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Grinnell Industrial Piping, Inc.

PIPING DESIGN
cnd

ENGINEERING
SIXTH EDITION
(Revised 1981)

ITT

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING


CoPYRIGHT 1963, 1971, 19?8, 1976, 1981
ITT GRINNELL CORPORATION

ll5fl]I crionell Industrial piping, Inc.


AII tiEhtsresetved includinEthose undet the
I

ntetnat ionat and Pan-Ametican CopyriEht

Convent;ons. This book, ot parts thercoL


may not be reprcduced in any Iorm without
permisston ot ITT Grinne Coeoration.
PRINTED

IN TIIE
sP 3000

U.S.A.,

1981

FOREWORD
The plan of this book has been to compile in a single publication engineering data

and technical information for the use of engineers engaged in the design and
application of pressure piping systems hitherto available only by consulting a number
of sources. To this we have added considerable material never previously published.
We have endeavored to cover, as broadly as possible, all ofthe more importantphases

of piping design and engineering.


We gratefully acknowledge our indebtedness to all members ofthe engineering staff

of ITT Grinnell Industrial Piping Inc. and theITT Grinnell PipeHanger Division who

had a Dart in the production of this material.

fII

Cti"rr"tt Industrial Piping, Inc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

yiii

Code Requirement s

E)CAi\SION AND

STRESSES

Introduction,

Nomenclature and Symbols.

Pipe Wall Thickness

Stresses. .
Cold Springing
Modulus of Torsional Rigidity

3
.

Thermal Expansion
Srress

Intensification Factor

Flexibility Factor .

7
8
8

Expalsion Facior, c .
Properties of Pipe-Curvature Factors

of Common Shapes
90o Tum .

Tables

11

..

r'7

20
20

Hooked Z Shape

2l
U Shape with Equal Tangents .
U Shape with Tangenls Lr / 12= 2
U Shape with Tang ents Lj I $= 3
U Shape with Tangetts Li I L;= 4
U Shape with Single Tangent
U Shape - Unequal Legs. . . .
UShape -Equallegs . . . . .

UShape-Modihed..

...

22
24
25

26
27
28
28

Two Plane U.
Two Plane U - With Tangents
Thee Dimensional 90o Turns

29

30
.

Expansion Bends.
Double Offset Expansion Bend
Circle Bend
Exparsion U Bend.
Expansion U Bend Tangents = 2 feet
Expansion U Bend
Tangents =R
Exparsion U Bend Tangents = 2R .
Expansion U Bend Targents = 4R

Double Offset U Bend

34
38
39

40
41

42
44

.....

45

Lines Inertias
Center of GmYity

Centroid

Product of Inertia
Moment of Inertia
Functions of
. Functions ofR

........

46
46
47
49
)l
51

Single Plane System


Single Plane System Containing Circular Arcs

...

52
54

Multiple Plane System Containing Circular Arcs .

62

Multiple Plane System

.....

f,t)

VEI,OCITY AND PRESSURE DROP


Equivalent kngth of Fittings
Flow ofwaier in Standard Wall Pipe .
Reynolds Number - Friction Factor.

Viscosity

Kinematic
Flow ofwater in TypeZ Copper
Flow of Steam in Standard Wall
Flow of Steam Conversion
Flow of Iow Pressure Gas in Standard Wall Pipe . . .
Flow of High Pressure Gas in Standard WallPipe. . .

Tube
Pipe.
Factors

.
.

.......68
-.....,,., 70
. .. . ,.. ... 72
......72
...,...,. 73
.,,...,,.. 74
......, ., . .. 76
.. .. , ,. 77
. , . . . . . 79

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

HEAT TRANSFER

80

PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE RATINGS. . . . .

81

Seamless Carbon Steel Grade B,

A.S.Tlvt. A53 and A 106


Seamless Carbon Steel Grade C, A.S.T.M. A106
Seamless Clxomium,Silicon-Molybdenum Steel A.S.T.M. A335 Grade p1 I
1/a% Chromjtm - th% Molybdenum
Seamless Chromium-Molydenum Steel A.S.T.M. A335 Grad,e p2Z
2/e% Ctvomium
1% Molybdenum
Seamless Stainless Steel A.S.TM. A312 and 4376 Grades 304 & 304H
Seamless Stainless Steel A.S.T.M. 4312 and A376 Grades 316 &316H
A.S.T.M. Chemical Requirements .

82
85

88

91

94
98

t02

Selection of Materials
Piping and Tubing Materials. . .
Fitting and Flange Matedals . .
Bolting Materials .
Gasket Materials
Corrosion Chemical Resistance of Piping Materials.
Pr-esure-Temperalure Ratings for Steel pipe Flalges and Flanged Fittrngs
Alloy-Stee1 Bolt Stud Dimensions.
Numbers for Ring-Joint Gaskets and Grooves . .
Suggsted Specifications for Power Plant piping Materials

103

to4
105
106
107
113

122

124
128

PIPE FABRICATION
Procedures .
Pipe Bending Tolerances. . . . .
Method of Dimensioning Welded Assemblies. . . .

129
130
.

133

FabricatingTolerances. . . . .
Butt Welding End Preparation

134

Manual Shielded Metal-Arc and Automatic Submerged Arc Welding . .


Manual Inert-Gas Tungsten-Arc Root Pass Welcling.
Butt Welding Ends to ANSI 816.25 and p.F.I. ES-1
Typical Details of Bnnch Connections
Brarch and Flange Comections
Commercial Split Type Backing Ring
ITT Grinaell Consumable Backing Rings
Standard Pipe Bends
Calculations of Pipe Bends
kngth of Arcs for Radius

NUCLEAR PIPING

135

136
137
139

t40
1,41

t46

PIPE HANGERS AND SUPPORTS


The Design of Pipe Hangen . . . . .
The Determination of llanger Locations . . . . .
Hanger Spans
Thermal Movement Calculations.

149
1s0

150
153

Hangerload Calculations. . . .
Center of Gravity of Bends and Elbows

1s6
158

Selection of the Proper llanger.

Rigid Hangers

Rollers .

162
164

168
170

Typical Pipe Support Specifications

vl

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PIPE HANGERS AND SUPPORTS

.
Materials
.
.
Pipe
Pipe.
.. . . .
Beam Dimensions
Force Applied at Hanger...

Weights of Piping Materials

Page

(continued)

......172
......., 198
.,.... L99
-.....2OO
.,....201
.....,,....202
........ . 203
....,.204
......,205

Thermal Expansion of Piping


Insulation Weight Factors . .
Deflection of Empty Pipe . .
Bending Stress in Empty
Bending Stress in Water Filled
Minimum Distance to First RigidHanger.

GENERAI TABLES
Thermal Expansion of Pipe Materials
Propefiies of Saturated Stea.n .
Tamna'arrr"o h- ar^ l^'

206
206

207

BTU Content and Theoretica! Air Requlements for Combustion of Various Fuels.
Heat I-os from Horizontal Bare Steel Pipes . . . . .
Wirc and Sheet Metal Guages .

Drill

207

201
208
209
209
209
210

Sizes

Americal National Wood Sqews


Tap Drills for ANSI Pipe Threads
Tap Dril1 Sizes for Unified and American Screw Threads.
Safe Loads for Chains and Ropes
Areas and Circumferences of Circles for Diameters in Units and Fractions
Table for Gauging Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks
- Flat Ends

Weight per Foot of Solid Steel Rounds


Equalization of Pipe Discharge Rates.
Equalization of Copper Tubing Discharge Rates .
Safe I-oads on Steel Pipe Columns
American Standard Taper Tfueads
Anerican Standard Straight Tfueads .
General Thread Information .
Bdtish Standard Taper Tlueads
Normal Engagement for Tight Joints.

TrigonometdcFormulas. . . .

211
216
219

220
222
222
223
224

225

22s
226
226
227

Natural Functions of Angles .


Ilardness Comparison. . . . . .
Properties of Common Materials.
Weights in Lbs / Ft.3 of Air at Various Presswes and Temperatues. . .
Specific Gravity of Gases Related to Free Ar . . . . . .

Temperatueconyenions

.,

..,.

228
230
232
232
233
234
235
236
237

hessureConversions . .
hoperties ofwater at Satuntion Pressure . .
Decimal Equivalents. . . .. . .
Metric ConversionTable. . . .

...

Conversion Factors

238

hoperties of Pipe
Index

244

250

Bibliography,

...,.....

vu

Z5S

CODE REQUIREMENTS

Codes fo! various piping services have been developed by nationally rccognized bodies. The sound engineering
psctices incorporated in these Codes indicate the minimum safety requirements for the selection of materials,
dimensions, design, ercction, ard testing of piping systems. By means of inte4retation and revision thes Codes
continua.lly reflect the knowledge gained through the research and expeiience of the entirc industly.
Generaly, piping Codes form the basis for state or municipal safety laws, Compliance with a Code which has
attained this status is mandatory for a.l1 systems induded withir its judsdiction. Although some of today's
piping installations are not witiin the scope of.Lny maldatory Code, it is advisable to comply with the applicable Code in the intelests of safety and as a basis for contract negotiaXions. Crntracts with valious ageocies of
the Federal Government are regulated by FedeEl specifications or lules which have no direct connection with

the Codes enumerated below,


Use$ of this book are cautioned that the piping Codes are now changing morc often than in previous years.
Although the fotmulas and other data in this book are in accordance with the Code rles in effect at the time
of this pubtcation, it must be recognized that Cod fldes may change, and piping engineering and design work
pelfolmed in accoralance with infolmation contained herein does not provide complete assurance that all Code
rcqufuements have been met, The reader is urged to faniliadze himself with the Code Editioo and Adderda
which contain mandatory requirements applicable to his work,
The A.S,M.E. Boiler and hessure Vessl Code is mandatory in many cities and states in the United States and
Canada. Local application of this Code into law is oot uniform, making it necessary to investigate the city or
state laws which have jurisdiction o1r the installatiod in question. Compliance witi this Code is required in al
locations to qualify fot insuance apprcval,
Section I: "Powe! Boilers" concems all piping connections to pover boilers or superheaters including the
first stop valve on single boilels, ot including the second stop valve fo! qoss con]lected multiple boiler installations. Section refe$ to ANSI 831.1 which conlains rules for design and constuction of "boile!
extemal piping". "Boiler extemal piping" is under the julisdiction of Section I and requfues inspection and
code stamping in accordance with Section I even though the flrles fo! its design and construction are contained in ANSI 831.1.
Section II: "Matedal Specifications" gives detailed specilications of the materiat which are acceptable under
this Code.
Section
"Nuclear Components " co'Icems all nuclear piping. ft is the responsibility of the designer to
determine whether or not a particular piping $ystem is "nuclear" piping, since Section III makes this
determination the rcsponsibility of the designer. ln geneol, piping whose failurc could result ir the release of
radiation which would endanger the public or plant persormel is considered "nuclear" piping,
Section VIII: "Unlired Prcssure Vessels" concems piping, or|ly to the extent of the flanged or threaded connections to the vessl; excpt that the ertire section vill apply in those special cases where unlired pressure
vessels are made from pipe and fittings.
Section IX: "Welding and Brazirg Qualifications" establishes the minimum requilements for Crde welding.

III

Section

Xl:

"Rules for Inseivice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components" contains rulos for the

examination and repair of components throughout the life of the plant,


A.S.M.E. also sponsors and publishes the following American National Standards on piping, Variou$ U.S. and
Canadiao legislatures have adopted some of these standards as legal requircment$ for that piping. The minimum
sfety requirements of these standards have been accepted by the irdustry as a staidaid for all piping outside the
jurisdictiol of othei C,odes. The piping systems covered by these standaJds are lirted belorv:
1: Power Piping 831.1
2i Fuel cas Piping B31.2
3: Petroleum Refinery Piping B31.3
4: Liquid Petroleum Transpodation Piping Syslems 831.4
5: Refr(geration Piping B31.5
6: Cas Tmnsmfusion and Distribution Piping Systems 831,8

I'f'T'

(IIiIN\I.]I,I, IIPIN(i DUSl(iN A\D

DN(IINI'I'IIINC

EXPANSION AND STRESSES


INTRODUCTION

Iu order to

of expausic,rr .rrrd
is necessary to kno$':

determine the effects

stresses $'ithin a piping system,

it

1. Which Code applies to the system.


2. The design pressure and temper?ture conditions.
3. The material specification.
4. 'l'he pipe size and nall thickness of each of the
pipirg components.
5. The layout of the system inclu iing dimensions
and the thermal movements, if any, of the terminal points.

6. Limitations of end reactions on termilal points


as established by equipment manufacturers.
Having determined the basis of the problem, the
applicable Code l'ill establish minimum safety requirements for the material at the design conditions of
pressure and tcmperature. Some Codes s'pecify thermal expansion Iactors and moduli of elasticity for
commonly used piping materials as ryell as forrnulae to
determine stress intensification factors and flexibility
factors for piping components. Beyond this, the
Codes impose no restrictions rvith regard to analysis
methods or procedures. Hox'ever, Codes do state that
in calculating the flexibility of a piping system betu'een
anchor points, the system shall be treated as a tvhole,
and that the significance of all parts of the line incLrding restraints such as solid hangers or guides shall
be recognized. In addition, Codes require that calculations shall take into account stress intensification
factors which apply to components other than sections
of straight pipe.
The ANSI 831.1 Code for Pressure Piping states
that formal calculations or model tests shall be required
'where reasonable doubt exists a,s to the adequate
flexibility of a system. In the absence of better
information, the need for a formal stress analysis for a
two-anchor system of uniform size is indicated when
the following approximate criterion is not satisfied:
DV

\tr -j*

u)'

lvhere D = nominel pipe

I :
U:
Z

Page 2 illustrates the application

of Code formulae

for pipe wall thickness.

<

o.o3

size,

in inches

resultant of movements to be absorbed


by pipe line, in inches
anchor distance (length of straight line
joining anchors), in feet
developed length of line axis, in feet

Use of the simplified methods, formulae and tables


shown on the following pages rvill facilitate the solution
of piping stress problems.

Page 7 gives thermal expansion factors for various


piping materials.
Page 3 to 5 define types of stress, the stress range
concept and methods of combining stresses.
Page 5 discusses cold springing and the ANSI 831.1
Code allowance for cold springing.
Page 6 shows values for the modulus of elasticity
and torsional rigidity of various piping materials.
Page 11 gives the product of modulus of elasticity
and the increment in length designated as Expansion

Factor

C.

The dimensional properties of pipe, stress intensification factors, and flexibility factors, for elborvs
and bends are tabulated on pages 8 to 16 for all of
the common pipe sizes. Formulae for derivation of
dimensional propcrtics are given orr pagc 7 and formulae for stress intensification factors and flexibility
factors for elbol-s and bends as rvell as other piping
components &re given on page 8.

In order to simplify the calculation of stresses and


anchor forces. trbles hare ["en pieprred lor various
configurations commonly encountered in piping work.
The first group, "Tables of Common Shapes" and
examples demonstrating their application, is found on
pages 17 to 32.
The second group of tables, on "Expansion Bends"
and examples of their use, is shol-n on pages 34 to 45.
\lihen the configuration of a piping systern is such
that the forementioned tables and short-cut methods
lill not apply, it is necessary to solve the problem
using the basic equations of analvtical methods. 'I'his
involles use of line inertias of the various piping
components for rvhich values may be computed using
the tables and formulae given on pages46 to

81.

Basic

equations and representative examples illustrating


their application are shown on pages 52 io 6? for the
follorving cases:
Single Plane System
Single Plane System Containing Circular Arcs
Multiple Plane System
Multiple Plane System Containing Circular Arcs

The piping engineer lho has a working knorvledge


of the information outlined in this section can determine the anchor forces, moments and expansion stresses
in rnost of the cases he encounters. For the analvsis

of speciat

cases such as branch ,,onnections, variable

or couugated sections, hinged anchors, moving anchors,


etc., reference should be made to the bibliography.

]TT

GIII\NI'I,I, P]PI\G

DF]SI(iN

A\D

]IN(iINI.]I'ITI

\(;

NOMENCLATIIRE AND SYMBOLS

DETERMINATION OF PIPE WAI,L THICKNESS

The nomenclature used in this section rvill be in


accordance Nith the tabulation shorr-n belorv:

The pipe rvall thickness is determined from the


applicable formula of the pertirent C'ode as illustrated
in the following cxample:

A1 Inside Area of Pipc Cross Sectior


.4,y N{etal Area of Pipc Cross Section
C Allorvarrce for 'fhreading, \lechanical Strength,

Giuen:

ard/or corrosion (inches), Cold Spring Factor

Expansion Factor (A function of the Product of

D
d

and A)
Center of Gravity
Outside Diameter of Pipe
Inside Diameter of Pipe

D"
E

F
1,

Ip

I,
Iza

M
P
psi

for

specific

conditions)
Length (feet)

Length (inches)
Moment

,PD
'^ = zs+
C

Section Modulus of Pipe Cross Section


Pipe Wall Thickness
Minimurn Pipe Wall Thickness
Torque, or Temperature in "F

tm

r,t
x)

Indicates Horizontal Direction (East-West)

at

Indicates Vertical Direction (Zenith-Nadir)

rl

-l
a)

=l

in. (for l0 in. pipe)

from B31.1 Code


from B31.1 Code

from page

10.75 in.

S ot 610. F

15,000 psil

Sat

14,350 psiJ

7oo"

ssr680'F:

14

from B31.1 Code

12]/6 from A.S.T.M. A-106

at 90' to

14,350

?(15,000

14,350)

14,610 psi

By substitution:

"ffi*H,.

t,,L

o ooo

0 427

in'

which is the theoretical minimum for rvall thickness


without allorving for rvall thickness tolerance.
Thickness adiusted for wall thickness tolerance:

Indicates Horizontal Direction


(North South)

0.000

U:O.4

Stress

xl

ol

from 831.1 Code

Solution:

Unit

Wall Thickness (t-)

w-r L

Wall Thickness Tolerance

A.S.T.\I. 4-106 Grade B


l0 in.

Datq,:

Pressure (gauge) (psi)


Pounds per Square Inch

680" F

Nlaterial
Nominal Pipe Size

Expansion Bend Factor


N{ean Radius of a Bend, Reactions (Forces and
Moments)
I{ean Radius of Pipe Wall
Allorvable Stress

1,200 psi

Temperature

Nlinimum Nominal \Vall Thickness (t)

Total Thermal Expansion


Nominal Pipe Size
Modulus of Elasticiiy at temperature (oF.)
Force (in direction indicated by sub-ccript)
Stress Intensifrcation Factor
Moment of Inertia of Pipe Cross Section
Moment of Inertia of a system about the X axis
Product of Inertia of a system in the Xf plane,

Factors as indicated (constant

Section 1, ANSI 831.1

Pressure, (P)

lind.' \{inimum Theoretical

etc.

Code

0.+27
1007a

r2+%

1.00

0.125

0.427
0.875

-- lt ihl\ rn.

The nexi greater commercial rvall thickness is found


from page 14 to be 0.500 inch rvhich corresponds to
Sch.

ttO.

In other s'ords 0.500 inch nominal pipe wall thickness


is the thinnest commercial rvall rvhich, r'hen reduced by
the full tolerance of I2+7a, satisfies the Code formula
for l-.

EXPANSION AND STRESSES

sp is negligible and is not considered in

STRESSES

An element of pipe wall is subjected to four stresses


as shown in the diagram. The following gives the
intensity of these stresses and the manner in which
they may be combined.
NorE: In order to avoid additional sircsses the suDDortg
should be designed lo carry the weighus involved, to permil

these

computations,
sa is the sum of two component parts:

1, Torsional stress resulting from thermal expansion,


(This condition occurs only in multiple plane
systems. )

''

'*4

unrestrained lhermal movement, and prelent load sbifting due


to ch&nge iD position.

T
25^
--

2. Direct shear stress is negligible and is not, considered in these computations.

:
:
sc
sn :
sr :
sr

The ANSI Code lor Pressure Piping 831.1 recognizes the concept of a stress-range with regard to stress
due to thermal expansion. Stresses due to thermal expansion tend to diminish rvith time as a result of local
yieldiug or creep. This reduction of stress rvill appear
as stress of opposite sign in the cold condition. This
phenomenon is knorvn as self-springing ol the line and
is similar in efrect to cold-springing. Thus, although
the hot stress tends to diminish with time, the sum of
the hot and cold stresses for any one cycle lyill remain
practically constant. This sum is called the stressrange and the Code lor Pressure Piping defines this
allowable expansion stress r&nge in terms of hot, and
cold tabular S values as:

Longitudinal Stress
Circumferential or Hoop Stress
Radial Stress
Shear or Torsional Stress

sr, is the

s,4:/(1.255"+0.25Si)

zun of three component parts:

1. Bending stress due

I'nr ctrqioh+ nina.

to thermal

expansion.

Sl :
So

8l :

sB:

.f:

For curved pipe:

88:.c

M
?

A,

Both significant

stresses

AM

act in the same direction,

ss is primarily due to internal pressure

sc:P-

'2t

S value) for

cold

allorvable stress (tabular

S value) for

hot

condition
stress-range reduction factor

for cyclic

con-

dition
Total No. of Full Temp.
OveiExpected Life

and
and
and
and
and
and

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5

less
less

1.0

less
less
less

over

The stress due to thernal expansion which must not


exceed the allowable expansion stress range is called
expansion stress and is defined by the Piping Code as:
sa

therefore:

8Z:Sa+Sp

allo$'able stress (tabular


condition

7,000
14,000
22,000
45,000
100,000
250,000

stress due to internal pressure.

Sp:P:'

allowable expansion stress range

CycJes

2. Bending stress due to weight of the pipe. (When


the piping system is properly supported this
stress becomes negligible and is not considered
in these computations. )
3. Longitudinal

: l(ssfln

1s.y-

The Piping Code further states that the sum of the


longitudinal stresses due to pressure, \\'eight and other
sustained external loadings shall not exceed s/,. This
includes the longitudinal stress due to internal pressure,
s1,,

defined above..

I1'T GIiINNI,]I,I, PIPIN(I DDSIGN AND ENGINI]EITIN(i


\\'irik: thc

A\SI

coruirdel',s strcsscs

B31.1 Corlc lor Pressure Pilrirrg


rltrc to thcrntal crpllsiorr scllarately

from primary stresses due to pressure, l,eight, etc.,


some other Codes require computation of combined

stress and give formulae for determination of allol'able


combiued stress values.
trVhen the torsional stress is negligible (as in single
plane systems) only the longitudinal stress is significant

and the combined stress, or resultant fibcr stress, is


determined by thc formula:

the use of the

C. \\rhcn the anchor forccs and bcuding moments arc


determined by the use of a force diagram, us

shorvn on pages 56 to 6?, examinc the systenr


for the maximum berrding moment, .L1, in both the
straight and cun'ecl pipe. Apply these l,ahres for
l1 in the appropriate formulrr:

When the torsional stress is signilicant (as in most


multiple plane systems) the combined stress, or resultant fiber stress, is derived from the follorving
s

*[", +

sc

+ /4Gl + (sz -

scF]

Giuett:

Section I, .{NSI l}31.1


A.S.T.M. Specification 4-106 Grade

M or
ss: S-_
$l}: I.I
( x
Tbe greatest value ol .sa must not excccd the Allorvable
Stress Range of 21,988 psi.
\Yhere the torsional stress is significant (as in some
multiple plane systems), the Expansion Stress, sa, is:

Example :

(lode
llaterial
l)ressure

: r{s6f a a15.;
For the proper valucs of s, and s" it
ss

l.J

1200 psi

'l'emperature 750'F

IL

40 in.

Dala:

:
-1u :
s- :
,4/

+C./ ln(nes12.76 inches!]


24.52

inchessi

d:1.0
)
:
15.000 nsi l
*n. n
^J"'
I
:
Sat ?50. F
12,950 psi )

from page

13

from

A,
4it.7
sp = P= = 1200 -::4M
LZ.IO

B3l.l

Code

:4298psi

Note that this figure does not exceed the s at 750' F


value as required by the Piping Code

{
6sq"
75q.
: 1(1.25 X 15,000 + .25 X 12,950) : 21,988 psi
this value represents the maximum expansion stress
lhich the Code requirements rvill allorv rvithin the
.25S,1

Solve the formula for Case I and then for Case II. The
higher of the trvo values for s is the f'Iaximum Rcsultant
Stress of the system, $hich must not exceerl the Allorvable Stress Ilange
^S1.

The Longitudinal Pressure Stress and the Maximum


Allowable Stress Range

The maximum value of s3 and the accompanying


value of s1 at the same point.
The maximum value of s7 and the accompanyirrg
value of s6 at the same point.

Example

I,'iruT:

Sa = /(1.25S.s

is necessary to

inspect the system to find:

I.

l'ipc Size
8 inch Sch. 80
lladius of lJerd i)D" : 5 X 8 in.

factor, must not exceed 21,98g

Il. In the Tablcs of Expansion Bcnds on pages 34


to 45, the Allolable Bending Stress of 21,98E
psi rvould be used directly to cnter the tables xs
shorvn in the examples oll pagcs 52 to 6?.

s:sz:sa+sp

formula:

A'1,

psr,

p)

system and rnay be applied to the stress calculation in


auy one of the three methods shorvn belotv:

A. In the Tables of Common Shapes on pages 1?


to 32, the maximum bending stress, found by

Giuen:

Code
\Iaterial
Pressure (P)

Section l, ANSI 831.1


A.S.T.M. Specification A-106 Grade
1200 psi

Temperature 750'F

Size
8 inch Sch. 80
Radius of Bend 5D,, : 5 X 8 in.
Pipe

40 inches

Data:

:
I:
Ar :
d

7.625 inches
0.500 inches
45.7 inches2

Aa:72-76inches2

from page

13

: 24.52 inchess
i:t.0

S-

:
S,1 75s. :
Ser 6bo.

15,000 psi
12,950

from

1131.1 Code

I:|

EXPANSION AI{D STRESSES

Find: 'fhe Allol'able Strcss Ilangc, Sa, and the


Exprlsiou Stress, sr, of the ijystcm.
SoLtrtion:

: /( t.25^S
n * .25 S zio" r')
"t
"16,-a.
:1(1.25 X
15,000 + .25 X t2,950) :

51

21,988 psi

Fiud valucs for ss arrd s1 in either of the trlo methods


shoNn l)tto\1':

A. In the trbles of Commorr Shapes on page-< 1? to


32, by substitutilg the
appropriutc formulas:

*sa

and /,1 flctor':r i:r ilie

14,800 psi

*sr =

""

A'6

5780 psi

: vG,l +lGt

Vfr+,sool- + {ib78oP:

18,780 psi

which is less than the allorvable stress range of


21,9E8 psi.

B. When the anchor forces,

bencling moments, and


torques &r'e detcrmincd by the use of a force diagr&nt, as showt ou pages 56 to 67, examine the
sJ'stcm to iinrl the conditions lor Clse I and
Oase II, as iudicrted aboyc:
Casc I

*Nlasimum 11

*I'ut,,u,.tu:

",

: lI
,i_,
7

sa:2.L:
"u

X 1.0 -

to

s,

9.600

2 X rL-o2:
138.000

tlrat

Da
15,i1G psi

(1

F
3c)#E

ilch

pounds

4.178 psi

5628 Psi

r1+r;sl

10,b77 psi

The N{aximum Expansion Stress ss is 18,721 psi, rvhich


less ',han the r\llo\\'rble Combined Stress Range,

of 21,988 psi.

* Assumed values for purpose of illustration.

(e)

E"

Ith

lith the lur.thcr condition

islossthan

rvhere

:
Sr' :
/i" :
ti, :
/? :
g

II

138,000

,s,
.'X

1565Psi

is

,!

n.:[rL -f^r,l']a
Jc L,,J

15.132 psi

219,600 inch pounds

X 1o

-zl.sz
r-isozst

"In a piping system with no cold spring or an equal


percentage of cold springing in all directions, the
reactions (forces and moments) of Rr and B" in the
hot and cold conditions, respectively, shall be obtained as follows from the reaction I derived from the
flexibility calculations based on the modulus of elasticity at room temperature, -8", using equations (9)
and (10)

lhichever is grcutcr., lrrtl

xzl.n:
Crse

&no useo,

R": CR, or

- "{i;. rjzl-+ t, l5u5), -

sr

method of obtaining the designed cold spring is specifred

7ti,800 iuch pounds

70,800

:
*,11.,.,"*. :
r

timc lather than thejr range are significant. Credit


for cold springing is accordingly allorved in the calculaiions of thrusts and moments, provided an effective

1r,

2l.ST

*\Iaximum ?

A piping system may be Cold Sprung, or Prestressed,


to reduce anchor forces and moments caused bv thermal
expansion. This is ar"complished by shortining lhe
overrll length of pipe by any desired amounl, not in
excess of the calculated expansion. The amount of
Cold Spring, C.S., is usually expressed as a percentage
or fraction of the iotal expansion A,
This procedure is recognized by the ANSI Code for
Pressure Piping B31.1 which states:
"The beneGcial effeot of judjcious cold springinq
in assisting tlre syslem to rttain its most fivorible
position sooner is recognized. Inasmuch as the life
of a system under cyclic conditions depends on the
stress range rather than the stress level at anv one
time. no crediI for cold spring is allorved rr ith regird to
stresses. In calculatins end thrusts and moments
acting on equipment, the actual reactions at any one

378,-100 inclr porrr<ls

3;3.100

COLD SPRINGING

cold spring factor varying from zero

for

no

cold spring to 1.00 for 100% cold spring


computed expansion stress, psi
modulus of elasticitv irr the cold condition. osi
modulus of elasiicity in the hot condition, isi

nnsinrum reaction for full exprnsion ranee


Lrrscd on Z" rvhich assumes thi most spveie
condition (100/6 cold spring, rvhether such
is used or not), Ib, and in-lb.
R.,Rtr: maximum reactions estimated to occur in
the cold and hot conditions, rcspectively,
lb, and in-lb.
If a piping system is designed rvith different percentages ot co|l spring jn various direclions, Formulas 1g.1
and 110) rre not applicable. In [his crse, the pjpine
system shall be analyzed by a compre.hcn.ir-. mirhodl
'l'he crlculatcd hot reactioni
"hall be based on thooretical cold springs in all directions
not greater than ! of
the cold springs as specified or measuied.

ITT GRINNELL- PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEER]NG

(oo

;;
?9
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FI

.f d)

&
I

dN

Fa
t>,
El

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@-a

r.- .f)

;d
6.'

H ?>

lOO

F-..

i
H

<! 5

o. l
5iF

n'6a
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/.\ Fl
r! .o
l'
t
< oo

)'

3g
o 9E
I aa

00

;d

Y 4,'
xt{ iia
5r5

oi

*ci

d
iA =1i-

;.i

c.i

oo

hd
cr-

qn
t-o
cri

.!;

Rg

=
N

ro

d...;
Ni

o;

c\

6
,;
N

"j
nr

,..i

6ia

bt (5

8R
E

E^.ii
3;Q
@ia

:.$9

PP

9;
.'
;3

g6

E;
d,.i
E

;3

'e
R

=
'e

:'s
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OO

>a
1?E

F:
5E
fjE6B

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b?
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6A
eF

6
i
a^

EXPANSION AND STRESSES

ocr
ot
caN
co .i
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aa
co-

o
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r.?
No

@o

1q

@o
,:l

co:

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ola
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cir

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99

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^^

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c.i

a?
I

9?< !9
,.;
od

9,: ?a 9P n? 99 ?1 \9

-9lr

J.;

dF

clfJ

F
E

aq

cQ
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q.D

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?q

cl+
cl .i

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ie

-a

Ae
oci

Qa

s.! a
e1
c.]9
9q

c -r

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99

cro

91

qlo

1e

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6?Q

z
a

11

F.l

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ac!
4.6'. -:

ar
o:

19

cr
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F<

9p

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?i?a
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+{t

dc

oo
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od *;

lcl-n n.!
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r\o

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co..> @v) ;;

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X

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ots-

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?-

co

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qt-

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?i

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rta

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of)
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i
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tu

ie
a}

.{
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2
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ri
.ab
E

.iv
,i
R E Io
:!
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F :
6G <?
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6E

fie

df

4
.:p

E
F

Fg
E-

f
;i

iA

ITT

-t 5;'
9 --i : ry
,:; .:;

(iItI\NI,]I,I,

PIPINTI DI'SIGN AND I]N(;I

E!
::

I'IiItING

s!
EE

aa-

E;
;,

=;-"
;r;

F
c

qF
4
!

:=

T-_

nl

?'

oZ

r;
::
-' I -ii;
L
i i "
.
n:
a (
::

| 4:

9.c

I
.:':
L ; _

i "-

o
U

rr l.,

Ll-

z |

.totaDJ

Nl

_:.p

f,r
[fr

z
F
z
LU

LU

V
F

,l

o
z

--l ^

t-

F
J

.2

.< t^

.. l-"

dl:"

alx

l-

^l
jL*

ilu

,*1"
lF-

.il'*

c.

-];

a-:<

ir:
!vl
: o" ta
r;;
;"

-.

l'*

:
i

i:U
::1
or'

j.n

: o
il!
!::

hc!
i:
o:

a"

6?
E

o'=
9 -:;
> -:

::i
-

-;
i;

: --:lF-l'
P-

: -:
t
.*,r: 1z+
"-;, =
--

- :; -:::;
;:9
---::-:-.:+,
t
! 2." =; -r
,; =.1 i.
T:.:"*!;e
- - - a !::r;
i a t 1 - : j j :::;
! ! ri
*.!g:"-".'-.-'a
_: -i,1
!I:,:
:':;1E91;
t6ZE-4,-'
/

{:

'=

:. ?: " 2

a i\f

ic.

,3:

;.os

;;

a,:
:;

.'
1a \;

;.

+ ' a !. :;

st-

;':

3l:

! a " -:

tru'E

l:

ti
_il
=-7
:-

,
-

t:

LJ

;-

-:

'a
.-r
=)
aP

;
d
;
*

-11
- !
_i:

'i
\!
.=
- I ,;

lJ rolroj rroj

(lrlrqrraLj prro | .loltol ! lrsuel!l sssrlS

!r

: E a+

a=7
t

od

' : '

!a

-a:
__

La

u(J

ti;;.;LzlE
ia,!;o;1 'y: -=^v,,i=-d

; ": .:=-tr;-:
l:9:-::=
,i-

.9

jbd'-,o(J:

!!3
1Ld
- iE

99=g::

-4i..1-"
9; "i:,:t
<n
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!.:-;-

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:
B

EXPANSION AND STRESSES

STRESS INTENSI FICATION FACTORS


Table D-2
Component

Sketch

Stess Intensifi cation Factor

MEAN RADIUS

r > 3/16 and 6/r < 0.1

l=

1.0

t<

3116 or sh > 0.1


i = 1.8 foi as welded
i = 1.0 for flush welds

Buttwelds

6 = allowable mismatch

lF.l .*

ANSI 831.1
Figrres 12?.4.4 (a), (b) and
See

Ii\

Fillet Welds

30d Taper Transition per


ANSI B31.1
Figure 12?.4,2 and

(c)

i = 1.3 for filet rvelds


in Note 1.

as

defined

i = 1.9 max, or
i = 1.30 + 0-0036 D k + 0.225 | t

ANSI 816.25

Concentric Reducer per


ANSI 816.9

i = 2.0 max or
t = 0.5 + 0.01 a tD>
(see

t, t"

Note 2)

ITT GRINNELL

PIPING D]'SIGN AND ENGIN]'ITIIIN(i


Table D-2 (Cont.)

Stress Intensifi calion

Component

'=" C)
See

Branch Connections

Figlre D

|actor

(t;j

ce

1, Appendi]( D

ANSI 831.1

(see Noies 3 and

4)

Notes for Table D'21


1:
-Note
-'St;ess

intensification facror of 1.3 may be used for socket weld fittin8 if toe of weld blends snroothlv lviih no undercLrr wrln
pipe wall as shown in the concave, unequal leg fillt weld of ANSI 831.1 Figure 127.4.4.

Note 2:
The equation applies only if the following conditions are met:
(a) Cone ansle, a, does not exceed 600, and the reducer is concentric'
(b) The larser of ,r /11 andt2/r, doesnotexceed l0o.
rc) th< watl rhickne\s b not les( lhan I, Lhroughourrhebodlofrher.ducer.er,cptinandimmedi,lell
lindrical p.rrion on Ihe smdll end..vliere Ihe rhickne's rhall nol be rc's thJn 1?

Note

The equation applies onlv

if the following conditions

udiacPnr Io

llr. c)'

are mel:

104 3 are met


(b) The axis of the branch pipe is normal to the surface of rhe run pipe lvall'
measured berween the centers of adixceni branches along the sufface of
(c)
- For branch connecrions in a prpe,lhe arc distance
radii in the longitudinal direcrion or is not less than lwo
th" ;;; ;;" is not tess ran tirree t-i-* ttt" *. of iheir inside
.t their radii r long lhe .ircumfe' ence of Ihe run pipe
iir""- it i

(a) The reinforcement area raquirements ot ANSI 831.1, paragraph

"'rrn
(d)Theinsidecornerradius,/r(seeFisDl)isbetweenl0pe'cent3ndsopercentof4'
(e) The outer radius, r, , Gee Fig. D-l)isnot less than thelarserof ?),12,(Tb+ v)12 [for Fig D-l(c)i or?'fl2'

(f)

The outer radius,

/3,

(see Fig. D-1) is

not tess than the larse' of

(r) o.oo2 0do


(2)
(b)

(Sh 9)3-times the offset for the confisurations sho$t in Fiss D-l (a) and D-l (b)

Rnl4- < so

and /'r?/R'?l

< 0.s

The following nomenclature applies to Figure D-r:


ri = inside radius of branch pipe, 'n.
/;= mean radius of branch PiPe, in.
?i, = nominal thickness of branch pipe' in
Rn- mean rcd'us or run PiPe. in
71. = nominal thickness of run pipe, in.
do ourside diameler of branch. jn
Tb, 0, \, 12, h, rp
I a.e defined in Figure D-l
^nd
thickness ofrun pipe, calculated asa plain cvlinder
/r = rldoirnum r;quned

Note 5i
Factors shown apply to

10

endinS; flexib

ilitv factor for iorsion

equals

9'

EXPANSION AND STRESSES


EXPANSION FACTOR, c
Temp.
1.

.F

70

Carbon

Carbon

Steel

Steel

=.30,,;
0

100

1i0

98

c>

.3o7a

C-lIoly

<t Lorv

Cr.-\Iolv
(cr S 3%)

Cr.-\Ioiy

57", < Cr.

<s%)

40

40

35

r06

106

Austenitic
Stainless
Steels

Cr. Stainless
Cr., 17Cr.

& 27 Cr.

113

90

160

171

171

149

232

t;0

224
291

244

244

2t2

323

315

271

114

204
261

391

335

500

326

396

603

389

350

365

391

100

436

467

510

i00

20

Cr'

Wrought
Iron

Ni

t00
300

25

Steels
12

47

44

t25

120

204

195

287
352

368

434
541

547

699

629

5S8

794

520

716

681

893

590

809

768

584

626

626

664

711

711

603

796

796

672

989

659

901

886

886

714

1089

730

995

946

909

97,1

971

815

1189

799

1088

1035

996

1008

1068

891

1292

474

1186

1125

1038

1113

1113

s29

134,1

909

1235

1171

1159

967

1395

946

t2a4

1216

1208

1005

1448

983

1256

1043

1500

1022

1384

r303

1081

1i,52

1061

1435

:r00

1351

t12l

1097

11184

!?;

1398

1161

1659

!'50

1445

1200

1713

117

!;;

1192

1240

1766

1212

1634

i L)00

1538

1278

1820

1250

1681

1l;0

1639

1928

1328

1781

I lr)0

1737

1435

2036

1404

1879

1511

2114

1480

1980

600
827

;00

;i5
s00

s50

Expansion Factor c

Expansion in inches per 100


1728

1134
4

ft. X fc

100

PROPERTIES OF PIPE

: . Streight and Curved Pipe


D, : Nominal Pipe Size
D : Outside Diameter
I : Wall Thickness
d : Inside Diameter
:D-2t

Inside Area

, ra-4

Iletal Area

a^:d(D-t)

Moment of Inertia

Ip :

:
Section

Modulus S-

0.0491(D4

0.0625A^(D,

d4)

d2)

=L)
I1

ITT GRINNEI,L - PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINUI'ITING


PROPERTIES OF PIPE
l'ipe

:l:r

Size

Sch.l

Out-

No.

\\'rll

Insitlc
I)iem.

Nall
Thnrk-

Inches

Diom.

Inside

NIetal
Inc]ros'

Inches

Ip
\Ioment
ol

Inertia
Inches'

std.

1.049

0.133

0.86.1

0.,19.1

0.0874

0.133

EO

XS

0.957

0.179

0.719

0.639

0.1056

0.161

0.815

0.250

.522

0.836

.1252

0.190

xxs

0.599

0.358

.282

1.076

0.1405

0.214

40

srd.

1.380

0.140

1.490

0.699

0.1948

0.235

80

xs

.278

0.101

283

0.881

0.2418

0.291

1.160

0.250

1.057

1.107

0.2839

o.342

0.896

0.382

0.63r

i.534

0. 3,111

0. 411

1.610

0.145

2.036

0.799

0.3099

0.326

1 . 500

0.200

|.767

1.068

0.3912

1.338

0.281

1.406

.429

0.4826

0.508

1.100

0.400

0.950

1.885

0.5678

0.598

3.356

1.075

0.ri657

0.5iil
0.731

.315',
160

1i"

1.6ti0'
160

XXS

r+'

1.900'

=\.-

2 067

10154

2',

2.3r-5"

2+',

2.875',

3.500"

;l

1.939

rl-l_

0.218

2.953

| .477

168s10313

2.240

2.190

1.1626

0.979

1.503 0 '136

L.774

2.656

1.312

1.104

4.i-88

1.704

1.530

1.064

4.234

2.254

1.925

1.339

2.915

2.353

1.637

""1,,"..
',', |., ",

.464

4.028

2.872

1.988

3.068

7.3C3

2.228

3.017

7.721

2.900

6.605

3.016

3.879

2.226

2.626

5.416

4.205

5.033

2. E76

5.466

5.993

268

4.788

239

2.3C0

4.000'

t2

,10

sid.

.412

0.8679

3.513

H
"a*

9.89

.425

Radius of Curvaiurc
Nomincl I'ipe l)ianeters

Long

lirdius ttrtliLrs

Inchcs3

1"
1

Short

Section

llodulus

40

Fa ::tors /i and

s,,

''"::1

4.33

1 .l.t

1.08

r .00

.71

31)

1.31

.00

100

100

1
1

.00

.00

.00

.00

.98

100

1.02

1.00

.00
1.00

1
1

1.21
1.00

.00

1.00

.00

100

1.00

100
100

.00
1.00

1.00

I .00
1.00

3.63
| .5'2

182
100

1.30
1.00

1.09

100

1.0r)

100

+t)

.00

1.00

100

1.00
1.00

100

IE

1.i5

1.00

1.00
1 .00

1.00
1.00

100

.00
.00

1.00

1
1

389

1.95

146

.60

1.01

1.00

5..15

2.00

1.00
.00
.00

1
1

1'

5.8,1

2.09

397

|.62

1.03
1.00

2.60
| .25

0,1

1.6:

li

183

1.00

1.08
1.00

.00

.00

100

1.00
1 .00

1.00
1 .00

1.00

1.67

| .32

100

1.10
r .00

1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00

.00

.00

100

.00

1.00

.00

1.00

6.86
2.33

1.78

4.69

3.13

1.81

1.00
1.00 I
1.00

1.00
1

.00

1.00
1.00
.00
1.00
1

.38

]rrc

00 1.00

1oo

1.00

1.01 r.oo lt.oo


1.0c 1.00 1 1.00
I 0o 1.00 r.00
1 00 1.00 1.00
I r.oo
Ioo
r

r.oo
ooIroo
l1o9

1.00
1.00

i33l

128

1.00
.42

.1 95

2.45

1.E7

.00

1.00
1.00

101

1il1

1.97

r+s

]t

II

.00

1.14

.00
.00

1.93

1
1

1.00

ffi 1.00
1.00

117
100

.00

1.00

100

1.1e
1 .00
.59

I .00
I .00

1.32

.00
.00

1.00
1.00

1.10

3.87

1.00

1.00
1.00

2 ...)1

5.80
2.08

1.00

I .00

4..10

.00

1.00

r .00

1.00

1.00

.00
1.00

.00
1.00
1

1.73

1 ti6

100

.00

4.,10

100

.61

|.73

1
1

.00

100

.00

2.2t-

100

1.00

.21

2.63

1.7r

.00
I .00

.00
1.00
1.18

1186
I 100 1118
I 1.00

1
1

.24
.00

EXPANSION AND STRESSES


PROPERTIES OF PIPE
Pipe
.lize

{Jut-

^iillii''

rn(

Dirm.
31"

.: 000"

1;1x'9"''I#l-

\s

ns

3.3ti4 0 3t8
4.026

5"
5L3',

6',

625',

xxs

8"
625',

Inches'

889

trletel -'-""i"'' Section


Arec - Yl., llloJuhLs
Inchr:"' i"f i "l
Inrlresl

;'l

12.73

.23

3.2r

382ii10337

11.50

s6J

4.27

3 C2{i 0.437

10.33

11.65

5.18

0.531

9.28

13.27

5.90

3.152 10.674

7.80

15.29

6.79

5.047

0.258

15

.17

.45

4.E13

0.375

20.08

.43

4.563

0.500

25

.71

9.25

4.313

0.625

30.03

10.80

4.063

0.750

33

12.10

6.065

0.280

8.50

0.432

12.23

5.501

0.562

14.98

5.189

0.718

17.81

4.897

0.864

20.03

8.125

0.250

8.071

0 .277

51.2

7.981

0.322

50.0

8.40

7.813

0.406

47

.9

7.625

0.500

.439

593

64

6.58

43

.26

lladius of Curvature
Nominrl I'ipe Diameters

"*

0.237

3.438

Jnches

Insidc

13.39

63.4

14.69

.5

16.81

10.48

88.8

20.58

t2.76

105.7

24.52

.5

14.96

\2r.4

72

7.189

0.718

40.6

r7.84

1;0.6

7.001

0.812

38.5

r9.93

153.8

6.875

0.875

21.30

162.0

h
.i

7.90
2 .5t)

5.30
1.96

k
k
tt

'.
t.1l

1.50
1.00

1.48
1.00

1
1

.00
.00

.06

.00

.00

.00

I .00
1 .00

1
1

.00

100

.00

.i

1.00

r .00

k
I

8.99
2.79

5.92

1.61

.11

1 01

1
1

.00

.17

1.18

1.00

| .52
r .00

1.02
1 .00

1.12

t.00

1. {J0

.00

k
I

1.00
1.00

1
1

.00
.00

1.00

I .00
1 .00

..
..
..
..
1r.0'l

.00

| ..
|
|
| ..

481
184

3.61

2.88

1.52

.31

.40
1.16

482

3.24

17.35

368

171

3.19 2.44

1.54

.59

2.16

41

1.22

t .08

2.76

2.21

1.27

.09

1.84
1 .00

.15

|.72

1.43

1.07

r .00

1.70
1.00

r.36

1.l3

r .00

2a.u

1.40

.00

32.61

1.12
r .00

1.00
1.00

r .00

1.00

1
1

.00
.00

6.81 4.54 |

2.31

1.77

2.27

| 1 rl

1
1

.00

.00

.12
.00

.00
.00

1.00
.00

13

ITT GRINN]II,L

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINIIE]],ING

PROPERTIES OF PIPE
Pipe

and

Out-

Sch. Nominal

U'all

side

Inches

Diam.
8"

a.625'

Inside

Diam.

160

20

30
40
60

std.
XS

AI

AI

lTa]1

Inside

Size

ThickInches

6.813

0.906

10.250

0.250

10.136

I.

fletrl lloment

Inchest Inches,

Inertia

s,"

!- ectors ,t and

Section
\IodrLlLrs

lnchesa

21.97

38.48

82.5

E.26

113.7

21 .16

0.307

80.7

10.07

10.020

0.365

78.9

1l .91

160.8

29.90

9.750

0.500

16.10

212.0

39.43

25 .57

t0'

80
100

t2

22

3.12
8.68
2.72

8
2

15
61

2.08

1.32

4.07

3.06

2.41

2.01

1 . 6,1

1.36

1.17

1.04

2.811

.17
1.08

|.74

t.'15

1.15

1.79
1.00

1.43
1.00

1.20
1.00

.93
I .00

1.00

1.16
I .00

1.00
1.00

1.20
1 .00

1
1

.00

.00

r .00

1
1

.00

1
1

.00
.00

1
1

.00

.31

22.63

286.2

53.25

26.21

321.3

60.34

1
1

.60

.31

0.843

30.63

367.8

68.43

34.01

399.4

71.31

117.9

9.84

191.9

30.1

0.330

114.8

12.88

248.5

39.0

12.000

0.375

113.

14.58

2t'9.3

43.8

11.938

0.406

111 .9

t5.74

300.3

47 .1

11.750

0.500

108.4

19

20

12.250

0.250

30

12.090

60.1

.125

60

11.626

0.562

106.2

21.52

80

11.376

0.687

101.6

26.04

100

11.064

0.843

96.1

120

10.750

1.000

90.8

140

10.500

.125

160

10.126

r.312

400.5

62.8

2.26
1. 11

1.13
1.00
7

i
i

1,1.08

,i

3.74

L33

2.86

k
.i

10

.31

3.05

6.88
2.33

.00

1.00

.16

2.39

3.20
1

4.66

3.50

2.80

1.79

1.48

4.28

3.21

2 .51-

1.70

1.40

|.21

.41

2.54

2.06

3.03

2.27
1. 11

.43

19t

1.00
1.00

1
1

.38
.00

1.03
1.00

1.00
1 .00

1.00
1.00

.00

1.00
1.00

1.00

4.46

3.71
1.55

3.54

1.50

1.33

2.28

1.

1'

1.12

1.1

.00

1.00

16.05

372.8

53.3

13.126

.137

18.62

429 .1

6t .2

1.51
r .00

r .00

137.9

.82
.00

122.6

375

1
1

1.19
1 .00

781.3

1.72
1 .00

.58
.00

.14

13.250

.04

47

44.9

80.5

314.3

.14
1.07

.42

l.14

1.16
r .00

109.9

1.3

2.31

1.45
1.00

700.7

140.5

1.24

1.93
1 .00

41.08

0.312

.28

266

86.6

13.376

.40

100

k
lt

20

.00

100.7

255.4

.00

1.46
1.00

64t .7

10.80

.00

1.00

36.91

143.1

.00

1.16

88.1

0.250

17

3.58

1.70

7.2r

.43

4.30
1.98

r .47

1.00

1.62

1.00
1.00

4.00

561.8

13.500

.00

1.97

10

14.00'

.00

1.00

.24

1'

.15

.03

5.90
2.10

.42

14',

L+

3 ti5
153

2.92

1. E5

68.1

40

4. E7

0.718

8.500

srd.

3.02

1.52

.314

160

30

3.63

1.77

2.39

1,

12',

4.53

.11

241.9

1.000

12.75'

6.04

1.11

18.92

8.750

xs

.00
t .00

71.8

140

40

.00

.00
1.00

0.593

9.064

sid.

9.564
9

120

.00
1.00

1.13

1
1

226

10.75',

Radius of Curvature
Nominal I'ipe Diameters

Short
Radius IladiLrs

165.9

k
k

14 59
3.85

L72
2.91

|.74

4.86

.00

.92

1.85

1.53

1.32

4.13

3. 10

.66

.48
1.1E

.21

1.00
.00
1.00

2
1

.00

.95
.13

.17

207
1

.05

EXPANSION AND STRESSES


PROPERTIES OF PIPE
d
Size

and

Sch.

Out-

Nominal Inside \Vall


ThickWall
Diam.

Au

Inside

N{etal

\loment
of

Area

Inches'? Inches'?

Inertia

s-

l'a( itors

Inchess

Inches

13.000

0.500

132.7

2t .21

483.8

69.

60

12.

E1-1

0.593

129.0

24.9E

562.4

80.3

80

12.500

0.750

3L.22

.126 0.937

38.47

XS

100

L2

Inchesr

98.2
a24.5

117.8

11.00'
120

11 .81'1

093

109.6

41.32

929.8

132.8

140

11.500

1.250

103.9

50.07

\o27.5

146.E

160

11. 188

1.406

98.3

10

15.500

0.250

18E.7

20

15.376

0.312

1116.I
384.0

48.0

15.38

473.O

59.2

30

std.

15.250

0.375

182.6

18.41

562.r

70.3

40

xs

15.000

0.500

176.7

24.35

731.9

91.5

60

14.688

0.656

169.4

31.62

932.6

116.6

80

14.314

0.843

160.9

40.14

1156.6

144.6

100

13.938

1.031

r52.6

48.48

1365.0

170.6

120

13.564

|.2ta

144.5

140

13. 126

1.437

160

12.814

1.593

129.0

10

17.500

0.250

20

17.376

0.312

16'
16.00"

std.

