Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 ADOLESCENT HEALTH (PHYSICAL ACTIVITY) Adolescent health is an important component of public health for a variety

of reasons. Not only can focusing on this age range help identify and alleviate immediate health problems, it can also be a key target audience to focus preventive programs and care. In fact, current research stresses this as a crucial age because teen health behaviors can often have long term implications on their health and wellbeing. For example, 80 percent of those who were overweight between the ages of 10 and 15 in the U.S. were obese at the age of 25 (Frieden, et al, 2010). According to a study, barely 1 in 9 or 12.2% meet the Healthy People 2020 threshold for both adequate aerobic and muscle strengthening exercise and this is not unrelated to the frequent engagement in sedentary activities due to modern technologies like intensive computer games. The Healthy People 2020 initiative includes three goals directly related to increasing physical exercise among children and adolescents, as well as several related goals such as increasing the number of schools that offer daily recess, increasing the proportion of schools and adolescents that have daily physical education. Two of these goals include: Minimum of 1 hour of daily physical activity Minimum of 1 hour muscle strengthening exercises (e.g., sit ups, push-ups, and resistance

exercises) at least 3 days a week. From a personal perspective, the Healthy people 2020 initiative on adolescent physical exercise is attainable because activities like being in the school athletic teams provide enjoyable, supervised activities for youth. Student athletes report healthier eating habits, higher levels of cardiovascular fitness, increased parental support, and decreased anxiety and depression. Furthermore, a national study from 2000 showed a positive association between participating in

school sports and lower rates of tobacco, drug, and alcohol use. Youth who participate in sports were also more likely to disapprove of their peers substance abuse (Taylor, 2001). In addition, participating in sports is associated with higher levels of self-esteem, motivation, and overall psychological well-being, and better body image for girls. Participation in athletics has a positive association with academic achievement. Studies have shown that high school athletes have higher grades than non-athletes, lower absentee levels, a significantly smaller percentage of discipline referrals, lower percentages of dropouts, and higher graduation rates (Cohen, 2007). Providing teens with extracurricular activities that draw them away from computers and videos, promoting good nutrition plus regular exercise, and making connections between teens and a parent or other positive adult caregiver are central points to promoting adolescent health (Patrick et al., 2004). The role of the nurse in attaining this goal cannot be over-emphasized and should be directed at health promotion efforts i.e. Identify factors that limit an individuals ability to maintain health so that obstacles to health promotion planning can be addressed. Such obstacles which include lack of information, incorrect information, or lack of concern regarding the health condition being addressed; strong emotions about the diagnosis; experiencing or believing stigmas and stereotypes about the disease; physical inability to make necessary changes; psychological or cultural barriers to making necessary changes; low or absent motivation to make needed changes; lack of familial/social support for making needed changes; and reluctance to engage in developing and implementing a health promotion plan. Use motivational interviewing to help clients succeed with their health goals (Harrison and Narayan, 2003; Beet and Pitetti, 2005)

In conclusion good physical health can be defined in accordance with the correct functioning of organs and tissues as well as the ability of individuals to support this functioning; but It is important to note that when promoting physical health, promoting client engagement in identifying and developing health goals and respect for client input will easily aid the attainment of health targets for the community as a whole. REFERENCES Beets, M.W., Pitetti, K.H. (2005). Contribution of physical education and sport to health-related fitness in high school students. Journal of School Health. 75(1). pp. 25-30. Cohen, D.A., Taylor, S.L., Zonta, M., Vestal, K.D., Schuster, M.A. (2007). Availability of high school extracurricular sports programs and high risk behaviors. Journal of School Health. 77. 80-86. Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for overweight in adolescence. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 158(4), 385390. Frieden, T. R., Dietz, W. & Collins, J. (2010). Reducing childhood obesity through policy change: Acting now to prevent obesity. Health Affairs, 29(3): 357363. Harrison, P. A., Narayan, G. (2003). Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence. Journal of School Health, 73(3). Patrick, K., Norman, G. J., Calfas, K. J., Sallis, J. F., Zabinski, M. F., Rupp, J., & Cella, J. (2004). Taylor, M.J. (2001). Sports participation, delinquency, and substance use among rural African American girls. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA.