautotransformerisaspecialtypeofpowertransformer.Itconsistsofasingle,continuouswinding thatistappedononesidetoprovideeitherastepuporastepdownfunction.Thisisdifferentfroma conventionaltwowindingtransformer,whichhastheprimaryandsecondarycompletelyisolatedfrom eachother,butmagneticallylinkedbyacommoncore.Theautotransformer'swindingsareboth electricallyandmagneticallyinterconnected. Anautotransformerisinitiallycheaperthanasimilarlyratedtwowindingtransformer.Italsohasbetter regulation(smallervoltagedrops),andgreaterefficiency.Furthermore,itcanbeusedtoobtaintheneutral wireofathreewire240/120voltservice,justlikethesecondaryofatwo0windingtransformer.The autotransformerisconsideredunsafeforuseonordinarydistributioncircuits.Thisisbecausethehigh voltageprimarycircuitsareconnecteddirectlytothelowvoltagesecondarycircuit.

IsolationTransformer.
Anisolationtransformerisaveryuniquetransformer.Ithasa1:1turn'sratio.Therefore,itdoesnotstepvoltage upordown.Instead,itservesasasafetydevice.Itisusedtoisolatethegroundedconductorofapowerlinefrom thechassisoranyportionofacircuitload.Usinganisolationtransformerdoesnotreducethedangerorshockif contactismadeacrossthetransformer'ssecondarywinding. Technically,anytruetransformer,whetherusedtotransfersignalsorpower,isisolating,astheprimaryand secondaryarenotconnectedbyconductorsbutonlybyinduction.However,onlytransformerswhoseprimary purposeistoisolatecircuits(opposedtothemorecommontransformerfunctionofvoltageconversion),are routinelydescribedasisolationtransformers.

InstrumentTransformer.
Formeasuringhighvaluesofcurrentorvoltage,itisdesirabletousestandardlowrangemeasuringinstrumentstogetherwithspeciallyconstructed instrumenttransformers,alsocalledaccurateratiotransformers.Anaccurateratiotransformerdoesjustasthenamesuggests.Ittransformsatan accurateratiotoallowanattachedinstrumenttogaugethecurrentorvoltagewithoutactuallyrunningfullpowerthroughtheinstrument.Itis requiredtotransformrelativelysmallamountsofpowerbecauseit'sonlyload,calledaburden,isthedelicatemovingelementsofanammeter, voltmeterorwattmeter. Therearetwotypesofinstrumenttransformers: 1. CurrentUsedwithanammetertomeasurecurrentinACvoltages 2. PotentialUsedwithavoltmetertomeasurevoltage(potentialdifference)inAC.

CurrentTransformer.
Acurrenttransformerhasaprimarycoilofoneormoreturnsofheavywire.Itisalwaysconnectedinseriesin thecircuitinwhichcurrentistobemeasured.Thesecondarycoilismadeupofmanyturnsoffinewire,which mustalwaysbeconnectedacrosstheammeterterminals.Thesecondaryofacurrenttransformermustneverbe opencircuited.Thisisbecausetheprimaryisnotconnectedtoaconstantsource.Thereisawiderangeof possibleprimaryvoltages,becausethedevicecanbeconnectedtomanytypesofconductors.Thesecondary mustalwaysbeavailable(closedcircuited)toreactwiththeprimary,topreventthecorefrombecoming completelymagnetized.Ifthishappens,theinstrumentswillnolongerreadaccurately. Aclamponammeterworksinasimilarway.Byopeningtheclampandplacingitaroundacurrentcarrying conductor,theconductoritselfactsasasingleturnprimary.Thesecondaryandtheammeterareconveniently mountedinthehandleofthedevice.Thedialallowsanumberofcurrentrangestobegaugedaccurately.

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PotentialTransformer.

Transformers | Explaining The Basics of Transformers


Apotentialtransformerisacarefullydesigned,extremelyaccuratestepdowntransformer.Itisnormallyused forthemeasurementofelectriccurrents. withastandard120voltvoltmeter.Bymultiplyingthereadingonthevoltmeter(calledthedeflections)bythe ratiooftransformation,theusercandeterminethevoltageonthehighside.Commontransformationratiosare10:1,20:1,40:1,80:1,100:1,120:1, andevenhigher. Ingeneral,apotentialtransformerisverysimilartoastandardtwowindingtransformer,exceptthatithandlesaverysmallamountofpower. Transformersforthisservicearealwaystheshelltype,becausethisconstructionhasbeenproventoprovidebetteraccuracy.
CurrentTransformersareatypeof instrumenttransformers.Theyareused

PotentialTransformers(liketheonepicturedabove)aredesignedformonitoringsinglephaseandthreephasepowerlinevoltagesinpower meteringapplications.

TransformerVideoOverview

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