17

194.5
1760.3

220 .O

72.10

1894.0

236.7

24J.5

13.94

549.0

61.0

237.1

17.34

678.0

.250 0.375

.4

806.6

89. 6

24.1r

930.5

103.4

o.447

230

17.000

0.500

227 .O

27

.49

1053.0

117.0

40

16.876

0.562

223.7

30.79

t172.0

130.2

60

16.500

0.750

213.8

40.64

1515.0

168.3

80

16.126

0.937

204.2

50.23

1833.9

203.8

18"

XS

18.00'

3.14

1,

.16

2.40

.69

2.15
1.07

1.79

2.98

2.23

t.79

.33

1.10

1.49
1 .00

2.30

1.72
1 .00

1.38

L.

1.00

1.34
1.00

1.07

1..00

1.00

1.12
1 .00

1 .00

1.00

.00

.00

1 .00
1 .00

1.00

00

1.00
1.00

.00
1.00

1.00
1.00

6.40
2.22

5.12

4.26

2.69

1.91

1.69

6.78
2.31

5.08

4.07
1.64

3.39

12

L79

1.50

1.00

1,

1.00

|.24

l lt

1.00

1.00

17.06

4.27

k
tt

8.53

1.91

.00

1.00

1.00

.45

5.60
2.03

4.20
1.68

3.36

2.80

.45

1.28

12.39

8.26

4.13

3.10

2.48
1.18

2.06

1.85
1 .00

1.54

1.76
1.00

| .4r

1.17

1.37

.64

3.08

|.37

2.34

k
1,

l.t4

1.87

2.31
1.13

.00

1.00

1.40
1.00

| .12

1.54
1 .00

1.16

1,

r.27

'L

.00

|'

.00

.00

1.00
1 .00
.00

1.00
1.00

1.00

1
1

1.12
1 .00

1.00

.00

19.25

9. 63

.22

4.63

2.52

1,

.00

1.05

.00
1.00

1.00

2.41

.66

2.50

2.O7

4.75

.00

1.00
.00

.00

.00
1.00

1.00
1 .00

2.08

4.81
1.84

4.60

3.83

1.78

1.58

3.80

3.16

18.99

12.65

4.59

3.50

2.2L

.82

r.57

5.39
1.98

4.00

a.24

2.70

.:

.62

1.41

1.23

4. 68

3.51

2.81
1.28

2.34
1.14

k
1'

.00

3.23

r5

.00

11. 19

1.00

16.82
4.23

3.45

r.25

1,

1.51

3.58

126

17 .

30

t0.71

20.76

and

12.37

Radius of Curvaiure
Nominal Pipe Diameters

Long
Short
Rxdius Radius

Sectior

)Iodulus

Inches

Diam.

t1"

Ic

Ar

14.04

9.36
2.86

.80

.49

.39

2.07

1.66

3.10
1.37

2.44

1'

1.18

1.05

3.03

2.27
1.11

1.82
1.00

t.52

1.35

2.47

1.78
1.00

't

1.19

4.13

.42
.00

1.00
1.00

la

ITT GRINN]'LL

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING

PROPERTIES OF PIPE
Ar

and

Out-

Sch. Nominal

No.

Wall

side

Diam.
100

18'

120

Inside
Di&m.

Wall
Thickness

Inches

Inches

15.688

1.156

15.250

Inside

A:r
NIetal

Inches, Inches'

I.
f{oment
of

Inertia
IIrchesl

I actors t and i

sSection

Short
Long
Radius Radius

Inches3

Elbow

\{odtlus

193.3

61. 18

2180.2

242 .2

182.6

71.81

2498.8

277.6
305.5

14.876

1.562

173.8

80.66

2749.8

160

14.438

1.7El

163.7

90.74

3020.6

10

20

30

19.500

std.
XS

19.250
19.000
18.814

40

13.376

60

0.250
0.375
0.500
0.593
0.812

283.5
278.0
265 .2

17.938

80

\7 .438

1.281

23E.8

120

17.000

1.500

227 .0

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00
1.00

1.00

1.32
1.00

1
1

.00
.00

r00

1.00
1.00

1.13

.00

r .00

12

r.00

.00

.00

1.00

1.00
1 .00

21.46
4.9E

r0.73
3.13

8.05
.59

6.41
2.23

1.97

t3

.00

21. 18

4.93

3.77

7.06
2.37

5.30

1.21

3.53

1.96

1. 69

1.49

30.6

15.68

10.46

5.23

3.92

3. 14

2.61

1.60

1.38

r.22

36.2

4.37

3.24

1.72

2.62

2.18

.42

1.22

I.OE

3.12

2.31

1.3E

1.

1.87
1 .00

1.00

r .80

.00

1.44
1.00

1.20
1.00

1.41
1.00

1.13
1.00

1.00
I .00

1.18
1 .00

1.00
1 .00

.00
.00

1.00
1.00

1.00
1.00

.00
1.00

23.12

48.9

1114

111

.4

4.04
1704
2257

170.4
225.7

61.4

87

2772

14.

3.08

k
I

1.9{

277.2

2.10
1.16

331.6

1. E8

.2

1.00

| .57
1

.00
.31

l4

.00

r.00

140

16.500

1.750

213.8

100.3

4217

121.7

160

16.064

1.968

202.7

111

.5

45E6

458.6

1.14
1.00

1.00

10

23.500

0.250

133.7

1316

109.6

12.93

9.70
2.93

7.76
2

.53

2.21

6.40
2.22

std.
XS

30

23.250

0.375

424.6

27.83

1943

161.9

23.000

0.500

415.0

36.9

2550

212 .5

22.876

.562

411.0

4L.4

2840

237 .O

40

22.626 0.687

4t)2 .1

50.3

60

22.064 0.968

382.4

70.0

80
100
120

1,1{)

160

lo

252.7

100

20

24.OO"

1.031

1.00

20'
20.00"

.00
r .00

1. E8

298.6
291.0

I B-- +-l-.f
1.41
1 .00

18.00"
140

Radius of Cuntrture
Nominal Pipe Diameters

21.564 1.218
20.938
20.376
r9. E76
19.314

1.531
1.812

2.062
2.343

365 .2

344.3

87

4654

.2

108.1

326.I

126.3

310.3

142 .1

293.0

285 .2

159.4

3E7.8
472.a

k
25.58

17.06

5. 60

4.27

18. 99

12.65

4.58

3.50

lc

k
t

7827

652.2

8627

718.9

788.2

9458

25.86

5.64

6853

1.00

8.53
2

r.00

6.33

.00
1.00
6

.17

.12

4.26

1.91

1. tig

3.80

3.16

2.21

1.82

5. 60

4.20

3.36

2.80

1.68

.45

1.29

1.76

3.40
1.46

2.72

I.25

2.27
r.11

3. l4
1.38

2.35

t4

1.88
1.00

2.44

1
1

.83

1.46

.00

r.22

r .00

1.00

1.89
1.00

.42

1.13
1.00

1
1

1.56
1 .00

r .00
.00

1.00
1 .00

L34
.00

1
1

.00
.00

1.00
1.00

1
1

.00
.00

r .00

2.03
4.53

\ .17

.69

1
1

1.

1.00
.17

r .00

1.39

.00

r .00

.00

.00
.00

r .00
.00

1.00
1.00

EXPANSION AND STRESSES

TABLES OF COMMON SHAPES

Example 2 :

'fhc fourteen tables of common shapes on pages 20


r 33 may be used to determine thermal expansion
-'r'csscs aud anchor forces l'ith a minimum of calcula'ioir, as indicated by the follol'ing examples. Yalues
::ry be ilrterpolated bets'een the tabulated factors
..
ithout sacrilicing accuracy.

Ff
G?laen:

Example

10 inch Sch. 40 piping system, in accordance

'with the sketch, made from A.S.T.M. A 106 Grade A

1:

steel pipe.

The maximum operating temperature is 600'. F.

The bending stress, s6, must not exceed 18,000


psi (for method of determining see page 3).

-____.__a

Data:

D:

10.75 inches I

I
Ip : 160.8 inchesa l
c.s 6ee" : 743
Gfuez: An 8 inch Sch. 40 piping system, in accordance

n'ith the sketch, made from A.S.T.N{. A 106 Grade A


steel pipe.

The maximum operating temperature is 700" F.


The bending stless, sa, must not exceed 17,900
psi (for method of determining see page 3).
Dete:

:
1p :
c.t 7oo" :
D

8.625 inchesl
I
72.5 inches* J

page 13

909

page

taOLUtlOn:

L _95 _ , *
h g8- ""'
l.!

r9.9

, cD lbr
--- .X 909 X 8.625
: rbT:
qji
: 12,460 psi (r'hich is less than 17,900 allorvable)
, cIp- e3.7
- - Lfi
^^-..909Y;2.:
r,
" : 681 pounds
x '""

sB

\;r"

F,

, cf p
- k"f
-

.^^..909X;2..'
t9.9 x ::" ^,;-'9

\,1.68'rP+ OEP

The height, li, rvhich will satisfy the maximum


requirement,
and the anchor force, r/", for this
stress
condition.
Solution: Reler to page 28.

L-tjo

For a

/ca

tD

"r:r. "oi

of L35.2,

L/h:

tto'z

3.72 then

60

h:
' -"" : 16.lfeet
3.72

For L/h of 3.72, k"

193.9

7,t3X1Ane
, rlc - ,^-^._
: k,- 3448 pounds
L; 103.9 X
-*r.
The results derived from the use of these tables will

F,

be accurate rvhen all of the turns of a piping systern are

then by interpolation from table on page 20:


93'.7

11

lind:

ll

Irind: The marimum bending stress sB, the anchor


1, and r/!, and the resultant anchor force F.

page

seL 18,000 X 60
,nu:,D:..l.gytn
-

lorces

k"

Page 13

t-r5 pounds

6ee pounds

mitprc

^r

rid.l Gtfihoc

When all of the turns are welding elbows or bends the


anchor forces derived from the tables rvill be accurate
for practical purposes. The actual forces rvill be somewhat smaller than the values obtained from the tables.
The stresses in the elborvs or bends, however, may
exceed the values computed from the tables if the stress

intensification factor i for these curved sections is


greater than 1. (See pages 12 to 16.) If the proportion of straight pipe to curved pipe is large, a
close approximation of the stresses in the curved
sections may be obtained in the follorving manner:
Determine the Iocation of the centroid in a scale
diagram. Pass the resultant anchor force through the

|,7

I1"I GRINNI.ILI,. PIPING DESIGN AND I,]NGI\I'IJITIN(i


centroid.

'I'his force mr.rltiplicd by its distancc from the

curvcd section gives the bending moment,


stress then is (M/S- )i.

i1{.

The

of pipe arranged in various config[rations. The comparative values for bending stress and anchor force
are derived flom the k values in the vadous tables
and are expressed as a percentage of the lowest value.

Example 3 :
(]O\IP-\Ii,.\TI\TU
lle,qultrnt

*J-U

. _](erar

,t\w
16.1

/\/

(Jiuen:'lhe same piping systcm as in Example l,


except that the turn at poirrt b is a long radius

clding

113

(t\

400

r-J-C---4

372

,--rl----

elborv.

Data:

: 10.81 inches3
i
i:2.44

S-

page 13

Find: 'lhe appro\imate bending stress, s6, in the


rvelding elborv at point

3(i0

1.,.

)__J-----r

,Solalioz: Assuming all oi the -sections to be straight


pipe, determinc the location of the cerrtroid:
349

eb 95 X 47.5 :
Dc 38X 0:
133

qb 95 X 38 : 3610
bc 38XI9:722
1332
133

4513

0
4513

IJi13

ii" = -:::1
133

::::33.9feet
I;JJ
Mat

sB ar

point

poiDr

699

104,850 inch pounds

104.850

15,220 Psi (aPProximatelY)

ffi

12 5

12

Z.++

The tables are also helpful in comparing the relative


merits of several tentative piping layouts. This function is illustrated in the scale sketches beloiv, rvherein
two points are connected r'vith the same total footage

18

506

612

32.0 feet

\."\

,_i----1

,---J-i

I--t

Bending stresses due to thermal expansion are not


significantly aflected by increasing thc pipe wall thickness, r&thrJ increasing pipe wall thickness has a more
or less undesirable efrect in that the reacting forces and
moments are increased in a direct ratio. This fact is
illustrated by studying the equation for the maximum
bending stress, sn : htcD/L,lnthe Tables of Common
Shapes. The equation is independent of the pipe rvall
thickness. Likel'ise studying the equation for reacting force rvill shorv that the pipe wali thickness
afrects -1o, which ciirectly affects the reacting force.
The aforementioned is true not only in the Tables of
Comrnon Shapes but in any stress calculation,

EXPANS]ON AND STRESSES

-\ commonly ercountered piping expansion problem


:. thc long stlaight run of pipe lith a Li shtpe of eqLtal
ength legs prolidcd to absorb tlie expartsion. 'l'he
-.rlaight pipilg nrns are rtsuelly gttided lt regular

intervals to prer.ent lateral movement of the pipe.


The follol irg cxample illustrates the application of the
Trbles of Common Shapes to this type of problem.

Example 4

RESTRAINED

RESTRAIIIED

k,

(t inch Sch.

seamless steel pipe.

srr

lfhe maximum opcrating temperature is 350" F.


'l'he maximum bending stress, sa, must rot exceed
22,500 psi (for mcthod of determining see page 3).

12.0

frb

6.625 inches I
.

Ii, : 28. 14 irrches"]


c"135e" : 365

ftom page

22

, D (L,\
: I(bc
i\i )
-

A.t,2i /120\
x 30i X n, X ( )",

18

page 18

9008p"i

Page

1l

considered.

i:

2.27 lor 6 inch 90' LR\Y

2.27

9068

Fr.nd; The maximum bending stress, sB, and the


lt.trchor force F,.

u":

Solution:

r. ,s
e12

: 18.0

If 6 inch S40 90" long radius welding elbows are


used, the stress irrtensification factor, i, must be

D{tta:

D:

GUIDES

GUIOES

l0 piping system in accordauce


made
from A.S.T.II. A 53 Grade B
thc sketch,

Gi'L,en:

lith

AY

BY

L24
h - 12-'

^""'i(!)
12

Elborv

from page

13

20,584 psi
(l'hich is less than 22,500
allol'ablc stress range)

,R IJ

x 30; x 1", , x
\.21]

1'A

;:i -

ro;o pould.

l9

ITT GITINNELL PIPING DI]SIGN AND ]'NGINEIIIIIN(I


IIOOKED

90'TIJRN

SIIAPE

f,,

Reacting
Rez.cting

Force

llaximum
Ip

r" : tt,'

Force

)3enc1ing

Stress

ln lncnes-

-L

c'

jL
L-

f o:

f"'c'Ilttt

,r :

lo.' c'

r.a

2.D

2.2

t7.2

23.0
32.0
42.0
54.0
68.3
8.1..1

tir'c'

!:

,"-lr'"

0.6
0.8

1.18

1.0

4.3
7.8

12.0
12.5

3ii
46

r.2

l+.4

il

1. ri

15.4

85

1.8

16.6

102

2.O

120

1..1

2.2

19.2

1{0

liil

1E1

2.1
2.l)
2.8

.5

209

.2
15.2
19.7
11

21.3
30.0
37.0

.15.0
5'1.0

l.3l

2.2

7.7
9.2

2n.7

10.9
13.0

36..1
.11 5

15.

.2
19.3
17

23

3.0

r75

25.O

231

3.2

207
237

26

.5

259
287

64.8
76.0
88.0

3.6

2t-I

29

.5

3r8

3.8

100.0
113.5

3r.5

3.19

-1.0

]2a.7

1.2

l-l-1

t(i0

.10.4

4. ti

178
198

46.

49 .1
52 .5

4.0
4. !t

406

4.b
4.E

5.0

510
630
700

5. ti

6.0
6.2
6.+

(t.6
6.E

7.0

7.2
7.+
7.0

7.8
8.0

33.0
34.6

3ii.2

4.8

39.5

528

5.0

11.2

569

219
2J1

43.0

010
052

5.+
5. ii

203

41.7
938

18.2
.19.8

53..1

1313

15I7
1{lt7
2059

i;96

6.0
790

E{0

1ll0

1420

450
487

ltr.2

t2t2

.11+

37.8

855
1020

381

56.8
(i0.2
01 I
03.6
65.4

802

9.t:t
997
1050
1101

r160
1219

1284

6.2
6..1

21.6
2+.O

2{i.5
29.0
31.6

65.0
6E..1

71.8

.l

6.8

.l{0

78.9

7.O

.179

82.0

5.10

7.6
7.8
8.0

579

015

89. r

195
205

215
226
236
216
257
268

92.7

2ia

100.0

300

gri.3

79.5
87.0
05.0

121
130
139

-1

360

508

64.

i2.o

43.4

0.6

7.2

5t.i

58.0

112

334

ll;

46.6

103

58.7
ti1 .8

388

31..1

3t-.4

310

2t0

17.3
22 .O

150

28.0

9.4

tr.2

3.0
3.2
3.6
3.8

p'i

1ts.1

1.7

125

3.{

rzto

l) in inches

L in fcet

2.8

103

I^

20.6
22.0

2.t)

20

11

in inches

12 .O

Reacting Force

lp lll lDtIIL'S

1.0
L.2
1.4
1.6

F": k,' c =ilb


t,-

Nlsintutrr Llcrrrling Slles.

pri

l)

in feet

Rcacting Fotce

289

EXPANSION AND STNESSES

SIIAPE

Fx+
K'.c.--Lo

Reacting Force
t1 _

Reacting Force

I{arimum Bending Stress s6


I /, ln

1.5

L
7
0.6
0,8

1l

9.251

12.8

lncnes_ ,

43..0

83.8

39.0

69

.0

38
11

.8

15

.9

91
76

D in inches

k,

kb

r0.5

32
29

85
71

29
29

66
66

12.6
16.0

69

20
27

23

-D
: fb'c';psr

ln IeeI

k,,.c.:--lb

1.

73
62

k6

L
n

6.0

22
20

66
5ti

0.6
0.8

.8

19
20

50

t4

51

1.0
1.2

19

21

52
55

1.6

63
68

2.0
2.2

1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6

1.8

17

.2

28.3
35.4

37

.9

37.8
37 .7
42.1

61.9
57.8
60.6
66.3

2t.0
27

35
36

71

.0

43.2

72.O

4I

39

52.a
63.0
76.0
89.0

45.7
48.0

50

4I

5l.0

79.3
86.5
93.8

60
83

49

102

58.2

.2
109.0

7l

43
46

116
132
149

62.2
66.0

116. 1
124 .5

110

70 .0

3.6
3.8

r68

74.O

140
168

188

78.0

133.0
141.0
149.0

59
63
66

t77

70

4.0

2to

4.4
4.6
4.8

235
260
285
310

82.0
86.4
90.6
94.8
99.0

157.8
166.0
174 .5

197
219
24L
264
287

b.n

336
364
393
425
457

103.2
107.6
111 .8
tt6 .2
120.5

201.4
210.0
219.5
228.0

6.0

491

124.a
129 .4
133.8
138.2
142.6

215 .5
251 .5

145.0
152.0
156.5
161.0

2.O

2.2
2.4
2.6
2.4
3.0

5.0

6.2

6.6
6.8
7.0
7.2
7.8
8.0

43

526
562
598
633

670

7i5
758
803
850
898

101

170.0

r$.0

192.0

237 .5

96
124

69
69
69

22
30
38

n1
88

46

96

30
32

42

57

ti0

30

21
22

27
29

67

40
48

25

31

80
E6
92

69
80

30

99
107
114

90

32

104
118

36

68

40

90
97

7L

33

110

91

43
46

105

a2

35

118

104
118
133
149
165

49
121

106

39

128
135

121.

41

136

120

t32

60

142

44
46

727

147

181

150
157

166
185

49

16,1

204

r82

243

D6

133
140
147
154
161

163
182
201

263

63
66
69
72
75

190
198

261

61

168

63

175

206

66
68
71

182
189
197

260
241
304
329
355

52

286
310

381

63

190
196

67
69

203
210
217

r02

126
134
143

159
168

201
221
241

51

88

186
194

203
212
221
230
239

288

18

313

81

370
399
430

92
96
100
104
108

214
254

422
450
474
506

46t

172
116
120

561

r24

282.O

598

128

267
276
285

287 .0
300.0
309 .0
319.0
328.0
337.0

636

132

291

674

303

756
798

136
140
143
148

8,10

152

7t4

25
26

51
61

t77

341

11

83

81

314

,71

22
23

38

493
526

263.5
273.0

14.4

312
321
330
340

339
392

601
639
680
724

770

92

88
92

2t1
223

360

95
98
102
105
108

232
240

386
414
443
472
502

t11

271
242
290
299
308

115
118

122
125
129

28
256
265

599
633

668
703

5l

76
79
a1

205
212
219
227

71

220
239

408
436

84

234

495

86

212

526

89
92
94

218

97
99

256
263
270
279

588

29

38
40
+4
46
48
50

.,t

r.6

2.1

80

2.6
2.8

93
99
105

3.0

117

3.4
3.6
3.8

124

4.0

1r1

130

4t

737
1.r3
150

4.6
4.8
5.0

163
56
61

78

620

81

ti55
694

83

169
176
182

230
237
241
250
257

6.0
6.2

6.1
6.6
6.8
7.0
7.2

78
8.0

ITT GRINN]'LL _ PIPINC DESIGN AND ENGINEDRING

II

SIIAPE WITII EQUAL TANGENTS

fF*:kr'c'fi

Reacting Force

Maximum Bending Stress ,u

Ip in inchesa

I"

E
1.0
1.2

r.4

kt

lrb

2.40]' 7.2ol

2'46l 4.2

2.521

3.701

4.481 10.9

4.651
6.791
8-931
11.081

5.3r1
7.221 '?:391
13_53

1.6
1.8

6.461 13.6
8.461 16.3
15.751 10.481 19.0

-'*l

12.001 1s.ool
14.851 20.251
18.001 22.501
2r.521 24.831
25.A21 27.r01

2.O

2.4
2.6
2.8

3.0
3.2
3.4

29.451 29..151

33.s
34.7

31.8
34.1
36.5
38.8

43.7

3.8

49.1

4.0
4.4
4.8

I
I
|

31.2
35.6
40.0
40.1
52.3

54.9
60.8
67.3
74.9
81.0

41.1

88.2
95.9

52.9 | s5.3
55.3 | 1(.l4 L
57.7 | 113.5
60.1 | t22.6
62.4 132.0

43.4

45.e

4e,

50.6

|
|
I
I

58.5
64.7
71.0
7e.1
87.2

5.0

5.4 103.8

tt2.1
120.7

18.4

21.6

21.8
24.5
2a.o
31.1
34.2

24.8
166 | 28.5
20.4 | 32.2
I 35.9
'LL 3e.7
28.9
I

37.4
40.6
43.8
47.0
50.2

33.6

13.241

|
I
|
|

se.o
44.5

50.3
57.0

|
|
|

70.8
74.3
77.a
81.3
84.8

Lr,42l 23.4

tl

|
I

27.r

73.871

|
|
|

16.9
20.8
25.5
30.6

| 31.0

li.e

14L
L7.5
21.3
26.2
31.7

I 3s.7

| 44.0

tt

78.9

87-O

e5.s
104.6
114.0

I
I

|
|

r6i

|
I

14.e I ao.z
I 18.0 |
| 22.5 | ?f 3

27

.5

|*o
| 3e.3

15-3

rs.o

23.8

+s.s 29.0

34.7

50.7
I

so.z

.n"

22.3
26.7

46.e | 58.0
53.0 I 62.8
60.2 | 67.6

43.7

40.5

|
| 58_0

63.3

82.0
82.5 | 91.0
87.5 t 101.7

52.2

|
|

933

ii:e
oD.o

63.2

7r.5

79.4
I

53.0

9?.S

|
|

59.0
65.1
71.3
77.7
44.2

41.9
50.0
58.3
66.7

91.0
97.8

8.0 1236.2

|
|

88.6 260.7 1123.5 1289.8 1152.0


27 5.0 lr27.0 1305
t156-6
8.4 1261.5 193.4 280.3 1130.5 1320
1161.2
8.6 127 4.6 | 95.8 1304
11e5.8
113{.0 1330
8.8
s8.2
8.2 1248.7

1287.9
I

9.0 t302
9.2 l3r6

9.4
9.6 1345
9.8 1360
10.0 l|375

22

I et.o

tl

1322 1778.6
1340 1184.1
1358 1189.7
1377 1195.3

l3e5
tl

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1137.5 1351

1100.5
1102.9
1105.4
1107.?
1110.1
1172.6

1332

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hzs.o 1416

51.5 l4r,
1r 55.0 l413

1184.2
1188.8
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1198.1

1348
1365
1381
1397
1414

J384
1148.0 1402
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1158.7 1466

t5.71
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26.3
31.7

1170.4

1206.6 1456

1437 1212.4
1458 1218.2
1180 1221.0
1502 1229.8
1525 1236.r

l163
527

1422

1231.0
1238.5 1455
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1268.6

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63.6
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99.5

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109.6

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108.0 t14.7

125.0

120.0
133.3

122.8
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4.4
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117.9
141.0 163-0

139.4

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1336

182.6
191.4
200.2
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t81.8
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216.0

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1618
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1680

1326

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6.4

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6.t
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242.3

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1301

r47.9

157.1

1242.7 1427
1250.9 1451
1250.2 1476
l2$7.5 1502
1275.8 1529

lito

126

lD/a

lzzs.s l405

1219.2
1236.0
1253.0
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1218.5 t358
1226.5 lo6-r
1284.6 1404

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1218.2
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43.2
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194.5 165.2
165.2 211.0 173.9

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1413

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23.9
24.5

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5.4

1372

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81.5 22t.9 1113.0 1244.2 1138.4 27r.5 1162.I 1297.8 t183-1 1319.0 1201.6 lres
83.8 234.7 lrlo,c .|239.2 1142.9 1287.5 1167.6 1316
U8e.5 1339.0 1208.9 1359
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148.1 1187.0

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125.9

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92.2 90.4
98.6 100.5

107.5 1r30.0 117.8 1136.7


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114.7

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30.7
36.3

41.7
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91.9 167.2 lru.s 184.0 t129.5 199.0 1145.1 1213.0 1158.8 l22s.o 1171.0
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lre4.b
1180.0
I
7.4 1200.9
7.6 t212.4

15.53

31.2
36.2

45.2 187.0
90.8 196.5
96.3

|
|

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79.7 | 77.5

I
I

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68.7 | 5e.5
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64.8 I 141.6

6.0 129.6
6.2 138.8

13.1t

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104.7 106.2
72.4 | 87.2 I
117.8
105.0 112.0
76.6 I 96.3 |
so.8 I 105.4 e2.5 Lr2.4 101.9 lllS:3 111.4 124.2 118.7 129.8

85.2
I 89.5
93.9
134.0 | 98.3
144.6 l].02.7

22.O

5
7

94.4
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53.3

2.73 10.3
5.29 14-4
7.45 18.6
r0.41 22.9

10.1
14.0
18.1

84.2
95.0

37.7

|
|

28.8
33.4
38.0
42.7
47.5

3:t

5.2

_-l
12.3 26.1 I 1ti

I
I
I

k.

43.0
50.8

51.6
55.6
59.8

13.9
17.9

5.0

l,

D in inches

61.5
67.8
7 4.2
80.7
87.3

41".2

| 35.3 I

l
l

|
tl
64.0 | 64.0 6e.1 | 72.5 I
7r.1 | 68.2 78.r | 77.5

57.0
60.4
63.8
67.3

e.e2l

2.671

"

10

kt

kb

2.641
4 Rll 13.3
7.1 I 17.o
e.5 | 20.8

ku .

Ict

9.291

4.781 12.8
6.981 16.3
9.201 19.8

48.7 | 35.8 | 48.7

2.581

8.821

12.0
15.2

72.5 |
15.8 |
10.6 |
23.4 |
27.3 |

L.

lrh

feet

in

.L

260.0
268.9
277.4
246.7
295.7
305
314
323
332

342
351

5
4

8.(
8.t
8.!
8.(

8.t
9.t
9.i
9.,
9.1
9.1

EXPANSION AND STRESSES

srrAPE

wlTrr

TANGENTS ?2 = 2

Reacting Force

TIn: k"'c'-fi

Reacting tr'olce

Fn

l\{axirnum Bending Stress

* = ko' ,'2L

13 in

--'

1.0
1.4

4.4
6.4
8.4

1.5

10.4

2.0
2.2

12

:.

':.

-r
ri

3.0
3.2

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16.0
19.7
23
27

.4
.1

30.9
36.3

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41,7

3.6
3.8

46.1

-1.0

58.0
65.0

3.

1.2

50
52

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1.7
2.0
2.7
3.0

4.0
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4.8
5.2

94.0

7.O

103

t12

ti

12L

7.5
7.9
8.3

131

i.0
a2
eti

;0
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;.{

;.6
;.S

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!.2
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:d

1.10

9.2
9.5
9.9

150
161
171

10.3

182
192

23.3
26.6
29.0
33.2

2.t3

13.ti
20.3
24.1
28.0
32.0
36.1

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47.3

.17.0

50.9

53.0
60.0

58-0
62.0
65.0
60.0
72.0

2.1

69.0
77.O

86.0
95.0
104

76.0
80.0
84.0
88.0
92.0

113

\57

96.0
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168

3.6
3.9
4.0
4.9

6.6

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10.5
10.9

1.1 3

1{3

1t.7

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,2
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,ti

323
339
355

75.2
15.{;

: ,.0

387
403

16.0
16.4
16.8

747

160

122
132

r32

248

137

261

14.5

280
299
319
338

14.9

752
157

\62
167

377

16.6

3r8

17.0

1t'2
176

384

18.0

181
186

402
421

18.4

4'10

:J48

4ri0
169

4E0

775

500

10.4
10.9
11.3
11.8
12.3

199

16.1

312
330

9.1
9.5
9.9

13.6
14.1

15.6

13.9

86.0
92.0

232

295

2)i,

4.2

100
111

120
412

105
111

r22

11)

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19.6

201

19.4
19.7
20.1

562

20

20.0
20 .4

205
210
215

587

20.9
21.4

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16.5
20.0
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28.0

3.8
4.2

30.0

21.5

33.0

5.6

40.8

6.0

47.0

41.O

7.0

65.0
76.0
87.0

9t.0
109

8.4
8.9
9.4

59.6
68.0
75.0
83.0
91.0
100
107
115
122
130

1-d

41.8

2.0
2.2

48.2

6.0

61.0

2.6
2.8

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6.5
6.9

67.0

3.0

46

5.1.0

{i2.0
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81.0
92.0
105
118

7.8
8.3
8.8
9.3
9.8

74.O

81.0
88.0
95.0
103

11r
120

3.4
3.6

4.0
4.1

146

5.0

12.2

lL2

206

12.$

5.6

13.0

163
171
180

212

13.5

188

6.0

261

1,1.0

198

6.2

283
306
329

14.5

208

6. -1
6. [i

224

6.8

na

7.0

138

179
186
193

u.7

1.r.l
1.1.5

20L

292

15.0

208

310
329
348

15.5

3E6

17.I

215
222
229
236

15.9
16.3
16.7

30e
125
450

.5
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18 .4

251

2 r-7

5til

19.3

286

592

19.8
20.2
20.7

295

624

3t2

ii89

21.1.

1-22

21.|i

320
329

22.O

337

408
430
453
476
503

17
17

244
251

531

257
2t\4

5E8

277

1.6

30. ti

11.3
1L.7

10.8
11.3

13.6

2 t-0

25.8

159
3.i2
188

717

618
616
675

t.2

21.O

1-1ti

10.3

560

4.9

1.0

128

13.1

237

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11.4
16.2

10.3
10.8

211

22+
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L.6

2.1
2.6
3.0

L
n

732

9,E

120
133

258

39.5

49.1

221

2L7

5L2

11.0
14.0

153
100
166

211

8.2

24.8
29.5

146

180

3.0

2.9

171

201

487

D in inches

ha

10.9
L3.6

12.b

16.6

19i;

20.L

206

1118

191

10.9
15.5

140

1.)2

18.4
18.9

2.0

134

128

16.2

1E.0

8.2

f-

:"2

10

153
1?3
189

15.8

r8.8

613

gs.0

1E6

77.1

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61).0

80.0
90.0

127

1.{.8
15.2

62.8
80.0

12.7
13.1

271)

46.8
51.9

7.8

13.2

2t4

31.5
36.6

72.O

2t6

125
128

.2

7,1.0

r23

121

136
140

10{

23.O

57 .O

6.3
6.8

118

14.4

132

02.0
07.0

40.7
48.0
56.0
64.0

11.8
12.3

1'1.0

13.1

3.6
4.0
4.5
4.9

43.0
53.2
57.7

1rJ.8
27

185

2+lJ

252
2{i6
280

20.6
25.6
30.0

2.7

113

23+

210

10.7
14.6

1.8

r1.4

117

\2.3

r.4

t72

114

11.0

kt

2.2
10.2
12.9

feet

kt

k!,

108

11.

216

33.'1

94.0
99.0

13.6

23.3
28.3

9.6

146

193

t7 .7
20.4

71.0
76.0
80.0
85.0
80.0

10.0

2.4

.5

8.0
8.4
8.8
9.0

12+

1lJ0

9.9
12

18.7

5.7
6.2

10.7

r1.5

371

E.0
10.E

206
220

309

,E

14.6
t7 .5
20.+

103
107
110

201
228

1.1
1.6

4.7

7r.7

40.1
43.7

5.9
6.3
6.7

5. r

;.

0.5
o.7

79.0
86.0

72.t)

1.6
1.6

kt

116

Z in

inchcsa

: hv' c'

lll.

259

20a

502
530

304

754

12.l

15.0

16.0
16.4
16.8
17.2
17

.7

2ta

217
256
265
274

4.8

5.4

7.1
7.6

7.8
8.0
8.2
8.4

18.2
18.6

283

19.0
19.5
20 .0

303
313

324

8.8

20.6
21.0
2l .4
21.8
22.2
22.7

335
345
354

9.0

293

8.

ii

36.1

9.4
9.6
9.8

384

10.0

]TT (;ITINNELL

PIPING DESIGN AND ENCINUI'RING

SHAPE WITH TANGENTS L]

F,: b' c 'J


1,'

Reactirrg Force

T^

Reacting Force

'"v . IJ'
,t

nlaxinum Bending
12 in inchesa

-D
3p:kt.c.j

Stress

Z in

feet

11.8
16.6

D in inches

t5

1.0

0.7

1.6
1.8

2.2

2.0
2.8

30

20

24

15
18

17

38

5L
59

tt4
69

68

7a
E3

10.0
10.7
11.5
12.2

a7

89

90
107
118
130

12.8

95
101
108

13.6

5U

64

67

4.0

62

6E

09
76
E4

73

i3

a2

92

92
102

87

1r1

92

120
131

13.2

154

1+.5
15.2
15.E

| 96
12.4 100

82

5.E

13.0 I
13.6 |

109

166

6.0
6.2

14.2 | 774

179

d.6

| 121
Id.4 | 129
17.1 I 134
15.7

6.8

8.E

232

19.1 |

260

20.4 | 1i3

276

2tn
305

32L
338

s.0
9.2
9.

-1

9.6
9.8
10.0

119

17.8

2f6
8.0
8.2
s.1
s.6

105

208
220

372
389
406
423
440

18.5

139
14+
149

19.8 ti5

21.1
2r .8
22.5 i
23

r63

17

219
234

17.8
18.5
19.1

250
26tt
282
2i)9
335

188
192

r97
202
207
212

3!2

8.6

66
72

15.I

It5

t5.E

18.1

3.6
4,3
5.0

19
22

5.8
6.6

40
4tt
52

2E

66
72
79
86
93

52
00
?0

10.5

80
90

11
12

100
108
115
122
130

17. 0
141

r8.8 148
216
231

.1

219
285

10.8 | 147

304
323

314

172

1t2
187

192
197
203
209

2t4

2r9
224

1q.7 |

20.3

155
161

2r.c | 7,4

18.7
22O

I9.4

214
262

20.1
20.7
21.4
22.1
22.9

2E0

300
321

23.6
21.2
21.a
25.5
26.1

178
185
193

| 101
| 1t5

9.8

tl.1

.8
,4

13.1

13.8
15.3
16.0

1i2

16.7

tE8
205
222

17

211

19.6

262
283

20.3

196

21.O

205
215

1.1.5

.4

18.1

I8.8

330
353

219

376
403
430
457
485

24.2
21.9
25.6
26.2
26.9

260
208
277

513

27.6
28.3

286

605

235
212

430
506

28.2
29.0
29.7

294

30.5

303

31..2

412
321
330
339
348

109 | 4.0
117 I 4.2
125 | 4_4

lt2J
113
| 137

207
209

26.7

32.0
32.7
33.4
31.2

8.2
9.0

21.8
22.6
23.4

410
432

532
560
588
619
649
680

2.2

2tr lu
3r l14

16.5
17.2

177

41t

7.1

9.3

60

387

1;3

rE3

31

139

t9l

201

1u8

.2 | r78

23.9 I

6.3

59

4+

56

14.9

4+
49

22
26
31
39

50
55

55

30

26

3.3
6.0
9.0

|
21 .4 |

18

2t

38
1+

5L

71.2
11.8

4.2
4.9

47

50

5.0
5.2
5.+
5.6

11

26
31

5L
59

+.E

8.4

2.8

39

4l

3.4
3.6
3.8

1.2

| 25

3.9

30

5.8

2l

47
39

2.6
z.
rj

20

34
43

3.0

| 11.4
15.6
15.6
l| 20
3.3 | 20
2.0

10
15

23

26
16

2.6

9.3

t.1 | r2.7
1.5 I 16.1
1.8 | t,J.E

573
037

2S.0

29.7

30.4
31.1
31.7

13{ 4.6
r42 | 4.8
752
161
170

178
147

221

233

7.2

283

7.6
7.4

294
303
313
323

,4

34.3

383
395

33.0

6.0
6.2
6.4
6.6
6.8

243
253
263

353
363

32

5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8

7.O

8.0
4.2
8.4
8.6
8.8
9.0
9.4
9.6
9.8

EXPANSTON AND STRESSES

STIAPE

l{rTH

TANGENTS

,;:4

Rerr, ting

Force

F,:

k, '

c.#

Reaciing

Force

Fu

1,"'

"

"o

Ao

"

.Naximttrn Bendine Stress

Ip in inches*

!-l
L;

t',

1.0 2.6
12 t 45
lrl
b.7
1d | 89
i.E | 11.:

l;u

0.8
1.3
1.8

2.3

159

18.0

170

18.9

181

19.7
20.6

19-1

208

..0 222
.2 236
.1250
;. d 201
..! 279
:0 296
:2 313
:+
330
idi3.17
:.s 364

22.1
23.2
24.2

.I

24.5
33.0

2.9
5.0
7.7
13.3
16.3

1.8
2.5
3.3

4.0

5.4
6.3
7.2
8.0
8.9

ii4

ti5

12.3
L3.2

69

71
83

1.1. 1

79

15.0

84

93
104

89

1I6

15.0
15.8

Iii.7

93
$9
106

17.6
18.5

1t2
11E

19.4
20.3
21.2
22.2

125

61

56

66

ti-1

7L

72

76

81
90
100
111
133

112
123

171
185

129

199

110
116

215
230

128
99
10.1

19.4
20.3

107
117

16.8
L7 .7

21 .1

22.0
23.a

215

152

260

26.1

158

276

27

103
169

2U3

109

t1{

ll$

33..1

4E4

3-1.3

r89

430

34.6

l9+
199

2l()

173
496

36.3
3t'.2

209

61138

31.4
32.3
33.2

519

31.1

231

38.1
3{).0

2r9

35.0
30.0

5f2

'157

210
216

5ti6
590

+00
+19

1 .176

222

204

.10.0
.11.0

562
590

221
229

680

235

710

104

201

2r.6

219
238

22

.1
23.3

I60

25a

21.2

182

25 .1.

26.0
26.9
27 .9

191
199

181
188

277
206
316
340

36.0

255

37.0
37.8
38.7
39.6

262
268
275
282
2E8

41.3

296

404

9+

12.8

183

126
133

168

208
216

22.a

r17
164
173

233

768

-10.5

312

800

41

33.1

200

o.6
6.0

33.4
34.3
35.2
36.0
36.9

299

341

8.0
8.2
8.4
8.6
8.8

741
a2r

37.8
38.6
39.5
40.3

858
896

42.0

352
362
372
382
392

9.0
s.2
9.4
9.6
9.8

5.10

310
318
326

5.2

7.0
7.2
7.4
7.6

265

37.4
38.1
38.9
39.7

,1. 8

249
259
269
279
289

399
427

32.a

2E3
2\)2
331

4.0
4.2
4.4
4.6

1E2

209
26

.1

2a.2

211

,iJ

3.0
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8

219
229
239

490
519

.3

2l .9

2t-.3

.{83
511

701

20.1
21.0

3.16

2+9

$ t-2

130
138

2.6
2.4

6.2
6.4
6.6
0.8

257

6.r0

.4
18.3
19 .2
17

21.5

32.O

36.4

L12
121

278
299
321

4ti3

31.6

t5.7

191

31.2

578
608

11.0
82

200
218
236

2|t

65

89
96

150
158

24E

.2

72

t.2

52

72
80
88
g6

142

235

2.0
2.2

11.S

1S.8

215

38.6
15.2

7.6

ii3

170
185

1t'4

1.6
1.8

10

t18

160
107

22.a
28.0
33.2

8.4
9.3

.2
18.1
18.9

1-16

4.2

30

123
138
153

20.7

1.0

6.7

68

75
82

L
n

.5

20
24
37

kt
12

5.0

108

132
139

2.5

72
16

111

228
510
s36

49
56
62

6.2

104
17

D in inchcs

k'l

16.4

412

'160

32.E

13.6

208

30.2
31.0
31.8

31)0
.110

102
113
126
110

12.7

2U.6
30..1

t'2
393

184

70
80
90

10.I
1l.E

28.8

,115

32.0

8L

ti0

389

177

370

52

367

I71

187

63
69

9.1

10.0

105

161

27 .O
27 .9

29
36

7.1
8.3

202

106

46
5L
57

29..1

.4
28.3
29.2

.151

382

11

311

31.0

r98
201

?.9
8.8
9.6

2a.7

238

12.2
17.1

19

40

330

1+0
151

30.

4.0
4.8

309

26'J

350

2.4

21.0
21.9
25.9
26.8
27.8

1+1

330

r92

7.O

23.1,

131
130

181

28.8
29.7
30.6

200

125

26.0

25

168
183

3.4
12

.4
12.3
13.1
14.0

10.6

.10

-1

30

10.5

s.8

.19

31

.8

20.9

48
56

43

56

102

3.9
4.7

11

l{i

59

51

t22

1I

23

3.1

50

36

91
96

1U

2.3

6.2

42 .O

86

5.2

15

18
22
27
33
40

46.5

E1

10.8

10

1t6

1.1

20
25
30

ir feet

kb

2r0

r.0 I
:.2 |
-..+ |
..

9.7
11.0
15.0
19.0

k!

kr

23.0

rol13.5 3.2
l.r | 17.5 3.8
il|21.5
4.5
I ,r I 25.5 5.1
r. s 29.7
5.8
:t 0
3.1.2
) 2 40.4 7.1
J+ 17
7.8
i. ii 52
8.5
.i.3 59
9.2
10.0
=.0 66
10.8
72
=.2
r.1 80 ll.ti
88
12.1
=d
rs 97 13.2
;0 107 14.0
i2 rt7 14.8
11 t27
i.6 137 10.4
r.3 148 17 .2
.,0
.. 2
r. 1
r. d
'r _\

1,

Ifi

570
603
637
710

29.2
30.0
30.9
32.6

{t.2

309
319

330

.103

10.0

ITT GITINNEI,L PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING

II

SIIAPE WITI{ SINGLE TANGENT

Fx+

Reacting Force

F": k,'"'T

Reacting Force

I.
.r'.,: I;,,-('=;
L'

Marimun lSending Stress


I-p in

1.79

1.4

2.83

2.0

3.6

6.2

6.4

26

99
109

81

20
22
2+

105

26
2a

134

s1

2l

15.0

118

128

27

t2&

18.0
19.9

128
138
148

23
25

139

2t.a

89

30

11.0
12.0

100

11r

152

t79

36
38

27 .O

199

209
225
242

28.5
30.2

209

18S

31.9
33.6

35.4

253

.2

266
277
289

39

41.

305
329

403
430
460

173

93
101

3.6

2+.6

110

3.8

26.5

116

4.0

2S

r27

t44

31

136

154
164

33

233
216
259

zffi

47

224

305
330

50

236
249

341

493
523

580
610

77
79

409

398

6.10

a2

4r2

679
718

85

797
837

95

435
451
468
485
502

66
69

9S

39

234

4l

259
280

70

78
80
83
85

359
371
383
395

726

88

76s

91

409
421

805
845
885

94

434

97
100

447

925

103

464

46

302

48

2rl

32+

51

220
229
238

317

37t
425
453

.l8l

58
ti1
63

5r0

461
476

4.6

5.8

80
75C

a2

788
426
864
902
940

a5
87
89

92

94

6.0
6.2
6.4
6.6
6.8
7.O

267
277
287

7.4

308
318
329
341
350

8.0
4.2
8.4
8.6
8.8

68

70

370
383

4.2

5.+
5.6

397
286
299
311
324

3s6

88
92

262

2.8

154
198
218

43
45
48
50

406
435

12.1

1r4

45

370
384

470

23 .0

8.8

s6

260

340

67
70

3.0

520

426
440

77

43

4S1

60
63

.2
19.0
21.0

240

29s
313

1.8

2.1'

20s

58
60
63

1.6

62
69

22r

380

t.2

5.1

13.8

197

285

1-0

2.0
2.2
2.4

IUJ

272

li

40
48

39

426

58

'l

203

46.8

526

30

150
167

301

4S.0

94

t2l

43.0
45.0

497

617
649
681

220

244
263
283

7l
108

29
31

24.4

439
468

tr4

15.8

159
169

165
1?9
193

9.0

10.0

18

102

302
322
342
364
3a7

9.2
9.4
9.6
9.8

17

62

108

7.0

8.0
a.2
8.4
8.6
8.8

17
82
90

19

26L
281

7.4

66

80

59

6.6
6.8

7.4

11.0

63
70

8.8
9.9

79

6.0

10.5

14.I

4.0

5.8

42
49

52
60
?0

39
45
69

5.0
5.2

38
4+

7.1
8.4
9.8

4.2
5.0
5.9
6.8

3.8
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8

6.3

20

2.6
2.4
3.0

30

4.0
4.9

2.3r

1.8

2.7
3.$

tr

D in inches

,L in fcet

18.3

1.41
2.24
3.15

0.75

1.0

inchesa

sB:kb c';

7.4

L0
9.4
9.6
9.8

EXPANSION .\N D STR

II

SIIAPE UNEQUAL LEGS

tr
,x

0.2
0.4
0.8

k"

L.1

0.07
0.60
1.15

2.4

0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

1.6
1.8

13
19

2.0

27

2.2

4A

2.8
3.0
3..+

3.6
3.8

{.0

81
99
118
138
160

1.6
1.9

2.6
2.9

303
336

2l

28
36
45

Reacting Force

Ia:

Maximurn Bending Stress

s3:t,.".l

6.1

6.9

6.2

Z in feet

in inchesa

0.53

1.4

2.2

1l

3_0

4.8

3.8
+.4

20

4.9

26

10

11
18

4.8

5.4

50
62

22

6.0
6.6

90

9l
110
130

152

20r

206

222

239
273
310

266
288
311
334

11

1.8
2.O

29
39

160
180

244

kt

3.6

60

t42

h,

80

124

4.4
4.8
5.2

3.6

37
48

3.8

4.I

0.29
0.75
1.9

178

351

398
445

f-

lcy.C'Lz

D in inches

4
lco

58
68

3.5

239

27I

3.0
5.8
9.5

s3
108

184

210

4.8

t,: tr".c-E

Ict

1.0

t.2

Reacting Force

Ir

4/3

ESSES

h
0.69

34
4A

18

26

.8.1

4.6
4.8
5.0
o.o
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

18
23

o.2
0.4
0.6
0.8

29

1.0

38
49

10.0

62
76

1.6
1.8

11.0
12.0

92
110

2.O

13.0

129

14.5

150

2.4
2.6
2.4

2t9

41

9.0

106

7l

10.0
11.0

a7

9-0

123
142

105

10.0

162

128

185

10.5

183
20tr

151

160

17
19

178

t7

209

189

20

12
13

230

208

19

220

246
273

240

20

259
288

254

23

301

74

280
307
335
365

292

24
26
2a

331

.rr0

318
349
380

306

428

8.0

16
17
18
19

13.5

2l
318

23

88
104
121

60

140

94

162

114

25

4I4

378
424

461

26

512

2a

450
480

481
537

361

29

30

t7l
193

362
396
432
469
506

3.0
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8
5.0

27

ITT GRINNEI,I, PIPING DI.]SIGN AND ENGINEERIN(;

I'
L

SEAPE-EQUAL LEGS

&b

o.2
0.3

0.0377
0. 1165

0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.469
0.765
1.191

1.0
L.2

3.00
4.88

1.8

10.55
14.48

0.617
1.308

0.256

0.4

3.370
4.580
6.430
8. 1I0
10.39

1.68
2.34

1.4

2.0
2.2

19.2
24.6
31.4

2.6
2.8

39

2.4

12.00

F*+

22.26
28.56
43.20
52.32
60.72
70.56

.2

T^

8t.24

48.0

92.64

3.0
a.2
4.4

104.5
118.2
130.8

69.1
82.2
95.6

3.8

111.0

138.4

4.0
4.2

!24.L

160.0

4.4
4.6
4.8

Xlaximum Bending Stress ss

147 .O

176.

166.6
189.0

208.8

h,'c';-

Reacting Force

lp ln rncnes-

192.0

"L

L-

to

,D
: /cb'c';Psr
D in inches

in feet

213.0
246.O
264.O

239.0

5.0
5.2

266.0

I'

SIIAPE-MODIFIED

Reacting Torce

T.
k"'r'fr

'r-

f-

ho.".-fi

Reacting Force

Maximum Bending Stress s3

kh

2.63
3.38

o.75

242

lt.2

3.6S

1.85

16.5

3.30
4.37

2.24
2.79

12.6

1.01

10.50
14.45

4.12
5.50

1.15

13.5

4\2

13.3

4.5

.42

14.5

2.60
4.70
7.75

21"

0.86
2.44
4.65

4.50

22.O

r.o

4.17
5.46

1-26
2.66
4.70
7.60

13.8

28

1.4r

k,

10..15

9.30

hb

h,

0.51
0.69

.20

k!

kt

2.62
a.42

7,

Directron

4/3

2
3
6

"'

D in inches

.L in feet

l]) ln lncnes

,D
: nt'

14.1

7. 10

28.7

9.33

.5
28.2

5.30
7.08
9.40

.87

r
2t.3
16.

28.2

s.+

2.r+

17.6
17.3
2a.2

ol Fyn
Force

I
J

EXPANSION AND STRESSES

II

T'WO PLANE

u-^
f.
:"zlb

Reacting

Force F'

h..

c.

Sendlng

Stless

/f6.

ct

ss

.D
'Iolslonetblress st :,cr'c'
Jp )n lncnes_

-L

Psl

ZPsl
D in inches

in feet

'Where no value for &; is listed the torsional stress is

negligible.
tr'or method of combining stress see pages 4 and 5.
NorE: f,ette!6 indicete locetion of maximum combined stress,

0.25

L
E
1

ka

0.040
0.050

0.50

c
0.55
c
0.62

0.67

).

.42

0.72

0.27

0.76

0.061

0.78

0.063

0.80

0.31

0.3{

2.

t4

.40

3.31

1.73

4.40

11.2

3.0

6.36

11

.3

4.9

lu

h,

kh

kt

tr

kb

kt

7.09 0.75

2.05

9.12

0.65

2 26

9.8

.0

24.8

3.4

19.5

33.4

7.8

36.7

12.0

2.63

1.72

2.69

1.86

6.34

1.99

6.95

2.i1

2.08

4.71

.16

7.80
B

2.22

8.10
8.40

15.6

20.0

22.O

19.3

tr .4

21.0

26

.8

28.0
23.4

32.0

.5

B
B

11

34.5
B

44.6

44.7

44.9

.5

49.0

51

.4

37.6

56.0

59.3

10

B
29

16.0

40.0

24.5

10.9

12.2

24.4

10.2

2.28

22.2

B
2

16.6

t7.6

.40

10.5
B

0.40

.70

11

6.8

12.9

0.39

18.9

.52

0.38

0.825 0.396

0.0647 0.84

7.24

0.37

10

1.54

0.36

0.064

0.75

0.0635 0.81

3.43

1.90

0.70

0.060

i./

0. o58

At

0.195

0.055

ko

40.6

2S

ITT GRINNELL

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING

TWO PLANE U_WITS TANGENTS

T^

k". c .'fipsi

Reacting

Force F,

Bdnding

Stress sz: h.
"."7

Torsional

Stress

s,

: tri.c.? psi

D in inches
lf ln lncnes_
Z in feet
lVhere lo value for i;1 is listed the torsioral strcss is
negligible.
For method ol combining stress

Norx: Lctters i4dicaie location

see pages

4 and 5.

of maximum combined stress.

k"lkb
DI

0.51 J 1.26

1 10.20 1.63

2 t0.28

I
0.30 |

2.O1

o ."+e

3 t0.32 2.r5

6.6

e. zz

1.07

9.3
21.O

13.3

22.O

2.76

7.00

19.6

26.4

4.86

7.86

24.4

29.6

.20

51.0

8.50

28.5

31.6

9.58

66.7

5 t0.35 2.32

15.0

5.70

4 | 0.34 2.27
0.36 2.36
D

.37 2.38

9.38

31.6

8.96

8 | 0.38 2.10

40.0

9.30

9.00 108
D

10 I 0.3C 2.43

4.35

0.67 3.20
D

1.35 5.80

4.30

1.70 7.00

6.23 13.8

1.88

.44

9.96
D

.44 16.9
D

8.94 18.8

2.01
D

2.09 8.00
D

2.t5 8.13

10.3

2.17 8. 14

10.7
11.0

30

22.2
D

2.26 8.36

2r.7
D

2.23 8.30

2t.l

r1.3

22.6

15.9

38.0

9.80

z.o

6.3

9.3

15.0

rols lo.ss I zr.z

24.O

s.z lo.is

^t
11.0

DIDI
21.5 l7 .40I 36 .2 30.0
D IDI
3t 4 17.75152.6 31.0
DIDI
37 0 17.70 16S-5 .10.5
D IDI
41.6 17.70185.7 49 .4
D IDI
45.0 I 7.14 1100
+slo lohlrre
DIDI
50.6 16.45 1127

64.0
D

7t.5

z.rsl

43.2

43.1

0.38 2.42

81.8

9.20

10.5 117.7

r55
r8d
6

6.75

60.2 34.5

171.0136.8
182.8138.8

48.1
D

8.70 119

z".ol | ,

03.6

40.0

16.0

31.4

6
7

2.O

1145

DI

14.1 |

10

EXPA\SION AI{D
TWO PLANE

STRESSES

U WITH

TANGENTS

Iieacting

Force tt" : r,".

.D
ss: /ib.c.Zpsr

Bending Stress

Turii,,ral SnFss s,
lp ln lnclles_

/cr

. Ar.c t) nsi
l_
D in iuches

in feet

,/-

Where no value for

" 2v.

is listed the torsional stress is

negligible.

For method of combining stress

see pages

4 and 5.

No'rlr: Lotiers indicate location of maximum combined stress.

I'/a :
'I

0.25

L.

kt

1.00

3.3{ 1.16

2.79

8.58 1.50

4.06 12.0

4.81 1.1.0

5.41 15.6

5. ii5

4.10

5.86
11.15

1n. o

23.9

35.0

5.18

25.4

5.89 16.4
D

6.06

27

.3

28.6

6.22 17.0

32.6
4t3.7

38.

60.9

49.3 17.0 104

l0

4.87
D

40.8

4.59

.5

86.0

47.4

13.7

:l

ka

2.38

8.

12 35 26.0

30.8

43.0

60.0

60.0

c
c

94.4

68.
c

r38

r25

68.0

72.0

68.6 18.3

18.25 209

8ti.5
D

84.0 18.15 211

100.5

100

174

77 .O
D

e;0

59.5 18.0 137

96.6

45.0

73.9

15.7
D

4.29

2!.

;l

4.02 r06

29.8

0.31 r7 .2

74.0

11.

D
1

42

st.z

38.3

26.1

D
27 .O

19.5

16.4 10.7
D

33.0

10.7

19.3

19.9

.12

2. ."1

8.65 14.3

25 .O

Iri.0

2.2

1.39

kb

1.90

1.7
D

kt
c

1.50

hl

ka

ti

.50 220
D

r 1,1

',.25

113

214

13i

.75
D

189

c
312

128

1274

137.5 8.9 382

1330

1148

t.
hoi.:

7.1

10

L/a-8

0.5

0.25

4.2

1.69

lJ.6

8.75 20.0

19.0

7.84

2.62 23.4

29.0

9.2

31.6

38.6

9.7

2.79 15.1
D

23.0

11.0

25.0

38.7

11.8

26.0

.15.0

r2.3

27 .O

50.0

12.7

27.8

54.0

l0

r3.0

28.,{

23.2

57.3

59.6

1.9

29.6

28.4

.8

30.6

61

23.0

88.8

9.8

64.0

9.4

9.05

2ri.3 r28

8-1.0

107

67

24.5
c

39.0

5.1.0 10.

40.9

.2 28.9

t71

40.5
c
57.0

zt. o
c

130

82.

31.2 225

95.5 3r.9 279


D

l,;;
l:;r
Iror

c
10'1

t09.5 33.6 335

8.8
c
17
07
86
107

r29

145

i{06

l*'

108

108

161

225

c
c

1312

ris.9

c
1-19

34.3

c
133

2A

119

l270

c
5

]ue
1206

r52

l,^

E9.0

46.8 10. 1
D

8.3

9.9

6.3
c

10.2

9.36 5.60

4. 10 10.0

1.8

5.201
D

kb

cl
t.22

kl

l^

299

li

390
475

li:;

10

ITT

G1TINNELL

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING

THREE DIMENSIONA' 90" TIJRNS

r.. > Ls

L":
L2

Bending

Stress

Torsional Stress
Reacting Force

* : fr' .'f
:

,r

f,:

nr'

22.40

1.36

4.0

1.68

2.80

lr"'"'Ifi"tU

ll)

n,"'

Reacting

x{oment .df- =

Reacting

Moment tr[u,

lD lncnes-

Z in feet

0.31

1.37

41.40

2.09

0.45

t.a2

30.54

3.03
3.33

10.0

t,"','Ifitt-n'

: ka, , ']rr-ri.
D in inches

t.4l

6.9

0.60

o.74

5.0

1.01

1.10

1.11

6.92

t.a2

1.95

4.7a

L.29

2.00

2.13

22.14

2.80

4.8

2.0

2.53

18. 12

3.70

0.98

2.00

2.8

13.50

.42

1.27

0.45

2.06

1.0

0.66

0.45

0.85

0.29

2.38

0.70

0.66

1.66

21.0

0.39

0.65

o.2l

0.56

0.68

2.01

25.3

1.20

1.40

1.65

0. s4

0.94

1.98

0.74

0.74

2.t7

0.62

0.62

6.4

0.9

0.37

4.10

0.8

0.58

5.66

0.64

0.65
0.72

8.6

.52

0.17

3.10

0.45

0.63

2.38

.4+

0. 14

3.43

0.39

0.68

2.76

o.72

3.13

3.50

3.84

0.53

0.53 t2.6

0.48

0.77

10.2

29

.4

70.0

2.43

o.47

o.47

0.43

0.81

11.6

33.5

0.51

0.39

o.t2

3.79

0.35

0. 11

4.16

0.32

4.50

0.28

79.2

2.70

0.42

o.42 15.7

0.39

0.91

13.2

37

.6

0.63

0.35

88.2

2.76

0.38

0.38

0.35

0.93

14.6

41.4

0.53

0.31

0.76

4.20

035

4.9

2.31

40.3

1.30

61.0

1.78

1.14

.42

0.51

3.3

7t

2.5

I. 1I

0.35

.07

4.4

34.5

2.41

" 'Ifitt.n.

3.78

26.7
43.4

of

X"'c'IrJrn

4.9

ln = lr" ' 'Ifin


"

Force f ":
Reacting Moment Jlf", :

,'flVS|,

3.2

19.20

Torce

Reacting

combining stresses
see page 4 and 5

0.95
1.66

tn

n",lFor Method

30.21
19.62

Reacting

9.5

1. 10

0.59

5.0

6.7

1.64

0.84

6.8

10.5

0.84

!2.O

0.85

1.13

8.4

0.52

t.r2

24.7

5.0

o.77

4.7

1.68

0.96

6.7

22.3

4.86

0.54

3.6

.62

0.74

6.0

4.80

0.37

1.10

1.48

0.13

0.80

0.09

0.65

0.49

2.3

0. ?0

o.72

3.9

2.0

0.61

0.51

9.3

0.15

o.22

1.1

1.00

0.71

3.6

10.4

o.24

0.13

0.60

-74

0.70

0. 10

0.76

o.42

0.64

0.6
0.4

0.88

o.47

0.66

0.45

t2.o

0.11

0.

o.44

0.69

0.82

0.09

13.7

o.21

0.

0.34

0.58

0.95

0.16

0.35

0.67

0.3

0.58

0.50

1.06

o.L2

0.27

0.70

o.24

0.51

0.54

1.18

0.10

0.23

o.74

0.20

0.50

0.59

0.20

0.80

0.18

0.48

0.65

0.83

0. 17

0.49

0.69

0.88

0.15

o.75

10

o.22

0.

0.30

0.20

0.

o.25

0.57

19.5

0.21

0.

o.22

0.56

7.25

0. 15

21.6

0.21

0.

0.21

0.59

t.42

0. 10

0.18

23.6

o.2l

0.

0.19

0.61

0. 10

0.16

NorE: Letters iDdicete loc.tiion of maximurn combined

streBs.

0.01

EXP.\.\SION AN D

S'I'IITISSES

THREE DIMENSIONAL 90' TURNS

0.25

88.2

;0

0.

0.ori 18.f
a

iz

rz.u
7.8

1.13

0.71

1+.7

2.2

o.12

102.3

0.67

0.

c5

0.9

2,IJ

0. 61

69.0

10.77 13.7

.42

0.

10.30
(}.1

r7.0

0.9ii

0.tr2

0.5E

0.82 I I.4

3.6

8.75

0.35

0.79

7.4

3.4

6.10

0.23

0.67

5.2

3.

8.19

2.

I 0.3E
1

0.53

0.75

30.3

8..lri

12 l

c.i

0.60

14.

.1

28.14

s.'1g ;.s

0.28

0.90

4.7

2.7

0.56

31

8.01

4.t5

0.09

0..10

9.0

4.9

.70

0.07

0.00G1 0.77

0.06

0.57 I 1.4
0.47 1 0.7

1.5

6. 21

1.0

0.31

5.3-1

0.80

0.04

0.36

0.70

1.1 i0.25

6.24

0 05; 0.47

0.037

0.43

0.7G

0.30

5.50

0.03

0..16

0.026

0.32

0.41

0.80 I 0.23

6. iig

o."r-,;;l o. aa

0.026

0.42 I 0.20

0.63

0.31

6.06

0.03

0.32

0.010

0.30

0.29

0.67

0.22

0.22

0.5i

0.21

0.4i

0.21

,4
'5

r.6

0.

t-

.5

.11

0.057t 0.25

0.021

0.33

6.24

0.24

0.015

0.30

0.21

7.98

0.017

0.19

0.50

0.35

6.50

0.04

0. 18

.011

0.2i

0.16

E.60

0.069 0.21
0.075 0. 17

0.43
0.45

0.5.+

0.015

0.47 | 0.15

0.45

0.37

6.80

0.04

0.16

0.0105 0.31

0.14

9.50

0.0501 0.15

0.012

r{

0.45

0.41

7.02

0.070 0

0.010

0.48
0.52

0.13

0.45

0.44

3.3

0.3.1

132.0

0.49

E8:8

0.49

56.0

11

0.41

38.0

u:4

10

10 08

025 r17.0
0.50

14

0.

.4

0.85

10.5

81.0

13.35 1ti.0

0.53

0.76 13.6

50.6

12.06

9.8

0.30

0.72

8.4

35.1

11.07

0.20

0.60

5.8

9.87

23

4.0

9.78

1.8

0.05

0.37

1.6

1.9

0.27

4.95

0.85

0.03

0.30

0.75

1.3

0.22

0.27

9.3

7.3

0.17

6.4

4.2

0.38

0.45

1.0

0.16

0.011

0.29

0.78

0.14

0. 21

0.63

0.16

0.55

3.90

4.75

0.23

0. 011

o.22

0.21

0.59

0.16

3.95

4.80

0.18

0.0092 0.22

0.16

0.51

0.167

4.10

0.15

0.0083 0.23

0.13

.47

0.176

4.20

0.13

0.0065 o.23

0.

11

0 .42

0.183

4.45

0.

0.0055 o.23

0.10

o.32

0.186

4.62

0.235

0.0051

__1L

25

1+7.0

0.69

0.255 161.0

50

96.6

0.40

0.38

106.0

61.8

o.24

0.39

67

41.5

0.15

0.35

45.6

12

.2

I.4

0.0.1

0.23

5.1

0.019

0.15

5.46

3.9

0.012

0.116

3.8

3.2
3.6
3.8
4.0

.6

0.62

0,41

19.4

0. 37

0.55

.7

o.21

o.52

15.3

0.09

0.49

0.034

0.28

0.016

0.20

0.012

0.16

0.007

0.

17

8.25

0. 102
0.007

0041

0. 110

3. 12

0.104

3.26

0. 106

I,r.ltterc indi@te location of maxinrunr combined stress.

1.+

0.13

0.102

0.108

.12

0.013

4.10

0.17

0.50

0.19

0.71

\orE:

r0.7

0.19

0.9

t0

10

12.12

0.29

14.8

0.26

0. '13

0.43

0.46

1.4

o.23

3.6

0.26

5.1

r7.2

2.2

-:L

,l
,l

3.8

-27

1.8

0.26

11

0.82

0.014

0.12 I

0.023

0.010

10

0.4+ 10.26

0.046

0.32

0. 11

0.75

.46

11

.12

0.91

0.49

5.20

0.33

2.0

1.70

5.00

0.12

.32

0.33

4.29

4.90

0.47

4.92

0.14

0.52
1

1.6

.47

ig

3.4

0.12
.!P

0.

11

0.

11

.12

.47

0.10

0.43

0.0{,)

0.39

ITT GRINNT]LL PIPING DI.]SICN AND ENGINEERIN(;


EXPANSION BENDS
The tables for steel expansion bends on pages 34
to 45 permit the sclection of bends designed to absorb
expansion betrveen tl'o fixed points. The tabulated
defleclions and anchor forces produce a maximum bending stress of 10,000 psi rvith a nodulus of elasticity, E,
of 29 X 106 psi rvhen the tl'o ierminals of the bend are
restrained from rotation, as shorvn in Figure 1.

Unrestrained straight runs of pipe on one or both


terminals, as sho$'n in Figure 2, rvill increase the fleribility of the system thus reducing anchor force ard

Therr

Acturl F,

the bend is approximately midrvay betu'een the anchors'

The follol'ing ratios rvill permit adjustment of the


tabular values for any given set of conditions:

Restrained Bends
Select a bend u'hich has a

Tabular Deflection

Thermal Expan"io' X'

-. ].]&

Allorv. Stress

.\ttttll Itt Ho' t iotr


-l'abular F,
X ;.
'l abular I)eflectiort
,

Unrestrained Bends
Select a bend so that

Tabular Deflection X

bending stress. Since flexibility and thermal expansion


are both functions of the overall length, the derivation

of the maximum overall length for a given allo*'able


stress involves cut and try calculation. The use of the
Q factors, l'hich are tabulated for each "straight run"
bend type, rvill result in a close approximation of this
maximum length \\ithout further calculation provided

t0'Y

Thermal Expansion X ;-.,


,,
,,\llo$- iitress

Then

Acrual

f, :

Trbular

\""t*l Dcflpct ion


f, x -t rorrlrr
,
f)efrcction X Q

(Alihough this value is not exact it is sufficiettly accurate for archor design. )
For sizes or radii not tabulated, equivalent values
for tleflection and anchor force may be derived from
equations listed belorv bend details. Exact solution
for unrestrained bends is obtained rvith the help of the
"properties of expansion bends" tlhich are also listed

belorv each bend detail. Values for Q have been


verified for all tabulated bends Their use rvith other
bends should be checked by the exact sohtion for unrestrained bends.

<-

Fx+
-Fx

Fx

E\PANSION AND

STRESSES

Example 1 (Selectron ot a single restrained bend)

II.

Giaen: A fully guided 6 inch schedrrle 40 carbon steel


pipe line operating a\ 425" F is to be installed bets een
tn'o fixed points 85 feet apart. Assume that the bending stress must not exceed 22,500 psi (for method of
determining see page 3).

Solulion:

The anchor forces.

Erprnsion
'

4.60X

:
at 600o

4.60 inches/100

ft.

(see page 7)

Find: I. A. suitable bend lhich rlill absorb the explnsion in the restrained line l-ithout excceding the
illorvable bendirrg stress.

Type

Found

of
Bend

page

Itad.
in

36

40

nnrLlte

|mseL

1':Rl

1.7'1 inches

Refer to the tables to lind bends rvhich will accommodate a deflection of 1.7.tr ilches. In this crse three
bends are shol.n rvhich fulfill this requirement. Final
choice will depend upon space llmitations, economy of
materials and labor, and the intelsity of the anchor
forces.

II

Tabular

Actual

F.,
lb

4l

2nl

* Actual F.

I, :

Deficc-,

2.18

3 .91

r037

16-lE*

13.7

11

11t31

2338

12.0

lr79

2012

12.0

2.03

ffi

fii

ro+s

Anchors, feet

lb

4.00

::ipansion

absorb the

in the unrestrained line l'ithout

exceeding

:Le allorvable bending stress.

Found

;i

on
page

Bend

\
I

U\

: tp. u \
-ip. u (

102.1

12.0

r03.8

'l'abunr Defleclion X {/ > 3.9t X


-

:2nl

Tabular

Tabular

Actual

Tabular

in

Deflec.,

Deflec.

Deflec.,

XO

mches

t,

1.38

1.84

3.Sl

1626

Ito

2.01

| .29

2.24

.30

2.11

39

10

40

41

_r\crual

lnches

1.33

36

|.75

ft:-

Tab.

- a^

1.7.1

I+g
22,300

inches

Refer to the tables to find bends rvhose values for


deflection times the appropriate Q value rvill accommodate a deflection of 1.74 inches. As in Example 1
there are several such bends from r,rhich to choose, five

Rad.

D,

3.CI inche.

of rvhich are listed below.

The approxima.te anchor forces.

Typo

0.0

X .^^ TUU

:
flnd: I. A suitable bend rvhich r-ill

.:p.

111 ..1

Solution:
Expansion

::se!

.3

(F, for anv other choice of benr] is obtained similarlv)

Giuen:'lhe same conditions as in Example 1 except


:iat the pipe line is unguided (i.e., the line is unre::rained).

)ruble

l)eveloped

Lgth. bet|reen

F\n, '^:::^'
n.i.n E,
i' l"
, Er

Trb. F. X
1037

Erample 2 (Selection of a single unrestrained bend)

II,

\I'idth,

Height,

Deflec.,
lnches

Iirp. U I

D"

Actu&l

19 999

22,i00

Lrp. U
1'

Tabular

3.Clinnhes

Trbuler l)eHer"rior, Z 3 sl X

Deta:
Thermal Expansior

-100 -

II

width

Approx,

Height,
ID

in

Lgth. beiween

lb

feet

feet

Anchors, feet

3070*

dl')

7.r

101.5

1180

2030

t2

20

100.4

1181

1825

T2

l6

102.1

1388

2215

10

10

100.7

F. x-,
- E\pansion - ,8,
^^ x-,Er
lab. Ded.

- 1626 .. 3.91 .. 25.7


F,=ffixfri\;ff--3070

(I"

for any other choice of bend is obtained similarly)

Developed

ENGINEEIIING
ITT GRINNT]LL - PIPING DESIGN AND
Solution:

restrained bends)
Exampie 3 (Selection of multiple
80 carbon steel
Giuen: A fully guided 3 inch schedule
betrveen
installed
be
at 550" F is to
oiJ" li""

i."i"
i; ;

i."a "p".tiittg
Joints 2i5

;i';*

f"eL

ExPansion

4.11 X

4100

usr, no,.
The headroom clearance IImlts lnl
height to aPProximatelY 5 feet'
m

-'l::*,,:i ;::.i::, l';':"lH;;|.

Datt:
F

= n.tt t".n/tootjj;

ou*" ,l
bends
Find: I "Ihe mimmum nurnber of suitable line
restrained
.rrrriir?rir' urrs.J ,1" expansion in the

*ilnoot

"*"."di"g

ai

5n0"

the allorvable bending stress'

Rad.

TvDe

;i

Height

II

of

Tabular

Anchor
Spacing,

inches

1b

tb

Bend

D"

tn
feet

Douhle\

5.1

.47

10

23

.5

721

0.966

0.45

10

23

.5

742

0.966

Offset .f
Exp. U\

Bends

feet

Trbrlrt-t;""ti*

Developed Length

widih

Actual

feet

llach
Ilend

Total

1488

4.3

33.4

334.0

1592

30.9

309.0

Tabular Deflection X Q X

bends)
(Selection of multiple unrestrained
in Example 3 exeepf
Ctuen: Thesame couditjons as
(i
unguided e'' the line is unre-

Example

No of Bends

>

9.66 X

that the bends are

r -! D^-rBends '.
Z
Number of

strained).

The minimum number of


in the unrestrained
which will absorb the expansron
bending slress'
rhe
allo\\ahle
ii""'t"itf,""t, exceeding
""ir."i'n"-"*lrt"r tiacing and approximate anchor
Find,:

suitable bends

l.

oaE

ExPansion = 4'f1 X ""9


100

I
;f

Tvpe

Rad.

Bend

D"

Double\
Offset ,

Exp.

Ul

1n

Hqieht
tq
feet

Tabular
Deflec.,

"i'*J,n"
irorn A"u*pf"

966 in"hes

inches

'Iabula,r
Deflec ,
XQ

II

No.

Anchor

of

Spacing,

Bends

Gbuhr

10.000

f=2,b':

n.to'n

29

Deflection X

deflection and
Refer to the tables [o find the tabular
(Allimitation
sprce
the.
suit
to
O fr"t"t .f a bend
,'r.^,,,1, hon.ls o[ the same heighl, wlll shorv approxithe Q frctors vary
.""iv ,f-r" same tabular d9fl5crjon
factor rvill
lonrid"ruUtv. The bend with the Iargest Q
*"";ttum anchor spacing ) The two bends

forces'
Solutian:

+.zs

+.29

>

II

Act. Deflec.
Ea. Bend

in

inches

*at"tial..)

't anular
Deflec.,

1,1.991

22,500

deflection of
Refer to the tables to find the tabular
(All
bends of a
r U"ttJ t" suit the space limitation lhe same
values
Iill short' approxirnalely
eilen hcight
-n"'^i.1"i""
and
labor
of
economy
d"p"tjs upon
.".",rr"i
illustration'
for
here
shoivn
Two bends are

forces'
The anchor spacing and anchor

IL

9'66 inches

> e.66
- "- x
''
Number of Bends

Th"einial Expansion

Tabular Deflection X No' of Bends

As5ume thar the bend-

apart

feei

Actual
Deflec.
Eeno,
inches

-btla,,

o.47

1.40

0.66

33

.57

1.38

0.45

1.31

0.59

29.38

t.21

3 are used here tor illusl'ration'

Tabular

lb

II
Approx.

lb
1514

widrh
1n

Developed Length

feet

Each
Bend

Toial

4.3

43.4

303.8

36.8

294.4

EXPANSION AND STRESSES

Example

5 (Exact solution for unrcstrailed bcnds)


A- (i" schedule 120 A.S.T II A 106 Grade

Giten:
B Doublc Offset Expalsion l3cnd, bcnt orl a-10 inch
radius is to be installed il a lirte 6'-r fcct krrig operatirrg
at 625' F. -{ssume that the beridirrg stress shall not

Locate gravity aris X-X.

31.1 X569:178
Ilend
Straights 55.5ij X 0: 0
178
80.96
r7R

ercecd 22,500 Psi.

Finrl: The alchor force 1. and determine I'hether


or rot the system is overstresscd
Data:

:
/c :
t:

l?

floment of Ilertia 1" (about X-X axis)

12.52x (3.33)3X 1.00 :

1.00

Transfer to X--X axis

1.00
1'1.98

vo

Bend about X'--X' aris

3.33 feet

S- :
1r :
c

6t).

31.4 X
inches3 (from Page

13)

:785

(from Page

X-X

Straights about

49.61 inchesa (from page 13)

55.56

axis

X (2.05)'?

Tolrl .I,

11)

\Iomeut of Inertia of the bend about its o$'n gravrty


t\ls
(from Page 38)
I,:12.52Brk

LcIp
I"

05

785

Fx.-

9.425-Ek

9.425

31.11

X 3.33 X

49.01

:
-

416

234
t l12 fr'

2276 pounds

11,72

I,Iaximum Bendilg Stress sg


Greatest Bending Nloment

Solulion:

\Iodilicd Lergth ol Bend

(3.64)':

462

: 2276x9.33)/.12
254,821 inch pounds

1.00

1,t

254,821

,.'

r.1.98

1.00

17,011 psi

=-Fx

ITT GRINNI,]I,I, PIPINIi DESITIN ,\ND UN(IINEERIN(I


DOUBLE OFFSET EXPANSION BEND
No. 10 Bend

Genqol:
I,cn7th

g.+25R

l{odificd l,errgth

9.1251?h

LcI p

^,IiI
17281"

I.

/,

i'or

(aboLrt glavity tris -Y-X)


12.52n3k
Slrcss o/ 10,000 psi, E oJ 29 X l0':
|

: 0.;2En:/i
lncllcs
D.
- : 9161p pourds
1'].
.t,

,(llrccrlon

,? in feel
l) irr irr,.ho. 1a in itrchesa
/, distance bett'een anchors in feet
c erpln:riou frcior -.see page 11
A" total thcrmrl c\p&Dsiou in inches

For Stress of 10,000 psi, E of 29 X

106

lllrlirrs oi lJenrl

/?

6D,
Deflec-

2',

40
EO

40

80
4{J

80

40
80
40

80
40

80
40
80

8',

10,

12'

40
80
40
60

std.
XS

14'
16"

std.

18',

Std.

20'

38

srd.
XS

xs
xs

std.

xs

r5.1 I
0.218
0.203 I
0 276
0 2t (i
0.300

0.

0.22r)J
0.3 18
0.2371
0 337
0.258 I
0 3i5
0.280]
0.132
I
0 322 |
0.500

]
0.365
0.500
0.375
0.500
0.375
0.500
0.375

0.28
0.21

0.32
0.28

Iiorce,

tior,

!D

lD.

329
429

0.33

498

0.39
0.39

627

l)eflecrlon,
rn.

0.70
0.71

312
392

1.10
I .09

24t)

0.83
0.83

420
542

.30

1.30

336
431

0.99
0.99

501

1 .5,1

401

588

800

0.69
0.56

667

0.85
0.65

784
1012

1.15
1.15
1.63

102

471
625

798

2.27
2.27

638
870

1.23

1064
1.151

].45

1088

1.33

162{i
2386

1.63
1.01

1382
1988

?13

1037
1491

2259
3586

2.44

2051

.52

2990

3. 12

II

3364
5323

3.91

2.42
3.56
,r.69

525

.80

0.82

3r4

1 8tl

r7 41

r.27

16.1

215

78r

1277

1.90

ti57

0G7

0.84

I'orle,

523

1051

94I

ln.

416

0.57
0.3e

125r

tion,

lb

0.85
0.85

724

?l

Deflec-

Force,
205
268

053

0.48

-A.nchor

0.54
0.55

o17

0.

10r,,

273
359

868

2992

|
0.500I
0.375
0.500
0.375
0 500

AncLor
ror.e, I
ro

0.44
0.32

2.45
2.05

0 .31

8r"

4619

3379
5,r00

Temper-

3549

4.25

5.5r

37r6

6.34
5.75

3855
6181

5.00

0 Factor
10' 20'

2',-8',
Pipe
300
400
500
600
700
800

1.50
1.46
1 .42
1.38
1.34
1.31

I'ipe

.4ti
1.41
1.37
1

|.29
1.25

EXPANSION AND STRESSES


CIRCLE BEND

No. 11 Bend
GcneraL:

Leugih

0.2838

Nlodified Lerrgth

6.283Rk

X-X) -

.{. 1ul'out grrrilY 3\is

lor

x-

p LcI p
17281" I"
L.EI

Slress oJ 10,000 Psi,

Defleclior r

E of 29 X

0.312n:l

3.14R3fr
106:

feet D in inches 1r itr inches4


ir feet
I
see
factor
c expalsiolt
Page 11

lnchcq

E in

-/);
It)lr/-l

/l- :

disiance betl een anchors

Dorrnds

RDi

A, total thermal erpansion in inches

For Stress of 10,000 Psi, E of 29

106

Pipe
Size

D"

2"
2+',

'10

0.154

0. 12

80

0. 218

0.09

,t0
30

0.203
0.276

0. 11

0.12

66S

.10

0
0

0.19
0. 1{

718

SO

216

300

532

926

40
80

o.226

0.21
0.17

1,368
1,795

,{0

0 .237

80

0.337

0.30
0.21

1,60ii
2,137

40

0.375

0.44
0.29

2,1E1

EO

40
80

0.280
0.432

0.57
0.36

2,782

40
80

0.81

3,851

0.500

0.55

6,132

10"

40
60

0.365
0.500

1.05
0.

5,113
7,89+

12"

std.

0.375
0.500

1.31

XS

14',

std.
XS

0.375
0.500

1.68
1.53

16',

std.
XS

0.375
0.500

2.Or

18"

0.375
0.500

2.36
2.14

20"

0.375
0.500

2.72
2.47

5',

0 318

258

322

illl

.2l

356

1122

2,971
4,072

5,719
9,081

2"-20" Pipe
inclusive

39

ITT GITINNEI,L PIPING DESIGN AND UNGINEEITING


EXPANSION U BEND
No. 9 Bend.
GeneraL:

Length:0.283fi
Modificd Length

For

6.2838&

" LtI :,"


I r'281, I,

lt

- '-_
_ L^EI

,1r

\rbour gravlty rxis X-X) -- 3.l4R3k

'Shsss

o/ 10,000 psi, E of 29

[JeHenllon -

Fr

0.312.R:t.

II

D-

\,

106:

fcct D in inches 1r in inchesa


,I, distance betrveen archors in feet
c expansion factor see p&ge11

rcllcs

E irr

r00;1p
Pounds

Brr'

A, total thelmal erpausiol in inches

For Stress of 10,000 psi, E of 29

106

6D,,

40

0 t+

0.12
0.09

-10

0.15{

80

l0

0.203

80

276

'10

.210

80

0.300

40
80

0.226

4',

40
80

0.237
0.337

0.30

0.2r

2,137

s',

40
80

0.258
0.375

0.4.1

2,131

40
80

0.280
0.432

0.36

8"

40
80

o.322

0.81

10"

40
60

0.365
0.500

0.88

7,E94

12"

std.
XS

0.375
0.500

1.31
1.21

5,719

14',

srd.
XS

0.375
0.500

1.68

16"

std.
XS

0.375
0.500

2.01
1.82

18"

std.
XS

0.375
0.500

2.36

2.tl

10,

20'

std.
XS

0.375

2.72
2.47

10,563

z',

.213

0 318

500

167

023

0.13

610

0.23

030

0. 14
0 .12

017

710

1,071

0.17

8!3

0.30

0.19
0.14

1,150
1,483

o.23
0.26

s58
1236

0.36
0.36

0.24
0.17

1,3ti8

0.29
0.2.{

1110
1495

o .42

1,795
1,606

0.37
0.28

1339
1780

0.49
0.49

0.53
0.35

1817

0.70

2177

2,782
1,072

2360
3394

0.93
0.75

3,85,t

0.29

0.500

al)"

105

3501

6,132

5109

5,113

1793

9,0E4

I,230
6,0ij1
9,691
6,346

r63

6,5E13

5337

7877

.42

.62

.42
.03

13
r ls J
1.

1415

2037

EXPANSION AND STRE-CSES


EXPANSION

U BEND-TANGENTS : 2

FT

No. 9 Bend
GenerqL:

Lerrgth :0.2838 + 4ft


trIodilied Lclgth : 6.2t3nir

L"EIp LcI p
ri28I, I,

+ 4fi

1" (about grar"ity axis ,Y-X)


: 3.11n3/i * S/i'!i * 6.28nft + 1.33
psz, !- o/ 29 X 106:
10,000
For Stress o/
(0.3t2n" + u.;gin- + 0.02.r n)ft

.
uen.crron

(/i l b;
!t132
-1' (R + I)Di 1n.1r".

10671P
1.,:
,-^
^
\tt i | )ut

-8 in feet D in inches Ia in inchesa


.L distance betlreen anchors in feet
c expansion factol-see page 11

pounds

A. total thermal expansion in inches


For Stress of 10,000 psi, E of 29 X

106

Iladius of Bend
Pipe
Size

ll'all

Sch.

5I

ThickDeflec-

D"

tion,
ln.

-B

6D"

8D"

Deffec-

10D"

Deflec-

Deflec-

ID

tion,
ln.

1b

255
332

0.43
0.30

233
305

0.56
0.56

200

0.43

394
495

0. 63
0. 63

333

0. 43

712

orce,

Force,

tn,

tion,

ID

Anchor

"iffo

EO

0. 154
0. 213

0.41
0.32

40
80

0.203
O.2t'6

0.39
0.34

40
80

0.216
0.300

40
80

0. 313

0.38

40

0.237
0.337

0. 03

0.43

1004
1335

0.69
o.52

0.258
0.375

0.80
0.53

147 4

2009

0. E9
{J.59

1293

EO

1770

40
80

0.280
0 .432

0.96
0.61

1984

.09

1771
2547

1416

0.68

|.32

1180

2915

1.07

2038

16S8

40
80

o.322

.22

2961

.50

2799

0.500

0. E2

4713

0. s2

4085

1.85
1 31

3227

40
60

0.365
0.500

r .47

41i8

1.22

3990

6364

.89
I .40

std.
XS

0.375
0.500

|.77

4797

2.30

456E

75rig

1.92

t4'

srd.

0 375

16'

std.

40

EO

5',

8',

10"
12"

40

xs
40

18'
20'

.47

639

0.35

824

.226

812

l.6l

2.11

r.95

4921
7876

0.375
0.500

2.45
2.26

5264

std.

228

418

0.87
0.87

288
362

0.67
0.67

17E
618

0.94
0.94

411

951

0.71

599
7E6

1.05
1.05

509
668

E93

0.81

731

0.81

971

1.
1.

l6
l6

619

1r86

.05

10,18

0.94

1430

0 .51

0. 60

0.48

0.500

0.76
0.76

726

261

1.36
1.36

Temper-

E122

2',-a'
Pipe

xs

0.500

.60

E962

300

r .42

0
0

3.21
2.94

400

Srd.

1.37

5388

500

1.33

9,r31

600

r.29

XS

500

821
879
1199

5481

2.86
375

529

Factor
10"-20"
Pipe
1.29

|.24
1.19

4L

ITT GRINNELL - PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING


EXPANSION

U BEND-TANGENTS
No' 9 Bend

Gmeral:

Length

8.283R

Modified Length

A'EIp

2R

(8.?lbk

106:

LcIP

17281, I"

.r, (about gravity axis x-x)


For

6.283Rk

Stress

of 10,000 Psi, E of 29

Deflection

rc.577k

1ltllp

F. = -

0.ol I )R'z

---

0.167)ng

feet D in inches Ip in inchesa


Z distance between anchors in feet
c expansion factor-see Page 11
A- total thermal expansion in inches
R in

Incnes

Pounds

For Stress of 10,000 Psi, E of 29

Scb. I
No. I
2'

10"

42

well

|
tion, I
in. I

Deflec-

ness

0.154

40
80

0.203

0.218

o.23
0.17

487

0.276

0.26
0.22

713

40
80

0.216
0.300

0.36
0.26

766
988

40
80

o.226
0.318

0.46
0.32

1196

40
80

o.237

0.337

0.38

40
80

0.258
0.375

0.82
0.54

1071 I
1424 |
1453 I
1982 I

40
80

0.280

1.07

185r I

40
80

o.a22

4{)

0.365
0.500

0.4:J2

0.500

.57

0.67

911

2714 |
2571

.03

,!085

0.99
0.66
1.31

0.82

Force,

lb

0. 69

0.44
0.44

234
305

0.69

0.57
0.57

354

0.89
0.89

283

447

474

618

.05
.05

383
494
456
598

0.67
0.67
0.80
0.80

570

748

t.25

0.93

669

| .45

0.S3

8m

1.45

1211 | 1.31
1651 I r.u
1573 I 1.75
2264 | L.42
2335 | 2.66
3409 | 1.94

909
1238

1.84
1.84

726

1181
1697

2.22

1358

s90
944

1751

52ffi

std.

0.375
0.500

2.45
2.26

3836

14'

srd.

xs

0.375
0.500

3.12
2.84

3841
6153

16'

std.

0.375
0.500

18"

srd.

xs

0.375
0.500

4.38
3.98

20'

std.

0.375
0.500

4.59

xs

0.69
0.52

3r2 |
407 |
473 |
59b I
638 |
824 |
760 I
9s5 |
893 I
1186 |

Anchor

3406

L2'

XS

106

Thick-

40
80

60

6053

4035
6458

2',-8' |

10'-20'

t.32

1.28

t.25

L.22

EXPANS]ON AND STRESSES


EXPANSION

U BEND-TANGENTS :

2R

No. 9 Bend
General:

Lerigth:10.2E38
\{odilicd Lerrgth : 0.28344 + +R

--

A,EIp LcI p
i28l ,
I,

1" (about. gravity axis X-X)


For Srress o/ 10,000 psi, E of 29
uenecl

.rorL
-

l?z

(0.8u;f

(17

106:

.42h

1.333)R3

0.0tic2)R'.

D;

lnches

8331P

Pounds

F.1)

B in feet
D in inches
1p in iuchesa

L distance betq'een anchors in feet


c expansion

For Stress of 10,000 psi, E of 29

D,,

Sch.

\Yall
Thick-

No.

l, in.

)"
Deflec-

in.
.10

5',

8',

10,

aD"

Anchor

Deflec-

Force,

tion,

lb

10

DeflecForce,
Ib

Force,

ln.

tb

0.35
0.27

280

.10

203

0..r0

425

EO

0.276

0.35

40
80

0.300

0.68

479

0 .12

712

0. 60

40
80

o.226

o .72

68.1

0.318

0.50

0.87

896

0.71

o.237
0.337

0. E8

80

803
1067

| .o7
0.83

669
889

1.47
r .17

40

o.258

1090
1!t85

908

1.05

1238

2.07
1.86

.04

1179
1697

2.25

1272

0.39

1.27
0. 85

40
80

0.2E0

1.65

1388

.132

1.06

2037

1.29

40

0.322

2.34

1928

0.500

1.60

3.08

EO

3062

r .93

40
60

0.365
0.500

3.00
2.51

2553
3943

233
305

0.70
0.70

41ti

0.90
0.90

613

570

0.51

0.51

216

0.61

0..:13

0 375

EO

6',

0151

rB

6D"

0.218

t0

3l',

see page 11

106

Radius of Bend
Pipe

factor

A, total thermal expansion in inches

r7a

D"

Deflec-

Anchor

t1On,

Force,

rn.
1.09
1.09

140
183

266

1.41
1.41

212
268

1.06
1.06

359

1.66
1.66

287
370

1.27

428

1.98
1.98

342

501
667

2.30
2.30

401

682

2.9L

928

2.91

|.27

229

463

448
534
743

885

2553

0 Factor

Temperature,

2',t0'

Pipe Inclusive
5 & 6D"
.40

300
400
500

600

1.30

1.36
1.33

8 & 10D,,
1. 48
1. 45

1.42
I .40

ITT GIIINNELI, PIPING DI']SICiN AND ITNGINIi]'III\(I


EXPANSION

U BEND-TANGENTS :
No.

4R

Bend

GenErctl:

Length:14.283R
Modified Length

L,EI

6.283R&

8n

(44'27ic

LcI p

17281, I,
1, (about gravity

X-X)

axis

10'66)R3

For Slress o/ 10,000 Psi, E of 29 X 106:


(1.4651 + 0.3$)R'9 .

--.

Deflection::

DJUI

f- :

RDi
-

rncnes

Dounos
'

R in feet
D in inches
I p ln lncnes-

in feet
factor-see Page l1
A, total thermal expansion in inches

-L distance betrveen anchors

c expansion

For Stiess of 10,000 Psi, E of 29 X

106

Wall

I'ipe

-thich-

Size

D"

t, in.

Deflec-

Deflec-

tion, j
in.

tlon,
tn.

-{nchor

Fqf."'
113

2. 13
2 .13

178

2.71
2.74

40
80

0.15,1
0. 218

0.67
0.53

187
2+1

0.83
0.77

1.30
1.36

2i'

40
80

0.203

o.77
0.69

283

0.99
0.99

1.76

|.7b

223

40
80

0 216

2.08
2.08

239

40
80

0 .318

40
80

6"

105

384

1.30

0.t1

495

1.34

456
599

1.66

0.97

0.237
0.337

1.05

536

2.03

446
593

40
80

0.258
0.375

233

727

.87

606
820

40
80

0.230

301

0. '132

2.O2

0.300
.226

i.18
162

.t7
.39

162

992

2.04

927

3.76
2 .5r

1359

380
498

tion,

Ib

2',

0.276

Deuec-

li'2

309

3.25
3.25

247
2.47

335
145

44

& 10r"

EXPANSIO\

A\D

STRESSES

DOUBLE OFFSET U BEND


No. 8 Bend
General:

Length = 6.283R
Modified Length : 6.2838ft

J.EI p LcI p
'"- 17281,- 1,

1" (about gru'ity axis X-X) : 3 61R3tr


For Slrcss o/ 10,000 psi, E ol 29 X 106:

. :

-Detlectron

0.2ri0nrA.

Incnes

- : r20gI P Pounos
li.
.Rt
L distance betu'een anchors in Ieet

in feet
D in inches
1r, in inchesa
.B

c exPansion

factor

see Page 11

A, total thermal expansion in inches


For Stress of 10,000 psi, E of 29 X

106

Radius of Bend A
Pipe
Size

D"

lVall

Sch.

Thick-

No.

ness

Deflec-

Anchor
Force,

lb

tion,
ln.

407

.12
0. 1l

339
442

0.19
0.19

0.14
0.14

648

0.19
0.17

Deflec-

tion,
rn,

0.10
0.08

Force,

Deflec-

Defiec-

tion,

Force,

255
332

0.30
0.30

201
266

0.25
o.25

386
486

0.39
0.39

308
389

694
897

0.29

521
672

0.46
0.46

538

427

0.35
0.35

621

496

El4

ti51

728

tb

Force,

in.

lb

40

0.154

EO

0.218

2i'

40
80

0.203
o.276

0. 11

617

0.10

776

3"

,10

0.216
0.300

0. 16

834

.12

1075

1301

0.25
0.20

1084

0.31
0.23

129\

0.41
0.41

0.44
0.29

1318
1796

0.58
o.52

1317

0.78

1284

0. 63

1847

80

992

40
80

.226
0.318

0.20
0.14

40
80

0 .237

0.26

0.337

o.r7

1.55U

40
80

0.258
0.375

0.36
o.24

2157

4{)

0.280

.47

2015

80

o.432

0.30

2S58

0.58
0.36

1712
2463

40
80

0.322
0.500

0.68
0.46

2755

0.89

2511
3702

t0'

40
60

0.365

0.87
0.73

3705

12'

std.

xs

0.375
0.500

1.11

417 4

.00

6592

std.
XS

0.375
0.500

1.39
| .27

4181
6692

std.
XS

0.375
0.500

r .67

1.52

4392
7030

srd.
XS

0.375
0.500

1.97

4596

srd.
XS

0.375
0.500

2.27
2.06

31"

D"

6',

8',

14',
16',
1s',

20'

0.500

1582

4416

971

0 .29

968

s89

tb

117

0.64
0.64
0.81
0.81

791
1078

1.79
7660

45

ITT GRINNELL - PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING


LINE INERTIAS
When determining the location of the centroid of a
systern and the value of the inertias it is necessary to
consider each uniJony segment individually. The
value of each segment is a function of its length, shape,
and location applied at its center of gravity. For
convenience appiy all dimensions in feet and decirnals.
CENTER OF GRAVITY OF LINE SEGMENTS

(O.9.)

C'NTROID

The centroid of a system is located by the algebraic


summation of the individual products-segment value
times the normal disiance tt om axis to c'g.

Norr: Alecbraic summ:Ltion ltcans trormal distance may be


plus or minui rnd r[ust bc ooDsidered in adding rcsults,
Straight Line in Plane of Projection
(Eq.

r)

Straight Line

rL>l
tl
c,9.-

L-l--t\"n
90" Bend

Straight Line Perpendicular to Plane of Projection

:1.3L.x'

(IIq.

II)

Any Benil

Norp: The factor 1.3 s,ccouDts for the torsional displacement


of ihe merDi)el.
A_

2l? si\

+ (02

(oz

0t)

90" Bend in Plane of Projection

or)

- 7"!l2 ", : l.57kRr,

B:/sin+(or+dl)
C:Acos+(02+oL)

Y'

D:R-C
Nore: \fhere dr errd d"rppnnr irrdepcndenr of sine or e'rsine
th.y crc crl)fcss"d in rrJi-rrs. l' = 0.01;-15 rcdrxrrq.
Angre

Sine

0 to 90'
90 to 180'
180 to 270"

270 to 3ti0"

46

(Eq.

a,/-c

Cosine

:
T'

Note: Ior

values of

see pages 12

to

16.

III)

EXP.\\SIO\ AND

Straight
Axis

Any Bend in Plane of Projection

l;(02

STRESSES

(Eq.

Ar)|lx'

line tr

Plane of Projection Parallel to Either

Iv)

(moy be

+or-)

x-

-T
I,u

1'

NorE: 0r &nd ,!

s.r'e eripressed

in

(lilq.

Lr.rJ

vI)

radians.

0.017.15 radians.

Straight Line in Plane of Projection Inclined to Axes


Y

90' Bend Perpendicular to Plane of Projection

1.15

=2

r' :

1,81.8rl

(Eq.

v)

(moy oe

or-,

.
-" sin20
tzu:t"
24 +txU
NoTE: Sin 20 rnay be
a,xis tow&rd the +ts

+X
or"

sin 29

-I-

see pagc

(Eq.

vII)

+ or -. Measure angle d from the


a,xis Io! the proper sign. For values

or.

Straight Line Perpendicular to Plane of Projection

f:r:l
[ra
-/---/

PRODUCT OF INERTIA

The product of inertia of an element is its length


multiplied by its distances from trvo axes. The product
of inertia of an entire branch is the sum of all of these
products. Since distances r and y may have f or
signs the result will be positive or negatir.e.
The following formulas give product of inertia for
various line segments:

Lro\oted

c9-

-Tl,,nou o",

|t .i,r-)I

L-+

---

I"o :

L.3Lrg

(Eq.

YIII)

ITT GRINNELL

PIPING DESIGN AND I]NGINI'],]RIN(I

90'Bend in Plane of Projection about Axes through c.g.

Case 1: Where both

90'Bend in Plane of Projection about Axes not through

axes intersect arc

+Y
(moy be
+ 0r -l

I
c.Q>* ]\

or where both

-".-+*X

axes intersect

radial lines.

I,u

+k(0.r37}") +

+fr(0.137B3)

+XSee

Eq.

IX

,4 or Eq.

t*

'

*a
(Eq.

1.57k&ry

IX B abov for proper

sign.

+Y

I"v:

(Eq.

-h(0.137R8)

IX

,a)

90o Bend Perpendicular to Platre of Projection


Case

2: Where one
one

axis intersects arc and

axis intersects radial line.

--J-

^l

*X'.'-

I,u

+k(0J37R3)

@q.

48

Values of 0.137-P4 are tabulated on page 51.

Ixa)
-z

Nors:

le
f (moy
+at-)
|

l.8lRry

(Eq.

xI)

E\PANSION AND

STRESSES

MOMXNT OF INERTIA

Any Bend in Plane of Projection about Axes through


Center of Curvature

The momcnt of inertia of an elemert is its lelgth


multiplied by the square of its distance from an axis.
'Ihe momerit of inertia ol the entire branch is the sum
of all these products. The moment of inertia has a
positive sigu orly.
Thc follon'ing formulas give moment of inertia for
various line segments:

--x
t,"

: rt+ (si'z g, (may be

or

sin'dr)*

(Eq.

xII)
Straight Line in Plane of Projection

-)

Y
I

Any Bend in Plane of Projection about Axes not

c.s--l1----:--J

throush Center of Curyature

-f

I" : La"
I3

I" :;+

T,U

: rlor, +

-R'(sin 0e

,,r)ry

-.R2(cos

sin dy)y

d2

cos

d')r

f; t.i"'a -

sir'rt

(Eq.

(parallel to

Zr2

axis)

(Eq. XIY,a

(perpendicular to

axis)

to

or;]-

XIII)

90'

90 to 130"
180 to 270"
270 io 360"

* \orE: Nleasure dr and d, from the *X axis tolard the *Y


sris for proper signs. \Ihere ,r end tr appcar independent of
sire and' coiine tLev are erpressed in radius. 1" : 0.01715
radians.

(Eq. XIVB)

Straight Line in Plane of Projection Inclineil to Axes

Angle

r,: r,"'ff + ru"


ru:
Norr: For

r,"ff

r,"

(Eq. xv,4 )
(Eq. XYB)

values of slnz a/12 and. cos' d/12 lee page

51.

49

ITT GITINNDLI,

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEUITING

Straight Line Perpendicular to Plane of Projection


Y

Any Bend in Plane of Projection about Axes through


Center of Curvature

'---

':':-1--L
-

-a

- - -x

I, : l.\Ly'zI
Iu - l.}Lr2l

(Eq.

XVI)

r":

r,l@,

e,)

(sin

2d2

sin

2d1

)l R"
2

XIxa)

(Eq.

90' Bend in Plane of Projection

z,:r[to,-o,t+

(sin 2d'

sin 2d' )-l RB

-_,-)

(Eq.

XIXB)

in Plane of Projection about Axes not


through Center of Curyature

Any Bend

Length of Arc
' (ge - sr)R

L=

1- = lc(0.119n3)' *

:
1, :

*
ft (0.149R3) I

ft(0.149R3)

NorE: For valucs ol 0.I

k!^t)
2"u2

(Eq. xVILa )

r.57kRu2

19R3 sea pagc

XVIIB)

(Eq.

r.57kRr2
5L

90o Bend Perpendicular to Plane of Projection


NorE: For values of B and C see page

(sin 2d2

, | ,"

'L''',

1.:Kl\Vt-Vt)-

46.

.-rolol.d

L(8"

(Eq.

XVIIL{)

: l.8lBy2 (parallel to axis)


Ic : 1.15(0.149R8) * 1.8lfir'z (perpendicular to axis)
(Eq.

AU

XVIIIB)

L(Cz

)l

- 9?)l

f
lsin 2d2 IIt=kl(or-erl+ff

t,: t.t|n-t2 a'z

sin 2dr

/i3
2

(Eq. XX.4)

sin 2dr)-l Rg

- z')l

I2

(Eq. XX-B)

NorE: ln the above tno bends measure angles from l,be +X


axis roqard the +y ayis for proper sign llhen the lerms
,r rnd d, appear independenl of sine or,osino lhey xre c\pr$seo
in radians. 1' : 0.01715 radiens.
Angle
0 to 180"
180

to 360"

Sine

EXPANSION AND

FUNCTIONS OF

nld

Sirrr
0

Cosr
-n

+#

n'aiun"

0.08333

15"

0.00558

0.07775

+0.02083

0.26

30

0.02083

0.06250

+0.03608

0.52

45

0.0.1107

0.01107

+0.04167

0.79

60

0.06250

0.02083

+0.03608

1.05

60

0.07775

0.00558

+0.02083

90

0.08333

7.37

90

105

0.07775

0.00558

-0.02083

1.83

120

0.06250

0.02033

-0.03008

135

0.0.t1ti7

0.04 167

-0.0+167

2.36

150

0.02083

0.06250

-0

03ri08

2.62

165

0.0055E

0.07775

02083

2.88

180

3.

08333

15"

r20

2.09

180

1.1

FUNCTIONS OF R
(.4,) Table of 0.149.R3

(1,,) Table of 0.137,li3

Pipe
Size

10
2

3l

2.0

1.7

3.3
5.0

4.7

6
8

2l
4I

10

l4
l6

i.o
2.5
5.0

30

70

47

1t1

70

165

.:l::
1

1.2

10

1.3

1.r
1.1

2.3
,1.0

1'
5.5

41
79

11

217

30

I9

t9
324

18

99

20
21

4ti1
633

236

1094

Places

left blank are less tban uDity.

1.8

63
86
149

30
51
81

51
76

121

108
149

236

257

.108

t72

1.6

2.3

| 2.6
| 4.0
I 7.8
I 14
23 132
4+163

3.6

1.

:.

'i

1.8
2.8
5.5
9.5

76 I
180

r21 |

3*

11

19

44
86

10

108

r49

t2

172
257

236

16
18

20
24

DI

INI)

ITT GRIN}JI'I,I, PIPI\(I I)IISI(iN

It-\:(I]NT]I']iI\CI

SINGLE PLANE SYSTEM

Gir:ut: A 10 inch pipirrg s1'stem in accordalce


the sketch -shol n abole.

:
:
Ly :
tr.

l'ith

llaximum Operaiing Prcssure P


XlaximumOperatirtgTemperatnre 7n0'F
Pipirrg Spccification A.S.T.II. A 100 Gradc A
400 pst

Data:

the distarcc in X directiou flom points a to


.40

: 0.500 inchesl
,,,..r i)u
: scncqule
Ip:212 inche;a
S- : 39 43 irrches'.1-f
c,r r;0" : 996
Sa 5 17,675 psi

page 2 and 14

Page 11
page 3

Reaction forccs 1r, and Fs at poillt e.


(At point q reactiorr forces ale equal :rnd opposite.)
Reaction moments at points o ard .
Amount and location of flaximum l3cndilg Stress, s3.
Solulion.' Assume point o fired ald point, e temporarily released. The thermal explnsiou rvould thett
mo1'e point e in the directions and by the amounts l"
arrd A, io a nerv locatiorr e/.
Establish axes *X' and * I' at point e opposite to
the direction of A, arrd Ao respectii'ely. Determirtc the
Iocation of the centroid using axes X' and I' as

Iind:

coordinates.
Lay axes *X and f )' through the centroid parallel
to and in the same direction as *X/ ald + I'l. Calculatc the lirre inertias about axcs X and f.
Sollc for Ir. anr) 1r, by substituting the line inertias
in the lollorvilg equations;

|u:

I,L, -f I,uLn ,
r r

El33
lDUl

page 14

r-t-cLP

T T -Lf, r u"r
T
-f
n
2 ctP

t{u -r- rra

9019

10

(90.19)'z

990

212

porrnds

E-r33

X i2 +

El33 X 20,-112
3OEE

^
tt:

20,112

52fect

lhe distarrcc il )- dircction lrom poilts o to


2-1 - 11 : 10 feet

F
d

+ 12 :

l0

x i2^, 9o6x"r,
""'

guJe

> 20,112 (ri0+9)z'


poLlricts

Pass these reactiorr forces tbrough the

centroid. The

ald thcir

respectile dislances
from any point giles the berrdirrg moment at tlut
product of these force-s

poir:rt. Assumc

count erclocks

clock$-ise rotatior-i

Soli-e

isc rotation as

rs -.

aDd

for reaction moments at poiDts a and e

as

follorvs:

r11"r,: -(3088 X

r'tf.t":

0.90)

(1561

18.22)

(1501

33.78)

+25,+77 fr lb

+(3088

9.0.1)

: - 21,815 1r lb

I, the resultant of F, arrd Ir, l'hen passed through


the centroid, giles the position of the rteutral axis.
'l'he maximum bclding mometit occuls l,t that poillt
rvhich is furthest from the neutraL axis. Irr this case
it

is point d.

rlf,rd:
:
:

+(30E8 X 9.04)
+37,625 fr lb
37,62-o

M
sP--" s- -

12

451,500

39.43

(156i X 0.22)

451,500 inch Pounds

11,'151 PSi

The maximum bending stress s6 is 11,'151 psi lvhich


is less than the allorvable stress range of 17,675 psi.

EXI \\SI( )N AND

STRESSES

12

22-

To find c.g.
each seg-

of

ment see page


46.

ab

:
cd :
d,e :
bc

14'
72'
24'
40'

Centroid (calculated with origin at point e)


Flq. No.

Frl

i.'t.

Lcngtlr /,,

+fti

t2

2l

+40
+20

4ll

:fr'.=

>f=gO

b(

\rI
VI

.1e

\iI

\rI

\I\ra
XI\TA
crl

IIVA
xIv,4

39!,ruo

+288

zLat =

-+811

+e.o{ft

:++
-+
I'a : *
:
:
:
:
rr :

-+14X7.e6',

i;

+28E

=
:+

1rx13.22X7.1)0
12 X 12 22 X 11.1)0
24X6.22X2.116
{0( - 13 781 X (-9.01)

12

+238

+17
+21

+:OrO

i : fr :

+aa ;s rr

L,L'

+ 72E
+ 552
+ 0(i0
+ 300

+52

t-I

Lt'

r'

X 14.96,
+21 x 2. e61

l0 x L04,

2030

2t94
qt2

4983
9649

1116

2686
1362
3269

$is3

1,,

bc

ul.

x 18.22j
U .,- '-r, t ,,,
'- ,t"
-t2

-\IT,T

1-t

XIVB
XIVA
XIVB

21

4ri4E
1936

X 6.22'

;+10

12929

< 13.78'

I!:
Ior

equation ieference numbers see pages 46 to

50.

20112

ITT GRINNELL - PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING


SINGLE PLANE SYSTEM CONTAINING CIRCULAR ARCS

Giuen: A. 10 inch piping system


the sketch shorvn above.

in accordance with

400 psi
Maximum Operating Pressure
Maximum Operating Temperature 750" F
Piping Specification A.S.T.M. A 106 Grade A

Data:

:
:
Ip--l:
I

0.500 inchesl
schedule 60

Solve

page

page 74

II

75q'

996

page

8e

17,675 psi

page 3

lined on page 50 except that the flexibility factor k


must be included for all curved segments of the system.
Solve for F, and Fo using the equa,tions shown on

2r,369 x 52 + 10,457 X l9
r,- _
9415X21,369-(1O,457F

:
o4t

X l0 +

2t,369

1467 pounds

10,457

(1467

17.37)

(1467 X 34'63)
lb
ft
-23,970
F; the resultant of F" and 1r, rvhen passed through
the centroid gives the position of the neutral axis.
The maximum bending moment occurs at that point
which is furthest from the neutral axis. A scale drawing will show that this point is located betrveen / and g
at a normal distance of 9.4 feet from the neutral axis.
The bending moment and bending stress in this curved

section of pipe are determined as follows:

O467P X e.4

2e,672rtlb

*i: ffi

The maximum bending moment in straight pipe


M^ro

996

212

Xjz x 996 X 212

(lo,4or.1-

: \'@W+

: 29,672 X 12 : 356,064 inch Pounds


t,: M 356,06{ X 1.00: e030Psi

-- +

:
:

(2795

X 9.60)

(1467

1.21)

+28,607 fr tb
28,60?

M
sp=-:s^

Z/95 pounds
9415

occurs a,t point g.

L,:40+12:52feet
Lt, : 24 - 14 : 10 feet

g4l5

X 0.40)
+24,364 ft lb
(2795

Solution: Determine the location of the centroid and


calculate the line inertias in the same manner as out-

as

M"rh: + (2795 X 9.60) -

Find: Reaction forces F" and Fu at point [. (At


point a reaction forces are equal and opposite.)
Reaction moments at points o and h.
Amountand location of Maximum Bending Stress, s3.

',,.n -

and

for reaction moments at points a and i,

M*" : -

2 and t4

inches''

: 1.74
.ru""a : 1.00

-,

clockwise rotation as

212 inchesa

/c5""6

page 50:

Assume counterclockwise rotation as

point.
follows:

S- = 39.+3

c51

Pass these reaction forces through the centroid. The


product o{ these forces and their respective distances
from any point gives the bending moment at that

12

343,607

3r{3,284 inch pounds

:8714psi

39.43

The maximum bending stress is 9030 psi, occurring


member /9 and is less than the allowable stress
range of 22,500 psi.

in

EXPANSION AND STRESSES

To {ind c.g. of
each segmcnt sec
page 46.

: 9.84 ft
: 3.68 ft
e/ : 15.08 ft
tir : 35.84 ft'
oc-,. {)1
, Ll(lcllus
ojll"".t"
: 4.16 ft
al,
cd

/-aENreotD

\r/

_r

rr. zzgs!

:L

tll

Centroid (calculated with origin at poht ft)

ab
cd
dc
.I(/

gh

I
III
I
III
I
III
I

1.71 X '1.16

11.37

1.57 >,.1.71 X 4.16

7.57

I:
lir

Cl

\.I
\B
\.I

.\B
gh

\-I

>L

+52
+50.19

81

11.37

3133

vI

1.57 X 1.71 X 4.10

3. 68

+.16

+11.51

+10

15.6E

+38.,t9

11.37
35.

+11-.92

E4

99.15

+ 511
+ 574.1
+ 169.2
+ 172
+ 627
+ 437.6
+ 613
:
:Lr' +3133 I

fi

+3.1.63

9.84X17.37X5.32

HT:

+ 1.57 X 1.74 X 4.16 X 15.86 X 12.89


-1.74(0.137
3.68 X 11.37 X 1-1.10
+1.74(0.137 X 4.101 + 1.57 X.1.74 X 4.16 X 6.88 X 12.89
15.68X537X2.40
+1.7{(0.137 X 1.16' + 1.57 X 1.74 X 4.16 X 3.86(-8.09)
X 4.103)

35.81(-16.71)( 9.60)

+ 11.92

+ 1,t7

+21.O

+88{

+255.7
+18s

+22.49
+12.0
1.51

__:: +

9.

>I'a' = +952.0

:+ 909
: + 2307
:+ 603
: + 1025
:+202
:- 33E
: + 57J9

3. 68(14.40y

1.74(0.149 X 4.16D

35.81(9. 60)2

.tu

+ r.57 X r.74 X 4.16(12.Eg)'?


+ 1.57 X1.71X 4.16(12.SSF

1s.68(2. {0)'

1.74(0.i49 X 4.163)

II\''1
\\'II R

1.57 X1.74 X 4.16(8.09X

XI\: B

!.81(17.37)1
1.74(0.149 X 4.163) + 1.57
__::_::: + B. C8(11.37)?

X|II B
\I\-.4
IVII A

1.74(0.149 X 4.161
15.68(5.37)'
1.74(0.149 X 4.163)

XIY B

ff

For equation reference numbeN

+10.157

Ell5.32)'

1.74(0.149 X 4.16t

.2

+e 6ort

1,, =
!u

17

*35

y't.71X

4.16(15.86)'z

2969
2479
180

1.57 X1.74 X 4.16(6.E8)'

1.57 )<1.71

4.16(3.86)'

452
183

8+tt6 71)'

see pages 46

to

50.

DD

ITT GRINNE'I,I, - PIPING DESIGN AND F]NGIN]iEN]\(i


MULTIPLE PLANE SYSTEM

l*"*
<i{
\-

rAY

't
o:,J,/

4"'\+
It

Giuen: .L 10 inch piping system


the sketch shot'n above.

in

accordance rvith

Maximum Operating Temperature 750' F


350 psi
Maximum Operating Pressure, P
A
Grade
Piping Specification A.S.T M. A 106

Determine the location of the centroid and calculate


the line inertias for each projection.
Calculation of the line inertias results in two moments
of inertia for each axis rvhich are added.

I, :
I, :
Total 1, :

Data:

t:
:
d:
1r, :
S- :
.4r :
-4,lr :
cat zso. :
Sr :

0.365 inchesl
schedule 40 j

from page 2 and

14

2013

To\al

2617

5724leeLz
4887 feeta

fntroduce these values into the lollorving equations

1,'"-***

996

from page

17,675 Psi

from page 3

and solve for

Fn, artd F".

- F"1.": L"cIP
-F"I.a + FrI, - F"Iu":: LvcIc
-F"1." - FoI,. * F"I" L"cIr
L, : distance in X direction from 0 to e
: 14 feet
Zs : distance in Y direction from o to e
: 20 - 8: 12 feet
tr, : distance in Z direction from a to e
: 18 feet

11

of Maximum Combined Stress, s'

Solution; Assume point n fixed and point e tempo-

rarily released. 'fhe thermal expansion rvould then

FoI"o

L,cIp:14 X 996 X 160'8 :2'2+2,195lblta


LucIr: 12 X 996 X 1608: 1'92l,882lbJtB

move point e in the direction and by the amounts A",


A,,, and a, to a ne\- location e'.

EsLoblish ax"s -1- X', I Y', and -vZ' at poinl e


opposite to the direction of A,, Ar' and A, respectively'
Project the piping system into the three planes forrned
by ih""u at"". The three planes are denoted as the
XY, XZ, and YZ Planes.

[.,

+F,1.

e.

Amountand location

1998

: f 1461 feet3
1"": *2360lee's
In" : * 529 leet3

160.8 inchesa

11.91 inchesz

5544 feets

1,,

10.02 inches

29.9 inches"
78.9 inchesz

2889

+ 3531 :
+ 3077 :

Products of inertia from the calculations are:

Find: ReacLiort forces F'", Fu, and F ", at point e' (At
point @ reaction forces are equal and opposite )
Reaction Moments M,o, M.", and M, at points o
and

Total

i.cl p :

(l

(2)

(3)

18

+F,5544

-tr'"

146i

-F"236O

996

160.8

Fa1'467
Fa 5724

2,882,8221b lr3

:2'242'195
- F"2360
: f ,921,882
r)29
F"
: 2,882,822

- Fa 529 + I'' 4887

EXPANSION AND STRESSES

PROIECTION

IN XY PLANE

To lind c.g.
see page 46.
ab
bc

cd

of

each segment

201

18',

de

l*

;
i

Centroid (calculated with origin at e)


Lerrsth L. l,.t

Eq. No.

T'

I
I
II
II

20

bc

cd
d.e

ab

zlt' : i37a

:,L = 6L4

::
ab

+7

t1

1.3X18:23.4

VI
VI

VIII
VI

XIV B
XIV ,4

cd

XVI

d.e

XIV A

ffi:

Lr'
)
-t- |
+280
+98
I
0-8
o I

u'

+2

-8
-4

tor t

La'

+40
- tr2

-187.2

-32

>ty' : -Zgt

,:-ffi;:-445'

+r.zs,

: +1062
:+481
:- 2l
1," : +1461

20x3.22X6.45
14X1.22X(-3.55)
1.3 X 18X (-5.78) X (-3.55)
8X(-5.78)X0.45

; +20 < 6.45'


14 x 3.551
r.3 x 18 X 3.55'
;+8X(0.15):

1,198

295
44

,013

I,
ab
bc

cd
iLe

XIV ,,I
XIV B

20 >< a.222

xvr
xIv "1

1.3X18X5.78'

1350

i+14xr22,
8

250
780
267

X 5.78'

2647

For equatioD reference numLers sce prges 46 to

50.

ITT GRINNELL-PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING


PROJECTION

IN XZ

PLANE

To find c.g. of each segment see

Page

46.

: 20'
bc : 14'
cd: 18'
de:8'

ab

I
Centroid (calculated \rith origin at e)
Lx'
1.3 X 20

:26
14
18

1.3X 8:10.4
2L

+18
+18

+9

68-4

462

:+964
:+ 18
-+473
:+905

1.3 X 20 X 7.25 X 5.r1

14X0.25X5.11
18X(-6.75)X(-3.89)
1.3 X 8 X (-6.75) X (-12.89)

xvr
xrv ,{
XIV B

xvI

678
365

1.3X20X5.1l'z
14 X 5.11'
; + 18 '1 3.8s'
1.3 X 8 X 12.89',

1730
3531

r.3x.20x.7.25',

$+r+x
6.753
18

{o.zrP

1.3X8X6.76'
1,

/6 to 50'
For equation reference nrmhers see pages

58

=
-

230

2389

a20

EXPANSION AND STRESSES

PRO TECTION

IN TZ PLANE

To find c.g. of each segment


see page 46.

: 2Ol
: L4'
cd : l8l

ab

bc

,^l
ae-

Centroid (calculated with origin at e)

Ilq
abI
bc

"tl

Length

No.

,, Ft

20

L.3,/ tl : 18.2

II

18

8l

>L

Lz'

LA'

: 612

+40 |
I

)-,
-8
-8
-4

|
1

-145.6

zLu'

_.':n
n: 41i
61 2 =

-r14
-32 |

= -281n
z

'

+ts

I
0

=ffi

+a27 .6

+18

+162

zZ"' :

+US S

= +tt.za

I!"

abl
6c
crl,
de

vl
IIII
\'l
\I

: +607
= -3r4
+i76
=
:,40
I"' : +5n

20x6.38X4.76
13X 14X (-3.62)X-1.76
18X( 3.62)X(-1.24)
8 X 0.38 X (-13.24)
I!

ab

XIV ,{

bc

x\rI

cd

\I\:

de

XIV

x 4.76?
x 14 X 4.76!
r;+18x4.24'

20

r .3

453

: 810
: 1402
I" = ffi7

X 13.24'

I,
ab

XIV B

bc

XVI

cil
dc

XIV ,4
XIV B

?9-"ov^
12'--'--'
1.3
18

rc,

1480

X 14X 3.62'

238
236

(0.38)'

44

X 3.62'

;+8X

1998

For equation reference numbem see pages 46 to

50

59

ITT GRINNI'I,L

__

PIPI\G D]'S]G\ A\D ]iN(]I\I.]]'III\(I

SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS
Line

(l)
(4)
(2)
(5)

+5544

1161

+0.26.1

1,161

+5721

+1-161

_3E5

(6)
(7)

+5339

(3)
(8)
(e)

-23dJ
+23/io

(10)
(11)

-2360
+0.426

-529

+4887

+rr51

-248

622

Line

-2,212,195
+.10-t

(1)
(4)

1,921,8E2

(.2)

-591,939

(5)

-2,513,821

(6)
(7)

-2,882,822
-955,175

(3)
(8)

5.12,985

(s)

-4,380,982

(10)

622

+0.216

-1

Constant

1005

+17L

+3631

+r200

-l

(114)

+1206
+1206

(118)

a)

+0.216

(7
(7 B)

(44)

(4r)

+0.264

+0..126
+514

It

rvill be noted that coemcients located symmetrically opposite in reference to a diagonal drarvn frorn
the upper left to the lorver right are equal. Equations
of this shape can be solved rnost conveniently by the
folloli'ing procedure:
Insert the coefficients and constants for equations
(1), (2), and (3) in ihe lines marked (1), (2), and (3).
The constant takes the opposite sign because each line
reads as the left side of an equation, and ":0" is
omitted from the table.
Fill lines in the order indicated by the numbers at the
left side of the table as follorvs:
Line (4): Divide figures in line (1) by the negatiYe
coefficient of ,l7, in line (1) (i.e., by -55aa).
Line (5): Multiply figures in line (1) by the coefficient
of F, in line (a) (i.e., by +0.264).
Line (6): The algebraic sum of lines (2) and (5), f',
coefficient becomes 0.

Line (7): Divide figures in line (6) by the negative


coefficient of .F, in line (6) (i.e., by -5339).
Line (8): Multiply ligures in line (1) by the coefficient
of F" in line (a) (i.e., by +0.426).
Line (9): X{ultiply figures in line (6) by the coefficient
of F, in line (7) (i.e., by +0.216).
Line (10): The algebraic surn of lines (3), (8) and
(9), F, and /, coefficients become 0.
Line (11): Divide figures in Iine (10) by the negative
coefficient of F, in line (10) (i.e., by -3634).
Line (11,4): Line (11) restated as an equation.
Line (114); The solution of equation on line (I1,4)
deriving a value of 1206 pounds for l7,.
Line (7,4): Line (7) restated as an equation substituting the value for -F, found on line (118).

60

1206

+260

+171
+.171

1206

0
1206
0

731

(11,4)
(11/J)
(7

^)

(7 R)

(.44)

+404

+ 404

11)

11 11

(.18)

Line (7-B): The solution of equation on line

(7,4)

deriving a value of 731 pounds for lrr.


Line (4,{); Line (4) restated as an equation substituting the values for F" and F, found on lines (118)
and (7B) respectively.

Line (48): The solution of equation on line (4,4)


deriving a value of 1111 pounds for F".

I{aving determined values for the reaction lorces


F", Fo and F,, return to the plane projection diagrams and apply the respective reactions at the
centroid of each plane. The forces at the ccntroid
multiplied by their distance from point e give the
reaction moments at point e. The forces at' the
centroid multiplied by the distance from any other
point give the bending moments at that point.
These moments are listed in the follorving table rvith
positive sign for counterclockl.ise rotation.
Each point of the system is subjected to a torque
produced by the moment in the plane perpendicular to
the line segment. A corner point (such as b) must be
considered first as part of one line segmeut ob and
secondly as part of the other line segmcnt bc. The
moment causing torque can be readily identified as the
one rvhose subscript does not contain the letter designating the direction of the line segment. For example:

the torque at point b is M., then b is considered as a


part of segrnent ab (ab being parallel to the f axis), and
considered as a part of segment bc
X axis).
has been determined, the
the
torque
moment
Once
resultant bending moment is found by the vectorial
sum (square root of the sum of the squares) of the other
two moments at the point in question.

My, n'hen b is

(bc being parallel to the

EXPANSION AND STRESSES


MOMENTS

IN FOOT

POUNDS

+1206X16.39-731 X 4.76

M
-1111 X 3.55
:

: \/O6,n'

+ (t?"2('i,

2o,s8o

,1206 X

731 X 8.22

+16,275

3.62

731 X 4.76

-9953

As pori, of

al

ru : /(7Eltt + O'J53)' = 12,675


-1111

X3

+?31
: 55+2S1

As plrlt of

+r

X 5.78

Srmc as

ol

5.

tl + 1206 x 6.75
+ 13,318

As

6c

(231X : 13,321
,v - {13/91s)-'+

As part

111

-1111 X 12.89
:

cd

1206

X 6.75

-l\s

,u = r.{ursoPdsst.:Y

,1

stso

part of

+S169

de

+1206X438+731 X
= +14,96t

-Gr80

\/O4S6D'+Gl6f

From inspection of the Moment Tabulation:

: 17,547
s,

--

al pojnt r.
Having computed the maximum bending moment
and the maximum torque, the maximum expansion
stress is determined in the manner outlined on page 3:
Case

:
:
T-

'"

20,380

ft lb

20,380

12

fi Ib
3066 X 12 :

(at Point a)

244,560 inch Pounds

3066

36,792 inch Pounds

M 24+,560
_
:
s- 29.9

6t/y

T 36,792
8r:2s^:2xrg-s
-

Case

:
:
?:
:

13.24

6180

\Gl I litt :

Case I: The maximum resultant bending momedt is


20,380 ft lb occurring at point a I'ith an accompanying

torque of 3066 ft lb.


Case II: The maximum torque is 7845 ft lb in line bc
and the larger accompanying M is 13,821 ft lb occurrtng

15,8s0 r:28r

y'Gal3)t+ (281)' :5320

Same as d

+111r > 4 45+731 X 5.78

-1206X3.62+731
: +5313 ''13.21

-6180

cd

prrt of

+ (7s15x
,M: V(13--13,.3r-sI

't' :7846

ft Ib
13,821 X 12 :

II

v(8l?9r +

4(6157

8271 psi

(at Point c)

13,821

7845

ft lb

7845

s-

12

94,140 inch Pounds

105,852
29.9

,Zl -: qt

165,852 inch Pounds

bb4/ pst

1tro

"' 25- 2x-29.9 : l.)/4


s" : r4rrtT (rrt : \/ 15547P + 405?4)'
DSI

6352 psi

psr

615 psi

The maximum combined stress s is 8271 psi' occur-

ring at point o, and is less than the allowable stress


range S of 17,675 PSi'
OI

ITT GRINNELL - PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING


MI'LTIPLE PLANE SYSTEM CONTAINING CIRCI]LAR

ARCS

Bend R:5D. :4 10'


L.R.EII E: r.5D,: r'25'

{N,

*'

Gium:

10 inch piping system

in

accordance

with

o u-rra lr.

the sketch shown above.


350 psi
Maximum Operating Pressure P
Uu*ito"- Operatin! Temperature 750' F
Piping Speciication ASTM A 106GradeA

Data:

I=

0.365 inchesl

d : 10.02 inches
Ip : 160.8 inches{
S- : 29.9 inches3
-4r : 78.9 inches'?
4u : 11.91 inches'z
hu."a : 2'44
i*"a : 1.17
ka5.* : 8.15
schedule 40

page 2 and 14

75e'

Allow. Se

the.three
Soluiion: Project the piping system into
planes, determine the location of the centrold and
as outialculate the line inertias in the same manner
k'
il""J-"t otg" 56, except that the flexibility factor'
plane
i" *"'ira"a for all curved segments in the

-r.i

of projection.

+ 3283 :
Tora| Io :2802 + 3841 :
Total I :3091 + 1978 :

I" :
"

1993

I's :

996

page 11

17,675 Psi

page 3

point o reaction forces equal and opposite)'

5069ft3

4lt3
706lt3

177

:14 X 996 X 160'8 : 2,24:2'795lb !t3


: 1,921'882 lb ft3
L,ucI p : l2,X 996 X 160'8
i""t : tS Xs96 X 100 8 : 2,8b2,8221b lt3
"
(1) F,5278 - Fv 1400 - F"r779 = 2'242'195
(2) -F"1400 + tr'r 6643 - F" 706 : I'921'882
(3) -F"r779 - Fu ?06 + I" 5069 :2'882'822
L"cI p

5276 lI3
6643 ft3

1334 ft3

1"" :
Ir":

page 14

point h (ar
Find; Reaction forces f., Fu and F" at

62

Stress, s.

Total

iau"* = 2'61
c61

to""t

M.r, M," and Mu" at

points
Combined
and location of Maximum

moments
Reaction
--

See pag 66

for basic equations.

EXPANSION AND STRESSES

PROIECTION

IN XT

PLANE

To find c.g. of each segment


Lengths:

:
:
el :
gh -

ab

cd'

see page 46.

15.84'

8 59'
12 59'
3.841

Radii:

bc-R:4.!61
de-R:1.25'
ls-R:4.t8'

Centroiil (calculated with origin at point h)

I
lII
I

ab
bc

cd
de

el

ls

gh

12
1.81 X1.25
1.3 X 12.59
1.81 X4.16

41X 4 16

1.57

II
I

+46q I

15 84

:226
= 16 35
:7.51

15 94
8.5S

3.84

+14

rr,

+
+

+222.O
4q

+
+

5.55
0.45
0
0
0

XZc'

>z -70.x

15.84,<732X853
+i.q+ro.rr7' +.iot) tt 57 / 2.44 x4.16\5.81(-2
8.5S( - 1 13)(-3.55)
l.8l r.2s(-6.23)(-3 55)
r 3 x^12.s9(-6.68)(-3 55)
1.81 x 4.16( - 6.68)( -2.04)
3. 84( - 6.68X2 .53)

bc

cil
d.e

eI

Is
9h

bc

cd
dc

el

XIV B
xvlr .{
xlv ,{

XVIII

xvI

,4

Tg

XVIII A

9h

XIV B

ab
bc

cd
de

el

Is

gh

Ior

4.163)

8.59(3.55X
1.81 X 1.25(3.55)',

i(3 ?'6]iat'f,ili'J'r
-8J)'

+ r.57 x2.44 x
+ 1.8r x 4

4.16(? 04F

-8
-8
-86.49
- 1.92
-

64.6

- 18. r
-130.8
- 48.9

469.8

-312.8

04)

:+989
= + 34.4
500
=+
: + 388.0
: + 102.5
: - 64.9

15.8{{7 32)r

i-.+i[d.us z 4 l0') t- t.5? > 2 14 v 4 16(5 81v


tal'
#+s ss(t
1.15(0.r19 X 1.25i) + 1.81 X1.25(6.23X
1.3 X 12.59(6.68)'
1.8l X 4. 16(6.68X
3.81(6.68)'

50.

92 .5
108.3
28 .5
206.3

16(2.04x

3.6a12.53y"

equa,tioo reference aumbers see pages 46 to

-103.5

1484

9#*15.84(8.53)'
2.[4e.149

0
0
0

-6.49

t:ffi:-44srt
-

r=ffi:+6.b6rr

ab

47.7
1.0

+4.08

29.3

ITT GITINNI'LL PIPING DESIGN AND I'\ (iI\I'I.]Ii I\(


PROJECTION

IN XZ PLANE

To find c.g. of each segment

see page 46.

Lengths:

ob:15.84'

:
:
sh:

ij,;sror----,

cd

8.59'

ef

72.59'
3.E11

Radii:

bc-R:4.161
de-R:1.251

fs-R:4.16'

Centroid (calculated with origin at point ft)

ab
bc

cd
d.e

el

ls
sh

Ls'

Length L, Ft

Eq. No.

II

1.3

I
III
I

1.57X8.15X1.25=16.00

x 15.84
x 4.16

1.8r

8.59

X4.16
1.3X3.84
1.81

II

20.60

12

.59

= 7.54
= 4.99
2L : 77 .85

+r4

+288

+
+

bc

5.55
0.45
0

0
0

'La'

VI

12.59(

gh

VIII

ab
bc

XVI

cd.
d.e

el
Js

gh

xlv

,: #

1.3 X 15.84(4.06)'

,4

XVII ,4
XIV B
XVIII B
XVI

+137

1.51

.O

>Zz'

*10E5.6

= +13.e4rr

-+ 296
246
+ 525
+ 390

8.r5i0.137

el

,4

+17.55
+10.46

x 1253) + 1.57 X 8.15 X 1.25(-5.16)(3.61)


-5.61)( -3.49) 12.43)
1.81 x 4.l6( -5.61)( 1.3 x 3.81( -5.61X - 13. S1)

X,B

XVIII

0
0

+r8

+
+

1.3 X 15.84 X 8.3S X 4.06

8.59(-.06)4.06

ile

47.2

'-*
+ 135.8
+ 15'1.8
+ 280. E
+ 131.8
+ lr.4

+18
+18

1.81 X 4.16 X 6.88 X 4.06

VIII
XI
VI

cd.

+94 I
+ 47.7

+12.49

- 437 0 : +o.or rr
r:zli
ab

Lz,

1.8l X 4.16(4.06)'

8.59(4.06r

8.15(0.149 X 1.25)

ff

1.57 X 8.15 X 1.25(3.61)!

701

210

340
124
142
211

12.5s(3.4eX

1.15(0.149 X 4.16'
1.3 x 3.84(13.94)'

1.81 X 4.16(12.43X

1176

970
3283

I,
ab

b.
cd.

de

el

ls

gh

xvI

XVIII B
XIV B
XVII B
XIV,{
XVIII ,{
XVI

1.3 X 15.81(8.39I
1.15(0.r49 X 4.169

r:r]::_+859(06)'
8.r5(0.149 X 1.259
12.59(5.6r)'
1.81 x 4. r6(5.61X

1.3

1450

1.81 X 4.16(6.88)!

1.57 X 8.15 X 1.25(5.16X

369

425

396
237

3.84(5.61)1

30r1

For equaiion reference Dumbers

see

psgea 46 to

50.

E\PANSION
PROJECTION

IN TZ PLANE

To find c.g. of crch scgment

see page 46.

Lengths:

ab:15.81'

: 8.59'
: 12.59'
glr = 3.811
c:d
c.J

Radii:

bc- R:4.t$'
de-R:I.2-o'
f(J-R=+.16'

Centroid (calculated with origin at point ft)


!lq. \o.
bc

aj
de

gh

I
II
I
III
I

Lensth

r, l t

X't

181

10
59

1.3 X 8
1 31 X 1.25

15 E{
7.51

11.18

1.57 '12.44 X 4.16 =

:,

12.59

6..19
8
8
8

15.11-1

6.49

2.26
3.

E-1

bc

VI

-1.92

= 6919

gh

>fr' : -SOS S
, = ftH:

^*

+18

135.8

rlR

201 .5

+ 17.55
+ 10. {6

131

39.7

+ l5r

>Lz'

x 1.25(-3.61) X 5.72
-3 61)(-1.37)
4.163/ I 1.57 X2.44 X4.l6r-2.10(
4J\0.137

12.59{

X,1

-2

10.32\

r,,
ab
bc

cd
de

9h

XIV 1

X\iIII
XVI

XVIII B
XIV -B
XVII B

IIV

: + 7oo
603
2E7

15.81(6.17)l)

,{

1.81 X 4.16(6.17)'

1.3 X 8.59(6.17)?

1.15(0.1.19 X 1.253)

fr

126

1.81 X 1.25(5.72)!
190

12.5er1.37)?

2.44(0 149 X 4.163)


3.81(11.83)'

ala.3

-+8277
:-219
167
=
:+- 623
- + 321.4

3.81 X 2.47(-11.E3)

VI

*".rrn

1.3X8.5C(-3.61)X6.17
1 8r

.7

21.1

1.81 X 4.1{j(-2.10) X 6.17

VI

Js

-103.5

Lz'

X 8.17 X 617

15.8.1

XI
VI II
XI

+
-.139
_ 89.5
13 1
- 100.11
6{.6

+.r.08

i:=+:-439fr
eb

L,J' _

]J,

1721

1.57 x'2.44 X 4.16(10.32)'1

3811

ab

XIV B

lj;::: + 15.84(s.47)'!

bc

X\TIII B

1.15(0.149 X 4.16)

cd

XVI

!s

XVIII ,{
XIV ,1
X\:II ,{

gh

XIV B

de

1.3 X 8.59(3.61)?
r .81

x4.16(2.10)2

1.25(3. 61)'

12.59(3.61)'
2

+ r.81

.44(O.149 X 4. 16)

+ r.57 X 2.14 X 4. 16(2. 10)':

'' 1;' + 3.81(2.47y

For equation reference numbers see pages 46 to

: 1468
:46
1,16
=
:
29.5
:
164.0
:
96.5
r. :

1973

50.

65

ITT CI]TINIiI'I,I, PII,ING DESIGN AND I,]N(IINI'IIITI \C.


SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS
(See page 60)

F"
1774
_0.330
706

Line

(l)

+5276

(4)

-1334
+0.253

-l

+6643

(2)
(5)

-l

(3)
(8)

+1r55

(10)

(1lA)
(l1B)

+0.253 X
Lt44

(4'{ )

(48)

f'

jo,

= 8s3lb

571

+o

571

960

(2)
(5)

-1921'cs2

sc7.275
|

-753,378
-455,516
-'t,olt,zto
+goo

336

(1)

|
|
|

I
|
I

xe6o
- I

iizs"'

I" :

lb

-2'212't1s
| 125

ro.rE3 |

ll,l*'n*

-t"

Line

Consi.ant

-z.lvr.tsz
tro;

-r
-F'
i;:

l1)

(7 A)
(7 B)

]
|

-s009
-5S6
-2rr
+4262

-706
449

(s)
(

re
y55
-

+ 6306

+1334

(6)
(7)

I
|

-2,8c2,q22

(6)
(7)

(3)

(s)
(s)

(10)
L

l1)

*ooo
= | re6og
.eco=]

llr-1

**"
=|
++z;:1

(11/)
(11-B)
(7

,,,1

(.7

A)
B)

(44)

-s

(4R)

+8e3

lb

MOMENTS

IN FOOT POUNDS

(See page 61)

-571 X 6.17 +

9d0

= +t2,21r

u:

t/ (n,stoY

16.39

tlz,ztr)' = ta,ttt

4710

(435Y :
,/-(4s71)+

49s3

M = ",(B6a5I + (2sssy

M=

+893X4.06+960X436
:
+7Elr

+893 X 2.81 + 960 X 5.61

+7895

ar = Vi?dEB)iTl6IEI

10,086

-960 X3.61
= *914

+571 X7.67

+893X0.61 +571 X6

-893X13.94+960X5.61

68

+4359

M=

-7063

(2283)' :
.,{$ss),-+

8488

M = r{n ss),IL,e6sP = rg,+re

EXPANSION AND STRESSES

I.

II.

III.

From inspection the maximum bending moment,


M, is 16,111 ft lb occurling at point o rvhich is
straight pipe. The accompanying torque ? is
4429 ft lb.

The maximum torque ? is 6989 ft lb in line cd


and the larger accompanying bending moment,
M, is 7811 ft lb at point d rvhich is cun'ed pipe
with an i factor of 2.61.
The maximum bending moment, M, in curved
pipe u'ith an z factor of 2.61 is 10,085 ft lb ai
point e rvith an accompanying torque ? of 644

fi
IV.

The maximum expansion stress is determined in the


manner ouilined on page 3 as follorvs:
Case

(at point a)

it Ib
:16,111 X 12 : 193,332 inch pounds
T :412Sft,lb
: +429 X 12 : 53,148 inch pounds
i6,11r

: M 193,332 : o*oop"t
29.9
"" sT
53,148
8r:9.c = l.,,,ro o - 66YPSI
sz : r/Gaf +-+Gzf- : vre1o6y1 4(88rt

6706 psi

7811

ft lb

7811

6989

ft lb

6989

M
",:i_t:
t":zs-T

lb.

The bending moments in curved pipe rvith an i


factor of 1.17 are relatively small (points b, c,,
and g) and therefore nced not be considered.

M:

:
:
?:
:

"E

Case

12
12

II

(at point d)

93,732 inch pounds

83,808 inch pounds

93,732

,*

..
^.
X ^2.6I

83,868

2 x2g.g =

- .,{;Jul('rt ::
Case

III

8182psi

l4uzPSr

VEt8tT -! ,t{llgtt
8649 psi

(at point e)

: 10,085 lt lb
- 10,085 X l2 -- l2l,020inch pounds
7:644ftlb
: 644 X 12 : 7728 inch pounds
^ ^- : r0,564psi
: M : i21,020.*26r
;;;
"u r,
T
i728
lzYPsI

-.l.!,9qq:
"r - oq

'u: {',f-+-4G;7::

vft0-5641 + 4(-l2ef
10,567 psi

The maximum expansion stress sr is 10,567 psi,


occurring at point c, and is less than the allorvable
stress range Sr of 17,675 psi.

VELOCITY AND PRESSURE DROP


The velocity of a fluid florving in pipe is detcrmincd
by thc equation:

v -- 114 -AI
rvhere I/ : velocity (feet/second)
Q : rate of florv (cubic feet/second)
Cr : inside area of the pipe (sqnarc inches)
Reasonable vclocities for rvater ancl st'eam are

Empilical equaticrns and charts have bccn dcviscd to


calculalq: this pt'cssut'e dlop \\'itll I eNonalte a(icul a(:y'
Thc llational soltrtion, irasccl upon the Fanning or
Darcy equation, has tlte most ltnivetsal applic'rtion
and has been shorvn to plodllce ii'icur&te tesults after
countless expcriments. 'l'hc basitl oclualion (1) requires
conversion to motc famiijal terms .\lternate arrangencnts of thc basic equation, (2), (3), and ('l), are
exprcssed in tcrms more {amiliar t'o the piping cngtneet'

indicaLed by the fullorring rrngns:


Service rvater mains
General service l'ater PiPing
Boiler feed rvatel PiPing

Lorv pressure steam heating


and process piping
Lorr pressure otcam meins

2lo
4to
6to

- fLv'
n,:,iio

5 feet/second

10 "
13 "

15to 70 "
70 ro

l6i "

165io400 "
High pressure steam mains
100to150 "
piping
Steam engine and pump
150 1o330 "
Steam turbine piping

"
"

Eflective Length of a pipe line is the sum of the total


length of the line plus the equivalent length of all the
fiti"ings, valves, etc., rvhich iend to alter ihe straight
flow.

Equivalent Length of Fittings in Commercial Wrought


Pipe Liaes

90' 5 Diam Bend (including


length of PiPe)
Gaie Valve

:
/r. :
lzo :

where Dy

.f

- o.oo2745lL|;s'

(3)

- o.ool2gsr;a

(4)

(2)

",

1.D

2
5
1
1

pressure drop (feet of fluid florving)


pressure drop (inclies of rvater)
Pressure droP (Psi)

(a dimensionless function of
the ReYnolds number -R', see chart on
Page 72)
effective Icngth of the pipe linc (feet)
velocity (feet/second)

= friction factor

L:
7:
g

acceleration -due
feet/second')

D : inside diameter
tl : inside diameter

:
so :
<o :
s

to gravity

(32'17 4

of the pipe (feet)


of the pipe (inches)

specilic graYity of the liquid (rvater


specific gravity of ihe gas (air : 1)
specific volume of the vaPor
(cubic feei/Pound)

1)

I
1.3

The Reynold.s number

o
tte

72

+
7

Equivalent Length .L (feet)


: Nominal Size (inches) X Factor
68

fte

Globe Yalve

Angle Valve
Angle Radiator Valve
Su'ing Check Valve
Radiator, Convector or Heater

"

line.

Reducer

2.2+ra:

h,
'{

The friction of fluid flou'ing in a pipe line causes a


drop in the initial pressure, rvhich drop is approximately proportional to the square of the velociiy, and
directiy proportional to the llflect'ive Length of the

90" Scren-ed Elborv


90" L. T. Screrved DlborY
45' Screrved Elbol'
180' Screrr'ed Return (oPen)
l80o Screrved Return (closed)
90" L. T. \Yelding Elbol
90" Flanged Elborv
Tee (outlei)

(1)

Ii"

is found from the equation:

:dl'o : dV -dV
--DYP
r2p l2Pa l2Y
!

: density (pounds/cubic foot)


p : absolute viscosity (pounds/{oot second)
v : p/p : kinematic viscosity (feet2/second)

where p

(ViscositY of fluids see Page 72)

\:EI,OCITY AND

Example :

f irirl: I'rossttrc drop of kcroscttc flolirtg at l relc of


:)0 gpm (!,70'f- il 1]" std. stcel pipo, clli'r'tii e lerrgth
1i0

1cet.

PRE,C.qf

RE DROP

will r.ary in proporiiott rvith the frctors shorvn on


page 76. To siurpiify thc conlcisiorr dilidc the rcrlrrirecl stcam lold by thc rppropriate fector itr thc
trl)lc, thcn apply thc ldjrrstccl lord dilccil;- to thc
grrph. To dctcrnirtc the lclocity:
IVa
ll'r,-'
r:0.010 1 :0.0;09 d,

Dola:

d:
,4r :
1 gpm :
u:
s:

1.61 inches (from Page 249)


2.036 square inches (from page 249)
0.002228 cnbic feet/second (from page 240)
0.000024 feet'/second (from page ?2)
0.813 (from page 72)

Solution:

0:

30 X 0.00222E

0 066E'1 cubic fcet,/second

o
0.000E1
li - l1-:,'l - 11.1^^.Ml)
/
n":
^dvl%
,f

0.02E

* u.,,,ffi
'ry,
(from chart

1.05

than Strrdard \\'all.

Iloiv of Loiv Prcssrtre Gas in Standard Wall Pipe


on pagc 77 indit:rtcs thc flol- of free air (1 atmosphcre
and (i0'F) rihen thc iliiiril prcssttre does not much

104

page 72)

J' \|2

h,,
-d- 2.2t

y l"'. " ln.r.


0.028

121

150

x
1.

102.E inchcs

rl,or.el
(1.65)'?

II' : flos (poitrrds''hoLrr)


<r : spccific !o1umi' (c,.tbic fcet/pound)
lr : inside arca crf tlx,pipc (-.qutre iuchcs)
d : ilsidc ditnctct of the pipc (inches)

The Actual I.D. iudcx at thc top and to thc right of the
graph may be used to dctcrmirc valucs for pipe othcr

fcr.i 'en"rrd

:26,000:2.6 x

s'here tr/ : velocity (fect/sccontl)

0.813

til

of rvater

Under ccrtain limiting conditions, suflicicnt accrtracy


in pressure drop calculations is obtailed l ith simplified
equations rvhich perniit a direct plot of florv against
prcssure drop. Graphs of this nature are shol'rr otr ihe

folloiving pages for l\rater in Pipe, \Yater in Tubing,


Steam in Pipe, Lorv Pressure Cas in Pipe, and lligh

excced l psi or 28 itrches of \\'ater, gage prcssure.


Reasonable accltracf is obtlrined for temperliurcs
\yithirr the range of -10'to 100'F and rvhcu thc pressure
drop docs not ercced trvo-thirds of the initial gage
prcssufe. For guscs other thau air the irrdicated
pressure drop rvilL vary directly \rith the spccific
gravity of the gas (air : 1) (see trble on prge 212).
The Actual LD. irrdcx at the top ard to thc right of the
graph rnny be used to deternire valucs for pipe other
than Standard \\'all.

IIol'of lligh Pressure Gas in Standrrd \Yall Pipe


is usually accompalied by a considerable pressure drop
antl decrcase of the density along the entire line. The
fleq is eyplns:nd hv thc equrtiot.-

Pressure Gas in Pipe.

Florv of Water in Standard Wall Pipe on pagcs

to 7l is

Q:33.e5

70

based upon an avcrage n'ater temperature of

140'F. Rcasonable accuracy is obiained for rvatcr


tcmperatures within the ralge of 50o to 200" F. The
prcssure loss scale is 10/6 greater th&n the pressure loss
in clcan neq, pipe. The Actual I.D. index at the top
and to the right of the graph may be used to detcrmine
values for pipe other than Standard \Vall.
Florv of Water in Type L Copper Tube on page 73
is based upon an average 11ater temperature of 1-10'F.
Reasonable accuracy is obtained for n &ter temperatures
within thc range of 50o to 200" F. The Actual I.D.
indcx at the right of the graph may be used to obtain
values for any smooth drarvn tubirrg.
Florv of Steam in Standard Wall Pipe on pages 74
to ?5 is based upon saturated steam at f psi gage
(approximately 214'F). For a giver pressure drop at
other pressures and temperatures t'he indicated load

(f\ \'F1'z

/=-

0 : flol'of

frcc gas at 60" F (cubic feet/minute)


d : inside diarneter of the pipe (inches)
Pr : initirl prcssure (psi absolute)

Nhere

:
:
L:

Pu

so

final pressure (psi absolute)


spccific gravity of the gas (air : 1)
effectir-e lcngth of the pipe lirre (feet)

The graph on page ?8 indicates values of Jpt' - p"'


psi absolute for various \.alues of P1 and P2 psi gage.
The graph on page 79 irrdicates Q in cubic feet/minute
for values ol \,TP:- It / \T.L for various pipe .sizes.
Reasonable accuracy is obtailed for temperaturcs
rvithin the range of 40" to 100" F. For values of so
(see page 212). The Actual LD. index at the iop
and to the right of the graph may be used to determine
values for pipe other than Standard Wall.
69

ITT CIRINN]II,L

PIPING DESIGN AND I'\(iINNI,]ITI\(

oat
t0 /,,,,t,,,,j
lNcHEs

ACTUAL

FLO'

POUNDS/ HOUR

e e RR3 ?8

9 9 R*" +"

E HnB g

oe
g

4l

too
a,o

ao
.o
5,O

4.0

50

FLOW OF WATIR

WALL PIPE

3.O

to
0.0

8TU/ HR.-

IN

AT

STANDARD

r/n"Elrv |

4p
10
cr"

FLoW (LB/ nR)x'tEV PERATITRE DROP(f) op.


o,6

o6

o5

o5

o4
q3

03
0o-

i9

o2

_c
0,1

_q K "jd

{ f,

ng

o,o6
o.o5

3
I

oo3

\y
,e

0'o2

_9

o.0a

I
(I

o
E
o
E

(Il

ool

\9

,,P

0.o04

o006

ooo5

/3

ooo3

/nl

o.oo?

lf
/3

o00l
o,oooa
o.oo06
o.@o5
o.aoo4
o.@o3

oo@2

ooool

g gsE g s

g BEggB:

FLOry GAIONS

MINUTE

o
6'o
o n
d dci

0 0
o -

VELOCITY AND PRESSURE DROP

FLoW PoUNDS/ HoUR

oY J

/t'tt/,

oq

3E

Iq

o9| / $t /,/,/"9 "9 -9t

e
R3
36:^q

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>9

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r"

e t /t.o /t^

/r,

8
/-o

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/$
/v
t.o

oa
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19=
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/&'
/^v

0-oa
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t
0--

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o
h
0.o3
H

ii
oo2 \
I

o.ot =

0
o
oms 0

0.004

0'006 cr

ooo4

&
l

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o-oooa
0.0006
o,o005
o.ooo4

oooo3

g
c ggg Eg
@9
oi o s!a(j

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oa
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* .o?5

Y"-2"

\2

UJ

t-?

.O2

/2- a

o-

to-20"
SMOOTH

TUBES

"/a- 4

alo5

2 34

REYNOIDS NUMBER

s= SP GR. AT

60-

R"=ry=#

o
E.

30

.20

gccc
ooo

rt! ,/

gE

.:

secoNo

99q

cgs

9
g

VELOCITY AND PRESSURE DROP


PRESSURE DROP INCHES

FOOT OF TUBE

3 d33 33
ocio

n 4a

q o

300

OF WATER IN TYPE L
COPPER TUBE AT I4O" F
FLOVr'

200

ro0

ao

50

30
2a

t0

a
6
5

oa
o6
o5

Q3

o.2

A^ EQUTVALENT RESISTANCE OF
"" FITTINGS (FEr oF ruBe)=NOM|NAL
40 TUBE srzE (NcHs) x FAcToR (sE!ow)

ol
.oa

30 gOoELBow
9oor.r.El6ow
20 45oEL6ow
IAO. OPEN FETURN
TEE OUTIEI
FEDUCR
caTE VALVE
AN6LE FAOI^TOR VALVE
lo GLobE v^LvE
coNvEcroR
HEATER

.05

ruee

30

I
1,5

?
A
I
1,5

34
e
a
A

qE.EB
H gEEEEU 3 e3333-'
o doo
oi'o" ,ic"is/.ooior
EnessunE

50
40

20

fl-v-

ACTUAL
tNCHES

()0

I,O.

ooooj
/ r t tt / , t t t / t t t t /
FLOW POUNDS/ HOUR
o
o
o
oo o
.!
o
@: R
n ]f)(o

oooo\
t

oq
t

'

/t

R
- R9P
+ ;6 RF
6 :i/

o5
o.4

FLOW

o3

IN

OF STEAM

.?

STANDARD

WALL

PIPE

ol
o.oa
0.06

0.o4

/^2

o.o3

tr

o.oz

o
5

oooe

v.w! J

L,.r

o.oo4

ca

S
d
0

o.oo3

o.oo2

o9

R 3 933 38
POUNDS,/
FLOW

74

HOUR

\IIiLOC]ITY ,\ND PRF]SSURE DITOP

Q^Aq\o
/ ' / t / r /t/
aoo,ooo

rt ow porvns
-- --/ ,r/ uorrp
--'

ro.ooo 2

3 4 56

t35

t r
5

6X

d
/^o

4.4
o3

o.l

JN

o.oa
o.o6
o.o5

a.o4
o.o3
(L

aaz'
o
F

o
o.or r!
o.ooa _'
0.006
o.oo5

0-

3
d

o.oo4 0
o.oo3

0.002

o.ool
o.ooo8
o.0006
0.ooo5
o.ooo4

o0003

oom2

aoo t,000

a lo,oo0

3 4 56

10"

FLOW POUNDS /HOUR

75

ITT GRINNELL-PIPING DESIGN AND I]NGINI'EITINC'


TLOW OF STEAM CONVERSION T'ACTORS

,*I
)a
5

1.000

0$a

1129

069

908
03.1

1.003

1 12{

l5

3rj8

1317

z)

t.412

1.426

1.159
1.213
1.378

r.528

1.4?5

30

1.567
1.657

35

|.742

1.715

1.199

10

,lll

8?2

45

1 898

1.847

50

968

4 200

350

'{.517

,lo0

'{50

5 099

500

105

2 039

180

602
682

I
I

65{l

6 727

631

912

1!8r
2 0!7

137

2 230
2 3,1C

554

2 {61

2 381 2 313
2 611 2.560
2 880 2.78e

311,

159

2 734
2 985
3 222
3 45{l

207

0 i?3

0.756

0.710

725

it2

901

0 88r

861

0.8{3

0.826

810

;::

0r0

987

0.e25

,ilot

891

108

0.965
1.058

0.9.15

082

1.015

1!8

r.170

1.1,1,1

1.036
1.120

't

282 \ 2b2
3{i1 1.32S
1r5 I 1. {O2
506 I 4?i
571 I I 537

i:,2
611

r 640

2 040
2111-

2 219

e2?

t .565
1.683
1.793

1,532

1.5m

1.{71

1.1.13

30C

l.3J$

1.581

1.591
1.686

1.5rii

1.5{l

1.856
1.052

1.551
1.652
1.718
1.838

r.622

1.811i

1.613
1,718
1.81?
1,912

1.117
1.523

1.392

1.6,1?

1.ii3

1.7{3

1.630
1.711

2.0.1{

2 002

2,0.10

2 0I1

1.!81

2.155
2.638
2.810

2.1!3

2.310

1.889
2.086
2.267

1.821

2 259

1,962
2.167
2.355
2.530
2,691

r.850

2.211

2,22i

2. r84

2,181

2..135

2.391

2.350

2.3rr

2.118
2.2,-+

2.6.11

2.592

2 515

2.50r

2.,t59

2.4N

2.968
3.128

2.908
3.060

2.8.18

2.7S3

2.61.1

2.000

2.558 2.5r8

2.C36

2.i33 2.680

3.13?

3 075

2.829
2.962
3,088
3.328

2.i80

3.20.1

2. i14
2.881
3.017

2,6S0

2.!96

2.910

3.031
3.269

2.983

2 9a1

3 21.!

3 162

3.553
3.766

3.{91

3..13r
3.634
3.828

3.37{

33m

3.698
3.896

3.5?4

3.517

3.76,1

3.70.1

.1.086

.1.014

3.882

1,267

'1.1!2

3.916
,1.12r

{t2

.1 303

,1 528

!.,5r

t-t

+.687

1.606

4.218
4.377
4.530

?59
.1.906

,1.679

1 t9s

1.08{
1.781

1.8i,1

1.92.1

1.716
1.801

119

589

4 .llc

4 216

4.152

3.91,1
,1.186

3.85,1
,1.088

3.770
3.998

3.693
3.915

.1.416

1.311

1.2t5

4.r2i

.1.015

5 806

5 2s9
5 52ti

4.810
5 061
5,312

] 4.0{3
4.,{13 | 4.2s3
I osq | 4.s32
4.'n2 4 162
5 136 I 4,982

3.62r

'*u

6.107

5 790

5.554

514

7.3ii

5.802
6.016
6.227

6 ?18
6 947

6..135

6.816

7.473

l2m

8112

r250
r300

8 736
8 941

1350

t,t3

8.355
8.605
8.859

t4m

347

5.r9

t2 i01

8 326

22lio

3t5

269

I150

2100

'I

1100

11 822
12 262

1.33;

i::l

1060

11 397

1.361

3.1'16

7.11-5

r90o

.386

3.207
3.,t58

7 696
7 908
811?

2m0

1.503

1.t1r

3 529

7.4U

10 977

1.238

3.2ix

950

r8l0

258

3.313
3.606

7. r03

564

3.689

7 267

r7m

1.303

3.80.!

900

156

-32i

1..t71

|.3.r2
1,t13

3 935

7.048

9.750

3.2i6

850

r0
r0

t.t!9

1.108

1.220
1.280

3.351
3.501
3.780

6 837

r6m

12tl

3,{10

6 258
6 488

r500

.261

3 534
3.69r
3 992

6.025

t,150

1.289

1.,138

t.31.1
1.379

t-62

5.506

6.6.12

511

3.20r

3.r119

'J

195

102

2.582
2.7,19

526

4.+21

i|.330

1.452

1.732

4.621

4 i25

5_201

5.059

5.1r1
5.6r6
5.8!7

4.932
5.126
5.314

4.818
5.005

.t 895

5..198

5.361

6.014

5.835

6.209
6,400
6,588

6.019

260

5..156

0.200
6.376

5.872
6.031

5.?34
5.890

6.360
6.525

6.r93

6 013

6.351

6.1S4

6.3r3

6.19,1

6,960

6.i25

7.t11
7.32i

6.896
7,065
7.233

6.686
6.846

6.505

i.657

7.m4

6.807

7.3S9

7.160
?.314

0 955

8.{?5
8 68,r
8.893
9.326
9.775

?.508
7.689
7.870
8.019
8,230
8.108

8.77r
9,135

11.321

9.506
9.885
'to.272

[.964

10.672

ro.252
10.760

11.091

6.,189

7.I0r

3.391

3.838

,133

1,1S6

3.908
4.161
4.347

152

861

325

1.121

5?9

!.(rst

I.ri6l

1.766

1.739
1.s20
2.085

950

2
2

238
342

12.647

2.arl | 2.iio
L

2.888

l3.1ti

289

.1.053

4.

,1.6l

4.865
5.028
5. r87

5..154

5 3{1

5 234

5.192
5.638
5.?83
5.924

5.385

5.285

5 05r
5.1$r

1.965

5.609
5.760
5.908
6.055

5.524
5.669
5.807

5.1r{

5.321

s.236

5.56r

5.16r

5 367

6.198
6.339

6.061
6.201

5,$12
6.075
6.201

5.828
5.957
6.084
6.209
6.332

6..t54

698

0.335

6.033

t-

.t 933
5 087

6.915

6. i.19

598

6 333
6.{00

7 053

6.58{

6r.1

6..108

c.726

7.32\

j'.112

6.S77

8.066

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7.3S7

8.36r

81088

7.at2

7.611-

8.651
8.915

8.358
8.628

8.10!

?.89r
8.133

L020

6i,7

1.17

6.882
7.013

8.376
8.698

Lril l

1.200
1.253

1.526

7.190

7.619

2113

1.1{3

4.616
4,?93
4,965
5.132
5 2S5

7.380
7.530
?.810

7..167

7.892
8.053

9.313
9.669
9.096
10.329

5.071
5.212
5.110

5.i07
6.026

i.2b2

8.063
8.269

2.t25

,1.638

6.7it
7.638

1.305
1.402
1.,19{

13,11

3.0,t2

4.5,18

L371

3,118
3.242

4.707
4.986

1.08.r

t8{}

1.157

3.20I

5m5

|.022

1.101
1.16r
1.218
1.273

1.1i?

3.m3
3.{70
3 640

'1 900

038

l19

1.0!0

.1911

2.9,10

3.591
3.880

1.109

|.222

3.023

3.370

1.05{

.130

1,2.16

2.911
3.108

0.806
0 8a{
0.955

l.tit

2 098
2.8i3

3 583

1.07r

0.8!7

t.2i2

2, itr1

llfi1

1 oo2

0.cl1

1.198

2 836

3.398

I Ol0

224

r04

lxn

1,299

2.5i1

2.138

l *-l

osrrlorts

815

0 9.12 0.927

037

2.3ri{

532

'Js9

121

5 7t9

1050

,K

037

61312

8m

.0t6

rtro

0d58 10 612 I 0.032


0 ?.r2 o.?31 0 Tlll

663

0.75.1

o.sb! I o

6.052

750

09?

9!5

i8l 0.767

192

6 597
6 825

7m

1 601

1.763 1.721
1 R79 I 83,1
t.!88 I Ci!
2 092 2 012

686

188

3.002
3 316 | 3.205

i92

'*T
'*l
6i.t

l_

2 709

t00

:r:

1 68r
L.808

800 850 1)0O 950

650

600

2,000
2.309

jaoon am

2 211

370

600

55.1

r35
.224

1 319

858

655

816

5 630
5 883

550

387

1.173

727

3m

1.5r7

2
2 'Ct
837

859

1.,129

100

,1.033

2116

l.Iri5

1.r98

r$5 I

I1t-i

2171

275

1.233

973

90

2o0

035

3.678

1 062

1 832

2.360

225

92.1

1.895
2 042

80

200

0.9t.1
1.0'.lr

9.18

1.706

223a

175

811

1 759

70

3 070
3 285
3 .r8?

0 832

60

150

0 855

t38
r.818

r
r

972
2.110

125

txr

ilii
lili

624
803

0 8a0

s50

.15{J

350

23'1

8 893

8.363
8.612

9.523

9.1i9

8 858

8 370
8 603

I8t3

9.,121

9.103

8.831

812

,223

7.099
7.930
8.158

381

8.600

5.t02

;.

5.6{12

6.853

1.824

196

_722

5 622

5.819
5.973

5.716

6 095
6.2r5

5.93{i
6.10J

6 333

6 219

.t50

5.8ti'i

333

6.827
7.0d6

6.6S0

6 561

6.11.1

6.921

7.r47

6.?88
7.007

6.662

7,29i

7_366

7,221
7.131

7.793
8.00t)

7.636

8.?l.t

8.034

7.085
7.288
7. 188
7.683
7.875

7.718
?.966
8.181
8.392

ffipIessrLrcsaturlte.lsteam'.\tincreasedpresstlesendtempel&ttIessteampipewill

7 837

6 877

in.chart'
!1
!r*!u'
drop as inciicatccl
nith pressure urup
rl'ove, $'rin
(xj convcrsion
lactor alroleJ
conrcrsior''lactor
rrv loa,l
indicated in chari times (X)
load as indic-ated
'uludruu
carry
c;rrected by dividing same by proper factor above'
To simDlifv the use of the chart r! ls suggested thrt the steam Ioads rn question bc
Then apply ionected loed directly to low pressure chari.

VELOCITY AND PRESSURE DROP

PRESSURE DROP INCHES OF WATER


: I {P P
d
o ! o o o

E EEE3E3 E

ESEEES

FOOT OF

PIPE

3 3 3 33

r000ooo
aoo.000
600000

:L' .CL.
q400,000 _
600,000 500,000 -

FLOW OF LOW PRESSURE GAS


IN STANDARD WALL PIPE

-\o

'.9

30q000

'.6
20o,coo

to0ooo

ro0,0o0

/6

60ooo

/b

aooco
6q0oo
50

5o.ooo,

4o,l]00

40,000

zo.ooo

20,000

30,000

0000
8,000

.
Q

6.000

s.ooo

I u.o- ""t1
,000

!,o00

ao0

800

600

600
500

500

3oo

300

LO0

ao
60

50

30
?a

g
sEg$: g 3ggE3'
gEse
6 q qC 0 o
d cr d
o

pREssuRE DRop TNCHES oF WATER ,/ Foor

oF

PIPE

ITT GRINNELL- PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINIIEITI\('


DISCHARGE

RESSU RE

6to2030

PSI, GAUGE

40 50 60 60

too
r.250

300

too

,oo
P
l
o-'

tt
F
l
J

O
@

6o

<60

50

40
30

lr-r^-

h,"

ti

li!-

to

6102030
DISCHARGE

RESSURE

60

40

50

PSI,

ao

GAUGE

Example:

at 100 psi (gage)


Qiuen: 3,000 CFM (free air) at 125 psi (gage) entering a 100 loot pipe line and discharging
Find: The required pipe size.
Solution: Fromchart above, for inlet pressure of 125 psi and outlet pressure of
80
\/T- Pr"
:
vT x 100
\/ r.L

From chart on page ?9, for this value of 8 and 3,000 CFM find
78

iOO psi,

2|" Nomilal

Pipe Size'

ruE

77 :

gO'

YDLr

)r'I'l'l- ,\ND PIiESSIIRII

DITOP

oB'\
tol

SYtO
6XICF

AX to'
6X to'

5X

-!o ,e

FLow oF HIGH PREssuRE ons

tou

rot

IN STANDARD WALL

to

PIPE

iilii
3X

2X lo
to
aq@o

/tti

6o,0c0
50.@o

40000
30000
20000

oooo
&ooo

-''9

6,OOO

OOO

1o9

4,OOO

'o9

3,OOO

',o1

.\Flpoo
"

o.6

'.ap

eoo

o 600
=
-5ee
400
300

"^a
i
z

2Aa

100

ao
60
50

40

1,

3O

IQ

a
6
5
3
2

03

o.4 0.506 o

L.O

2345

30 40 5060 80 IOO

,F=-

-+:

79

ITT GRINNFJ],L PIPING DDSIGN AND ENCiINT]EIi,I\C;

HEAT TRANSITI'R
The major factors l-hich govern the transfer of heat
through pipe l'alls include ihe temperature differcnce
bet11'een the hot and cold fluids, the convection of both
fluids, the surface condition at the inner and outer l'alls,
and the conductivity of the pipe material. For the
average practical probiem, rvhere fine economies are
not the paramount consicleration, thcse factors can
be combined jnto one coeficient designated "Li".
The basic equation for determining heat transfcr is:

8: AUlbsQ : Total heat transfer (BTU/hr)


,4 : Total area of heat transfer surface (ft2)
U : Overall coefficient (BTU/hr. ft'/'F)
h""- : Log mean temperature difierence betl'een

hot

GTD

c.m

Greatest temper&ture difference ('F) betrveen


boih fluids
STD : Smallest tempera,ture difference ('F) bcts-een
both fluids
As GTD and STD approach the same r.alue the log
mean temperature difference approaches the arithmetic

GTD

mean lempera{urp. When

GTD

*r,,

is 2 or less

it

is

crrs-

tomary to use this arithmetic mean temperature:

/r, . i.\

:
:
L:
L:
l"
l"

//" -t i r\

'^:\r )- \

tr'luid Gitine-

Heat

Uo

"U"

or
G

tt)

rJ k

ti)

500c(t.

/ro"-

U4*(t"

500G

quantity of rvater (gal/min)

(see

aDo'el

The area of pipe rvall available for heat iransfer is


io be thc surface next to the cold fluid. If
the cold fluid is inside the pipe ihe internal surface rvill
bc ihe transfer area. If the cold fluid is outside the
pipe thc external surface

l'ill

be the transfer

area.

The

latter condition is usually preferable since this area can


be extended by the use of 6ns, ribs, etc.
Exact, coefficients can usualll' be found only by
experimentation under oper.iting conditions. Approximate ranges of valucs for U have been compiled for
general use. 'fhcir application requires a ccrtain
amount of judgement l-hich should bc bascd upon the
ollorving considerations :
(1) Maximum valucs should be used only rvhen the
velocity of the cooling and cooled fluids is high and
rvhen con'osion or scaling of the pipc is negligible.
f

(2) The colurnn headed "Free Convections" are


thosc obtained l'ith pipe coils and pipe immersed in
liquicls under normally static conditions.
(3) 'I'hc column headed "Forced Convcctions" covers
pipe coiis and pipe immerscd in Iiquids that arc agitated
either by mechanical means or by a continuous flol' of

initial temperature of the hot fluid ('F)


final temperature of the hot fluid ('F)
final temperature of the cold fluid ("F)
initial temperature of the cold fluid ('F)
Overall Coelficients

,
^:

A{I

considcred

and cold fluid ('F)


GTD _ STD

Z.J rog10

\Vhen rvatcr is thc cold fluid theequ.r.tion Q :


may be rvdttcn

the fluid through the vessel.


(4) Il in doubt select the lol-er value of U to give a
higlrer r u,lue of coil area requireu.

Expressed in BTU

Hr Ft'?/'F-Ordinary

Ranges of U*r

Fluid Receir-inE

Hert

L-

5-10

t+lt.

Li

20

50

Steam lloilers

Steam

+
1

to Air

;! onnensers,
:--------feeo
:--::..
\\ Srcr
He&teIS
Tlca-rf pC ln li;;-T
Heatcrc

Under special conditions hieher or lower values may be realizeci.


W. H. NicAdams, "Heat, Trinsmission" (Mccrew-ilill Book Co., Inc,) by A. P. Colburn (Copyrighi 1942).

PRESSURE

TEMPERATURE RATINGS

- TEMPERATURE RATINGS OF PLAIN END PIPE OF TYPES


COMMONLY USED IN POWER PLANT PIPING SYSTEMS

PRESSURE

Pressure-temperature ratings tabulated on the follorving pages of carbon steel and lorv alloy steel pipe
commonly used iu power plant piping systems within
the scope of the Code for Pressure Piping, ANSI
831.1
198C) and Section I on Power Boilers of the
ASME
Boilel and Pressure Vessel Code. No al1980
lowances have been included in these ratings for

fabrication tolerances, such as thinning due to bending. The allowable stress values and formulae used
are in accordance with all addenda, interpretations,
andr/or revisions applicable to these codes in effect
Dec. 31, 1981. Pipe wall thicl<nesses and weights are
as given in ANSI 836.10
1979 and ANSI 836.19

19?6.

The follov'ing formulae were used for the pressure-temperature ratings published in this bulletin:

B3i.i

1980 Pipine Code, Parasraph

I':
Where

2,\t,:tt,.
l)" -

211t,1-

ASME Power Boiler Code, Section I. Parasfaph PG'27.2.2

10,1

i/,,, (')
D,. '2tt\t,,t - (. )
2.{/.-

_1)

- ,l

= Minimum pipe rvall thickness in inches (87rlol" ol nominal wall thickness).


P = Maximum internal service pressure in pounds per square inch gage. Where the calculated maximum
allowable working pressure exceeds an even unit of 10, the next higher unit of 10 may be used.

1,,,

OE

Outside diameter of pipc in inches.

An efficiency factor for longitudinal welded pipe. Pressure-temperature ratings shown in this bulletin
are based on .D = 1.00. Reference must be made to the applicable Code to determine the t factor for all pine
other than seamless.

S = Allowable stress

in material due to internal

pressure,

at the design temperature, in pounds

per

square lnch.

*C = Allowance for threading and structural stability.


.065 inch for r.. to 3 _ inch pipe size.
.000 for 4 inch pipe size and larger.

*A:.000" for plain end pipe, or

depth of thread or groove for threaded or grooved end pipe.

*NOTE:No allo$ ance has been made herein for corrosion and,lor erosion i{such allorances
a.erequired, asdetermined by the design
addtd to (' in tho applicablc turmLrlac above and tht r(lucd allouable !rcssu.e |.alculared therL{nder.

, = a coefficient having values


Temp.

"F
Steels

Ferritic

er, they shalt be

as follows:

900o and below


0.4

950'

1000"

10500

1100'

0.5

0.7

0.7

0.7

NOTE:4 mat be interpolated ber$een the;0"1' intervals in th above tabte.

ratings are not tabulated for temperature levels where


The Code for Pressure Piping831.1, states: "(1)
Upon prolonged exposrue to temperatures above ??5o allorvable stress values are not given at the same
F, the carbide phase of carbon steel may be converted temperature in the Code for Pressure Piping.
The applicable Code should be checked to assure
to graphite, and (2) upon prolonged exposure to
temperatures above 8?5oF the carbon phase of Car- that selection of pipe to any specification is rvithin
on-Molybdenum steel may be converted to graphite," the code limitations.
In view of these limitations, pressure-temperature For permissible allorvances for variations in presratings ar.e not tabulated in this bulletin for temper- sLrre and temperature, reference should be made to
atures above these values. Also, pressure-temperature paragraph 702.2.4 in the Code for Pressure Piping.

81

PI

PRESSURE

l'I\(i I)lisl(i\ -\\l) l'.l\(iI\ Illll:tl\(

.IEI'1PI]RATL]RI.]. DEGITE I']S F.

RATINGS

-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe to ASTM A53 Gratle


.zrl TO

--

B and ASTM A.106 Grade B

0iir

i;11

;01)

12.t0(r

11.30{)

L5.l)txl

ALI,OWABLE STRESS'S' PSI

I L.Eril

Irilre

\'l

SchedLrle

Sizc

(0.E.11))

Numbr

Dcsisnaln)n

.10

STD.
XS

t60

10

0.1);0)

i)

(.1.000)

(1.5111)l

5;26

92i9

8il;2

i6i2

il39r;

STI).

t).133
0.1?!t

2itl?

2i t1

2119

2219

il9{n)

:\i1;

il.10t)

3t:8

5.195

195?

t;5:l

1i.108

STI).

0.110
0.191

2il(;3

2253
3129

:082

t86t

;12E2

2823

259;r

112;

t218

3t05

j1,195

0 250

\XS

0.jt82

? 19.1

6E;8

618?

5683

0.1t5

211t

202\l

1a22

STD,
XS

0.2(10

298rJ

2E.11

2;65

235{i

0.2lil

l3iJJ

l llll

372{i

t\.t23

X\S

0.100

ti.t81

6179

;5t-l

5120

sTt).

0.15.1

1?87

1?0iJ

i53ti

I]LL

2;i9

2158

22t',i

20u1

XS

().:1N

0.3tr

.12j1I

10:il

ild39

lt:1.12

0..111(;

55iJri

52tl.j

19;.1

l8lill

l68l

15.,11

\S

0.203
0.21{i

270t

2;81

2328

2r2t)

3?ii6

3590

:l2il9

29i5

;8211

5551

;00?

.1600

XXS

0.llii)
t).iiiz

S1'D,

0.21{i

1(;giJ

161.r

\S

0.301)

2398

22t6

l33t
lsor

t3:l

XXS

il59E
5111

:ll3r-)

0.{;i)0

l15r; I
21r".. I
:ro9l
.1398 I

STD.

122r

xs

l;.16
22il I

2tii

196.1

1801

rl0

r.226
0.31t

1330

,10

r.2:li

1133

1.1,13

1232

0.337
0.138

2t.tit;

1979

2?.10

2ti12

2:\5t)

2l6J

0.tl I

33i9

t\222

290(;

26?0

0.6;.r

.1391

ll89

t\?i9

3{71

0.25iJ
0.;175

1201
I??O

1083

9gtl

1596

l.l{i6

r).;(l(,

r2(n)
1856
2r2]1

210u

21till

1991

0.62;

:t2t)2

3052

2'.i6t)

2529

0.?50

39Oti

3359

3086

160

{i0

xs

IIS

1ii0

80

1{nl

120

1fl1

10

80

xis
S1'D.

IS

120

(5.5ii:i)

6126
9?12

(;12{i

21ti

0.Jt)8

STD.
XS
1

2ri31
:1697

8t20

10

.1099

2;0

il0

(j.,-nxl)

2916

,1299

9ir0l

XXS

STD.

(2.ti;)

3059

().iJi8

ti0

10.1i

0.tt

z
12.r,i

;52r

6il6;
1r586

x!s

8t)

(1.900)

11.19

6012

0.1l:l
I

29'jj

3219

5ir;.1

J0
I

;00?

STD.

0.211)

l rit)

l',

il;68

;252

X\S

XS

(l.tni0)

3?J3
{i992
1213:l

l{;0

I
(1.3 r ir)

0.lli
r).188
0.29 t

\S

rJr)

0109

iimum wofkin,{ l'rcssrrre. I'SI

t(it)

XIS

ri9(i8

.18?,-)

i.1?

li(:2

ri;1

lriiS

28li
l01l)

132

1{;.10

PIPI\G }IATERIALS
PRESSURE

-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

RATINGS

Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe to ASTM A53 Grade B and ASTM -4106 Grade B
20 TO

TI]M PI.]RATURE. T]E(;REES F,

15,000

AI,I,OWAT]L!] STRESS "S'' PSI

umber

l2t)

(6.625)

l tiO

Desisnation

!10

60
80

I1,13

903

:'

l ?9.1

1090
1710

983

o.132

r542

t.362

2369

2258

2037

1.t1?
1871

0.719
0.861

11082

2938

3767

3591

2651
3210

2435
2976

0.25t)

?78
It61

74r

ti69

6t4

t).2i7

821

0.:122

100?

960

710
866

680
?96

0.406

t2i'i

121?

1098

1009

0.;00

1588

51.1

r366

1251

STI].

l90t)

1812

1634

1501

0.719

2323

22\5

140

0.E12

252,1

1998
2277

2092

0.875

2i:14

2.166

2266

160

0.906

2977

2838

2560

2352

2l)
30

0.2;0

621
766
912

?30
869

659

n.500
0.591
0.719

726,1

t20;

1087

99E

1510
1842

1,139

1193

1?56

1298
1584

0.84.1

2t82

18?7

t724

1.000
1.125

2612

2080
2190

2246

29G3

2825

2548

2063
2311

0.250
0.330

522
693

198
660

,149

STD.

0.1175

78ll

XS

0.106
0.500
0.562

xis

sir.

100
120
140
160

XXS

20
30
40

ii0
80
100
12t)

0.307
0.:165

.l9l

592

75r

78.1

596
6?8

72t)

113
517
622

81,1

735

1060

1010

9ll

ll95

1139

1027

9,1.1

14011

1266
1568
187:l

1163

0.688

675
83?

0.8.1.1

r823

1.000

2178

1738
2017

1,1t)

\.125

1949

1.:112

2352
2115

2t22

1ti0

2468
2911

26n3

2299

t0

0.250
0.312

475

453

409

59,1

STI].

0_3?5

?16

683

616

0.1118

839

0.;00

9till

800
918

ti0

0.59.1

1148

1095

722
828
988

663

XS
80
100
120

0.750
0.938
1.094

1.160

1392

t256

1154

1846
2169

1?60

2068

1587
1866

1458
1714

140

1.250

2501

238,1

t60

1..10ii

2835

2703

2150
2438

2210

tis

20
:10

(11.000)

r835

2618
2868

8l)

t,1

Inches

0.;91

l0

12

11,850

r20

l0t)

1r)

(12.?50)

12,900

0.2E0

20
30

(10.750)

1.1,300

STD.

XXS

(8.625)

775

Maximum Workinr. Pressure, PSI

Schcdnlc

750

Pipe
Inches

r-00

6;0

4U

511

1.1.10
11-21

169
566

't60
90?

1975

83

PRESSURE

-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe to ASTM A53 Grade


TEMPERATURE. DECREES I',
AI,I,OWABI,E STRESS "S" PSI

RATINGS

B and ASTM A.106 Grade B

20 TO 650

?00

?5t)

,-i 5

15.000

1.1.30i)

12.900

11.850

I'ipe
Size
Inches

1ti

(16.000)

Schedule

Numbr

t0

0.2;0
0-312
0.375

625
810
1108

800
1056

722

1.031

1771

I'Ji2
lii88

\23i

1r)0
120
110

1.219

211:i

1817

1..13E

25I',i

2015
2400

2165

1988

lti{l

1.591

2at2

2680

2418

2221

Lll

t.25\)

369

t).t],t2

.161

31?
396

0.1175

555

lt51
139
529

291

2l

4i-

t-

138

0.1:t:3

6,19

ii19

'744

558
640

513

0.5011

STD.

4U

XS

60

ull

STD.

0.?50
0.988
1.156

107.1

968

890

t420

t:t;4

l22l

tt22

1766

1681

1519

1395

2118

2019

\22

16?3

1.1{)

1.:l?5
1.562

2:lt2

160

1.781

2426
2790

2660

2086
2399

0.250
0.3?5
0.500

33I

:116

21J5

262

199
669

4i5

529

lJ91

575

528

.10

0.59.1

79',1

685

60
80

0.812

1098
1404

?59
1046

629
lttiT

11t38

t2t7

1109

100
120

1.281

1?60

11J91

20't9

1678
1982

1514

1788

1642

1.10

1.500
1.750

2,146

2332

210.1

1982

160

1.969

2776

2646

2:l8r-

2r93

0.250

30r
453
607

247
432
579

259
389

2lt8

0.375
0.500

522

,179

60

30

STD.
XS

1.031

li)
20
30

STD.
XS

i2l

662

1916

22t4

353

0.875

1071

7024

921

8,19

80

]'t25

t392

t:lzi

u9?

1099

t00

1.3?5

1715

1635

t4'75

13t5

l2t)
I4i)

r.625

2045

19,19

1?58

1615

1.8?5

2380

2:269

2t46

160

2.t25

21t9

2552

2338

1880
2118

0.250
0.375
0.500

276

263
395

30

0.562

625

59i;

4U

768

7;12

ti0

0.688
0.969

1091

1040

9ll8

80

1.219

1U83

1189

r00

1.5i11

r20

1.812

1?53
2093

1318
1i;71
1995

1800

1092
1385
1654

2247

2063
2367

2174

60

l0
20

STD.

XS

140
160

R4

:J6,1

8,lE

]|)

(24.000)

1399
1669

112ii

2t)

24

t523

663
875
11ll?

0.562

:'

I2t)

(22.000)

116
538

710
799

I0tl

22

328
410
494

0.500
0.656
l).u41

u0

115
519

3i7

396
495
596

]E

20
(20.000)

Maximum Workins Irressufc, PSI

Thickness
Inches

20

i
{18.000)

l)esignation

2.062
2.84,1

415

5:10

2399
2752

2623

2:17

356
178
538
660

l50E

218
327
439
494
60?
862

1895

PIPING }IATERIAT,S
PRESSURE

-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

RATINGS

Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe to ASTM -4106 Grade C


20

TF]MPERAl'!:RI]. DE(}REES T'.

Pipe

Size
In.hes

I
I

SchedLrlc

Nunbcr
El)

(0.8.10)

I
I)esienatjon I
wall

STD,
XS

160

XXS

80
1.050)

STD,
XS

160

XXS

80

1
(

1.315)

STD,
XS

160

XXS

1il
(1.6ti0)

l.:
(1.900)

.10

STD.

80

XS

12.315)

(2.8?5)

80

7t5

16,600

l.l.?0i)

13,350

Maximum Workin!. Pressur, PSI

4742
5812

;1668

B3lt1

5ll7

.1671

6851

6221

1.1179

't7:17
134.19

119ri9

10814

0.15.1

3569
5016

3385
4758

2998
1213

2122
3826

0.219
0.308

tql

7111

I1331

r07 41

6296
9517

E612

3322
1620

iJl5I

0.109

.136?

0.1.17

612E

0.18rl
0.294

8157

0.1lu

0.lillJ
0.1?9
0.250
0.358
0.110
0.191

1382

2?90
3880

25:l{
5129

10290

6;]79
9760

861:l

7IJ48

2i;7

261;

2:l15

2103

3829

i1632

3216

292r

1336

}937
G402

6i25

5162
8393

7961

70,19

STDXS

0.1,15

2',i

t2

2314

20?6

0.200

3480

3301

292:l

26il
i1856

0.21t1

5055

1795

12'16

0.100

i662

it72

5351

STD.
XS

0.151
0.218

208.1

191-1

3008

2853

2;2i

2294

.1116

3765
4928

1590

0.1111

19116

XXS

0.136

6461

1682
6128

STD.
XS

0.203

221311

2162

1915

0.2i6

3159

2996

2ti5ll

2409

0.375

'1168

3691

3;l5l

XXS

0.552

1391
6793

STI].

0.216
0.300

1975
2?98

0..13u

6443

5426

6i0i

187,1

1659

2654

23i0

2134

3981

3525

i659

5011

3201
.1550

1376

XXS

0.fi10

4197
596ti

.lu

STI].

t?lL

1;15

G.000)

XS

0.226
0.318

1804

80

25i6

2143

2163

.t

80

STD.
XS

(.1.500)

t20

r60

80

(5.563)

t20

0.23i

1612

1586

l4u.l

t275

0.3:17

2421

2291-

0.,1i18

319r-

3032

2t)34
2685

24:l1J

t84?

0.531

39.13

:t7.11-)

3:111

XXS

0.671

3r2i

1863

4;106

300?
3910

STD.

0.2511

1.1?0

1:t94

1234

1121

0.375
0.50t)

2166

1819

2911

2054
2790

1652
2243

0.625
0.750

:t735

lt5lll

XXS

1551

1:t23

1ti0

1885

XXS

XS
(3.500)

:3;24

;648

0.382

160

.10

t-;0

\\rall
Thickness
Inches

t.2it)

160

:lu
2\.t

1?.500

?00

XXS

160

80

650

.1896

160

80

T0

160

24iO

2849
3828

3.176

85

ITT GRINNELL PIPING DESIG\ A\D 1]NGIN]'I'RT)'iG


PRESSURE

-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

RATINGS

Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe to ASTM -4106 Grade C


TEMPERATURE, DEGREES F.
ALLOWABLE STRESS "SI PSI
Pipe
Size
Inches

(6.625)

Wall

Number

Designation

40
80

STD.

120

20
30
40

13,350

Maximum workine P.essur, PSI

Thickness
Inches

t't5i

1596

0.562

2621

2327

2108

0.719
0.864

3596
4395

3411
4169

3020
3692

27

0.250

907

0.2't'7

r005

STD.

0.322

1175

860
953
1115

762
844
987

896

1490

1413

1251

1136

XS

0.406
0.500
0.594

0.280
0.432

1017

4:l

3:152

692

1853

t757

22t'7

2103

1862

1691

0.719
0.812
0.875

27l l

2571

2217

3089
3346

2930
3174

2594
2810

2067
2356
2552

1iio

0.906

34?3

3295

29t7

2649

20

0.250
0.307
0.365

125

609

1064

688
848
1009

894

811

t471

1398

7124

80
100

30

40

STD.

89.1

1,113

751

0.500
0.594
0-719

1?61

1671

1238
1479

2748

2038

180.1

0.8,14

2546

24t5

1.000

3047

1.125

34''.t

2891
3215

2138
2559
2903

0.250
0.330

0.u75

610
808
919

8'.12

40

0.,10ii

99?

945

1236

t173

60

0.500
0.562

1394

1322

60
80

100

120
140
160

xis

20
30

STD,

1942
2325
263',7

165
616

70t
760

837
1038
1170

1063

13i0

t?8?

1622

1629
2018

2541

2411

2135

1938

2879

2731

2,118

3396

322r

2832

2196
2590

526

466

160

\.125
t.312

10

0.250

20
30

0.3t2

140

5t2
679
772

1343
1639

2t27

171',7

xis

578
766

682

1442

0.688
0.844
1.000

80
100

120

423
529

793

582
702

9?9

929

822

1123

1065

943

1340

l27l

tt25

1616
204:l

1809

720

0.750
0.938
1.094

t704
2l:r4
2531

2401

2726

1300
1643
1930

140
160

1.250
1.406

2977
3307

2',t67

2450

2225

3t37

277r1

2523

STD.

0.376

0.438
0.500
0.594

4t)

I4
(14.000)

11,700

1120

XXS

(12.750)

16,600

1985

140

t2

17,500

t265

120

10

775

1334

60

(10.750)

750

2092
2763

XXS

?00

Schdu1

160

(8.625)

-20 TO ti50

60
80
100

693
836

717
857
1022

PIPING ]IATDRIAI,S
PRESSURE

-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

RATINGS

Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe to ASTM .4.106 Grade C

I'.;t,ow,{uLE qTRI.'Sq 'q' lql


-I

TI.]MPER,{1'URE, DEGREES

I'ipe
Size

Schedule

Number

wall

10
3l-)

a-.

.10

XS

t6
(1(;.000)

Designatio. I

8Lr

?00

750

775

17.;0t)

16.600

1,1.r-00

13,:150

wall

Nlarimuln Workins I'rssure, PSI

Thicknss

ches

0.2;0

48:l

0.312

60;

0.:175

129

0.500

981.)

0.E.l{

129iJ
1679

82il

i47

1086

980

1592

ll

l-)

1280

201iii
2.1ti6

1960
23:19

1736
20?1

157ii

293?

2r-t6

1817

l6?7

120

110

tio

1.;91

3280

i1112

2156

2502

l0

0.251-)

J:10

l0t

361

B2IJ

0.ill2

53?
61?

510

4L2

J10
191

758
869
9?8

719
1121

7:J0

66:l

928

,t22

it6

1311

12.16

11011

1002

S;.
XS

0.3i5
0.188
0.500

0.;62
0.750

60

61,1

l88l

t5i2

1392

126.1

2060

1951

1?ili)

1571

2111

231.1

2076

1885

28:r0
3215

2681

2:li7

215t3

308;

2131

2442

0.2;0

it87

367

:125

295

0.3?5

582

552

.l,t'1

0.t00

?80

710

189
655

882
t 215

?8t

709

60

0.591
0.812

929

1076

9ii

80

1.013

i;5:r

l:]r-5

12.19

100

205,1

1918
2300

li25

156ti

12t)

1.281
1.500

2t):17

18{9

1,1u

l.?50

285.1

239?

zti7

Itil.)

r.969

3238

2i0i
:l|i2

2i20

2470

0.250

351

333

295

268

0.lt?5

528

501

l.ll

,103
5.10

0.9:18

1.1;6

100

t2t)

r.i62

i10
160

t0
2A

STD.

xs
+U

10
2\)
30
22

ri(l

(22.000)

80
100

STD.
XS

1281
1638

2425

595

0.50t)

70E

672

;95

0.8?5
1.125

t257

1189

L0;3

956

t(:21

15.10

I2:lll

1 il75

2001

189i1

1ilfi,1
1681
200.1

1820

2118

120

|.62i

2386

2263

1,10

1.E75

26iJ,1

160

2.125

2i76
3\72

3009

23:t2
2661

1526

2t2t)

0.250

',122

:105

270

245

0.:175

,184

.r06

:t69

0.500

6.18

459
615

0.562
0.688
0.969

729

692

6lll

896

850
120?

75ll
r069

68.1

l2?3

80
100
120

1.219

161u

1530

1.531

2t16

19.10

1.812

2112

2316

1355
1718
2051

12i10
156t)
1862

1.10

2.t62

2:l;l

2rB5

2.:111

2799
3211

26(:5

1ii0

B0!,6

2696

2449

10

,l

30
.1U

(24.000)

61:l

369
162
556

508

L219
1.lllE

21

929
1226

.106

1.031

20

20
(20.000)

159
5i,1
692

l)0
I

(1U.000)

20 fo ri;u

60

STD.
XS

{95

9?1

87

ITT GRINNELI, PIPING D]'SIC]\ AND IiNCiI\EDITIN(i


PRESSURE

_ TEMPERATURE RATINGS
OF PLAIN END

SeamlessChromium-Mo|ybdenumAlloySteelPipetoASTMA3SSGradePll
(T/t% .HROMIUM

TEMPERATURE, DEGREES F.
{SI PSI
ALLOWABLE STRESS

Size
lnches

Schedule

Wall

Number

Designation

40
80

STD.

XS

]4%

MOLYBDENUM)

-20 TO 800

850

900

960

1,000

1,050

15,000

14,400

13,100

11,000

6,500

4,000

1079

Pipe

wall

Maximum Working Pressure' PSI

Thickness
Inches
0.109
0.147

3',143

3593

3269

5252

454'l

2815
3992

1753

5042

0.r88

6712

6107
10614

5378
9698

3522

2543
2767
4281

xxs

0.294

6992
12153

11667

3059
4299

2537
4127

2612

2290

1412

XS

0.113
0.154

869

STD.

3755

3246

2038

t254

0.219
0.308

6426

6169

3195

1966

9712

9324

5612
8482

4923

xxs

5223

32t4

0.133
0.179

2447
3960

2733

2487
3458

2L2a

3802

2983

1308
1864

805
7147

0.250

5't64

2823

7',137

8820

8467

5034
7'703

4396

0.358

6472

4641

2455

2363

2264

2064

1761

1075

3242

3151

2866

2461

t522

661
937

nazs

3864
6283

2104

t294

7194

4248
6906

3344

xxs

0.140 |
0.191
0.250 |
0.382 |

5541

3641

2241

40

STD.

0.145

2719

2084

1850

tYz

0.200

2983

959
13?5

590
846

XS

2605

2232

80

2864

160

0.28r

4333
6481

4160
6222

3784
5660

32',72

(1.900)

2056
3227

1265
1986

803
1178

494
'725

(0.840)

160

40
80

(1.050)

160

40

STD.

80

XS

(1.3r5)

160

xxs

40

STD.

rYl

80

XS

(1.660)

160

40
80

(2.375)

160

40

2A

80

(2.875)

160

4968

6958

xxs

0.400

STD.

0.154

178',7

0.214

1?15
2475

1560
2252

132ti

2579

0.344

4231
5538

4062
5316

3695
4836

3193
4217

2003

1232

2699

1660

770'.1

542

XS

1924

xxs

0.436

STD.

0.203

1954

0.276

2708

1876
2599

2365

1452
2022

881
724t)

0.375

3616
5590

3289
5085

2833
4442

2856

xs

xxs

0.552

3766
5823

40

STD.

XS

1625
2303

1256
1187

1092

80

1693
2398

1479
2095

0.216
0.300

0.438

3454
4909

2703

1680

160

3142

(3.500)

4466

3882

2468

t48l

1350
1928

1146
1643

1001

r25\

1061

1813

3y,
(4.000)

xxs

0.600

3598
5114

40
80

STD.

XS

0.226
0.318

2208

2179

40

STD.

0.237

1433

80

0.337
0.438

2076

13?5
1992
2630

2393

1543
2047

2535
3320

r20

(4.500)

160

40
80

120

(5.563)

160

2'.140

691

639
938
1256
1571
2088

467
672
1034
1519
425
616
393
173
966

3379
4394

3244

xxs

0.531
0.6?4

2951

4214

3838

STD.

0.258

1100

932

1260
1856

r209

0.3?5

na2

1621

0.500

2521

2420

2202

1378
1880

560
835
1150
1482

912

1836

1130

xxs

0.625

3202

3074

2796

2399

0.?50

3906

3750

3411

2941

maximum range of 1050 F


Note: Economics and general practice dictate a

88

'759

1086
1757

1245

5t4
708

PIPING I,IATERIALS
PRESSURE

-O['TEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

Seamless Chromium-Molybdenum

Alloy Steel Pipe to ASTM

(1]{% CHROMIUM
TEMPERATURE, DEGREES F.
ALLOWABLE STRESS (S' PSI
Pipe
Size
Inches

Schedule

Number
40
80

120

(6.625)

160

20
30
40
8

(8.525)

950

r,000

1,050

15,000

14,400

13,100

11,000

6,500

4,000

312

Wall
Maximum Workins Pressurc, PSI

STD.

0.280
0.432

1143

0.562

2369

0.719
0.864
0.250
0.277

1098
1722
2274

998
1566

1331

507
806

2069

r765

to17

3082
3767

2959

2692

2308

1423

361?

3290

2834

876
1086

578
635
744

342
380

21r

445

274

944

t4lt

568
711
856

349
437
527

1?31

1056

t794

778

746

679

827
967

732
880

7226

1115
1387
1660

STD,

0.322

0.406
0.500
0.594

7277
1588
1900

2323
2644

2230

xxs

0.?19
0.812
0.875

2868

160

0.906

2977

20
30
40

0.250
0.307

621

t20
140

10

60

(10.750)

80
100

t20
I40
160

766

7524
1824

1976

12tI

650
745

2758

2029
2372
2505

2144

1318

811

2858

2600

2228

t372

844

596
735

543
669

458
337

168
207

2542

912

875

796

673

402

248

1264

r2l3

1842

1449
1768

934
1118

562

1510

1103
1318
1608

829

346
415
510

2182

2095

1906

608

26t2

2281

1194
840

735

2845

2507
2588

1624
1949
1365

989

1.125

0.844
1.000
2963

522
693
?88

229

141
187

STD.

0.250
0.330
0.375
0.406

854
1060
1195

t**

xs
t2

60

0.500
0.562

(12.750)

80

0.688

t472

100

0.844
1.000

1823

xis

21'.78

502

456
605
688

384
510

420

'746

1017

925

377
469
530
657

404

820
987

505
607

1286
1592

1090
1354

t902

1621

2369

2155
2542

1840
2177

1t25

692

1339

424

415
519

350
438
528

208

r28

281

160

619

228

849

370
425
509

1275
1612
1895

1082

652

1371

831
983

2184
2476

1865
2119

1.312

10

0.250
0.312

475

456

594

0.375

716

571
688

0.438
0.500
0.594

839

806

963
1148

1102

0.?50
0.938
1.094

1460
1846
2169

1.250

2501
2835

(14.000)

80
100

120
140
160

1.406

232
289

1043

160

xs

213

581

1413
1750
2091

2468
291L

40

304

630
783
883

r.t25

s;.

2217

665

t40

60

234

0.500
0.594
0.?19

40

t4

1177

496
663

0.365

,j

20
30

845

STD,

20

120

Pll

900

861
1007

60
80
100

.4.335 Grade

MOLYBDENIM)
850

Thickness
Inches

xis

%%

20 TO 800

Wall
Desigration

XS

RATINGS

2794

924
1402
1772
2083

2401
2722

626
733
841
1003

711

1614

326

194

282
313
401
511

605

It4l

702

1302

801

Note: Economics snd genenl practic dictat a maximum tmDerature of 1050 F.

E9

PRESSURE

Allov Steel Pine lo $-SlM A335 Grade Pl1

Seamless Chromium-Molvbdenum
(1%%

aHROMIUM

%%

MOLYBDENUM)

To 800

- Wal
Prpe I
wall I Thr'kness
size I s"nearte I
Inches I Nu-lre. I Desisnarion Inches
10

20
30

16

(16.000)

S;,

40
60
80

(r8.000)

840
1108
1439

806
1064

733
968
1257

619
819
1065

491

228
302

642

395

r54',7

796
956

2198

1877

11.19

490
588
707

2456

2101

7291

794

124

0.500
0.656
0.844

1381

t20

2517

24t6

160

1.594

2812

10

0.250
0.312
0.375

369
461

555
649
'744
838
1126
1420

6t)
80
100

0.75{J

120
140
160

1.375

2tr8

7.562

2426
2790

0.938
1.1sti

1.781

t766

354
442
533
623
7r5
805
1081
1363
1695
2034
2329
261A

]
I
I
|
I
I
J

27t

toz

339
408

r61
201
243

4',18

285

549
618

.327
3ti9

202
:107

484
567
650

732

150

22',1

984
1240
1542

832

.199

1051
1311

638
?93

390
488

1850

r576

2118
2436

1808
2085

959
1105
1280

590
680
?88

318

289

244

145

89

4t9
642

367
493

218

6119

435
584

134
181

797
1098

1054

811

351
486

1.031

1404

13r7

1039

626

299
385

80

696
959
1226

587

ti0

0.594
0.812

1760

1690

1537

130ii

791

487

2t79

1996

r815

1546

;78

2446

2344

2136

1824

940
1115

2665

2424

2074

r274

7'34

263
395
530

227

131

333

198
266

t22

176
620

29"\

47t

(20.000)

r00

120

120
140

1.281
1.500
1.750

160

1.969

2776

10
20

0.250
o.315

30r

289

ST D.

.153

30

XS

0.500

60?

435
583

60
80

100
120
1,10

160
10

20

STD.

XS

216

686

8l
16,1

0.8?5
1.125
1.375

10?.1

1031

1392

1215

1?15

1336
1647

1.198

727:l

170

1.625
1.8?5

2045

1963

1786

92.1

2380

2285

2078

1520
177:l

1083

6ti6

2.t25

27

t9

2610

2371

2031

t246

767

216

265

24r

203

398

862

30t

120
181

lll

485

409

243

150

5,16

460

274

953

806

338
483

169
208
297

1328
1683
2009

1208

to21
r301

6lii

379

?87
947

.184

2303

2095
2103

1092

672
776

0.250
0.3?5
0.500

625

60
80

1.219

1383

100
120

1.531

1.812

1753
2093

110

2.062
2.344

2399
2752

ltii)

251

794
r030

0.562
0.688
0.969

30

600

1091

938

671

?68
1047

2642

temperatu'e range of 1050 F


Note: Oconomics and general practice dictate a maximum

90

99

322

499

STD.
XS

.10

24
(21.000)

2699

15'72

370

331

20
30

22
(22.000)

18,16

274

0.250
0.375
0.500

10

20

140
169

17'71

4l)

l8

112

625

0.500
0.562

4,000

18r

0.375

0.438

050

227

277:l

xs

6,500

305
382
460

1.219
1.438

30

0u0 I

363
453
54ti

415

1.031

STD.

11,000

399
498
600

0.250
0.312

100

20

13.1'10

950 I

Maximum Workrng Pressure, PSI

1700
2029

140

90u ]

L 850
15.u00 I rl,aoo I

20

TEMPERATURE. DEGREES F.
ALLOWABLE STRESS'S" PSI

RATINGS

-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

1531

1828
1788
205ti

t262

?,a2

74

582

PIPI\G ]IATERI.\LS
PRESSURE TEMPERATURERATINGS
OF PLAIN END
Alloy Steel Pipe to ASTM A335 Grade P22
CHROMIUM 17" MOLYBDENUM)

Seamless Chromium-Molybdenum
(2y1%

TENTIPER,\TUItll, DIlCREES F.

20 TO 800

850

900

950

ALLOWAI]LE STRESS "S" PSI

1;.00r:)

11.100

r3,t00

11.000

t'ipe

1.050

1.

7.i100

5.rJot)

J.200

156.1

1133

L0t)

Wall
MariimLrm Workins Pressure, PSI

Schedule

Size

ri0Ll

Desisnalion
,10

\'

1il

.\
(1.050)

.10

80
)

;l59il

3269

281t

i,252

3012

.15E7

3992

0.188

6992
12153

6712

6106

1166?

10611

5378
9698

3059
1299

29117

26i2

4t27

1t755

6169
9324

XXS

0.29.1

STD.
XS

0.11ti

1.660)

1.9n0)

12.:ti 5)

2\t
(2.875)

(1t.500)

3\'2

l
(1.500)

t2{i0
]li 19

1i]1?

5612
8182

,1923

1183.1

2851

2i)ti1

6268

16(n)

337{

11ri7

912

2128

1;70

29llil

2236

l66il

3388

2il9

1821

556t

.11l0

299u
(i9.1

9712

t20l

O.zirtl

5761

55:t.l

503,1

1396

XXS

0.il;8

IJ820

tl6?

770:l

6'J72

STD.
XS

0.110
0.191

23riii
3242

22til{

201i4

1?61

290

9;9

3151

2866

2lii

t82i

1:i58

9l{:l

0.2;0

1,125

252,1
.1370

187?

1:159

719.1

3864
628:l

:i:11,1

0.382

1218
6906

2tt9

20iu

1rJ50

rl55

286,1

2605

1576
221t2

1lt0

2983

1650

t226

lfl8

1l(;i)

ll78l

32',i2

216i

18i11

1328

6222

5660

1968

3872

2879

2085

1326
1921

963

?lri

5I9

111.1

1051

761

0.200
0.2111

55.11

2U;2
ii 19

XXS

0.10t)

STD.
XS

0.15,1

178?

l?15

1560

0.218

25i9

24i5

2252

0.311

.12111

,1062

3193

210{

178?

1291

XXS

0..1116

55118

5:l16

:t695
1836

421i

i]2118

2108

lTrl

STD.
XS

0.203

1951

1876

170?

2599

2365

1058
1.r89

i69

2708

1152
2022

786

0.216

110?

801

0.3?;

3616

!289

2E33

2r 18

L;75

11.10

$90

5085

4112

:t42'.7

25,18

18.15

1693

6?8
971

191

108i,

6181

XXS

0.552

376
5823

STD.

0.216
0.300

1179
2095

91I

2398

Lti25
2303

i256

XS

1?87

1310

3598

r1,15.1

;i1,1

.1909

31.12
,146ii

2it):\
38t2

2016

XXS

0.438
0.600

2982

1J99
22t)2

STD.
XS

t.226
0.:lt8

83t)
1201

llgil

647

STD,

li06

161-)

XXS
STD.
(5.563)

2116

:145E

160

ti0

1695

J2'16

214',i

160

120

2290

2i:l:\

llil.)

EO

1.195

3802

160

:lu

6207

89 l

XS

(,1.000)

83r9

2847

STI),

10

2215

0.133
0.179

80

AU

i11.12

STD.
XS

:ltl

:lu

1611J

1227

6126

160

221;9

0.219
0.308

XXS

I'r

0.15.1

2101
3052

XXS

Itit)

AU
(

374;l

0.I47

16t)

I
1.315

0.109

XS

l6t)

(0.8.10)

STI).

XS

120
160

XXS

7O,)

1595

1516

1.1iJil

13;0

l116

2208

2119

1928

L6lll

0.2:31

1.1:lll

1061

16i

20i6

1375
1992

t25l

0.1137

1813

1;43

112ii

570
83?

0.138

2710

26110

2393

2t47

r507

1121

812

0.531
0.67d

3379

:121.1

2951

2535

18E5

l{01

1015

,139.1

.1218

38llu

3;i2(l

250t)

1863

1:1.19

12iio

1209

1100

932

u62

?82

1ti21

r378

'14-D

i4(l

2i2l

2420

2202

1880

672
100:l
1it80

500

1856

1026

3202

1107.1

2796

2399

t779

1323

95rl

i1906

3750

li4t1

2941

220:l

1638

0.258
0.375
0.500
0.625
0.750

447

{1;J

4:\

186

Note: Economics and general practice dictat a ma-{imlrm temperature range of 1100 F

91

PRESSURE

-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

RATINGS

SeamlessChromium-MolybdenumAlloySteelPipetoASTMA32sGradeP22

-20 TO 800

850

900

950

1,000

1,050

1.100

15,000

14,400

13,100

11,000

7,800

5,800

4,200

TEMPERATURE, DECREES F'


ALLOWA,BLE STRESS
Pipe
Size
' lnches

!S' PSI

Wall

Number

Designation

Thickness
Inches

STD.

0.280

40
80

(6.625)

720

0.432

XXS
20
30
40

8
(8.625)

60
80
100

'1

2692

376'.t

'718

746

6',79

0.250
0.277

xs

0.?19
0.812
0.875

998
156ii
2069

2959
3617

3082

0.406
0.500
0.594

1098
1722
2274

861
1007

827
96?

329i)

944

1588
1900

853

1824

1660

1411

t02'l

2323
2648

2230

2029

1?31

1267

942

23t2

1976

r08l

682
?83

27

2744

1i76

852

2868

1454
1582

222

1646

1224

88ii

458
565

327
105
483

243

176
218
2ri0

93,1

674

501

1118

809
994

602

36ll
.t3ti

739

535

1621
1949
2217

118?

882

639

1,133

1066

7i2

1638

1218

882

384
510

21r)

204

t48

365
416

272
310

22,1

452
563
636

336

213

,119

1043

630
?83
883

303
3.{3

1286
1592

1090
1354

984

1902

1621

2542
53

1213

1103

14,19

1318
1608

12ti4
1510
7842

"*a

0.844
1.000
1.125

2182
2612
2963

sin

0.250
0.330
0.3?5

522
69s
788
854

azo

xs

0.406
0.500

1060

60

0.562

1195

1017
1147

80
100
120

0.688
0.844
1.00i)

t472

14r3

1823
21?8

1750
2091

1..125

2468

2369

2t55

1.10

160

1.312

2971

2794

10

0.250
0.312
0.375

594

5it

0.438
0.50i)
0.594

839
963
1148

120

0-750
0.938
1.094

1460

1.25i)
1.406

2501

240r

218,1

140
160

2835

2'i22

2476

XS
60

14

80

(14.000)

10i)

Note:Ec;;;,"a

-"""ra'

1768

1906

2095
250?

2281

2845

2ir88

502

456

665

i;05
688
'i

46

925

301

359

17:l

197

586

425
530

1184

881

6:18

18.10

1350

100'r

2542

2t7l

160?

1195

721
865

350
438

688

415
519
626

806

?83

924

841

619
711

1102

1003

8,19

510
611

1402

t2i5

1082

1846

\'l'12

1612

13?I

2169

2083

1895

1614

of 1100 F'
dictate a ma-ximum lemperature ranse

"'.a"tice

367
459

288

tt77

0.500
0.594
0.719

40

507
634

2t3

1387

912

sio.

221

1115

0.307
0.365

20
30

305
339
397

t524

669
?96

xis

411

920
11.11

1226

596
?35
875

72

2308
2834

\2',70

727'.I

621

40

696

1708
2119

521

681

0.250

,j

961

535

20

20

1293

744

2600

160

1?65

880

2858

60
80
100

452
719

845

152

2977

s;.
T

608
967

328

1331

635

0.906

120
140

02.750)

1794
2369

160

40
10

Ma:.rmum Working Pressure, PSI

0.?19
0.864

0.322

xis

30

(10.750)

0.562

STD.

120

1%

Wall

Schedule

160

MOLYBDENUM)

(2X% CHROMIUM

524

1865
2119

249

186

313
3?8

233

131
168

28r

20:r

330
380
451

2:19

182

542

42r

991
1179

74\
87?

635

1:t69

1018

73',i

1162

842

21|)
329

PIPING }{ATERIALS
PRESSURE

-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

Seamless Chromium-Molybdenum
(2%7O

TEMPERATURE, DEGREES F.
IS" PSI
ALLOWABLE STRESS
Pipe
Size
lnches

1,000

r,050

1,100

15,000

14,400

13,100

11,000

?,800

5,800

4,200

Wall

MOLYBDENTJM)

Maximum Working Pressur, PSI

s;.

415
519

625

498
600

0.500
0.656
0.844

840
1108
1439

806
1064
1381

100
120

1.031

t77l

i.219

140

1.438

2113
2517

160

1.594

10

363
453
546

30s

218

162

382
460

2'73
329

203

619

444

141

245

t1'7

239

968
1257

8r9

589

1065

770

330
438
573

1700

754'.1

1314

2029
2416

r846

?10
853

514
618

2198

t5'72
1877

955
1147

r378

1025

742

2'312

2699

2456

2101

1549

1162

834

0.250
0.312
0.3?5

369
461
555

354

322
102

271

193

144

104

242
292

180
217

130

484

339
408

0.438
0.500
0.562

649

623

567

4?8

342

838

805

650
732

618

393
443

254
292
330

239

0.750
0.938
1.156

1126
1420

1081

952

445
565
708

409
513

120
140

1.3?5

2118

855
986

160

1.781

2426
2790

1150
1326

619

7.562

1142

827

60
80

sir.
xs

40
60
80

0.250

10

20
30

STD,
XS

0.375

0.500
0.594
0.812
1.031

40
60
80

442

744

1363
1695

1542

2034
2829
2678

2118

1808

2436

2085

289
435
584

244
367
493

331
499
669

318
419

797
1098

765

1404

832

984
1240

642
1054
1347

1051
1311

r850

599
760

317

4t5

184

2t2

774

173

t29

93

262
352

195

262

141
190

421

313

696
959

811

1221:

1039
1306

949

70i;

1546

1128

839
995

584

227
314
40,1

511
607
720

1537

2079
2446

1690
1996

140

1.281
1.500
1.750

2348

2136

1824

1338

160

1.969

2'.t't6

2665

2424

207 4

1528

289
435
583

263
395
530

221

1031

1.125

1074
1392

1030

744

553

1.375

1715

1647

938
1215
1498

r273

924

ii87

497

1.625
1.875

2045

1963

1786

1520

824

2380

2285

2078

2.t25

2719

2610

23',14

2031

1109
1299
1495

1lt2

597
?00
805

0.250
0.3?5
0.500

276

265

144

107

78

398
533

241
362

203

415
556

217

162

11?

485

305
409

292

2t?

30

0.562

625

600

546

460

245

17',7

40
60

0.688

768

7:37

6?l

1091

1017

953

806

302
431

218

0.969

329
406
580

80
100
120

1.219
1.531
1.812

1383
1753

1328
1683
2009

1208
1531
1828

to24

'7

40

1301

945

398
509

1136

550
?03
845

70ti
815

100
120

0.250

301

0.375

XS

0.500

453
60?

0.875

60
80
100

120
140
160
10

,j

140
160

1760

STD.

lLr

20
30

(24.000)

950

0.250
0.312
0.375

100

22
(22.000)

900

Designation

30

20
(20.000)

850

Number

!
(18.000)

,20 TO 800

Thickness
Inches

XS

18

.4.335 Grade P22

T%

Wall

30

(r6.000)

Alloy Steel Pipe to ASTM

CHROMIUM

Schdule

10
2t)

t6

RATINGS

STD.

XS

2.062
2.344

2093
2399
2752

44'1

157

823
11?
1'77

319

238

t12

425

307
401

966

2303

2095

1788

1311

974

2642

2403

2056

1514

1126

Note: Economics and genral practice dictate a ma-\imum temperature range of f100

F'

85

234

r28

3t2

612

ITT

GRIN\I]LL

PTPING DIISIGN

Temperat,rre, Degrees

Allowable Stress "S" PSI

Allov Steel Pipe to ASTM A312 & 4376 Grade TP-304 & TP-304H

-20 TO 100

200

300

400

500

600

650

?00

17,?00

16,600

16,100

I5.900

15,900

15.900

15.900

18,700

2970

2970

2910

395.1

3954
5568

3954
5568

- Wall

Pipe

ScheCule

Size

Number

Thickness

10s

3493

80s

.083
.109
.147

160

.188

8?

40s

'/4

1%

4651

6548

4128
5818

3007
4004
5688

2970
3954

8250

it37

7504

?4lr

14341

13450

1304,1

12882

12882

?411
12882

?411
12882

2606
3610
5073

2444
338ti

2371

2841
3243

2341

2341

2341

3243

3243

4758

3284
4615

4557

3243
456?

7582
11460

7111
10748

6897
70424

2714

2546

2469

3151
4382
63?9
9761

.083
.113

160

.2t9

XXS

.308

10s
40s
80s

.109
.133
.1?9

2868
3550
4937

3360
4673

160

.250

XXS

.358

7186
10996

6802
10408

10s
40s
80s

.109
.140

2243

2123

1991

1931

2946
4092

2?88
38?3

2rl15
3632

2536
3523

5221
8489

4897

4',7

49

4690

7962

'7722

7626

4690
1626

1316

2345

1276
2214

3301
4795
7\'.73

.Lr4

2753
3814
5360
8011
12108

.191

160

.250

XXS

.382

8969

10s

.109
.145
.200

1483

264r
3?19

1403
250t)
3520

4657

r0295

6811
10295

6811
10295

6811
10295

2438
3018
4198

2438
3018
4198

2428

3056
4250

2438
3018
4198

6187
9467

6110
9349

6110
9349

61li)

1907

190?

2505
3479

2505

190?
2505
34?9

2505

4690

4690

7626

7626

6811

3018
4198
9349

34?9

6110
9349
1907

1260

1260

1260

2246

2246

3202

2246
3162

3162

3162

1260
2246
3162

4651
695?

4593
6870

4593
6870

4593
6870

4593
6870

t312

1331

1314

1314
1894

1314

1894

2733

2133

2783
4485
58?0

160

.2al

5402

XXS

.400

8080

7648

10s
40s
80s

.109
.154
.218

1545

7977

1918

32t5

1463
2108
3043

254

2768

1314
1894
2?33

i60

.344
.436

6904

4682
6129

4541
5944

4485
58?0

4485
5870

4485
5870

XXS

4993
6535
1332
2306
3195

1249

1211

1196

2163

2097

2071.

2996

2906

2071
2870

I196
2011
2870

1196

.120
.203
.276

1407

1196

t0s

2071
2410

3992

3992

40s
80s

10s
40s
80s

2227

2436
3375

.375

4695
'7259

4444
6871

4168
6444

4043

6250

6t'12

6172

.120

t874

990
1817

977
1795

.300

2990

1088
1998
2830

1020

.276

1150
2111

2654

257 4

2542

917
1795
2542

3814

XXS

2870

3992

977
1795

971
1?95

2542

2542

3814

3814
5420

160

.438
.600

4485
6375

4245
6034

3982
5659

5489

5420

3814
5420

10s
40s
80s

.120

1003
1928

949

890

]a25

1711

863
1660

853
1639

853
1639

1639

2752

2605

2443

2370

2340

2340

2340

.226
.318

Note: These ratings refle"t th" or" of tt "

ilhl oil*o

values permitteal under

"tr"ss

ANsl B 31.1 Porver Piping,

5420
85s

see

1894

3992
6172

3a62

xxs
3,q,

310I

10s
40s
80s

160

l6

3306
4402
6198

.294

80s

2t,

Maximum Worhing Pressure, PSI

XXS

40s

\Illilt I\ (i

RATINGS

-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

PRESSURE
Seamless Stainless

r\ND ItN(lI

6172

853
1639
2340

note in introduction'

PIPING \IJTERI,\LS
PRESSURE
Seamless Stainless

Tmpralure Degfees F
Altowable srress
Pipe
Size

is'

Schdu1e
No.

PSI

t l,i

Ilr

zti

15,500

800
15.100

850
14.900

900
11,600

950

l.r i]00

1.000
13.700

1.0i0
12,100

1.100

1.150

1.200

9.700

'i,700

6,000

Wall
Maximum Working I'ressure, PSI

2559

2260

18.1ti

11556

1i009

2114

5007

:140?
4797

4237

ti6ti5

6386

47

I 1586

11100

5640
9804

2783
3705

2727
3631

267

52ai

52ti

5112

7038
12214

6945

ti805
11829

.083
.109

2895
3855

2821

80s

.t41

542t1

160

.188

7225
12558

t2012

3520

1524
2069
3013

2348

42

4112

32i,1

8552

8242

6422
921
r303

118?
1612

10s
40s
80s

.083

2242

2223

2105

20t ?

t7u2

1,150

1186

3161

8080

2194
3039

2150

.tlll

2978

29t'.t

2794

2020

.15.1

1448

.1328

42'tr

.1185

4099

3921

2468
3468

2862

1673
2415

160

6610
10036

6.169

6388
9647

6254

6t26

4311

i1785

2949

945:l

9259

s869
88?0

;183

XXS

.219
.308

ii188

4821

t0s

.r09

2377

2912

2239
2771

2193

1238
1550

1208

80s

.133
.179

4092

2316
2866
3986

2245

40s

385.1

3775

160

.250
.358

580:l
8879

5726
8?61

5610
8585

5.195

XXS

5956
9114

l0s

.109
.140

1859

1811

1715

2442

2:t79

.191

3392

3304

2300
3195

2253

80s

1?87
2347
:t260

1751

,10s

4154
1242

7146

160

.250

4572

XXS

.382

7,134

10s
40s
80s

.109

t229

.200

2189
3082

160

.281

xxs

.400

4477
6698

10s

.109

1281

10s
80s

.t54
.2t8

9777

2828
3934

1877
2630

2208

t720

33,15
5,197

2ii06

958

i47

3191

1451

1178

3129

4307

12t8

4041

7002

6858

6571

t269
1898

3823

2979

111t2

1000

508

1441

2080

808
1169
1ti97

653

1632
2355

951
1396

1087

3861
5058

3413

2816

2373

18,19

3197

2491

9r0
t576

6309

1248
1?98

1231
17'75

12t7

1846

1182
1703

2664

2596
4259

4203

.1118

4034

5501

5390

521-9

l2l

1099
1902
2635

10?6
186:l

1031

258r

2473

3591

3440
5318

I
1941

.276

2798

2726

2689

xxs

.552

3892
6017

3791
5861

:]'7

10s
40s
80s

.120
.216
.300

953
1750

2478

928
1704
2474

2382

898
1648
2335

160

.438
.600

3718

3622

357 4

3502

5284

5148

5080

.120

831

.226
.318

1598
22'31

810
1557
2222

3666
1667

5551

487
885

1628

6438

1136
1967

3361

2435

6525

1166
2019

t942

4314

2885
4381

4131
61?9

.t20
.20t

2192

.1887

3495
5228

2841

42t'.i

10s
10s
80s

2948

3951
5920

2903

4U04

5t22

1405

2'.724

2963

4:172

180:l

625

4362

.436

992

21i0

1136

1086
1935

2454

t273

775

11:J4
2021)

2561

3569
5803

446t

741

785

593
1044

2t134

1280
1783

1469

162
813
1145

3038
4697

2498
3917

2091
3383

1629
2636

482
900
1293

'701
1008

879

812

714

600

1614

1545

1366

i 107

2287

2t9r

1935

1576

3430
4875

3286

2902

2384

1990

4977

4670

4725

3421

2924

1551
2278,

?99
1536

783
1505

ii49

523

7474

t4t2

327
638

2749

2105

2016

10li)
r449

420
819

2rg1

724'7
1781

186

924

91ti
1682

761

stress values permitted under ANSI B 31.1 Power Piping,


Note: 2. Grade 304 may be used at Temperatwes over 1000 F. provided the carbon is 0.04 pelcerlt or higher.

Note: 1, These ratings rcflect the use oflhe highe! of two

4284

1390
1968

1157

2062

1739
2510

1906
2648

96,1

959
1709
2106

1181

2104

5?84

1511

16,{:l
2158
2998

1197
2l:13
3003

4l

1856

7ll5

8409

1881

229',7

3876
6060

.344

10s
,{0s
80s

2101
2601
3617

4650

160

xxs

2714

?834

5265
8056

XXS

160

31,

5{)

Thickness

XXS

Alloy Steel Pipe to ASTM .{312 & A376 Grade TP-304 & TP-304H

40s

10s

RATINGS
-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

see

note in

irttoduction.

95

PRESSURE
Seamless Stainless
Temperal.ure Degrees F.

Altowabt strss "s" PSI

Size

Schedule

\{ all

Number

Thickness

10s
.10s

.120
.237

80s

.ll:17

120
160

..1:18

XXS

.674

.531

.A.376 Grade TP-304

200

300

10i)

500

c00

18.700

17.700

16,600

16.100

15,900

I5.900

889
1?86
2587
3416
12Ltl
5478
:100

.2,48
.:375

1;?0
2311

L20

.500

160

XXS

.625
.754

700
15.900

15.900

3143
3991
48?0

842
1691

789
1586
2291

766

75ii

156

i56

156

15118

1519

i 519

1519

l5t9

2226

22n0

220\:)

2200

2200

2901

3n27

1J582

3582

2904
3582

5185

,1863

.1r-

2904
3582
1658

2904

i1988

3032
:17 40

1658

1ii58

{6;8

680
1335

68t)
1335

680
13i]5

2,1,19

3233

,i57

?10

16

2054

689
1352
1993

1968

l9ti8

19611

r968

2',790

2i06

26i2

2672

2672

3??8
4609

3543
1323

:1436

3394

2612
:lil94

.119::l

.1141

4141

{ 111

.1t

577

570

5?0

570

5;0

t227
t925

t212

t2i2

t212

12t2

1901

1901

1901

1901

251t

25t\

25tr

25tr

3267
3993

326i
s993

3993

326?
s993

1486

139.1

2191

zSi5

680

41

10s

.1:11

670

40s
80s

.281r

1.{25

13,19

.432

22;lr:

2ll6

1265
1985

t2a

.562

2953

2i95

2621

160

.it9

XXS

.861

.1ii97

3637
4445

3111
4169

2512
3308
4041

10s

.1,18

571

.191

.185

,185

,18t

.25t)

860

835

E21

1016

9;3

924

913

821
913

82.1

.2i1

969
1073

540
91?

5,07

20
30

9lll

9.1:l

I189

1115

1081

1068

1068

l0ii8

106u

.106
.500

1256
1592
1980

r507

1413

1353
1683

1353

1ll5:l

1757

l3?0
t704

11153

1871

16U:l

168i1

.594
.719
.812

2369
2896
3301

2242
2712

2103

2040

2014

201,1

2571

2463

2930

2494
2842

2014
216u

3124

2011
2463
2807

280i

2807

:1576
:1712

3381
3513

:t174

3078

30.10

:10.10

8295

:1196

3156

3040
:t156

.3010

160

.875
.906

3156

1t156

l0s

.165

506

436
66?

131

1:t1

131

733

:t0

.30r-

955

90,1

450
688
8.{8

,131

.250

ii5

479

20

822

659
812

659
812

659
E12

659
812

40s
80s

.365
.500

113?
1575
1882

1076

1009
1:198

979
1356

967

1.191

r339

967
1339

1;Jil9

1781

16?1

ti20

1600

967
1339
1600

1600

l60t)

2tt:l

2038

t952

24r5

2:t1:l

1952
2313

1952

2515

19',i7
2:112

2769

60

t20
1,10

XXS

683

280?

824

2l6ll

967

80

.r94

100

.it9

t20
l4i)

.844

2296
2721

i.000

3256

3082

2891

2803

2769

2i69

1952
2313
27t:9

160

1.125

3694

:1,196

11279

3180

3141

31.11

3141

It1.11

r0s

.180

168

r13

.116

103

:198

.250

651

5,54

398
551

863

578
766

56r

.3s0

617
81?

398
554

898

20
30

7.13

'i81

7:14

t:31

1:34

40s

.375

982

930

,372

8,16

.,106

100E

.50t)

945
1173

917

80s

1065
1321

835
906

835
906
1123

8lJ5

.10

835
906
1123

60
8l)

.562

1489
1835

14ll-)

.688

100

.8,14

22i3

l2i)

1.000

2716

t4i)

t.t2n

160

1.312

30?6
3629

1250

1137

1123

l2a2

2t52

1322
1629
2018

1957

1933

1933

19311

25ir

2,111

2309

2309

2972

2'731

2338
2649

26t6

3.135

3221

:1724

3085

2616
3085

2309
2616
3085

t737

1580

1266
1560

t266

1266
1560

l;60

Note: These ratings reflect the use ofthe higher of two slress values permitled under ANSI B 31.1 Pover Piping,

96

& TP-304H

MaximLrm Working Pressure, PSI

.134

100

\2

RATINGS

.29 TO luo

t0s

80s

l0

Alloy Steel Pipe to ASTM ABl2 &

10s
80s

.10s
E

-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

se

90ii
1123

t266
$.t60
193il
231)9

2{;t(;
3085

note in introduction,

PIPIN(; ]IATLR].\I-S
PRESSURE
Seamless Stainless

-OFTEMPERATURE
PI,AIN END

Alloy Steel Pipe to ASTM

RATINGS

& ,\376 Grade TP-304 & TP-304H

.4.312

Tempcrat,rre Degrees F

750

800

850

900

950

j.000

1.050

1,100

I l;rl

1.200

Alloqable Stress 'S" I'Sl

l5,5lio

15.100

1.1.900

1d,600

11.1100

13 700

12.100

9,?00

7,?00

ti.000

Schedule
Size

Number

Thickness

l0S

.r20

709

694

680

ii5l

575

463

371

.23'.7

7:l'1
1480

'718

,10s

r442

1423

1395

1:166

1309

1156

I5'i

80s

.337

2t45

2089

2062

2020

1979

1896

167.1

9iJ5
1361

12

289
590
866

120

.438

27

2612
3222

2502
308ii

2210
2726

1488

1159

2236

18(nl

1.150

4511

4.{24

:l:157
,1;lti5

2667
3289
4277

1805

.53r

58
3.102

2722

160

2831
3492

,1189

.1013

2927

21i:l

t92i

637

625

6r2

586

518

411

t226

1201

1151

I0lii

822

18.1,1

1807

t77{)

1ii96

1497

1216

331
663
990

2t;0

t251

2033

lti5u

1062

258:l

2116

1363
1756

31;

zi,s4

2115

1it68
1695

:t.19

279

2li

601
955

168

XXS

l2

trlaxinrum Workins Pressur, I,SI

l0s

.1114

66ll

10s
80s

.258
.375

1302

t9t8

616
1268
1869

120

.500

2605

2538

2504

2454

2.10:l

160

.625

::l:108

3223

3l8t)

:J116

3052

2302
2924

XXS

.?50

40iJ6

3932

3880

3802

3i24

;l56l.l

523

10s

.1:11

555

5,11

1it4

.280

I151

I 136

1113

104,1

922

.432

1181
1853

BT2
1090

491

40s
80s

1806

1782

l71i;

l?r0

1638

t447

1171

120

.562

24,18

2384

21105

2258

1556

.?19

3103

11000

2939

.86,1

11792

3i

t2

366?

3591

llllI

2186
8039

2035

XXS

3185
3893

2163
2815

19i1

160

2353
3062

10s
20

.l{E

47:l

161

136

{18

.250

80ll

712
855

i51

'7

4t

710

1276
1686
2091

29i

,al1

i11

744
995

l3 t.l
r630

iJL)

.277

890

783
867

838

821

78ii

369
627
695

40s

.322

1041

1011

1000

980

960

812

52'3

12tB

t 166

15i1

15,16

1511

1151)

1030
1281

8:t3
1038

6?3

16,1I

1285
1599

t26E

80s

.106
.500

l3l9

6;ti

{i0

t2Ii

920

t0t)

.59,1

lgtil

913

1850

1812

l7llfi

l53ll

l2{6

.7t 9
.812

2.101

2339

2261

2215

2122

187,1

1526

1011
1251

?90

120
110

2736

2tiiis

1888
2308
2630

257i

2521

2418

2136

1713

1135

1118

XXS

.87;

2964

2792
2898

2620
2719

1891

24t2

1961

1562
1625

12ti

11076

2819
2957

2311

.906

2887
2997

27U4

1ti0

10s

.lti5

420

,109

,r0,1

1ii,1

617

592

50r

263
403

2t0

625

252

.i107

71r

323

30

642
792

31-l
5ii?

328

.250

395
ti05

it87

20

761

.10s

918

906

80S

.365
.500
.591

1306
1560

t272
1520

10Lr

.719

1903

1851

120
l.1t)

.8,1.1

1.000

2255
2699

l6l-)

1.125

3062

10s

.180

.230
;lLr

.33t)

716

10s

.375

81.1

2838

185

,105

:116

,150

3s0

812

Jll
521
656

975

1266

?30

?00

618

.198

399

il11

888

E69

833

736

1230

1205

115.1

1019

1169

1139

1379

1218

665
799

518

1500

593
824
986

1829

li92

1682

1.186

1206

2t97

2t24

981

2r68

765

1993

1760

913

2595

2542

21186

2101-

1132
1719

l17t

2629

1756
2080
2190

1,115

tr02

298:l

2913

2884

2825

2706

2i190

1955

161?

1260

388

il78

il1:l

365

ll58

31:l

30il

243

19,1

526
697

519

i09

15t

5.10

.198

12r

3lJ9

271

iiSll

2tr

671

660

117
633

559

150

361

281

78:l
819

767

751

il20

81.1

512
556

.111

832

636
689

ti90

44ti
556

3.18
.133

189
60?

..106

8llll

793
860

80s

.500

1095

1067

10511

1031

1010

60
80

.562

1231

1202

1187

11ti3

.688

r;21

1.182

1.162

1139
110;]

72A
?80
9ri8

372

1091

964

7t9

628

13,14

961

7i9

l194

97r

100

.lJ:ll

1881

18:.t6

l8l I

t77,4

1r-38

16ti5

I187
1,1? I

120
110

1.000

22i,r

2193

1990

)7

24a4

2352

Itit)

t.ll t 2

2550
3008

2120
2442

2071

Lt25

216.1
2,151

293t)

2E9t

28;13

2775

2251
2659

Note: 1. These ntings rcflect the

2:a t-

505
560

5i

62ll

1169

911

1991

r129
r622

I332

1038

2318

1920

1587

12:16

use of the higher oftwo stress values permitted under ANSI B 31.1 Power Piping,
Note: 2. Crade 316 may be used at Temperatue$ over 1000 F, provided the carbon is 0,04 percent or higheJ.

see

note in

irtroduction,
IJ?

t,tt)t
PRESSURE
Seamless Stainless

Ttmperalrrre Desrtss F
Allowable Strcss
Pipe

"S

Number

Thickness

500

{i00

6;0

?00

18,700

18,701.)

18.30t)

18.000

l?,900

1?.000

16,600

Iti.lt00

3176
1228

;lt0l
{128

it0.15
J05.1

59;3

5813

570E

7921

i'i37
Iit.150

7597
13206

Ma\ imurrr

.1651

80S

.147

6548

.188
.294

{n)

8716

319:l
1651
651E
8716

Prcssure. PSI

3.118

3362

illl,11

,1551

4476

6108

6ll0:]

1152
6268

u5:l(l

8390
115ii4

14503

2650

2636

250:l

2111

2400

3671

3651

:1.167

3;186

382.1

1,1827

15151

$irkins

2494
:ti:J2

834r1

10s

.08i1

2753

2753

.ll)s

.l l3

381.1

:181,1

EOS

.15,1

5360

5360

5159

5131

18?3

.{758

4672

801I
12r08

?839

77tr

1282

71Ll

698t]

118.19

1r655

?66u
11590

11007

l0?.18

105;1

.219
.308

8011
12108

10s

.109

2868

2868

2806

2?60

2516

.t;3

3;;0

;]t5t)

:1174

;llL7

2'i 45
3398

2607

.l0s

:1227

3t5l

2500
3095

80s

.I;9

4937

49117

4831

4752

4i26

,1.188

4:182

.1:103

6264

160

.2,60

6917

6879

iis33

.3;8

7186
10996

7{):12

X\S

7186
10996

6iJ79

10761

1058,{

r0525

9996

9761

9585

10s

.109
.110

22,13
29,16

224:3

2t95

2r59

2147

2946

2883

2aj2{)

2615

1955
25ri8

80s

.191

4092

1092

400,1

2836
3939

2039
2678
3720

1991

'l0s

3632

34,67

160

.250
.882

5310
8633

i280

XXS

5516
8969

5015
8153

489?
?961

1808
?818

10s

.109
.115
.200

1948

1948

1906

1875

1865

t77l

1729

1ti98

10s
80s

26.11

2114r

2585

2528

2:,\O2'

3?19

3639

3560

2401
3381

2343

l]?l9

2542
3580

:t301

u24l

160

.281

54t2

4795

4709

8080

5200
7t 18

49ll

.400

5286
790?

5171

XXS

54t)2
8080

773,5

?3,16

7173

70,13

r09

1545
2227

154i,

1479

1405

13?2

2227

1512
2180

1.188

.15.1

2t44

2782

2025

.2t8

3215

:t275

:J146

3094

,1077

2922

r977
2854

.344
.436

;275

52',78

i162

6904

ri156

5049
6608

46132

6904

5071
6645

4795

XXS

6276

- 6129

10s

.120

1407
24:16

1.107

2436

3375

3375

tB11
2384
3303

1249
2163
2996

2942

4595

1t04

10s
40s
80s

80s

.20:l
.276

5398
8969

8'.117

3917
8585

1941

2802
4598
6018

t226

1354

1347

1279

2345

2332

22t5

32,{9

3231

3069

1520
6987

.1495

4168

409:]

6948

4269
6599

6444

632',1

r002

4695

XXS

.375
.552

,1695

7259

7259
1150

t125

1107

1100

1045

1020

2l11

2066

2[32

2t20

1919

187.1

1840

299{)

2926

2878

21162

27tlt

2654

2606

4389

431t

4293

t3i;

6t02

4078
5795

3982
5659

3910

62:19

9t2

890

1752
2502

t? 11

874
1680
2399

160

10s

.t20

,l0s

.216

80s

.300

1150
2111
2990

160

.438
.600

4485
6373

4485
6375

.120

1003

1003

981

.226

192r1

1886

965
1855

960
1845

.318

2',152

1928
2752

2693

2649

2685

XXS

3'i

.100

J'l9:l

40s

300

.r09

XXS

RATINGS

200

.083

160

2t,"

-OFTEMPERATUR!]
PI,AIN END

-20 TO 100

10s

Iti0

I'r

i\ .\\I) ll\(l1\llllliI\(i

Alloy Steet Pipe to ASTM 4312 & 4376 Grade TP-316 & TP-316H

l0s

xxs

ljl

l)1,:sl(

SchedLile

PSI -

\(I

10s
40s
80s

Note: These ratitgs reflect the use of the higher of two str$s values permitted undet ANSI B 31,1 Power Piping,

2443
see

note in introduction.

PII'I\Ci ]I..\TEItIAI,S

Seamless Stainless

Trmperatu.e Desrees F
Allou able Slress
Pipe
Size

Schedule

' PSI

900

950

1.000

1.050

t.t{)0

1,1;0

1.200

16.000

1;.800

15.700

i5,500

15.10t)

1;.300

11.500

12,10n

9.Ii00

7.100

1.161

Maximum Workin!. I'ressure. PSI

.(,83
.109
.117

2989
3979

2951

293:r
390J

2895

2709

23(;r)

19i19

it85;

2a t-i
3i130

2858

3!29

llli0r)

:\t;2

2ri3l

19rJ9

;603

;5t;l

;.19r'l

;.128

5il9;l

53;i

3606
507?

1195

383+

289i)

l(i0
XXS

_188

7158
12963

?318
12720

6u62

5310

1010

12801

t25r'r8

I718

109:t2

i0190

;921

l0s

.083

.10s

.1t3

.291

2:J56
3263

2:12(:

:t222

2:l12
:12t2

J;86

1529

1501-)

i22;

?178
1211

t-

7131

12396

228,2

226i

22,4:l

2l35

1t;il

I510

1111)

:161

31.11

;1121

2342

{.l.lii

1,11.r

1385

2957
1156

:1659

2129
307i]

2il2l

11iOri

160

.219

6t68

6?26

655.1

62li

55;0

18t?

.308

i0360

102110

1016;

6610
10036

659?

XXS

99;1

9906

988rl

ililll5

?87;

5916

l0s

28.16
290.1

2224

l9il

1575

2:199

t9?3

1.190

l0:19

2132
3828

3362

28l0

2122

5ll?9

55i2

1955

12,;i

321.1

899?

8526

ii J]

6997

52811

t221

l9t)

.109
.138

21151

2:t i?

2362

303;

2123
2999

2108

40s
80s

29U0

2942

_179

1224

41?

1115

4092

292;t
1066

161-)

.2;O

6l.1ll

t:072

6033

XXS

.1158

94011

9291

9232

5956
9111

5918
9055

10s

.109
.110

1919

1895

1817

r835

17:t9

lSli;

2520

21!2

2426

1985

1219
162t)

.191

3501

:1.135

:l:t92

lJ;170

2410
3318

22111

80s

2189
u157

188:l
27i:3

1$9

.10s

3173

2ii

221.)5

l;;J3

160

.25tJ

'1.i20

.16iJ1

,1572

t313

t27l

.382

'i6i

7;30

i !u4

7ll8{i

695.1

iJ7ii9
621?

:11i2

XXS

1513
7338

2:195
l L.lrt

160.1

1591

151{l

t:105

105.1

?96

21i

2018
2881

t7 t6

11,15

I091

:1062

2161
3013

25t6

2ti:)

1565

3689

3100

23{t)

5iirjo

1661
?5?8

5190

921

10s

.109

1ri67

1616

1G35

.10s

.1.15

2260

2232

22t1

80s

.200

3182

3t42

:3t22

2189
3082

16t)

.281

.15ti.1

1120

.100

682?

6?E.l

1177
6698

4.1.19

X\S

4622
6911

(i65.1

6611

1189
6265

10s

.109
.151
.218

1306
1882

1298

1281

L2?3

126,1

1198

l03ll

u31

1906

1E?t)

18,16

1822

t727

27,50

2i16

2699

266,1

l8il.1
2617

230

2193

1195
2169

1210
17?6

I311

l6t)
XXS

4157

1129
5796

l3?2

4090
5:t5il

3599
1?5il

2280

5686

1316
5619

3020

.13ti

4513
5907

{0ii9

)oi2

10s

.r20

t2t4

1189

1159

910

151

570

2081
2888

2058

20r9

1329

1003

2831

2798

2762

1889
261?

1637

2852

2006
27ut)

11;1
r993

t09l

.20:l

11E1
20,15

1lG6

10s
80s

3892
6017

:t867
59?8

38.12

3611

5939

5628

947
173i1

911
1727

891

17i0

161];

2116

2319

36?0
5216

80s

.276

t322

t0l7

160

XXS

.552

6211

10s

.r20

98.1

40s
80s

.216
.300

1806
2558

160

.138
.600

:t8lt8

XXS
10s

x',i

8at)

t0s

.10s

2\,

ll0(l

80s

75r)

Thickness

EOS

1l;

Alloy Steel Pipe to ASTM A3f2 & A376 Grade TP-316 & Tt'-316H

Number

.10s

RATINGS

-OFTEMPERATURFJ
PI,AIN !]NI)

PRESSURE

.10s

80s

.120
.226
.318

58ll:l

3967
613:l
971
1783

3912
609.1

5122

1772
2510

2478

3790
538ti

3?66

:1718

i1691

5852

5281

s250

2s26

rl6?

627
914

22i9

lrl?t)

ll12

319.1
4457

2661
3796

2009
2866

761

61.1

{ti3

1116

2015

1115
1616

865
121:l

31?8

30{7

25llil

1913

49,1B

.1:t?6

:\722

2810
,103

858

8{7

il26

820

7?iJ

6ti9

5lJ,t

1629

812
1618

831

1ii{9

1598

1587

t371

1,195

t292

10.12

?87

2355

2323

231l

2241

2:2$7

2252

2134

1852

1509

t 139

stress values permitted under ANSI B 31.1 Power Piping, see note irl introduction.
Note: 2. Grade 316 may be used at Tempelatuies over 1000 F. provided the carbon is 0.04 percent 01 higher'

Note: 1. These ntings Jeflect the use of the higher of two

99

ITT

PIPI\(i I)llsl(l\,\\l) il\(il\Illlltl\(l

(iI \\l.ll,l.
PRESSURE

Seamless Stainless
Temperature Degrees F

Allosable Stress "S" PSI Schedule

Size

Number

Thickness

10s

.120
.237

120
160

.100

500

600

650

700

r8,700

18.700

18.300

18,000

17.900

17,00{J

16,60i)

Iri.300

Maximum Workins Pressure, PSI


889

889
1786

870
1748

856
l? 19

10

808
1624

789

L?

'175
155?

258',7

25,12

2491

2471

2352

2297

2255

3270

3032

297i

5214

3105
3830
4980

3740
1863

fil5

727

.438

3416

i1416

3343

.531

12t3

42t3

4t23

53iil

3288
4055
527:l

851

.10:13

3672

.67.1

5478

t0s

.13{

40s
80s

.258

800
1570
2314

800
1570

783
1537

1512

1503

1128

?10
1394

1369

231,1

2265

2228

22t5

2104

2054

2{)\1

3075
3906
4766

3025

285i

2790

2739

3842
4687

3008
3821
4661

3629
4127

:t543
4323

34?9
4245

609
129ii
2033

595
1265
1985

1212
1949

.s',t5

12(l

.500

31.13

31,13

160

.625

3991

XXS

.7-o0

.1870

3991
4410

77t)

69?

58.1

10s

.13,{

656

.280

670
7425

670

.10s

1.125

1395

645
1372

e41
1364

80s

.,t32

2236

2236

2188

2t52

2740
2821
3678

2684

262r

2574

4,196

427{)

3411
4t 69

3:150
409.1

519
881
9?6

860
953

845

1742
111't

1r 15
1413

1095
138?

r60

.i,62
.719

XXS

.86'1

10s

.148
.2iu
.277

2953
3843
4697

2953
3843
4697

2890
3?61
4596

2842

5?1

571
969

558
949

549

546

93:l

r073

1051

1033

928
1028

1209

\202

1532

969
1073

t229

3699
4327

40s

.322

1256

1256

60

.40ii

7592

1592

80s

.500

198i)

1980

193?

1906

1524
1895

2369
2896
3301

2:118
28:J5

2280

2268

2?88
3777

2173
3160

100

720
140

.594
.719
.812

2369
2896
3301

:t230

2065

2571

2525

3001

2930

21377

31?4

3442

3423

]'.t12

3632

357:)

3553

33',74

3295

3117
3235

485

715

496
?58

487

775

746

741

460
704
868

450
688
848

441
675
832

1033

1009
1398

20

.250

30

.307

95;

955

9:15

919

914

10s
80s

.365
.500

113?
1575

1112

1094
151ti

1088

80

.59,1

1137
1575
1882

140

2103

37 12

.165

120

r.882

1842

18ll

1801

1711

16?1

991
13?3
1640

2270

2198

200r

2662

2604

24r5

2377

3256

3256

3i87

2619
3134

311?

2087
247:l
2960

2038

2i21

2296
2121

2247

2891

2838

3279

3220

416

408

2296

1541

1432

160

1.125

3694

3694

3615

3556

3536

3358

10s

.180

468

468

458

.250

651

65r

426
592

30

.330

863

863

451
627
831

4,18

2t)

40s
,10

80s
60
80
100

720
140
160

.406
.500

.562
.688
.844

982
1065

982
1065

1321

1321

1489
1835
2213

1489
1835

2273

1.000

2116

2716

1.\25

307ri
3629

3076
3269

1.312

\'726

1800

2154
2623

3576

10s

.719
.844
1.000

9ll6

3576

160

100

49'l

3251

.875
.906

XXS

l2

300

XXS

2t)
:t0

10

20Ll

5,178

120

-20 TO 100

2587

80s

Allov Steel Pipe to ASTM .4312 & A376 Grade TP-316 & TP-816H

Pipe

40s

RATINGS
-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

961
tD42
1293

t457
1796
2225
2658
3011
3551

946

t025
r212

621

766

826
940
1019

893
968

812
945
1173

856
928

1t52

7265

1201

1433
t'7{:6
2188

7425
1757

t322

2176

1354
1668
2066

2018

1298
1600
1981

2614
2961
3493

2600

2469

2471

2367

2945
J474

2797
3299

2'137

2682

3221

3163

i629

pelmitted under ANsl B 31,1 Powe! Piping, see nole in introduction'


Note: These tings reflect the use of the higher of two stress values

100

PIPING I{ATERiAI,S
PRESSURE
Seamless Stainless

-OFTEMPERATURE
PLAIN END

RATINGS

Allov Steel Pipe to ASTM .{312 & A376 Grade TP-316 & TP-316H

Temperature Degrees F

75{l

800

850

900

950

1,000

1,050

1.100

1,1jio

1.200

Altos.able stress "s" PSI

16,000.

15,800

15,700

15,500

i5.400

15,300

14,500

12.400

9.800

7,400

592

Pipe

Schedule

Size

Number

Thickness

.t20

,1

10s
40s
80s
120
160

xxs

.674

10s

.134

40s
80s

.254

1500

1480

1471

1461

2214

21Sti

2t72

2145

2t31

2t17

690
1385
2006

.438

2923

2868
3537
4599

2813
3469
4511

2795

2649

3605
4687

2886
3560
4629

2831

.531

u447

3267
4248

663
1302
1918

685
1344
1980

751

676

612

r327

1318

1955

19,13

2655

728

73',7

2638
3351
4088

3492
,1541

2605
3308
4036

4482
655

659
1293

r.285

1906

1894

2588
3287
4010

2571

473
964

357

1196
1740

1.115

1068

2307
2858
1'.i 42

189,1

2368
3148

1430
1?88

2119

t734

2704

2239

3776

3315

2768
355
'164
1215

2ii8

1624

1227

2746
2662

2010

302
516
572

390
432

.134
.280

573

56ii

362

555

552

t48

519

446

t219

1t7 4
1841

1166

1105

952

1913

119?
187?

1181

.422

1201
1889

r.829

1131

1501

120
160

.562

2495

2479
3226

2448

2432

24t6

2290

.719
.864

2527
3288
4018

3185
3893

3165
3868

314.1

3813

2980
3642

1989
2602
3195

10s

.1.18

,188

2t)
30

.250

829
918

482
819
907

4?3
803
890

470
798
884

1041

1034

13lt

.217

3247
3968

3943

81,1

901

844
1260

1554

10s
40s
80s

4l l4

321
638
951

2437
3095

.750

3266
3984

237i

533
1050

XXS

.625

425

728

620
1218
1795

2689
3415
4167

1310
1688
2090

''.t7
918
1621

161

,142

793
878

752

380
646

832

776

974

838
1065

672

t327

1072

507
646
809

1591

1291

975

22u

1074

1061

1362

80s

.322
.406
.500

169,1

1345
1673

r662

1319
1611

1630

1027
1302
1620

100

.594

202',7

2002

1989

1964

1951

1938

120

.719

2447
2?89

2,101

2385

1951

1592

1,202

2111

2'736

27 t13

2370
2701

2246

.812

2478
2424

2432

140

2559

2228

t827

1379

2964

2945

2925

24r7

305?

303?

1988
2068

1501

3076

2773
2878

337
516
63?

268

202

4n

310
384

t22l

758
1053

607
847

1459

1261

I0l?

639
768
943
1126
1360

60

1054
1336

1284

.875
.906

3059
31?6

3021
3136

3002
3116

10s
20
30

.165

433
663
817

428

425
650
802

120

4t7

4).4

393

6;4

612
792

638
786

634
781

601

40s
80s

.365
.500

936

1306
1560

t297

.59,{

954
1322
1580

942

80

973
1348
1610

930
1289
1540

100
120

1961

1940

1927

l4{)

.?19
.844
1.000

2328
2786

2299
2751

2244
2134

160

1.t25

3161

3121

3101

10s

.180
.250
.330

401
55',7

396
550

739

729

XXS
1ijo

20

30

.250
.307

80?
961
1331

1590

1878

2699

2682

1780
2110
2525

l54l

2226
2664

2197

7249
1491
1801

3062

3042

3022

2864

2499

2058

393
547
'125

388
540

385

383

311
433

716

?11

?06

363
505
669

814
883
1095

809
871
1088

804
871

762

1081

t024

t27t3
1502
1860

t423

1130

1r 16

825
894
1109

60
80

.562

7274

1258

t250

1234

1226

.688

1570

1541

r52l

15tt

100

.u4

t945

1921

1908

1884

1872

1.000

2295

2280

r.3t2

3105

2599
3066

2583
3047

2251
2550

2231

t.125

2324
2632

3008

2988

80s

120
140
160

508

1891

830
900

841

881

2511

2241

9ll

40

74{l

856

1903
2255

.375
.406
.500

40s
12

1509

.50i)

40s

10

761
1528

.2:17

120
160

XXS

Maximum Workins Pressur, PSI

2222
2517
2969

1831

82rl

1562

,158

187

2i;0
459

346

523

395
429
534

710
882

568
707
780
991
1236

604

1763

995
1229
1526

2r06

1827

1488

t724

2385
2474

2074

r696

r2al

2454

2019

Note: 1. These ratjngs reflect the u6e of the higher of two stress \aalues permitted under ANSI B 31,1 Pover Piping,
Note: 2. Grade 316 may be used at Tempentures over 1000 F, provided the carbon is 0,04 petcent or highet.

see

note

748
934

ir introduction.
101

ITT GIIINNELL PIPING D]'SIG\ AND U\GINI']F]IIIN('


A.S.T.M. CHEMICAI REQUIREMENTS OF VARIOUS PIPE AND TI'BE MATERIAISX

-i'

i;
E

.,\335

0.10 to 0.20

0.30 to

0.t0

0.10 to 0.50

U.l(l to 0.20

0.30 to 0.{iL

0.10 to 0.30

0.3010 0.iiO

0.1, mt|i

0.:10

0.81

0.{1to 0.65

1.00to

{i.00

0.{:) to 0.ti5

6.00

0.+5 to 0.05

6.00

0.+5 to 0.ii5

0.50 to 1.0o

to
1.00 to
{i.00 to

8.00

0.{-l to 0.(i5

3.00

0.030
0.030

0.030

0.J0 m,tr

0.30 to 0.(;0

0.1,1ntrr

0.30 to 0.00

0.25 to 1.00

miri

0.30 to 0.60

0.50 to 1.00

i;

rl)r

1.00

1.00 to 2.00

0.

0.50

mrx

0.50

to 0.60

0.0i

to

0.30 to 0.00

0.I5 n1,rr

0.-l-l io

0.15

to
0.30 to
1.00

0.50 mllx

0.6I

0.1; mx\

0.30 to

0.1; Ir1ax

0.30 to 0.00

0.030

0.i; ma\

0.30 to 0.60

0.i; mr\

0.30 to 0.00

0.030
0.030

0.09 mo\
().il i to 0.10

2.00 n1r)(

1.15

0.00 to

to 10.00

i.10

1.50

0.1{ to 0.65

L25

0.11to 0.65
0..1-1to 0.65

to 1.05

to
1.90 to

2.65

0.50 max
0.50 m&x

3.35

to

1.13

20.00
..
18.00to20.00 1

ll

2.60

87

2.00

n:rri

1 0.7i m.rr
0.030 0.75 mlr

2.00

m&\

0.030

TI'3C1)

2.00

mr\

0.010

0.030

0.75 mL1\

Tt,3r0

2.00

mr\

0.0

r0 I

0.030

0.75

2.00

mr\

0.010

0.030

0.75 mex

TP 316H8

2.00

ma\

11.0

to 1J.0

10.00

TP 316L
TP 316N},
TP 317

2.00

ma\

10.0

to 15.0

16.00 to 18.00

2.00 to 3.00

to 20.00

3.00 to.1.00

TP

304

TP 301}I
TP 3O4L

Tt,31d

TP 321
TP 321H
TP

3.17

TP 347H
TP

rr.r\"

0.03ii

3-1IJ

0.030

0.75

2.00 msx

0.0t

mar |

0.04 kr

mex

0.013

0.0;i0

2.00 ma:i

0.llj

{).03 m&x
0.(l'1 to 0.10

2.{)0 max

:1.00

ma\

TP 34iJH 0.0'1 to 0.1{)

0.7; m:rx

0.04t)

m.rr

mtr

8.0 to 11.0
E.0

to

ll.0

8.0

to

13.Q

13.00 to 20.00

12.0 to 15.0

22.00 to 2.1.00

to 22.0

2'1.00 to 26.00

11.0 to 11.0

i.ti.00 to 18.00

111.0

11.0 to 11.0

1E.00

to

1E.00

0.75 max

9.0

to

13.t)

17.00 ro 20.00

nld\

9.(l

to l:].0

17.00 to 20.00

{1.7;

0.030
t,.0;U I

0.75 max

9.0 to

lr.7ir max

9.0 to 13.0 17.00 to 20.00

0.030

0.75 max

9.0 to

13.1)

17.00 to 20.00

to

13.0

17.00 to 20.00

u.75

ma\

9.0

13.0

13.00 to

tr.03ll

0.u;lr)

'.

1..

2.00 to 3.00
2.00 to

3.00

17.00 to 20.00

a For rmalt diameler or rhin wals or both, where many drawing passes art required, a taJbon maximum of 0.040 perc is necessaJv in
Eades TP 304L and TP 316 L. SmaI ourside diameter and [8ht $ ail tubes are defined as lhose less than UJ(ru Inch rn oulsoe druneler ano lers
'rian
0.049 inch in averase wal thicknss (0.044 inch minirnum wall rhickness).
The titadum content'shall be not less ahan five times the carbon content and not morcthan0.70 percnt- - -c
iiriuntiurn oiui riniatm contenr shall be not less rhan refl times lhe carbon content and not more than 1.00-peren1

itii

dciadepscsha'iraveatitaniumcontentofnotlessthanfourtimesthecarboncontentandnotmorthan0.70percent,oracolumbum

contenr ofeishr to len limes lhe carbon conrenl.

ftri cotuitium ptuiianiuLr. cont*t thull be no! less rhan eighr rims lhe carbon conlent and nol more lhan 1O0 peicent.
./ rhe riranium coritent shatl b not less lhan four limes the carbon contenr and nol mole than 050 percenl.
;-

For welded TP 316 and TP


ll6H Dip. the nickel ranse shall be 10.0-14 0%
-are-iainiicir
iir ctremtsr;es 16 tp lo4 ana Tp 3t6, respecthrly. excepr thal lhev also contain 0.10{.16% hvdrosn
ip lo+r.r'-ir-rp lleN
The mthod of nitroeen analvsb shall be a rnatter of agreemeni belween the Purchaser and the manulaclurer'
for
' From 1980 A.S.T.M. Specifications Steel Pipins Vaterials.

l,

to2

PIPING MATERIALS
SELECTION OF MATERIALS
Sclcction

of

nraterials

for a

specific application

requires a knorvledge of currcnt, industry-rvide practices.

Rcscirrclr,,rgrnizr,rior.s ilro crrnsltl,lly seeking irnpror"cd mctliods for haudling the eler increasing problems encouute|td iri ihe fluid transportation of moclern

indnstry. I'rcssurcs no\r co\"cr the rarge from high


vacuum to severrl thousand pclunds per square inch.
Temperature-s of 300'Ir to i500'F are nolr eDcountcrcd rather frerluently and these extremes may be

excccdcd

in tomorros''s discoveries, Solids, semi-

solids and slurries are conveyed in piping n'ith considerable succcss. All manner of corrosive fluids and
soh'ents are pipcd l'ith comparative case and safety.

The entire piping industry has met these challenging


problcms l-ith a l-ide &ssortment of metallic and nonmetallic piping mtterials and protcctive coatings.
The scvere servicc conditions found in main steam
and reheat lines of central pol'er stations have been
successfully handled s'ith a varicty of materials. A
list of piping matcrials ar-ailable is shorvn on ihis page.

Pipe and Tubing Materials


General Applications*

A.S.T.M. Designation

Mate aI and Common Name


CARBON STEEL
Welded

Electric Resistant welded

Steam and water piping as encountered in steam


power plant piping such as main steam lines, bleed
steam Lines, boiler feed lines, boiler blow{ff lines,
drain piping;up to 7500 F. Non{oFosive gas and air
lines ill proce$s piping.

Al35

Al34
Electric Fusion Welded

A139
A.671

Seamless

A53
A106

SpiJal Welded

A2!l

LOW ALLOY STEEL


Carbon Moly
1/2/.

Moly
I% ChJorne - Y2% Moly
l%% Ctuom. - 1/2% Moly
Clvome

-1/2%

zlaVo Chrcme - 1%

Mo\y

A.335 P1- 4.69l CM-XX


4.335 P2. .4369 FP2.

4.69l

lz Cr
A335 P12. A369 FPl2, A69l l Cr
A33s P11. A369 FPl l. A691 l/a Cr
A335 P22. A369 FP22.A691 2%Cr
A'335

4-6% Chrome w/Silicon

ZCUehJome wtriiarium
4{7, Chro4ete/Columbiqlr
1/o Ctuone -lz% Moly
9% Cl|.Jollre - 1% Moly
3/r% Nickel seamless and
rcsistant welded

A67 2

as

For se ic$ wherc temperatures are above 7500 F


encounteled in high pressure and temperature main

steam and rcheat lines. The particulal selection


depends on operalilg temperatue and corosion
considerations.

P5

A335 P5b

Al35

P5c

A335 P5c
A335 P7
A335 p9
A333 crade 3

Prccessing as encountered in oil rcfinedes, air p!eheaters where highly corrosive conditions exist, cata-

lytic processirB units.

Low termpela1ure process piping where impact


toughness is requiled.

STAINLESS STEEL
18% Ch$rne - 87o Nickel
187a Chrome - 12% Nickel
18% Chrome - l2% Nickel
18% Chome - 10% Nickel
18% Ctuome - l07a Nickel

A312 TP 304 & H & L. A3s 8 TP 304


A312 TP 316 & H & L. A358 TP 316

4312 TP 317
A312 TP 321 & H
A312 TP 347 & H. A358 TP 34?

COPPER PIPE
COPPER TUBE

842

ALI]MINUM ALLOYS

8210,8241

888

Piping for nuclear and fossil central station work,


'.,{ianr

oi,narhAerar.

in}anql

exnau$ DrDes. cotto$ve serqces.

^^hhn{ti^n

enainF

Process steam, air and water piping.


Instrumental lines and domestic use.

Corosive services
* General applications aie subject to the various code limitations, and specific service conditions.

103

ITT GRINNT]LL - PTPING DESIGN AND DNGINF]I]III\C


Flanges, fittings, bolting material and gaskets are
covered in succeeding pages.
If structural stability is a factor of consideration,
the limiting temperature in general practice for use of
carbon steel is 7500F and for carbon moly steel is
850a F, whereas, if stability is not to be considered,
900-1000' F for carbon steel and 950-1050" F for
carbon moly steel are the limiting temperatures.
Temperature ranges as practiced in fossil type central power stations for low alloy steels are: % Chrome
y: Moly ?50-950o F, 1 Chrome % Moly 850-9750 F,
17n Chrome % Moly 900-10000 F and 21/a Chrome 1
Moly up to a design maximum of 10500 F.

The intermediate alloy steels have limiting temper.


atures for short time service between 1200-13000 F
and the austenitic stainless steels have been used up

to 1600" F for special services.


In oil refinery work the "chrome steels," 4--4/o,
7V.9%, and 13ti Chrome, have found considerable
favor for high temperature service for oxidation and
corrosion resistance,
Suitable materials for the sub-zero, or low temper-

ature, applications include fine grain carbon steel,


nickel alloys steels, and austenitic stainless steels.
The corrosive conditions found in the chemical and
process industries have been successfully overcome

Fitting and Flange Materials


Classifrcat

Material Specification

iotl

Dimension

Deciflcation

Ceneral Applications

CAST IRON
ScJewed Fitting$

A.S.T.M. A126
A.S.T.M. A126

ANSI BI6,4

Steam, aiJ, gas and

ANSI816.1

Flaryes and Flanged Fittings

(25-800 rb)

MALLEABLE IRON

ANSI B16.3

(l50-300lb)

A.S.T.M. A47 or Al97

Screwed Fittinss and Flanges

CAST CARBON STEEL


Screwed

Flanged

Screwed

Flaiged a.d Flange-d Fittings

\rater, power^. refinery


to /)u- f or ln

ANSI B16,5

A.S.T.M. A105
A.S.T,M. A10s
A.S.T.M. A181

ANSI B16.5
ANSI B16.5
ANSI B16.5

excess according to adjustd


ratings in ANSI B16J.

Refinery, gas. power ald^non


coEosive piping up to 750" F,
Above 7500 F alloys are used.
Carbolr steel for steam, watei,
power, refnery, gas and non cot-

WELDINC*CARBON AND
ALLOY STEEL
Butt Welding Fittinss

Fittins.

ANSI RI6

A.S.T.M. A234
A.S.T.M. A105

ANSI 816.I

A.S.T.M. 862

ANSI B16,15

I
(125-2s0lb)

Sdewed Flanges and Flanged

Fitthgs

A.S.T.M. 862 (1501b)

ANSI816.24
ANSI B16.24

Solder Fittinss

Forge-d
Stainless

Heat Resistant
COPPER

Fitinss
AIUMINUM
Butt WeldirS Fittit8s
Solder

104

rosive piping up to 7500 F. Above


7500 F alloys are used.
Steam, water, gas and oil piping,.

A.S.T.M. 861 up to 5000 F.


A,S.T,M. 862 up to 4000 F.

A.S.T.M. 862

ANSI B16.I8

A.S.T.M. A217

ANSI B16.5

sure steam,

A.S.T.M. A182
A.S,T.M. A182
A.S.T.M. A297

ANSI B16.5
Made to ordet
Made to orde!

temperature and corrosion con-

High tempelatue and prer-

AI,|JOY STEEL
Cast

Air and gas piping betow 5500 F.


.Stearn,
ano gas plpulg up

A.S.T.M. A216
A.S.T.M. A216

FORGED CARBON STEEL

Socket Weldins and Threaded


BRASS OR BRONZE
Sciewd Fittings

oil piping

not over 4000 F.

No established stardarfu
A.S.T.M. 8361

No established standards

oil and corrosion rcsis-

tance sewices. The padicular


selection depeflds on operaling
sidelations,

With copper pipe and tube.


With aluminum pipe

PIPING }'IATERIALS

with a variety of metallic and non-metallic piping


materials. In the interest of economy and structural
strength many of these materials are applied to pipeing by the techniqLres of cladding, plating, lining or
coating. The table of pages 107 to 112 indicates the
relative resistance of several piping materials to the
corrosive effeets of certain chemical substances which
ale commonly encountered in this class of work,
The severe erosive effects of slurries and semisolids are adequateiy offset with the use of soft rubbel linings. The true measures of proper material
selection are safety and economy. Knowledge of the
research and practical experience of the piping industry is the key to this objective.
Pipe and tubing ale made in tlie follo$ ing matelials
in addition to those mntelials shogn in the table.
Pipina )lukrial
,{, -i."1i.. \r^+"1

Bmss
IJronze

Cr-.t Iron

Ccncnt lsl)cslos
Clar' .Scrrcr (\'iiri{iccl

Chy)
(lorcrctc-Sorcr
l)o\\'mctd
( llrss
Illl,.lelloy
LcrrrL
\Ioncl
fluntz fletal
Nir.hrome
Niclicl-( oppcr-Zinc
Ni|licl-\langrrrcse
l)Lutic
PorcclLin
Iieinforccd Concretc

IJses

Cor.osion Resistence
Corrosion Ilesistance
Corrosion Ilcsistrnce
Ur'tltrsrorrrrd r\'rter end qas
Corrosion Resistrnte Conosion
Lnderground Server
LndergroLrnd Server
Corrosion llesistance
Corrosion Resistance
Colrosion Ilesistance
Conosion llesistance
Corrosion Rcsistrnce
Corrosion Resistance
High Temperuture and
Colrosion llcsistence
Corrosion llcsistance
Corrosion Resistance
Corrosion Resistrnce
Conosion Resistance

Iinderground

rtplnq tlotenaL

LIses

Rubber

Conosion and Erosion Resistance


Non-ContaminatiDg
Corrosion Ilesistance
Corrosion llesistance

Tin

1\rood

Zinc

Bolting

For the average lorv and medium pressure irrstallations, bolts are made up in staggered sequence l'ith
open end u'relches rvhich rvill usually result in adequately tight joints. For the high pressure and
temperature joints it becomes increasingly more
important to make up each stud to a definite tension.
Torque u'reriches are sometimes used lor this purpose.
In exceptional cases n'here a more positive method
is desired, the studs may be tightened until a definite
elongation has been attained.
For thjs condition an initial cold tension of 30,000 to
35,000 PSI in each stud is recommended. Since the
\'Iodulus of Elasticity of stud maierial is 30 X 106
PSI, a tension of 30,000 PSI r.ould result in a unit

of"

30,000

: 0.001 inches per inch of


lO X tOu
effective length. The effective length is the distance
betlveen nut faces plus one nut thickness. Special
studs rvith ground ends are required to make micrometer measurements for this purpose. After the joint
has been in service periodic checks of the actual cold
lengths as compared rvith the tabulated lengths rvill
elorrgation

detect any permanent, elongation of the studs. Permanent elongation ivill indicate over stressing and creep.
trVhen these conditions become severe ne*' studs may be
required to properly maintain the joiut.

Boltine Material

Matedal and Appearance

Steel Machine Bolts

Matedal
Specilication

Thrcaded

to

Dimensional
S

pecification

Applications

Gercral

A.S.T.M. A307
A.S.T.M. Al94

ANSI81.1

SleelNuts

ANSI 81,1

ANSI818.2.1
ANSI 818,22

Nuts for Carbon and Alloy Steel

A.S.T.r\,I. A194

ANSI B1,1

ANSI B18.2.2

Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel

A.S.T.M. A193

ANSI BI,1

ANSI B18.2.1

Hgh Pressure
a]Id
Temperature

HEh Pressure

Bolts and Studs

Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs and Stud Bolts


Nuts for Alloy SteelBolts, Studs and Stud Bofts

Service

:md

Temperatule
A.S.T.M. A32O
A.S.T.M. A194

ANSI B1.1
ANSI B1.1

ANSr B18.2.1

Low Temperature

ANSI B18.2.2

Service

r05

ITT

GIiIN\I'I,I,,

PIPING ])I,]SI('IN AND ENGI-\I'EITING

Gaskets
Standards of design and material for gaskets are ANSI
816.20 for ring joint gaskets and ANSI B16.?1 for nonmetallic gaskets. A wide assortment of metallic and nonmetallic flat ring or full face gaskets are available for the

wide variety of commercial applications.


Gasket materials are usually softer than ihe flange
faces in order to preserve the flange. The gasket is
therefore expendable for continued makingand breaking
of the joint. In most "soft" gaskets their mechanical

strength is lou/, dictating a minimum thickness


consistent with adequate sealing properties. Extremely
soft materials, such as rubber, are made full face to

gaskets for raised face flanges have an outside diameter


which matches the inside edge of the bolts or studs. The
inside diameter is determined by the size of the "hole" in
the flange plus an allowance for distention inward at the

time of make up. This allowance varies with different

malerials making it necessary to rely

and groove and male and female gaskets are cut to fit the
female part of the union.
Modern design practicetends toward the elimination of
flanged joints with the substitution of all welded lines.
This procedure overcomes the flange maintenance
problems.

reduce unit pressure and minimize crushing. Flat ring

Gasket Materials
Iluid

l'cmps. uD to 1000'
Stcam (Fligh Pr.ssure)

Temps. up to 220"

Hot-f

flaterial

SDiral \Yound Comp. Asbstos

Sicel, Corrugated or Plain


llonel, Co useted or Piain
I Il'droqcn-,\nncalcd Ful.nituf e Iron
Siainless Stccl I2 to 117. Chromium, Corrugatc(l

l'

Tomis. ui to looo' F
Tcnps. up to 1000' l'
Temp-. up to 750' F
T"rn]ls. up to 600' F
Temps. up to 600" f

Slc.!m (LoN-Pressufe)

Clasket

Application
Temps. up to 1000" F
Tcmps. up to 1000' F
Tcmps. up to 1000" F

Ingot Iron, Speei.rl lting-'Lypc Joint


Comp. Asbestos

F.

lcclium and -iIigh Plc;.sules

Hot Lorv Pressutes


Hot.......

l-opp"r. Currue:rtod or Plain


Red

Ilubber-\\'irc

Inserted

Black Rubber, Red Rubber-\1:irc Inserted


I'trorvn llubber-Cloth Inserted
Comp. Asbestos

Ilcd Rubber-\\iire Inscrtcd


Blacli Rubber
Solt Rubber
Brown llubber-Cloth Inserted
Oils (lIot)
O;ls (Cold)

TenT ps.

up to 750'

Comp. Asbestos

Ternps. up to 100C" F
Tcmps. up to 212'

F.

Cas

Acids

Cofli Fiber

\coprenc Comp. Asbesros

Temps. up to 750" F
Temps. up to 220' 1".
Tenps. up to 1000'

Comp.,\sbcstos
Iled Rubbcr
.spiral \Yound Comp. .\sbestos

Temps. up to 1000'
r'
remDs. u]r Irr

I
'trr
'firmis. up to ij00' F-.

Asbestos-NIetallic

'l'cmps. up to 220" F

Ited Rubbcr

(\'ades-See -.ection on Corrosion)


Hot or Col.l \lilleral Acids . . . . .

Shrrrt Lead or Allov Steel


Comp. l3luc ,{sbesios
\lover llluc -{sbestos

Ternps. up to 1000'F
Tenps. up to 700" F

Asbcstos-Nfetrllic
Comp.Isbestos
Iled Rubber
Thin Asbestos

\\'clrk Solutiorls

Hot.. ....
Cold.......

106

Ineot hon, Special Ring-Type,Ioiut

Tcpps. up to 300' F.

...

upon

recommendations of the gasket manufacturer. Tongue

Sheet Lead

PIPING XIATERIALS

CORROSION

Corrosion occurs rvhen an electric potential forces


ions of the corroding material into aqueous solution.
This reaction l'ill contilue so long as the material is in
contact lrith 11,ater, or r-ater vapor, and the material
reniains anodic (ncgative voltage) to its environment.
The voltage may lesult flom, (1) the electrode poteniial
of the material, (2) exterlal sources, orJ (3) from a
combination of the t\ro. Electrode potential is the
characteristic of any naterial to be anodic (negative)
or, caihodic (positive) in relation to other nraterials.
The rate of corrosion may be economically retarded

These materials include the stainless steels, lead, nickel,

by:

corrosion resistance.

Selection of costlier "corrosion resistant" maielial,


Application of protective coatings.

2.
3. Deactivation of thc corrosivc fluid.
4. Cathodic protection of the base maierial,

Piping matclials are subject to internal and/or


external corrosion. Internal corrosion can usually be
predicted and controlled sincc the nature of the fluid is
knorin. External corrosion is the more difficult to
foresee due to the variety of atnospheric and soil conditions rvhich may exist around a single pipe line.
Noiable among these are the striiy currents and acid
soils encountered by underground lines.
Corrosion resistant naterials are usually best adapted
to specific uniform conditions rvhich can be predicted.

CHEMICAI RESISTANCE OF PIPING MATERIALS

copper,

tin,

aluminum, and their alloys. Various

plastic, mineral, and oiher nou-metallic materials are


in.hr/la.l in thic or^rrn

Protective coating, cladding, lining, plating and


painting may be readily adapted to internal and
external protection of the ldss expensive base materials,

Coatings include cement, asphalt, tar, and rvaxes.


Cladding rvith stainless steel and lining l'ith cement,
rubber, porcelain, plastic and synthetic rubbers or
plaiing lith metals offer many possible solutions to
Deoxidation or de-activation of the corrosive fluid
may be economically justified in many process applications. An example of this is the deaerating of boiler
feed rvater.

Cathodic proteciion of piping has been successfully


applied to some underground installations by imposing
a direct cuuent positive potential to the pipe in relation
to the ground. A more receut commercial application
of the same priricipal is the use of an expendable anodic

naterial in mildly corrosive systems.


The follorvirg table indicates the corrosion resistant
qualities of some of the more common piping materials
to various chemical reagents. NIore detailed information is available from the chemical supplier or from the
manufacturer of the verious piping ma{erials.
G-Good

D-Depends on Conditions

l. 'l'he inlormation gileD in this tsbLe has been tabulated lrom larious references, Ior use as a general suide. Belore specific applications
are"made all se.rice coDditions, such as pressures, tempe.atures, concentrations, operatins cl cles, etc., should be reliewed !ith the manufscturer
* Spaces left blank in the "Exposure Conditions" column indicate informRtion on exact test conditions udavailsble.

r07

I'1'T

GItI\\EI,I,

PIPIN(I DESIGN AND F]N(IINF]I.]RI)i(i

CHEMICAI RESISTANCE OF PIPING MATERIALS

(Conti.nueil)

G-Good D-l)epenils on Conditions

F-I'air

U-Lrnsuilrbie

1. The inlomration gi'en h this table hes bean tabulatod from varjous references, for use as a sonral.auide.
arc made alt service con-rditions, such as prcssures, temperatures, concentrations, operatins cvcles' etc.' should be re

' .
Staces

i08

left blank in the "nxposure Conditions" column indicrte inftrmai,ion on exac6 test conditions unayail&ble.

:e specific applications
with the manufrcturer

IIPI\G,\I-\TI]]1I,\LS
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF PIPING MATERIAI-S (Continued)

G-Good

F-!'air

D-Dcpends on Conditions

ti-llnsrliteble

t. The iniormation gii,c jr this t&ble has beeD tablrlated lroDr various relerences, {of use rs ll genaral auide. Befo
are made all service conditions, such as pressures, taupefatures, concentrations, operatin!. .]ycles, etc., should be reviewed

the manutacturer

* Spacs Ieft blank in the "Exposure Conditions" columo indicate inlormation on exact test conditions unavailable,

109

ITT GRINNELL -PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING


CIIEMICAL RESISTANCE OF PIPING MATERIAIS (Coniinued)

C-Cood

I'-Frir

l)-Depcnds on Conditions

tr-lhsrritrble

has been tabulated from 1'erious references, Ior use as:r eeneral.suide.. Bcforc specific applications
l. 'fh"j"to"^rti." et""" t" thts table
;ti;;;i"ttoiaii;ons. such as pressures, temperatures, concentrations, operatine cvcles, tc , should ba revioved vith the manufacturer
".;;;e;
jt]i?,?:",:t
"'
or'"o r rhe ,,Exposurc conditions" cotumn indicatc informr.tion on exact test conali'"ions unavailable,

110

PIPING lIATERIAI,S
G-Cood

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF PIPING MATERIAI-S (Continue't)


2S

nxposure
Conditions

Chemical

llumi-

Palmitic,{cid

Phenol (Cerbolic

Acid)
I'hosphoric .\cid

[,olRed lt1st cop- Lead CarIlrass Iron per

()\'er 500
)r'pr I000"1,'
Rm -212"1,'-\Iorsturc

II

l)

t)

(;

Picdc

212"-b

DT

-\la\
D

Potassium

II

(;

T)

Sodium Bicarbonqta hqkino sndr


Snrli,, m Risrrlnheie

t)

SodiLrm Carborste

Ci

G
G

(l
Cl

D
U
--e--l

G
G

G
I_)

G
G

!'

(;

G
G

Ci

--r
-?=-

Po\\ders

D
TI

rtt

F'

lv

T)

-ttt
-Tt

Propane

Sodium Chloride

(]

(-,

--trl

Il

Over 0 I 'ii.

("

CI

-l-l

q,,tnL.1

r'

al

--rT

Pot,rss;rn (ilrloride
I'nirssirrm Cvrnirle
D^i^""i,,-

(i

1,-D

lcid

(;

2piiried.70"I
le\;

Soft
Rubber
U

aerated,

f,

\Yrotghl, 3lass n
llerd
Iron

-l0r'o

U-Unsuitalte

301 316
U

r2?7; 212'I.;

t5%;

D-Depends on Conditions

\atrF \atu-

Stainless
Stccls

lloncl

Stcel

Urer 1000"1'

Crude

tr'-Fair

200"

Sndirm Cvrnide
Sodium Hydroriide

rt. st

,F'

\{eianhosnhBtc

Sodium Perborate

T)

-r
G-.1)

IJ

Sodium

Sodium -Nitrate

I Xll'1,

Sodium Hypo-

cnlorlte

212"

'/"1 122"t'

Sodium Phosphate,
Sodium Phosphaie,
diabasie

Sodium Phosphate,

TI

D-F

G-r

TT

r'

r'
I

II

G
G

G
G

Sodirrm Silicate
Sodium Sulphide

c-t )
Sodium SuIDhite

50%: 320'F
G

1. The information given in this table has been tabulated from l'arious references,. for use as a geleral.suide.

Before.speciffc spplicationg

.
such as p"essurcs, temperatures, concentrations, operatins crcles, eic., should be revie$ed with the manu{acturer
a.;;;J; ;n
";.vi;t;;iaittons,
"'jtil??l"i;t, tt*t i" the "nxposure conditions" column inilicate idormation 04 exact iest conditioDs unavailable.

111

ITT GRINNELL PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING


C-Goocl

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF PIPING MATERIALS (Continued)


T,ou

I:)rposLrre

Chemical

Conditions

2S
(,opCrr- floncl
,\lumi- llcd Casi
Iron Ier Lead
num

St.,el

Sodium Sul!hile

Strrirloss

ILI'nsuil,,lno

\\ioughi

Stlcls

Iron

\lltuGlsss

301 31ri

rtL

Irrtl

\uHC(\;

ral

Soft
lhLbber tlrrbber
I

(,1

7.5% + 2%

D-Depcnds on Conditions

Ii-lflir

Solution in pulp and


Sodrum

Thiosulphate

s.,/-

s.t n
.

c
G

(i

(l
(i

(
(

ic Chlnrnle

Stccm

Less th3n

)u:

500'l'
I

llnil

Sulphur

r)- L

Solid

I)

I)

I)
I)

T)

T)

t)

:en:501J"1,'

Sulphu

lJio\ille
I

)rv

] Ioist
SrLlphuric Acid

l)rlritc

(1

t,

t'-a]

TI

t'
Tr

t,'

SLrlphur'Irioridc,

lrichloretl,ylcne

II

II

G
I,'

X{oist

G-I)
lliater. acid mine.
cont g o\lolztng

G
G

II

U
G

t1

(i

t,-

(1

I)

(i

(;

II
Ir

(l

I)

I)

l,
Zinc Chlnrirlo
Zirrc S|llphate

I)

C1

tl,

al-J)

(i
IJ

1, The info.nation siven in this t.ble has beoD tabulated lrom va.ious references, for use as x seneral euide. Before specific apDlications
are"rnade all service conditions, such as pressures, teDrperatures, concentrstions, operating cydes, etc., should bs rarienod \yith the manulacturer
+ Spaces

112

lelt blank in the "Exposure Conditions" column indicate informotior on ex&ct iest coDditioDs unafailable.

PIPI\G \IATERIALS

TEMPERATURE RATINGS FOR CAST AND


FORGED STEEL PIPE FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS.
PRESSURE

Introductory Notes:
1, The pressure

temperature ratings in Tables


- inclusive apply to all products
2-150 to 2-2500
covered by ANSI 816.5

2.

All ratings

ar.e

1977.

the maximum allowable

non-

shock pressures (psjg) at the tabulated temper-

atures (oF) and may be interpolated between


the temperatures shorvn.

3.

It

is assumed the tempelerture of each mater.ial


shorvn in tal)les 2-150 to 2-2500 inclusive is the
tempelatule of the contnined fluid.

Information in the Introductory notes, Table 1 on Mat_


e als and Pressure-l'emperature Ratings, was extracted {rom

American Standard Steei, pipe Flanges, and Ftanged Fittings


19?7) rvith the permission of the publisher.
IANSr 816.5
The Ame can -Society of Mechanical EngineeG, 10 East 40th
Street, New York 14, N. y,

4. The use of these ratings requires gaskets


forming to the following requirements:

con_

(a) Materials and dimensions for ring joint


gaskets shall conform to ANSI Bi6.i0
(b) Materi:Lls and dimensions for gaskets, other
than ring joint gaskets, shall confirm to
ANSI 816.5, Annex E and ANSI 816.21.

5. General. The products coveled by this standard


shall be either steel castings or steel forgings
and the bolts, nuts, etc., shall be steel, all as

listed in the respective ASTM specifications


leferred to in Tables 1A and 18.
6. Ptoducts used within the jurisdiction of the
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the
ANSI Code for Pressure Piping are subject to
the maximum temperature and stress limitations upon the material and piping stated therein.

7. High Temperature Service. In addition to the


fo|egoing considerations, the user should recognize that, at temperatures in the creep range,
gradual lelaxation of flanges, bolts, and gaskets
may progressively reduce bolt loads. It may be
necessary to alrange for periodic tightening of
bolts to prevent leakage. Joints subject to substantial thermal gradients may require the same
attention,

Low Temperature Service. In addition to the


foregoing considerations, the user should recognize that some of the materials listed in the

rating tables undergo sufficient decrease in im_


pact resistance at low temperatures that they
cannot safely sustain shock loadings, sudden
changes of stress or temperature, or high stress
concentrations.

8. Bolting. Boiting listed in Table 18 shall be used


in flanged joints covered by this standard.
Bolting of other material may be used if per_
mitted by the applicable code or governmental
regulation.

113

I'fT (}RI\NDLI, PIPING 1)I'SICI\ .\\D U\(}I,\]]]UitI\(;

TAETE

1A

tIST OF MATERIAT SPECIFICATIONS


Applicahle ASTM Specilications
PBODUCT FORMS

GROUP 1 MATERIALS

MATERIAL

NOMINAL
DESIGNATION

cBOUP No.

a1o5
arsr-Il

1.1

PLATES

CASTINGS

FORG INGS

SPEC.-GR

NOTES

(1)(3)

SPEC.-GR

NOTES

A216-WCB

(1)

A216-WCC

(r)

(1)(3)
(10)

SPEC._GR
A5l5-70
4516-70

NOTES
(1)
(1)

4537-C 1.1

C-Mn 5i
1.2

A203-B
A203-E

4352-LC2

t/2 Ni
3-1/2 Ni

A352-LC3

A350-LF3
A

1a1,1

a515-60

{3)
(10)
1)

(1)

4516-60

A182-Fl

c-r/2 Mo

12)

A217-WC1

12)14)

A352-LC I
C-1/2 Mo

1.7

7/2 Cr-l/2 Mo

Ni-Crr/2

a2!7-WC4

Mo

Ni,cr-t Mo
7 Cr-L/2 Ma

1.9

1-1,

l.to

/4 Ct 7/2 Mo

1.13

2-t/4 C4-t Mo
5 Ct-|/2 Mo

1.14

9crtMo

A1A2 FL2
a182-F r r
A1A2-F22

(4)
(4)

A217-WC5

(4)
(4)

A217-\NC6

t4J

4277 -WC9

4l

A2a4-A
A204-B
A204-C

A38

7-l I

(2')

(2)
(2)

C1.2

A3A7-22 CL.2

a2t7-c5
A2t7-CI2

A182-F9

General Notes:

(a)
(b)
lc)
{d)

Materials shall not be used beyond the limits specified in the governing Code.
For temperature limitations see footnotes in Tables 2 and in Annex G of ANSI 816.5.
Plate materials are lisred only for use as blind flanges {see 5.1). Additional plate materials listed in ANSI 816.34
may also be used. with corresponding 816.34 Standard Class latings.
Material Groups not listed in Table lA are intended for use in valves. See ANSI Bl6.34

Notes:

{1) Upon prolonged exposure to temperature above about 8000 F (4250 C), the carbide phase ol carbon steel may be
converted to graPhite.
(2) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above about 8750 F {4700 C), the carbide phase of carbonflolvHenum
steel may be converted to graphite.

{3) Only killed steel shall be used above 8500 F (4500


(4) Use normalized and tempered material only,

114

C}.

PIPING NIATERIALS

TABLE

1A

LIST OF MATERIAT

SPE CIF

ICATIOIIIS

Applicable ASTM SPecif ications


PROOUCT FORMS

GROUP 2 MATERIALS

MATERIAL

spEc.-GR

STEEL

GROUP No.
2.1

FoRGtNGslcnsrrr'icslPLATEs
rrrores seec.-cn NOTES I SPEC -GR
I

NOMINAL
DESIGNATION
lSCLaNi

182-F304

182-F304H

(5)

A351-CF8
a1a2-F316

16Cr 12Ni2Mo

A182-F3l6H

l8e'Jy_

a35r-cFaM

2.4
2.5

t Bcr-t 0Nicb

2-7

(5)(7)

A240-316L

Ar82-F321

(5)

A!A2.F32LH
Ata2-F347

(5)

182-F344
A182-F34aH

,3E;

A240-317
A240-304L

A182-F316L

Cr12N

(5)(7)

^i

25Cr_2oNi

Al82-F31O

A351-CF8C

(5)

(5)

(6)

Ar 82-F304L

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo
18Crl oNi-Ti

25

4240-316

A351-CF3M

18 C19Ni-2Mo

?.6

(5)(7)

(5)

(5)

r8 c;rNI-3M-.

2.3

A24O-3O4

a351-CF3

lACr-8Ni
2.2

NOTES

(5)(9)

A351-CH8
A35I-CH20

(5)
(5)

A351-CK20

(5)

A240-32L
A240-321P'
A240-347
A?40-347P'
A240-348
A24O-348H

(5){7)

A240-3095
4240-310S

(5){7)
(5)(9)

17)

(5)(7)

l7)
(5){7)

l7)

percent or hiqher'
(5) At temperatures over IOOOo l (5400 c), use only when the carbon content is o'04
prcent ancr above'
aooo r lazso i;, Use ontv wtren the carbon contnt is o 04 heatins it to a temperature of at
i;i ;;;i;;;";;;,;"oove
it the materiat is heat rreared by
r7\ F^r rembeDrure. above loooo l- oio"-'ii,"..i'"
" i"itt igOo. F (1O4Oo C) and quenchinq in water or rapidlv coolins bv other mans'
,io. i iqss" c), it ti .""o--"no.a that kirled steels containine not less than o to
(s) For service temperatures
"o.,"
percent residual silicon be uscl.

{9}Forservicetemperaturesollo5oUF(5660c)andabove,assurancemUstbeprovic|edthatqIainsizeisnotfinerthan

ASTM NO. 6.
(10) To be used onlv for Cl.ss 150 and Class 3oO flanges'

llc

TABLE

1B tIST

OF BOtTIItIG SPECIFICATIONS
Applicable ASTM Specifications

BOLTING MATERIALS
HIGH STRENGTH
SPEC._G R

LOW STRENGTH

SPEC._GR

NOTES

Al93-E}7

A320-L7
A320-L7A
4320-L7B
A320-L7C

4320-L43

A193-88 C 1.1
a193-B&C C 1.1
A193-B&M C1.t
a193-B&T C 1.1

A193-B5

A193-Bl6
(4)

A193-86
4193-B6X

(4)

a 193-B7M

(4)
t4')
(4)

A193-Ba CI.z
Ar93-BaC Ct-2
A193-B8M C1.2
AI93-B8T C1.2
A32O-E|8
A32O-B8C
A32O-B8F
A32O-A8M
A320-B8T
A354-BB
A449
4453-651
4453-660
4453-662

4354-BC

4354-BD
A453-665
A540-E}21
A.540-822

4540-823
A'540-824

NOTES

t7l
17l

t7)
t7)
t7)

(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

A
A

193-B8A
193-A8CA
A193-BAMA
A193-BATA

(7)
(7)

(6)

A307-B

(8)

(6)

A320-E}8

(6)
{6)

A320-B8C
A320-BAM

(7)

t6)

A32O-BaT

(7)

(6)
(9)

17,

l7l

t7)

t5)
(5)
(5)

(a) Boltans materials shall not be used beyond temperatures timits specified in the governing Code-

(l)These boltinq materials may be used with atr tisted materials and att qasket',
(2)These bolting materials may be used with att ,isted materiats and a gaskers, provided at has been
vrified that a sealed joint can be maintained undr rated workjng pressure and temperature_
(3) Thse boltins materials may be used with all tisted materials but are rimited to crass 150 .nd Crass 3OO
loints. See 5-4.1 for recommnded sasket practices.
(4) This ferritic material is intended for tow temperature service. Use A194 Gr 4 or Gr 7 nut5.
(5) This special alloy i5 intended for high temperatur service with austenitjc staintess steet.
(6) This aurtenitic stainless material has been carbide solution treated ancl strain hardened. Us A194 nuts

ot corresponding materiat.

(7) Ahis austenitic stainl5s materiat has been carbide solution treated but not strain nardened. Use A194

nuts ot corresponding materiat.

(8)This carbon steel fastener shalt not be usd abov 4ooo F (2ooo C) or berow -2Oo F (-29o c). see

Note 3.
(9) Acceptable nuts tor use with quenched and tempered botts ar a194 Gr 2 and

cr

2H_

atso

PIPING ]{ATERIALS

TABLES 2
PR ESSU

RE.TEMPERATU RE RATINGS

TAEtE 2-I50 CTASS 150


Pressures are

Mar'l Group
Materials

1.4

1-2

1.1

Carbon stoel

Temp, oF

285

z9o

23s

l,

265

in
1.r0

1.13

5Cr1%Cr -1Mo %Mo

,hMo NiCr.
-%Mo

260 1260 1215 I


230 l23ol21ol

200
300
400

%CtlAMo

c-

rrr".-.lnish I Lo.,

-20 to 100

'1.9

1.1

1.5

PRESSUB E.TEMPERATU RE RATIIIIGS


pounds per square inch, gage (psig)

2%Cr

29o
260
23o

1.14

2-2

2-1

2-4

2.6

2-7

275 1275|

Tompor-

Typo
310

oF
100

260
23o

275 | 275
235 | 24O

230

l80 ll95

160
145
140
125
110

170
140
110

500
600
650
700

95

95
ao
65
50

750
800
850
900

2O5

200

2.3

Type
Typos
9cr Type Type 304L Type 347
itpe 32'l 348 309
1Mo 304
316L

| 2r5

500
600
550
700

170
140
L?5
110

L70

750
800
850
900

95
ao
65
50

95
a0
65
50

950
1000

35
20

35
20

140

125
110

195

175

-_

235

I245 I
2ro | 225 I
r90 |

200
300
400

22O

200

725

_a_o_.

35
20

950
ooo

NOTES:
1

2.

Msteri.h'

Saa

ro!p
1,1

{Spr-GrEd.}
Al05, ArSl-IL A2l6-WCB, A515-70

(a) (h )

t.2
1,4

A350-LF2, A537-Cl.l
A203 B, A?03-, A2l6 WCC
A350-LF3. A352-LC2. A352 LC3
a I a1-I, A5r5-60

1,5

A I

1.7

A352-LCl
a2 04-c

Mrt'l
G

Ratinqs shown apply to other material groups where column dividing lines have been omitted.
Temperature notes for all Material Groups, Tables 2-150 through 2-2500:

1.9

t.to

A516-70

A5l6-60
a2-F

al82-F t l, A 182-F 12, A3a7-11


a2 l7 -wc6
at82-F22,4387-22,Ct-2
A2 t 7-WC9

]'

t3

l' l4

4,

So6

{Spe-Gr.do)

2.t

Ala2-F3O4,AlA2-F3O4H
A240-304, A35l-CFa
a35l -cF3

2.2

at82-F3r6, Al82-F3l6H, A24O-316

2.3

A35t-CF3M
Ata2-F304L, A240-304L

{9t
(r)

Ala2-F3l6L, A24O 3l6L

t9)

P.ta2-F

(h)

{d)

32I, A240-321
a182-F32lH. A24O-32tH

(9)

Ata2-F347, A?40-347

(h)

(h)

aLg2-F347ts', A240-347H
Ala2-F348, A240-348
a182-F348H, A24O-F34aH

(h)

(a){s)
(d)
(a) ( h)

(d)
(a) (h)

(.)(s)
(d)

t. A204''A, A204-A, A2t1-WC 1 (b){h)

Ala2-F2, A2l7-WC4

Mat..ialr'

Mr{l
Group

, C 1-2

{i)
(i)

,i,

A240-317, A35l-CFAM

2.6

A240-309S. A35l-CHa, A35 1-CH20

2.7

AIa2-F3lO, 4240-3lOS
a35t-cK20

Al82-F5a, a2l7-C5
AtA2-F9, A2t 7 -Ct2
(a) prmisrible but not rcommndd lor prolongd use above about Sooo F
(tr) permissibls but not rocorhm6nd6d lor prolonqd ure above about 85ooF
(c) p.rmisslblo but not r6commondad lor prolonqd use above about I looo F
(d) not to bo u3ed over 65oo F
(l) not to ba usd over SOOo F
(q) nol to be used ovsr a5oo F
(h) not to be ured ovsr loooo F
(i) not to bs uied ov6. lO5oo F
(l) not to be used ovr llOOo F
(k) for sorvice ternperature 105Oo F and above, assur.nce must be provlded tiat grain size is not finer than ASTM No. 6.
See Tabre lA lor additlonar inlormation and nots relatinq io speciric mat6rials.

tt7

ITT GRINNELL PIPING DESICN AND DNGIN]IDIIING


TABTE 2-3()() CLASS 3t)() PRESSURE.TEMPERATUBE BATINGS
Pressures are in pounds per square inch, gage (psig)

Mat'l Group
Materials
Temp,

-20 to 100
200
300
400
500
600
650
700
750
ao0
850
900

1.2

1.1

1.9

1.4

65s 1730 I

620
560
55o
530

635 1705 |
5oo I 665 | 5OO
550 605 455
535 L 590 450
535 | 570 1450
505 1505 1445
410 l41O 1370
2to

695 | 750 750 L 75O


680 | 7sO 710 | 715
655 i 73o 1675 1675
640 17O5 1660 1650
640
620 1665|

530
510
485
450

165

1150

1350
1400

1450
1500

35

Materials

I.l *

1.4*

Carbon stel

Norm.l Hish I Low

-20 to loo
200
300
400
500

600
650
700
750
800
a50
900
950

loo0
I050

990
900
475
845

1000

1000
970
940

925
750
730
705

800
730

7lo

885
405
785
755

665
610
600
600

670
550

670
550

590
495

715

355

230

1.1

t250
1300
1350
1400
1450
t 500

118

720
635

670

100

605

495

590
555

570
535

200
300
400

460
435
430
420

520
490
4ao

4ao
465

415
415
410
405

460
455

385
355

345
365
360

3ao
360
350
345

400

335

390

425
415
405

385

395

370

375

19O I 29O
r40 | reo
r05 | I r5

325
310

385
365
360

260

325

345
300

195
155
110
85

275

235

205

r80

180
140

140
105

!25

60
50

105
75
60

ao
60
50

70
50

260

70
50

395

35

430

_33_0__

320

oF

6lo

4ao
450

720

430

325
275
170
95

35

25

1.14

1.13

%Ct%Mo

2%Cl
1%Cl
%Mo NiCr- -YzMo '1Mo YzMo

Mo

s25 | rooo 10oo I looo

|
lOOo 950 955 I
a7o 970 | 8e5 I 905
855 | 94o | 88ol 865 1
830 1885 1 855 |
J

505

435
425
415
345

500
600
650
700
750
ao0
450
900
950
1000

290 1335
225 | 29O

1050
1100

r7o ] 245
130 205
roo Ll60
8o lr2o

1150
1200

60lso
45 1 55
30J40
25 125

125 0

1300
1350
1400
1450
1500

2.1

2-4

2.2

2-5

2.6

Type
fypes
9Cr' Type Type 304L Type 347 Tvpe Tvpe
321
3U) 310
316
1Mo 304
348
316L

97o
s4o

705

605

725

630

645

550

660

960
850
7a5
740

885

1o0o
lOoO

960
800

960
425

400
675

960

al5

oF

895

to0

805

760
710

200
300
400

585

635

ao5
745

555

755

540

600
590
575

510
480
470
460

610
58s
570
560

690
655
640
625

670
635
620
610

500
600
650
700

565
555

450

555

)25

550

520
510

540
525

!!o_

615
610
590
575

595
5ao
565

750
aoo
a50
900

500
430

515

530

710

675
650
600
355
265
7C

*Do not ul

Type
310

435
415
410
405

665

55

'1.10

1.9

140
70

I150

309

CTASS 4t)O PRESSUBE.TEMPERATURE RATINGS


Pressures are in pounds per square inch, gage (psig)

1.5

9Os

Types
-3_ql Type
32'l
Type
348
316L

2.400

1100
1200

2.7

600
505

720
600
530

NOTES:
1, Ratings shown apply to other material groups
where columns dividing lines are omatted.
2. See Temperature N ote 2, page 117 .

TABTE

Mat'l Group

I 380
) 2t5 I 225 27O
140 200
95 | 115
50 lro5

2-6

720
620
560
515

750
750
730
705

5OO | 5rO
440 | 485

280 1345

105
50

2.4

2.3

2.1

9Cr- Type Typ


316
1Mo 3(}4

605
590
570

1100

1200
L250
1300

1.14

1,
21/.Cr 5Cr1%Cl
%Mo NiCr- -%Mo -1Mo %Mo

170

950
1000
1050

'1.13

%Mo

ish I Low

740 150
675 I 750

.10

%Ct-

Carbon steel

Norm.

45

1665 l67s
585 | 6sO
470 | 600
| 35o I 4e5

| 255

390

1190 l2s0

15ol14o
l15o
14o | 90 llOO
75 1 60 I 70

NOTES:
1. Ratingl i shown apply to othet material groups
:olumns dividing lines are omitted.
2, See Te nperaflrre Note 2, page 1',17.

430

540

4lo

445
4ao
430

515
475
460
400

260
205

365
275

315
240

365

lto

165

145

185
140

a5
65
45
30

140
100
80
55

110
a0
65
50

90

515

485
440
430

555
515

465
390 | 445
3oo | 3eo
230 | 33O
175 | 275
r35 I 215

45O

230
L25
70
55

45

ll60
8o lro5
60175
40t50
3()l30

1O5

950
1000
1050
1100
1150

l'oo

r250

1300
1350
1400
1450
1500

PIPING }IATENI.\LS

TAEtE 2-5|||) CLASS 600

PBESSU

E.TEMPERATU RE BATITIIGS

Pressures are in pounds por squsre

1.tr

Mat'l

1.2

1.4*

Matrials

1.7

1.5

1.10

1.9

1.13

1.14

1500
r 500

I245t1330t1285rI280

l3 30

500
600
650
700

12

1075
1065

1175
1135

995
915
895
495

750

1010

1o

to

485

8AO

825

00 1330
o95 1210

850

825
535

900

345

950

205

I O00

105

1200
12 50
1300

1350
1400
l4 50
1500

t2to
lt75
1065
1015

*D^ n.t ra. AqTl A

I zts
-----l rgo
38o

a1a1

+oo

zzs

]
70

ros

475
830

795

5601 685 |
755
3301 425 | 445 I 535

----l

1440
1200
I 055
940

815
805

995
880
7o5

975
900

lo50
1lo0
I l5o

1455
1410

ttl

zos

| ll0

2.6

2.7

9Cr' Typc TvPo 99,1r TYp. Typ.3 Typ. Type


317
1Mo 304
316 Type 321
309
310
348
316L

Norm.lHish I Low
to
loo
l4ao 1500 I235 139O1 15O0 r 50O ll5O0
-20
200
1350 1500 t1?5 13601 r5OO r425 | 1430
300
1315 1455 1095 r 3051 1455 r345
11355
400
1270 t 4l0 1060 r28Ol I4t0 1315ll29s
Temp.

2.4

Typ.

'ACtI
'AMo 1%Cl 2%Ct 5CrlAMo
'AMo NiCF -lAMo -1Mo

Carbon steel

inch,g.gc (psig)

llOl5
975

|
|
52O |
38s I
2ao
205
140
90 I

eoo
74O

585
380
225
150

ro5

790
780
770
750
645
620
515
390
310
220

845
830

8lo

too

910 r090
425 990 11tO

1210
1140
t 065

200
300
400

lo10
930
910

500
500
650
700

895
870
850
830

750
800
850
900

765
720
700
685

915 I035
475 985
855
960
840
935

670

830
425

920

at5

890

_6_5_q.

645

790

8lo

775
725

775

715

720
645

605

5s0
410
365

125

205

90
70
50

ls0

9lo
865

775
725
720
645
550

275

NOTES:
1. Ratings shown apply to other materialgroups
where columns dividing lines are omitted.
2. See Temperature Note 2, page J 17.

oF

1345

\240 lo15 t220 1270


955
905
490
865

ttura

1440 1440

1440 1200
1120
1030

Tempcr-

365

345

2ao
210

245

zoo

185

160

125
95
75

950
665

looo
lo50

ses

1100

495
4rO

1200

7oO

I
I

aas
345
260

||

I|
r rs I
90

rzs

105
80
70

115 0

\?50

240

1300

160

1350
1400
1450
1500

t65

115
85

775

670
585

| rlo
60l 75
50l so

TAETE 2-S{)O CTASS 9(}O PRESSURE-TEMPERATUBE BATIiIGS


Pressures are in pounds per square inch, grge (nsi!)

Mat'l Group

1.1

1.2

1.9

1.7

Mairials

1.10

1.13

Carbon steel

I
l%Cl 2%C. %Mo
'AMo NiCF -%Mo

200
300
400

2025 2250

500
600
650
700

17

r640 11815 137 0


r 6l0
lr765 1345

1815
1765
1705

750
ao0
450
900

r5ro

1s 95
1s2 5

!970

1685
1640
t 585

1Mo

2250
2250

203512250 12135 l2r50

re5sl2r8s l2o2o 12030


l92Ol 2rr5 11975 11945

218 5

95 11995 1495 18651 l99s 11925 11920

199 5

2tA5

1900 2l l5

1600 li 705 1345


1151o

l2 35 1123s

7325

lllo

805
515

950

310

1000

155

1050

I100
1150
1200
12 50
1300

1460
1350
845

1030

i
495 | 640
__-l
sos I
------l

I
I
tl
rs5
II lo5 I
qro

2eo

2l l5

1490

1525
t 3l5 1460
1060 1350
]

1l3O

670

805

sgs
3ao

3ro
16s

78O 11r10

s15
420

|
|
3r0
|
2o5 |
r35 I

NOTES:
Ratings shown apply to other material groups
coiumns dividing lines are omitted.
2. See Temperature Note2,page 117.

l.

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

25

2.6

2.1

Typ6

9Cr

%Mo

Norm.lHieh ] Low
-2O to 100 2220 2250 ta50 2085 | 2250 12250 12250
Temp.

1350
1400
14 50
1500

1.14

hcr-

TYp
3()4

316

T6mp6r.

TvP Typ6r
347 3G'
Typ6 321
348
316t

gqt!

TYpo
310

oF

2160 2160 laoo 2160


1800 1860 1520 l8 30
l5a 5 168 0 1360 16 35
141O 1540 1240 1485
1 310
1435 1145 1375
1245 r 355 1080 1310
t225 1330 lo50 1280
l2l o 1295 lo30 1260

2760

2015

loo

t 815

65
1665

1705

200
300
400

1555

l5t0

500

1475

14

60c

1440
1405

35
1395
l3 70

I195 t?70 1010 1245

1385

1340

1240 1370
965 1225 1330

1305

750
ao0
850
900

I tao I245

I165 1215
1150 1ta0
1125

r160

875
565
340

965 l090
925 to80
770
965

22s

585

155

465
330
245

la5
145
105

'to

l9I
17

_9_8_5_

1215

t295

1160 1160

1600

1275
),245

ll60

I OOO

szs

l loo

515
390
3o0 I
235 |
175 |

740
620
485
360

ll50

235

1350
1400

1090

1040

108 0

905

965

ezo

825

710

425

620

545

515

370

410

420
320

310

245

225

185
145

205
155

175

r25

ll5

r25
105

950

r0ro lto5o

107 0

2AQ

650
700

875 IlOOO

rr:

1050

1200
1250

l30o

I res
95 rl5

1450

70

1500

70t|

r19

ITT GRINNELI,

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEEITINC;

TABLE 2.1500 CTASS 15(}O PRESSU RE.TEMPERATU RE RATINGS


Pressures are in pounds per square inch, gage (psig)

Mat'lG.oup

1.1

1.2

1.4

1.7

Materials

_-I

Carbon steel

emp.

-20 to

-.1

| ,-o*

200
300
400

3375
3280

500
600
650
700
aoo
850
900

2995
2735 13025 l 22A5
264512940 | 2245
2665 l2A4O lt2245
2520 | 25zo | 2z!o
2060 12060 1185O
1340
a6o

950

515

3r70

750

rooo

--r1.13

%Mo
2%Cl scF
%Mo Ni-Cr- lY.Ct -lMo %Mo
-%Mo

1.14

| gcF

| lMo

2.2

2,3

2,4

3750
3750
3640
3530

Type Typ 304t


304

Type
321

3165

3600

2.6

3095 J2530
12795 1227O
ll2570 12065
12390 | 1910
J2255 l18oO
| 2220 1!750

2640
2350

2r85
2O4O

272512940

247o
1277o
2290 | 2590

1610

38o

26fl

NOTES:

i 350
1400
1450
r 500

'|.
2.

loo
200
300
400

2520
2390

2r85 12460

2735 | 24OO
21oo
12340
2075 12305

500
600
650
700

2330
22aO

2230

2540 l249s | 2540 \97O 12075 11645 2065l22aO


2435 12795 | 2435 1sa5 l2o3o h6f6' 2O4O 2220
|
224s
1e2o | 1e7o f2030 l2l60
l'1765 l|2245
il
r4o5 lr7r5 |
1885 ltsos lteso r87O | 193O l
l930 | 1930
_g4l 1065 ltt15 lr34o I e6o I ra6o r51o | 1820
r 785 lr820
I e45 | 685 I ee5 I 705 i e45 1545 Jrsoo
1730 | l8O0
480 56s 5r5 s65 12851

I
I
|
|
*Do not use ASTi t4181 l260l 5r51345J
I tTo l 275 | 225 |

1200
1250
1300

oF

310

3360
3025
2845
2665

3O5O 13180

2or5l2160
1r715
1990l2rro lr680

Temper-

309

750
aoo
450
900

2170
2125
207 5

1930
1680 lr75O

r150

2.7

Type

347
348

l3600 l3ooo 3600l3600

3OOo |

2O7s

2660

2.5

Type
316t-

| ,"r.

3025
2940
2440

2-1

260

1050
1100

1.10

Mo
13085 3470 | 3750 13750 | 3750 |
I 37so l28lo 33e5 I 3750 13560 l35so I
13640 12735 3260 13640 13365 133a5 |
I 3530 12645 32oO J 3530 13290 | 3240 J
| 332s | 2490 sros I aszs I .rro l."oo

",nn
3705 13750

IOO

1.9

%Ct-

Ratings shown apply to other mate ar groups


where columns dividing lines are omitted.
See Temperature Note 2, page t 17.

TAEtE 2-2500

I
e8o lr37o |
77Ol1O3O l
55ol elol
41ol 6e5
|
31ol 515 I

I
2eo I

z+ol

seo

||

205

t1o
t20

l
I

I
I

I
I

950

tooo
to50

14Go

r5r0 r61o rr15 lt66s


l1460
J
11s5 | t37o

^-^t-_705 I 615
530 455
|
4ro | 34s
310 | 255
24O | 2O5
t90 | 170

1100

eoo lrz.:s
650 J r030
495 | 805
3es
600

1150
1200
1250
1300

rss
I 275
225

1350
1400
1450
1500

zso

|
155 I
t20 |

t9O
120

CTASS 25(|(} PRESSU RE.TEMPERATU RE RATINGS

Pressules are in pounds per square inch, gage (psig)

Mat'l croup

1.1

1.2

1,4

Caabon steel

Temp.
200
300
400
500
600
650
700
750
aoo
450
900
950

rooo
1050
r

loo

r 150

1200
1250
1300
1350
1400
1450

1500

1.9

c
Y2Mo

%CtlAMo

Ni4i-

1.10

1.13

1.14

lYaCr 2%Cr
.lMo

5Cr-

9Cr-

%Mo

lMo

.,AMO
m.l High I Low
Mo
6170 J 6250 1s145 5785
J62so
5625 | 6250 14680 56601625016250
6250 lse3o 15965
5470 | 6070 14560 s435 6070 5605
|
|
15640
5280 | s88o 14405 5330
lssso 1s485 l54oo
4e9o I 5540 l4t50 5I80t5540
15350 15330
4560 | 5O4O 13805
5040
447514905 13740
4905

4440 | 4730 13740

47 30

42OO

4430

I42oO 13685
3430 | 3430 13085

|
|
|

6250
6250
6070
5880
5540

2-2

2.3
Type

2.4

Tvpe Type
304 3165

i;;;
316L

TYpe

6000 I6000
5ooo I5160
44oo 14660
392o
14280
3640 J39so
3460 13760

5000 6000 l6000

3180
3000

3360

2460

34OO l37OO

l3600

4220
3780
3440

2920

321

2,5

2.6

2.7

Types

Type

Type

347
348

Temper-

I
5o8ol53ooi
4540 l49oo |
4120
14620 I
3a2o | 4320 |
3640 l4rOO I
3560 I4OOO |

3Ul

35ool3eool

oF

too

5600
5o4o
4740
4440

200
300
400

42oo
3980
3880
38oo

500
600
650
700

3320
2800 3460138401 3720
4230 141451423c 32AO I135?o
3460 2740 3440 38Oo
2230
4060 13660 | 4060 :z+o l::eo a68b- 34OO |l37OO |I 3620
3540
t43o
3745
32oo
3380
3460
l|2e4513745
13280
l3600
|
860
2345 l2a6o |
3145 l2r7o | 3os5 3r2O | 3220
3220 13220 |
3220
430
137O 11770 lta60 12230 ll600 J2430 2685
2970 I 3o3O l28OO | 2915
l3O3O
-----l r57o lrras ltoso lrrzo irszo 2570 I3OOO
2885 | 3OOo 12430 | 2770
eoo eas aeo sas 2t45l'2685
2sr512685
lttl430
lr860 12430
860 J 570 | 630 153o 12285
1970 122A5 | r43O I 2O5O
|
|
iDo not us ASTI\ I AlAl
I 285 | 460 j 370I 430 128 5 lr7l5
r51s I r43o lroas I tzrs
915 lr5.r5
1170 11030 1 83011345
685
1145
8s5
770 660
NOTES:
|
|
|
lrooo
5i5 I 860
1. Ratings ! hown apply to other material groups
685 1 57ol4s5 I 660
400
|
63.)
515l43Ol37Ol 460
where ca lumns dividing lines are omitted.
zas nas
4OOl 345 l260l 3r5
2, See Tem oerature Note 2, page I 17.
200 | 345
315 1 285 l2ool 2oo

--_l

atu re

310

750
aoo
450
900
950

looo
1050
1l oo

I150
1200
1250
1300
350
1400
1450
1500
r

PIPING X'IATERIALS

TAELE

HYOEOSTATIC TEST PSESSUBE

SHELL TEST PFESSURES BY CLASS_ALL PAESSURES ARE GAGE

MATEAIAL

t50

GROUP
NO.

300

400

1125

\.2

6()0

103

I125
950

1250

a6

2225

154

3350

230

2250

155

3375

233

5625

la75

724

t92

4650

216

5225

2100

r.7

450

30

tl25

2250

155

t,9

tt25

1500

2250

156

3375

1500

2250

156

3375

30

rt25
II25

1500

156

3375

30

I125

2250
2250

156

lloo
lloo

2.L

425

29

2.2

425

29

2_3

350

2.7

63

a3

3Aa

9375

3aa

93 75

599

5625

3aa

9375

5625

348

9375

233

5625

3aa

9375

3375

233

5625

3Aa

9375

3250

224

2tJ5
2tJ5
laoo

t25

2700

2175

149

3250

233

2500

9275

3375

l_lo
1.14

't500

900

62t

3250

la7

425

29

425

29

l10o

1450

2L75

3250

27

1025

1350

93

2025

3025

209

to25

1350

93

2025

3025

209

373

627

311

517

373

621

373

621

348

5ao

5050

5AO

Note: Thes pressures are subject to the limitations in Section 8 of ANSI 8165.

L2r

ITT GR]NNELL PIPI\(i

I)F]SICIN AND EN(IINI'ERINO

ALLOY-STEEL STUD BOLT DIMENSIONS


Lensthr of Srrxi Bolt

Lngth'of Stud Bolt


Nominal
Pipe
Size

Numbet

Diameter
of
Bolts

Ring
Joint'

of
Bolts

1r'16" Raised

Diametef
of

Number
of

Bolts

Bolrs
F

Flat Face

l,
t1

't

tr\
IL./z

1l

2
2v)

2.i5

:t.50

3.00

3.15
1.00
4.25
4.25
1.25

3.25
3.50
u.?5

8
8

:1.75

1.50
4.50

4.00
4.00
4.23
4.75

ri

Size

Bolts

5.5i)

12

16

'i.it

1f;
16
20

20

i;.0t)

IL I
11,

6.2,4

lLr

20

7.;i)

7.00

,rInch
Rins
Jointl

Raised

Face

lli

ts

|1

ztl
8

3ti
4

5
6
8

t0

ii
th
1ls

lti

t2
l6

1.1

rtl

2t)

16

Ita

20

0D
0D
18 0D
10 0D
24 0D

3.25
3.50
8.75
4.00
4.25

3.00
3.50
.1.00

4.25

4.25
4.15
5.00

4.50
5.00
5.25

;.50
5.;i)
6.00
6.25
7.00

6.00
6.75
7.60
8.00

8.25

T2

9.2;

tl/s

t\,
r11

8.50
9.00

24
24

10.0i)

1t.25

tix!.acted lfom Anrefican Sianda.d Sleel Plp Flanses and

24

uale&Female D;amter

also
Tonsxe

of
Bolts

Number
of

Ring

i.i5

8.25

L25

Bolts

,Jointrr

t,lnch
Raised
Face

8.25
8.75
9.00
9.'.l5
10.75

3.00

.1

'3.25

)jal{,&l'emale
also

Tonguc

3.50

4
4

4.00

8.00
3.50
8.75
4.00
4.25

3.25
3.50

3.0i)
:t.25
it.50

.1.00

:1.75

{.5{J
5.0t)

1.25
4.7i)
5.00

4.00
4.00
.r.50
4.15
3.25

],'

4.75
5.25
5.25

8
8
8

t;

,/i

5.15

5.5t)

5.50

6.75

6.;i)

6.2r)

8
72

7.01)

6.?5

6.50
7.25

1't

t2

7.75

'7.75

6.5(l
7.50

11i

16

8.

t-i

1ti

2t)

9.00

8.50
8.75

8_25

1.i5
8.00
8.5i)

1lz

20
20
20

9.50
10.25
11.00

9.00
9.75

9.50

1l;

11.75

10.;0

Lir

24
24

9.25
10.00
10.75
11.50

l:t.25

13.0t)

4.00
.1.50

lansed l'ittings ANSI

Blli

i-

5.25
5.75
6.00

8.50

10.;0

tt.25
t2.i5

1gti

mrr

be chaDrlercd. roundd or

sheaFl

ol pipe. but lhe lap thar scrvls as lhe male lacc musr no1 bc ltss
as a mrte lacer for mate amt fcmat taDpe{:t joinr made in rhe 1aps. add two thickhess.s
,$ hen f.oov. is made ln the lap. add ihifkiess of piDc lor each Lap

122

?.00
7.50

Lensth' of Stud Bolt

Dimension siven in inthes.


,These lenFhs .to nor in.hde rhe hei!.hr ot th poinrs. -{ poinr is thar pa.t ol a snid b.Lt byond ihc th.ead and

All

5.00
5.50
6.25
t;.75

600 Pound Flangesl

8
72

{.50

8.25
8.50
9.00
10.25

24

400 Pound Flanges'

l
l
I

.1.5t)

lii

Number

oi

5.25
8
72

Lensth' of Slud Bolt

Diameter
of
Bolrs

4.25

2\')

0D
lri oD
18 0D
20 0D
24 0D

Nominal
Pipe

5.U0
5.2r)

1,,,

1f,

:1.50
.1.00

.1.7r-)

llr

t2

"t.75

1.2i

5.21

I
I
lis

,1.25

5.75
6.00
6.50
6.75

12

l2

lai Face

2.15
3.00
8.25
3.26

3.?5

6.25
?.00
?.50

lli
rl.

4
4

!,s

:1.75

t.7r)

t2

3.5t)
:J.?5

:1.25

3t/,
4

14

3.00

.l

t%

8
IO

2.50
2.50
2.75

4
4
4

Raised

300 Pound Flanss'

150 Pound Flanses'

l"

l' I ii"

Rins

rhar

I Inch

PIPING X{ATERIALS
ALLOY-STEEL STUD BOLT DIMENSIONS (Continued)
Lengthr of Stud Bolt

Len!|thr of Stud Bolt

Nirminal Diamter
I'jpe
of
UolL\
Size

'/i Inch Male&Female


also
Raised
Fac
Toner

NLlmber

Rins

of
Bolls

Joint:]

Diameter
of
Bolts

Number
of
Bolts

Ring
Joints

%Inch
Raised
Face

Male&Female
rlso

ard Groore
1500 Pound Flangesl

9U0 Pound Flansesi

1i
1

r'./r

rt,
2
21/,

3
4

I
h
I

1,1

16
18
20
24

0D
0D
0D
0D
0D

4
8
8

Is

1t(

lfi
6
8
10
12

4
4
4

1N

r.x
I.lr

t2
t2
16

4.25
4.50
5.00
5.00
5-50

1.25
1.50
5.00
5.00
5.50

4.00
4.25
4.75
5.25

.t

5.75
6.25
6.00
?.00

5.75
6.25
5.75
6.75

5.50
6.00
5.50
6.50

,/,

7.75
7.75
9.00
9.50

7.50
7.75

t;
-A

u;

5.75
6.25
7.00
7.75

5.',75
6_25

5.50
6.00

7.00
7.75

7.50

t2
t2

9.75
10.50
12.00

72

13.25

Iti

15.50

9.?5
10.25
11.50
13.25
14.75

16
16
16

17.00
18.50
20.50
22.50
25.75

lk

9.25
10.00

1%
1%

20

10.24,

20
20
20
20
20

71.25
11.75
13.50
14.25

10.75

10.50

2l;

lt.25

ll.0{J

zlt

72.75
13.50

12.50
13.50

23i

t7.75

r7.25

1?.0{J

' t

2
2t/t

4.00
4.25
4.75
4.75
5.25

7.25
?.50
8.50
9.00
9.75

lts

4.25
4.50
5.00
5.00
5.50

4.25
4.50
5.00
5.00
5.50

t\

t,/"

1il

4
4
4

8
8

1%

17i

Tongue
and Gr@ve

9.50
10.00

1t.25
13.00
14.50

16.00
17.50
19.50

21.50

17.25
19.00
21.00

24.50

24.00

Lensthrof Stud Bolt

Nominal Diameter
Pipe
oI
Bolts
Size

Number
of

Ring

Bolts

Joint3

,1 Inch
Raised
Face

Male&Female
also

Tohgre
and Gr@ve

2500 Pound Flanges'


)/,

''/4

%
1

4
4
4

r%

ry,

Ut

2y,,

rls

8
8

3
4

rlz

8
8

tr\
t3,\

8
10
12

2
21/z

2lt

8
8
12
12
12

5.25

6.50
7.25
'7.50

8.25
9.25
10.75
72.7 5

14.50
16.00
20.50
22.50

6.25
5.25
5.75
6.25
7.00

5.00
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.75

7.25
8.00
9.00
10.25

7.00
7.75
8.75
10.00

12.00
13.75
19.50
21.50

tl.75
13.50
15.00

t9.25
21.25

Extracied from Ame.ican Standard Steel Pipe Flanses and Flansed Fittihss ANSI B16.5 - 19??.
Al1 dimension eilen in inches.
jThese lenclhs do not include the height of the points. A point is thal part of a shrd bolt beyond the tbread and may be chahlered. founded or sheared.

,Bolrlensthsforlappedjoi.tSmaybedetrminedafollows:For1appedlapped'a
to|,jinchma1efaceonfange'addthicknessof]apand|inch;forlapped'ofemalefaceonange'addihfknesso|

a male face; for male and female lapped joint made in the laps. add two thicknesses of pipe, but the lap thai servs as lhe male face must not be less tban
3when gr@ve is made in the lap, add lhickness of pipe for each lap.

il

inch.

t23

ITT GRINNELL - PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING


RING-JOINT GASKETS

rffi^'
l_c_l /
Redius Rr: Xa in. for ring widths % tn.
and smallerj 1{: in. for ring widths 1 rn
and larger.

Tolerances
J

P
A

B ard

C
23"
Rr

I
Rjng
Number

Pitch
l)iameter
of Ring

width

of
Ring

11

he
7n

R16
R17
R18
R19
R20

%"

2yi
2%

%t
9\"

2'ku

R 21

ti6

s%

R22
R23
R24
R25

0.170
0.206
0.206

it"

lz

%"

t\,

3),1

3%

i1,

(radius of

ring)

1\"

%
%

ot

Yta

%"

),1
l:rt

h,:
%a

11"

0.206
0.206
0.200
0.206
0.206
0.206
0.305

',1,
i16

'\t

't"
1\,i

0.206
0.305

%
%

0.305

0.206

flansie shal] carrv the groove number prefixed bv the letter "R''
saskt shal l car ry the m anufacturer's trademark, gasket nu mber prefixed by the letter "R" or "RX" and fol lowed by the material

.i"e:oint

"*[ ot"i"t
"u.t*"
identification.

Purchasers must specjfy oval or octagonal shaped rings as deBired when ordering rings'
i,lat".tat ;a"ntiti"ailon ihall conform to the following standards unless other specified on the purchase order'
Rins Gaeket MatertaL
Riw Gaaket MateriaL
lvpe 304 Stel
D
Soft Iron
Type 316 Steel
s
I-ow Chrome SteeL
DF-5
Type 347 Steel
4-6% Chrome l/& MolY Steel
s410
Type 410 Steel
(A NSI 816 20-1973) Flanaes
Exr racred from Ameri.an Standard Rins-Jornr Ga-kets and GroovPs
o F 5 designates A.S.T.M Spec Al82 ch"mical (-omposilron Kequ "pmPnls onlv

For application of rins joint gaskets

1'L

cteg.

0.206

All dimensions given in inches.

iL Jn"
ir,.."6.

L0 u(r\

*i/2
+)i',

R'ng

1%

Ocfa,gonaL

1"t
"1"

(angle)

FIa{ of

1%u
1,%

rwidih orr flriof orlag"rral ring'

Width on

t3

111,42

R14
R15

!q7
'q
lrr.urrd

Oct&gonal

Oval

R12
R13

ring

+ A Dlus tolerance of 3/64 in. for heights B and H isprmitted providins


the variation in the heisht of anv given ring does not exceed 1/64 in.
throughout its entire circumference.

Height of Ring

(widrh ol ring
rhciqhr of rirrs)

bead near rhp .errer rf oval "r,,r1cgon rl 'heped r:rrg'


A
"mall rhal ir will ,ot errtcr the groove.
ij I.ol ohjp.liorrablc
Iocated.o

Table 1. Dimensions of Ring-Joint Gaskets


2

\avpregc pir.h diamarcr o[

see

Table

II.

s304
s316
s347

PIPING X{ATERIALS
Table

Iting

Number

Pitch
I)iameter

$iidrh

of Rirrg

Ring

of

26

R27

R28

lt

It

29
30

R 3l

R32
R33
R

It

3,1
::]5

R36

It

37

R38
R39

It

40

R41
R

,12

,,tt

1r1

4_74

%
Y"

i\"
i\"

,\^

1\,
,,1"

%"

't"

R46

8Xu

,,1"

5/\t

T"
%

1%

P"52

12

l\a

)1"

It

56

R57

R5E

,',1a

1\6

r%

l5

t7,1';

{J.305

R73
R74

'/2

1).206

lt

76

261,6

0.305

P"77

2t'%

0.413

0.305
0.206

R78
R79
R80

27%
27%

%
"/1,6

%
%
"/1"
\116

'%a

0.305

0.31)5
0.4rJ5

R87

6%
10%

0.206
0.305
0.413
0.780

0.305

1%
%

0.413
0.681
0.206
0.305

16%

,,1"

,,1"

161/,

16lk

v,"

%a

,,1"

,,1,

tE"1

t,lo
%

0.377
0.305
0.305

0.341

%
t"/B

%
%
%

RC2

R93
R94
R95
R96
R97

2s%

R98
R99

R 100
R t01
R r02
R 103
R

r1\u

1%

%"

0.583

.'"11"

1%
"(,
1%
%

r%

3\A

R91

3r%

%
%
%
%

i1"

40%

"4"

'11"
'i16
,,1"
1Y.

0.413
0.485
0.485
0.583
0.879
0.305

%
'%"
,",1"
,',\"
rY'u

llu
%

tt/4

r34

1%

t%

104

:18

1%
L%
1%

105

40%

134

33%
:lti

0.341

rl\o
%

s%

:ltrz

'v*
,,\"

l\/t

r%

33%
36
38

0.341

0.206
0.413
0.681
0.977
0.206

86

R90

0.730
0.206

ti

.0.4r3

%
,ho

0.305

RE9

r%

0.4t5

%"

2th

31%a

,i\"

0.780
0.206
0.305

R85

4%

0.413

11"

0.206
0.305

R88

,4

a-

0.485
0.879

1\"

0.485
0.206
0.305

'91,

13/4

Riue

11/4

|t"
,,1"

R84

r%u

r%

Octagonal

'71"

2%

1Y,u

R81

1l

R82

r%

R61
R62
R63

R64
R65

0.206

%
%

rilo

i|,

16

%"

1%

\554

1i\"

ttA

R59
R60

i1"

21

1\"

,,1"

7r1,

15
15

2l

t%

0.206
0.305
0.583
0.206
0.879

%"

11"

1\"

22
23
23
23

2034

%
1i\u
h6
,,1"

2l

ll

r%

R72

'v'"

R5r

18%

R71

%,

1811

0.3.11

i1,i

13%

R66

Width on
Flat of
Octagonal

Oval
B

0.305

1\'t

Ring
A

R67

Height of Ring

t"

,,/\"

0.341

of

'){"

'ii.
%

12%

%
,',\"

8%"

R54
R55

{1.305
0.3{J5

i|"

12x4

%
%

,,1"

R45

R53

"/1"

s%

|\r4

Number

71"

7"

s%

Rntg

Riug
(:

0.206
0.305

5%

r0"4

Oclagonal
Octagonal

'I"
llie

width

'X,

i\t'

7%
7%

Pitch
l)iameter
of Ring

\\ridth oir
Flat of

i\,
)', o

6%

R68
R69
R70

5i1^

63.1

"1"

5x,,

61"0

1\^

4%

P"44

R48
R49
R50

'11o

134

R43

R47

'){.

,,1"

1t1

fConcluded)

Heighl rf Rirg
Oval
B

d
It

Table 1. Dirnensions of Ring-Joht Gaskets

Dimensions of Ring-Joint Gaskets


(Continued)

r%
1V
r%

r%

0.413

0.485
0.485
0.485
0.58:l
0.583
0.583
0.305
0.780
0.879
0.879
0.879
0.977
0.977

A1l dimensions given in inches.

This standard shows only flat bottom sroovs, becaus both oval and octagonal rinss may be usd. The former round bottom sroove
rcquires the use of an oval sasket.
Th eds of each rins joint flange shall calry th groove number prefixed by the letter "R".

The outer surfac of ach sasket shall carry th manufacturcr's trademark, sasket number prefixed by the letter "R" or "RX" and

followed by the material identification.


Purchasers must spcify oval or octasonal shaped dngs as desjrcd when odering rings.
Material identification shall conform to the following standards unless other specified on the purchase order.

Rins Gasket Materidl


Soft Iron

law

Chrome Steel

4'6% Chrome

IdmtiJicati.on

%Y.

Type 410 Steel

Moly Steel

oF-5

R;nsGask?tMotPiol
Type 304 Steel
Type 316 Stel
Type 347 Steel

ldmt;.l,.ot;on
5304
S316
S347

s410

Extracted from American Standard Rins-Joint Gaskets and Grooves (ANSI B16.20-1973) Flanses.
E F-5 dsicnats A.S.T.M. Spec. 4182 Chemical Composition Requirements only.

126

ITT GRINNELL - PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINI]EIII\CI


Table

II

Application of Gaskets and Grooves to Referenced Standards*

ANSI B16.5
R

Nuflber

rEnd Flangs ApI 6D and API 600 use caskers and Grooves lor equivalent Pipe Size ANSI 816.s or MSS SP-44 Flanges.
tR3O for Lapped Joint only.

PIPING ]I.\TERIALS
Table

II

Application of Gaskets and Grooves to Referenced Standards* (Concluded)

use Gaskets and'Gfooves for equivalent Pipe size ANSI B16.5 or MSS SP 44 Flanges.
Flanges to API 6A are obsolete. Data for informalion onlv.

.End Flanges API 6D and API 600

ttroooo lb

727

ITT GRINNELL-PIPING DESIGN AND ENGIN!]ERING


SUGGESTED SPECIFICATIONS FOR POWER PLANT PIPING MATERIALS
Butt
or

Prpe

Ma"\.
Pressure

Max.
Tubing
Tqmp, (A.S.T.M.
Spec.)

P.SJ.

A335
P22
1060

(Matedal

Fittings
(A.S.T.M.

Spec.)

Spc,)

Fittings

2%

thid(ness

isthe
only
limiting

wP22

A1a2 F22

condition 1020

of max.

A369
FP11

A691

plessrue

l%Cr
A335 Pl2

A369
FP 12
975
A691

2" and
smaller

2h"

nnd
larger

21h"

atd

over

2" and smaller


A234

wPll

At82 F22

A2t1 WC9

4'182 F11

A2l? wc6

At82 F12

A217 WC6

Al05

A216 WCB

Butt Welded

Ct

4335 P11

Gaskets

Bohing

Joiflts

A234

A.369

FP22

Flanges and
Socket Weld

A69l

fhe wall
Steam

Welding

A182 F11

Socket
Welded except Welding
Neck Flarues
at cormec-

Studs-A193
Gr. B7
Monel,

Nuts-A194

nealed

tions to
flanged

equipment

A234

wPl2

A182 F12

lCr

Steam,

Water,

oil

2Y2"

Above
600
The wall
thickness

A234

is the

only
limiting

A105

A106

115

Cr.B&C

co4dition
of max.

dovet:

Butt Welded
2" and $nallt:

WPB

&

wrc

pressurc

Socket
welded ex"
cept Welding
Neck Flanges
at connecuons ro
flanged

2" and smaller:

4234
A53
Water,

oil

250
up to
600

Nuts Al94

MetallicAsbestos

&

wcc

Gr,2H

equipment

2" and over


Butt Welded
Steam,

Studs-A193
Cr. B?

Gi. B
750

A106

WPB

A105

Gr. B

Above 160 PSI

Studs A193
Gr. B7

Socket

Nuts-A194

Welded ex-

Gr. 2H

cept Weldhg
Neck Flanges
at coflnections to
flanged

Comp.

Al05

Asbestos

A216 WCB

equipment

2lz" and ovet:


Butt Welde-d

2" and smaller:

4234
Steam,

125

Water,

to

oit

A53
Gr. B
450

250

Al06

WPB

A105

Gr. B

Socket
Welded except Wetding
Neck Flanges
at connecrtons to
l'la ged

C,S. Bolts

A307 Gr. A,
Sq. Hd.

with

Nuts A563
Gr. A, Hex.

Comp.
Asbestos

Al05

A216 WCB

equipmenl
overi
Butt^nd
Welded
2" and srrallet:
2Yz"

A234

Socket

A53
Gr. B
Water,

oit

128

up to
125

450

A106
Gr. B

WPB

4105

Welded ex_
cept Welding
Neck Flanges

at connections to
flanged
equlpmenr

C.S. Bolts

4'307 Gr. A,
Sq. Hd. nith
Nuts AJ63
Gr. A, Hex.

A.216 WCB

A105
Comp.
Asbestos

125 Lb.
Cast

kon

Flanged

PIPE FABRICATION

PIPE FABRICATION
PIPE FABRICATION PROCEDURES
Since publication of the first etition of Piping Design
and Engineering and the printing of this issue, many
advances and changes have taken place in the

fieldofpipe

fabrication. New piping components have been


developed, a greater variety of material compositions
have become commercially available, and the
requirements of the piping Codes have become more
demanding. All of these conditions have resulted in
variations in acceptable fabricating procedures
depending on the service conditions involved.
A comparison of various fabrication requirements in
these Codes will show awidevariation inwelding, testing

have not included, therefore, any suggested specifications


for fabrication of piping materials since ihe inclusion of
these specifications could result in confusion andpossible

misapplication. It is suggestd that the piping designer


consult with those experienced in the fabrication of the
class of materials he will employ and also review the

current recommendations of the Pipe Fabrication

Institute. This action will provide assurance that the


specified fabrication requirements will result in
procedures which are suited for the fupe of service
involved.

The following pagrs provide information with respect

and heat treating requirements. As a result of these

to

variations, nouniversal fabrieatingspecification could be

fabricating details which essentially apply to all types of


nine fabrication.

compiled that would encompass the minimum

dimensional tolerances, end preparations and

requirements of each Code for every type of material. We

129

ITT GRI\NELL PiPl-\C; DESICiN ANI) U\(}I \ IiIJ]tI\(;


PIPE BENDING TOLERANCES
RADII - MINIMUM TANGENTS
BENDING
MINIMUM
Form Tolerances
roundness in production carbon steel and low alloy steel

When the radius of a bend is 5 nominal pipe diameters


or greater, and the ratio of the nominal diameter to the
nominal wall is 35 or less the difference between the

bends. This investigation resulted

in

minimum

recommended bending radii for various ratios ofoutside


diameter to the minimum wall thickness. These limits are
shorvn in Figure 1. For the convenience of users, these
limits were extrapolated to 36" O. D. There is not
sufficient data available at present, however, to assure
reliability for large diameter bends.
The limits given in Figure 1 are for sand filled hot

maximum and minimum diameters shall not normally


exceed 8olo of the average measured outside diameter of
the straight portion of the pipe. Where special operating
conditions or code provisions require an ovality less than
87o it may be necessary to use larger radii or heavier pipe
walls to achieve such requirements.
To assure compliance with these requirements the Pipe
Fabrication Institute conducted an investigation of outof-

bends only and are not necessarily applicable for machine

or other types of bending.

TABLE

Minimum Pulling and Holding Legs For Pipe Bends

Nod. Pipc Sir., loch.r

Mio.

h|liu E!4 b.[.r

MiI, Holdhs

lr4 !!A.'

d' l0' t2' r1' r6' rd

tw

!' rVl'

rYz'

l0 lo

!6 m

21

lo t0 lo

t2

rt

2U2'

!l!r,B

!c@elrded !{lnt!@

rY'

10"

2t!,

T
Contettts

130

of this pag taken ftom PFI Standard

36

2t'

A 2f !o

,2'

{E

,t x

12

15

AdjsceEt

Bendt

L2r

22"

10"

ES'

26'

teg4l !etu.@

ouc-of-Pl&e ?tPe

U@. llp Stze, Iu.hed

2a

by courtesy of the Pipe F4bication lhstitute'

32n

,c

5a

'L

tl

PIPE FABRICATION

Tangents On Pipe Bends


While it is possible to make out-of-plane pipe bends
with little or no tangent between adjacent arcs, this
praetice involves a difficult bending setup for the out-

In order to pull a hot bend projierly, minimum straight


tangents are required on either end ofthe arc for holding

and for pulling. These are given in Table 1. Longer


tangents should be used whenever possible. However, in
special cases bends with plain or bevelled ends can be
furnished by cutting back the tangents upon completion
of bending, and with the recognition that out-of-rounded
conditions may exist at the open ends.

ofplane bend due to the clearance requirements for the


holding shoes on the portion of the pipe arc already
formed. For this reason whenever adequate clearances
exist in the design, the minimum tangent (T) shown in
Table 2 is recommended between adjacent out-of-plane
bends.

Etp.ri.nc* tince 1970 in b.idiig l6rq. dilnt.r pip6 l'.v. donor.rrttad rh..r1.rpol.tsd r.ri6 oI toD ii rhit.r.a vill ior
.6.es.rily pr.vid. rh. nign.$ egscl n'css.ry {or rh6 rorh.t
limit.fion, oi ov.liry i.r.d in p.r.g.aph 4.t 1.r Sendr ro rh. r.dii

.id d.p.

rhoyn. th6.tor6, tor tiJr in pip. ,ir.r er..r.r rt.n 2,r


inch8. tha r.jio.1 Ji.m,r6f ro miiimuR wdrl rhicli$ tor 3 rcquir.d b.ndins r.diur .nd +6.ili.J ov.iiry Inr6^i^91 limir.rio^
$ould br luhi.ct i. .qr.em.nt b.t{.6n rh. purch.io. lid rho

-!

=
ci
o
lr.l

;sl

L
!)
UJ

12

o-

ato

MIN. WALL THICKNESS, (IN.)


FOR MoS"r SEAMLESS ptPE MtN. WALL " NOMTNAL WALL X .e?5.
FOR MosT FUStoN WELDEo ptpE MtN. WALL . NoM[,tAL WALL - .OtO.

Flgure

Contents of this page taken frotk PFI Standdd ES-24 by coufiesy of the pipe Fabrication Institute

ITT GRINNEI,L

PIPI\C'i DI'SIGN AND UNGINEERING

__

Since there are occasions when buckles cannot be


avoided, the following restrictions should apply:
(a) All wave shapes shall blend into the pipe surface in
a gradual manner.

(b)

The maximum vertical height of any

wave,
measured from the average height of two adjoining

crests to the valley, shall not exceed 37o of the


nominal pipe size. (See Figure 2, Note 1).
(c) The minimum ratio of the distance between crests
as compared to the height between crests and the
included valley shall be 12 to 1. (See Figure 2,
Note 2).

Buckles which exceed the above recommended


tolerances will be subjected to corrective action to bring
them within tolerance.

Application of Pipe \Wall Ruckling Tolerances

Nale I

Depth of average crest to valley

the sum of the outside

is

diameters of the two

adjoining crests divided by two, minus rhe


outside diameter

of the valleY'

(oD)l + (oD),,
l)cpth

Nare

(orr)"

Ratio of distante between ctests to

dePth- is:

>rz

Contettts

132

of

Depth (per Note

l)

Figure

Institute'
this p48e tdken Irom PFI Siandar.t ES'24 by cowtesy of the PipQ Fabtlcotion

PIPE FABRICATION

METHOD OF DIMENSIONING PIPING ASSEMBLIES


In order to assure full penetration to the root of a weld,
the ends to be joined are set up with a small gap betrveen

In making his assembiy, the fabricator takes these


factors into account. In welds marked "W" in Fig. 1A ancl
1B it may be necessary to vary root spacing, select parts
or, if necessary, trim a component to produce overall
required dimensions. As an alternative approach, the
adjustment in dimension L occasioned by welds marked
W in Fig. 1A and 18 may be reflected by appropriate

them called root spacing. This root spacing may vary


from 0 to l" depending on the welding technique.
Shrinkage of the weld metal occurs in cooling. This
shrinkage varies with rvelding process, technique, piping
material and pipe wall thickness. On steel the weld
shrinkage usually amounts to 1/16" to l(". Consequently
the fabricator must make allowances for shrinkage.
All standald rvelding fittings and fianges are subject to tolelances on terminaj dimensions (end to end,
face to face, or.center to end, etc.). The tolerance on
overall length of flanges, as given in ANSI B16.b is

+.06"
l: .72"

erances

fol sizes up to and lncluding 10', and


fol larger sizes. ANSI 816.9 gives tol-

for butt welding fittings:

compensation to relevant dimensions in the pipinglayout.


All the above mentioned variables are beyond the
control of the Purchasers' Engineering Department. The
Pipe Fabrication lnstitute recommends that allowances
for u'eld gap be eliminated from the Engineer's design
drarvings, and overail dimensjons of close assembljes of

fittings or fittings and flanges be detennined on the


of the net sum of the nominal dimensions of
the component parts.
basis

For 900 and 450 elbows and tees these are:

Tol. (in)

Size
1/2,,

+.06
+.09

B,

10,,

I .09
+ .12
I .19

12,' - 24"
26" - 30"

82"

48"

.IG

DIMENSION

ENT DIMENS ION


IMENSION
NCE

IMENSION

'OIMENSION
G POINT
WP

FIGURE IA

FIGURE IB

Contents of thic Wge tokeh from pFI Standard ES-2 by coufiesy of


the pipe Fabication lfistitute.

133

ITT GRINN!]LI,

PIPING DF]SIGN AND I.]NGINI]1.]1],IN(

FABRICATING TOLDRANCES

The tolerances on linear dimensions (intermediate or


overall) apply to the face to face, face to end, and end
measurements of fabricated straight pipe and headers;
center to end or center to face of nozzles or other
attachments; or center to face of bends; as illustrated on

minus 1/16"

2.'

INOICA-TEO

APPLICA?ION OF PIPE FAERICATION TOLERANCES

L34

ofthis

poge

take from PFI Stsndad

ES-3 by

as

stated on Fig. 1.
When closer tolerances than those given are absolutely
necessary, they shall be subject to agreement between the
Purchaser and Fabricator.

FIGURE

Contents

in diameter over 36".

weld end preparation and on rotation of flanges are

(3E PARAGRAFII

IHE

euch 72"

Angularity tolerance across the face of flanges and

Fig. 1. These tolerances are not accumulative.


Linear tolerances on "A" are ! ls" for sizes 10"
and under, I 3/16" for sizes 12" through 24" and
I /4" for sizes over 24" through 36".
Linear tolerances on "A" for sizes over 36" are
subject to tolerances of t /4" increasing by plus or

FROM

for

Due to the cumulative effects oftoleranceson fittings or


flanges, when joined without intervening pipe segments,
deviations in excess of those specified above may occur.

co ftesy ofthe Pipe Fabi@tiott lwtltute,

PIPE FABRICATION

BUTT WELDING END PREPARATION


I'OR

Manual Shielded Metal-Arc and Automatic Submerged Arc Welding

Frc.

For wall thickness up through

,g' noninal

Wiih a splii back ring or without a backing ring. When the internal
misalignment of pipe rvall exceeds
diameter should be trimmed.

f"

the pipe with the smaller internal

Frc. 2
For wall thicknesses over 1$" through 1.0" nominal
With a flat or 10' tapered continuous backing ring.

Frc. 3
For wall tl.ickness over 1,0'/ nominal
When tbe thickness- at the welding etrd of a valve, fiitinq, or
^
nange
rs greater rha-n that ot tbe pjpe aDd tbe additional thick;ess
outsrde drametFr, a taper weld hav{g &- slope Dot
lg:iil::.-T:
exeeedrng J to I m&y be employed or, altematively. the ercater

oulsrde chameter ma,y be tapered,

at tho same maxiiiun 6lope or

from a poinl, o.n the welding bevel equat to the O.D. of the
mating pipe. Similarly, wbcn the greater lhickness is Drovided
on l,he- inside of thp valve, fitting. or flange, it shall lie taperoonecl lrom tbe wetdrng end at a slope nol, exeeeding 3 to l.
less,.

135

ITT GRINNELL

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING

BUTT WELDING END PREPARATION


FOR

Manual Inert-Gas Tungsten-Arc Root Pass Welding

Root Facc Spacing

9.69'

0.00'

g.gg'

Frc. 4
For wall thicknesses of * to 1o
With or without consumable insert rings and/or I.D. purging.
gtrz.

lzlz"
Root Face Spacing

2-'42
A

Frc.

For wdl thicknesses over f, through i"


With or without consumable insert rings and/or I.D. purging.
Nore A: I.D. machidng should be performed rvhere the inside misalignment
of wall would otherwise exceed +" without insert ring useage or 11" r,v'ith
insert ring useage.

Root Face Spacing

Flc. 6

f'

For wall tlicknesses over


or
without
consumable insert rings and/or LD. purging.
With
When the thickoess at tbe weldire end of a valve. 6tiinq. or
sreater thatr that of the DiDe
and the additioDal thickDess
-tsper
incresser the outside diametcr. i
weld bavillq a slope not
exceeding 3 to 1 may be empl6yed 6r, altematively-, ibe lreater
outde clxuneter tlray D tapere4 et tbe salne lnaxlmu& $ope or
fla.Dse is

136

less, from a point on the weldinc bevel eoua-l

to tbe O.D. of the

oipe. Similarlv. shen itre ereati lhichess is Drovided


o! tbi iDaide of the valve, fitting,1r flange, it shall 5e tspeF
bored lrom the welding end st a slope trot e;c;eding 3 to 1.
maiins

i!

PIPE FABRICATION
BUTT WELDING ENDS1 TO ANSI 816.25 AND PFI ES-l
AND MACHINED BACKING RINGS FOR BUTT WELDS TO PFI ES-l

\ominal
Pipe Sizc

Schedule

\rLmber
or \fall

\ominal O.D.

\ominal I.D.

\ominal \Yall
Thickness

]Iachined I.D.
of Pipe "C"

rol"ran"n *fi

O.D. of Backing Ring

TaperedRing"DT" Straight Ring "DS"

ffi r"l*,""" 43 3?3

2.-109

2.119

3.279

3.289

.625

4.124

-1.438

.750

.1.209

4.219

5.600

5.610

'r'ol"**"

a3

3?3

5.327
5.O72

100
120

7.327

xxs

7.1ri3
7.053

160

ti.993

7.063
7.00E

7.053
6.998

7.r73

80

.594

9.671

9.681

9.67r

r00

.7r9

9.{52

t20

L452

.84.1

9.23.1

9.162
9.244

r40

r.000

8.959

8.959

160

1.125

8.7f0

8.969
E.750

Ir.620

.562

11.37.1

.638

1r.725
11.507

11.735
11.517

11.725
t 1.507

lt.211

1r.231

10.96S

1.r25

11.234
10.959
10.740

1.31.2

10..113

10.750
10.423

10.959
10.740
10.413

.59'1

12.921
12,646
12.3r9
12.016

12.931
12.656

12.921
12.646

12.329

12.319
12.046
11,771
11.498

r00

t20
1.10

160

60
80
100

0.D.

7.5,16

7.327

r.10

60
80

14

5.082

120
1.10

160

.002
10.750
10.500
10.126

.8-1-1

1.000

.750
.938
1.094
1.250
1.406

11.771

1r.498

12.056
11.781
11.508

9.231
8.7.10

All dimensions are in inches.


thelp or the a,tual pjp..to bc fbLri.ated.is greater rhan required for minimrrm ring seating whcn machining to Dimension
.,j),h:,n
''I tnc mFlal requrrad
lor ma' hrnrng may ba providrLl by depoSiring $eld me(al orr ihc LD. of thc pipe in ihe arel to bp machined.
$'h.n sclerting.a $all. thirknels for- design, allowance should be included to compensate for pernrissible manufactudng tolera,nces

on both nomrnal plpe !\ all thrckness and outside diameter, so that machining to &bove iiimensions wjll in no
ress rnan lcqurred ror max)mum ocstgn condrtlons.
Note 1: Limited to seamless pipe with under tolerance on outside diameter not greater than )6,, (0.031).

cae

result iq a w;ll thickness

ITT GRINNELL _ PIPING

DESTGN

A\D ENCI\EENI\C

BUTT WELDING ENDS' (Continued)

Nominal
Pipe Size

16

0.D.

Schedule

60
80

16.000
16.000

14.688

.656

14.811

14.3t2

.844

r4.484

100
120

r6.000

13.938
13.562

1.031
1.219

14.155

t3.827

14.165
13.837

14.124

r.488

13.412

13.452

13.442

12.8t2

1.594

13.171

13.181

13.171

18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000

16.876
16.500

.562

16.975

.938

15.688
15.250

1.156
1.375
1.562
1.781

16.985
16.656
16.329
15.946

16.975
16.646

16.124

16.646
16.319
15.936

15.235
14.852

15.225
14.842

20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000

18.812
18.376

.594

18.921

u.s38

1.031
1.281
1.500
1.750
1.96S

ld.tDo

18.931
18.548
18.165

17.7r7
17.334

17.344

16.896
16.515

16.S06
16.525

22.000
22.000
22.000
22.000
22.000
22.000
22.000

20.750
20.250

.625

20.865

20.865

19.750
19.250
18.750
18.250

1.125

r9.990

r.375

19.125
18.688

r9.115

17.750

2.r25

19.553
19.115
18.678
18.240

20.875
20.438
20.000
r9.563

24.000
24.000
24.000
24.000
24.000
24.000
24.000
24.000

22.476
22.624
22.062

.562
.688

Number
or Wall

160

0.D.

40
60
80
100

120
1,10

160

40

60

20 0.D.

80
100

120
140

r60

22 0.D.

60
80
100

120
l4{)
160

30

60

24 0.D.

O.D. of Backing lting


llechined I.D.
of Pipe "C"
Tapered liing "DT" Straighi Ring "DS'
+3
3i3 r^r.."^.-"-- *"'- *0 000 r"re.""* +3.393
-0.010

Nominal I.D.

r40

18

Nominal \Yall

Nominal O,D.

80
100

t20
140

'160

16.000
16.000
16.000

14.876
14.438

17.438

r7.000
16.500
16.062

2r.562
20.938
20.376
19.876
19.312

Thickness

.8r2

r.r*."*

15.225

A.a42

18.921
18.538

20.424

1.625
1.875

14.821
14,491

r8.250

r4.811
14.484
14.155

8.a27

16.319
15.936

18.538

1l'.ltc
17.717
17.334
16.896

16.5r5

20.424
19.990
19.553
18.678
18.240

22.975

2t.427

22.985
22.767
22.275
21.837

2r.280

2r.290

2r.2&

1.812

20.744

20.748

2.062
2.344

20.350

20.798
20.360
19.869

.969
1.219
1.531

22.975
22.757
22.265

19.859

22.737
22.265

2r.a27

20.350
19.859

All dimensions are in inches,


Wten the l.D. of the actual pipe to be fabricated ir grealer than requfued fo! minimum tirg seating whe[ machining to Dimensiofl
..C", the metal required for machining may be plovidod by depositing weld metal on the I.D. ofthe pipe in the arca to be machined.
When selecting a wall thickness for design, allovanco should be included to compensate for permi$ible manufactudng tolerances on
both nominal pip=e wall thichess and outside diameter, so tiat machining to above dimensions will in no case tesult itl a wall thicknoss
less than requtued

for maximum design conditions,

Note 1: Umited to samless pipe with utrde! tolela$ce on outsid diametet not grcatet than 1/32" (0 '031).

138

PIPE FABRICATION

TPICAL DETAILS OE' BRANCH


For all 90' nozzle connections, preference shall be
given to the extruded type because of its increased
strength and smdoth florv iharacteristics. The selection of an extruded type nozzle is limited by a slight
reduction of the outlet wall thickness. The final

CONNECTIONS

outlet wall thickness will be no less than ZbTo of lhe


run wall thickness.
Nozzle connections shall be either the welded or the
extruded type. Both types of nozzles shall be reinforced when required by Codes.

Extruded Nozzle

w eloec I\ozzle

Branch size is one-half of run


size or less. (See Note 1.)

Welded Nozzle

Branch size

is

ore-half of run size.

greater than
(See Note 1.)

RNrcRONC

NorE 1: \Yhen additional reinforcem_ent

is required by code, use a saddJe

\vhen svatlable

as a

commercial Droduct.

othefwise use & special designed ng


or p:rd,

rFjllet thickness

less than the smRller

"T"

shall not.be

of la inch or

times thc minimum required

thickness of the branch.

0.7

wall

139

ITT GRINNELL. PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEEITING

BRANCII AND FLANGE CONNECTIONS


Snall Braach Connections
Preference shall be given

nections which

to the F.S. Coupling con-

will be furnished

unless otherwise

specified.
E S, SCREWEO
COUPLING

Noro: The height of welded pads or bosses above the outside diameter of the run pipe should never be less than
required by ASA Standards for full threads or full socket depth.
Socket Weld Fitting

I'.S. Welding
Neck Flange

@or welding with


or without backing
ring.)
RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM
CLEARANCE BEFORE WELDING

F.S. Slip-on Flanges

Refer to applicable

Code

for limits on

Slip-

use

of

Standard Construction

on Flanges.

F.S. Screwed Flanse

140

Fabricated Lap Joint and


F,S. Lap Joint Flange

PIPE FABRICATION

ITT GRINNELL COMMERCIAL SPLIT-TYPE BACKING RING


IT1' Grirurell backing rings save up to B0 per cent on
time- The alignmerrt of pigre is simplified, re.
quiriug only that the ends butt up against the nubs
which detcrmine thc proper spacing recommended by
good code welding practice. Ring tension holds the
ring irr place and helps guide thc pipe ends into place,
giving assistance that is a necessity in the field and a
great time saver irr the shop. No tack welds are necesset-up

shott nubs illustrated

sary when these backing rings are used.


With these backing rings it is easier for operators to
produce welds of code quality. The outside face of
the ring, which forms the bottom of the welding groove,
is flat, while the inner face is smoothly contoured for
minimum florv restriction. Thus the maximum rinE
thickness is coneentrated below the root gap, permitting
the use of higher welding current for better penetmtion,
cleaner welds and higher weldirg speeds with a mini-

mum danger of "burn tbrough".


The uniformly spaced nubs ou ITT Grinnell backing
rirrgs are spot welded and melt dorvn with the weld
metal to produce complete peuetration and perfect
lusiorr. X-Ray inspection proves that their location
cannot be detected in the finished weld.

ITT Grinnell

sizes

backing rings are available for pipe


from 1 to 24-inch inclusive for both standard and

extra strcDg pipe.


Gap is approximately f6" l'hen ring is in place.
Short Nubs

Fig.

1992

Fie. 1992L

Extra Strong

!ig.

1993

Fig. 1993L

IiP"

I
r%
rlz

Ring Diameter D
Standa.rd

Extra Strong
6ra

t3,{4

Thickness

* Rings with long nubs can be furnished on special


order.

.,
Dbort
nubs are regularly fumihed.

width

Nub Diameter S

Nub Leneth

Stardard Xxtra StroDg

Sh*tTI"trc

1%

%
%
%

2Yn

1t3/-

2rt4

22tA

,4

SYra

22s'42

3%

33i(l

3134

4
5

4r,{,

35941

53,(4

4r%a

tYro

6
8
.10

6r/t6

51r.4

rvt6

763.44

7%

2%

t34

r%

101.44

19""

r34s

13
15

13

13%
15%

18

17%

77

23%

23

ls%

rs46

1r%

16

24

%
%

r{t6

12

20

%
%

9%

12

inches.

Long Nubs*

Standard

Nominal

All dimensions are ia

r34
,&

19

1316
1346

rYn

7a

I.7

2.O

)6
%
%

%
%
%

3.0

5.0

7a
7a
7a

%
%

Ys
Y6
%$

%
%

1.7

7e

346

4.2

11.5
25

25

Y16

%6
%6

Weight

(Approx) lb

Carton

%
%
%

%
%

%6

Standard Packaging

Lings Per

14.0
18.7

10
%6

%6

7a
7e

10
10
10

7a
7a
7a

10
10

Y6

t{6

3/n

%
%

%
%

l0

15.0
17.5

20.0
21.5
21.0

ITT GRINNELL

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINI'EITING

ITT GRINNELL CONSUMABLE INSERT RING


This consumable insert ring is used in welding a
variety of piping materials by the inert-gas tungstenarc welding process. When used in the proper composition and dimensions, this ring produces rvelds of
the highest quality. In stainless steel piping for
atomic reactors
weld joint perfection is of
- where
exireme importance
virtually all welding authorities
concerned with such fabrication
agree that only with the
consumable insert ring can accepta,ble welds be made.

Eccentric Placement for Iforizontal Welding


When used for horizontal fired-positiorr rvelding, the
consumable insert ring is placed in the eccentric

position:

This eccentric placement enables the ring to compensate for the downrvard sag of the molten rveld
metal. It also aids in obtaining a smooth, uniform
root contour along the inside diameter of the joint.
The two photographs below show horv this consumable inseft ring protrudes: at left, into the groove at
the top of the pipe; at right, into the inside of the pipe
at the bottom of the pipe.

When this consumable insert welding ring is used,


considerably wider misalignment of pipe butt joints can
be tolerated than would be permissible with other

techniques. Under average welding conditions, an


ofrset of about 3l inch and a gap of + inch can be
readily welded. With expert welders, greater oflsets
and wider gaps can be bridged
without defects in
the weld.

Five Primary Functions

(1) To provide the easiest welding conditions


and
thereby minimize the effecrs of undesirable- welding variables caused by the human element.
(2) To give the most favorable weld contour to resist
cracking caused by weld metal shrinkage and
hot shortness, or brittleness in hot metal.
(3) To produce metallurgically the soundest possible
weld metal composition
with desirable properties of strength, ductility- and toughness.
(4) To eliminate on ma,ny sizes the need for separately supplied filler metal, also the necessity of
one or two additional weld passes.
(5) To minimize concavity or sink on the lower I.D.
section of the interior of abuttins ends.

The contour of the root-pass weld made with this


insert ring in stainless steel piping is shown below
in three positions: top, side, bottom.

F
ITT Grinnell consumable inserts are available for use
u'ith urost all weldable quality piping materizr.ls.

PIPE FABRICATION
STANDARD PIPE BENDS
over-all dimensions are rvithin the limits of transportation facilities.

Each bend should be checked for availability of pipe


in the required over-all leugth, arrd to determine that

DEVELOPED LENGTH
No,

I.571 R

QUARTER BEND-9Oo

No.4 CROSSOVER EENO

DEVELOPED LENGTH
(in degrees) x R x

No. rj BEND -

0.828 R

DEVELOPED LENGTH =
2 x DEVELOPED LENGTH oF NO. 5 BEND

DEVELOPED LENGTH

6.283 R

No 8 DOUBLE OFFSET U BEND

ANGLE

0.01745

46'T0 89'
FOR DIMENSIONS . SEE NEXT PAGE

No.5 OFFSET BEND


DEVELOPED LENGTH = 6.283R
No.9 EXPANSION U BEND

2X

(tHEtX|slFooTonlE3i)

A
o

s
No.

2 SINGLE OFFSET

OUARTER BENO

DEVELOPED LENGTH

6.12?B

No.6 SINGLE OFFSET U BEND

l*+o3o3R

Et(b.,os'

Euffl\
DEVELOPED LENGTH
No.

3 45'

0.785R

rn
"L(/.m

1l
1

DA'AP
---- -

DEVELOPED LENGTH
No. lO

'j
=

9.425R

DOUBLE OFFSET EXPANSION 8N0

BEND

DDVELOP LENGTH

No.7 U- BENo-

DEVELOPED LENGTH

ANCLE

(hdegrees)xRx0.01745
N0. 3tBENo -LESs THAN 45.

DEVELOPED LENGTH

3.142R

lSOo

ANGLE

(indegrees)x8x0.0U45

No.7i BEND-

.z,z:\

gfro t79'

PIPE DIAMETER

No.

ll

CIRCLE BENO

143

ITT GRINNELL

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING

CAI,CIJLATION OI' PIPE BENDS

@iuen:
To

rt,ntl: T

T:
Arc

arrd a.

Giam: L, O and R.

and. arc.

n>o

R Lan!
2

To

Angle (in degrees)

and arc.

CD:R_O

0.01745

AB

,/

Oipen: R and O,

AAD

+^.-1

5 OFFSET

a:

cos-'

BEND

L : \/-AC2-

Arc:

.BC

BCa

BC tan

\/CDr}:Tt --n,
IACB

CD

ZACD

: tan-'ff

- IACB

tr'or ? and arc see first calculatron.


(

la:

find: L, a and arc.


BC:2R -O AC :2R,
To

No.

f.nd; AB, e, T

It R<O then CD:O-E and a:180oAC D + I AC B) . Other values remain the same.

<,

Angle (in degrees) XnX0.0l?4b

Qium: R1, R2,


and O.

Giuen: R, O and, L.

To

f,nd.: L, a, arq,

o <2R

and arc2.

BC:Rt+R2-O

Tofind: a,X and arc.

AC:h+nz

BC:2R-O
AD

:2R

: \8,+ BC,=ZA,
ICAB : tao-'Bf

L:

\/TC'

- Be:

cr:

BCtano

Arcl :41"1" (in degrees) Xlilx 0,01745


Arc2 :4tr"1" (in degrees) XRrX 0.01?45

cc:90"-(tDAC+ICAB)
@iren:

Arc:Angle (in degrees) XAX0.01?45

It O>2n then BC:O-2R, and a:90"+ ICAB. Other values remain the sa,me.
A

To find,: L,

a;;.d

To

CoiS.t:

IACB

arc.

lP-+acz
stn-l

Arcr: 4nt1" (in degrees) XArX


Arc2: 41"1" (in degrees) XErX

ar

-A

0.01746
0.01746

If O> al +R2 BC:O-(fu*82), and c=


- ( IACB + IACD). Other values remain the

180'

same.

t44

and, O.

: tao-t#

: IACB - IACD IACD :


AD: x:'VAe - Ai+E*
e

^o
CosP:t

f,nd; a, X and

tc :

and P

L: \/E +T

8.2,

BC-Rt+n2-O

E:\/ETT

Ry

O1ff:'*Rz'

IDAC

Qium: O,

.BC
,n

COS-'

PIPE FABRICATION
LENGTHS OF ARCS FOR RADIUS

llirutcs

Degrees

'

0"

0.000000

60"

0.017453
0.034907
0.052360
0.069813
0.087266

61
62
63
66

1.134464

0. 10.1720

ti6

122173

67
68
69
70

6
7
8

s
10
11
12
13

I4

17

ln
19

20
22

23
24

0.139626
0.157080
0.174633
0.191986
0.209440
0.226893
0.244346
0.261799
0.279253
0.29$706
0.314159
0.331613
0.349066
0.366519
0.383972
0.401426
0.41E879

0.436332
26
27
28

1.047198

120"

2.094396

1.06,1651

121
122

t23
124
126

2.146755
2.164208
2.L81662

1. 15r917
1. 169371

126

2. 199115

1 . 18682,1
| .2012 t-7

128

.231021

6
7
8

129

7.221730

130

2.251175
2.268928

l0

082104
1.099557
1. 117011

7l

1.239184
1.256637
1.274090
1.291544

76

1.308997

76
77
7a

1.326.150
1.3.13904

136

1.361357
1.378810

80
81
a2
83
84
86

2.408554
2.426008
2.44346L

r8
20

r.413717

r4r

2.460914

2I

112

2..178368

22
23

143

2.495821
2
2

146
147
148
149

2.548181

26

2.565634
2.583087

28

2.600541

29

160

2.6L7994

30

r51
152

.635417

31

153
154

roo

2.670354
2.687807
2.706260

156
157
158
159
160

2.722714
2.740167
2. t- 57620
2.775074
2.792627

36

4l

96

38
39

42
43
44

0.715585
0.733038
0.750492
0.767945
0.786398

46
46
48

49
60

52
53

0.802851
0.820305
0.837758
0.855211
0.872666
0.890118
0.907571
0.925025
o.94247a
0.969931
0.977384
0.994838
1.012291
1.0297 44

60

1.047198

1.588250
1.605703
1.623156
1.640609
1.668063

97

1.675516
1.6S2969

98

L710123

99
100

r.727476
L.746329

101

1..762783
1.780236

161

r.797689

163

.5132i 4
.630727

1.815142
1.832696

rti4
165

t.879793

166
167
168
169
170

2.897247

110

1.850049
1.867502
1.884956
1.902409
1.919862

111

1.937315

112

r.954769

171

113
114

1.972222
1.989675

106
107
108
109

IIO

2.007129

116

2.O215a2

1r7
118
119

L20

2.042035
2.059489
2.076942
2.094396

L62

172

173
174
L76

t76
177
178
179
180

21
26

2. it52900

2.809980
2.827433
2.a4Ja87
2.462340

103
104
106

19

144
L46

1.483630

0.628319
o.645772
o .663225
0.680678
0.698132

r02

l3
T4

r.466077

gl

36

133
134
135

11

12

1.4,18623

0.541052
0.558505
0.575959
0.593412
0.610866

94

131

132

33

34
36

38
39
40

4/l
46

.914700

2.932153
2.949606
2.96?060
2.984513
3.001966
3.0r9420
3.036873
3.064326

48
49
60

52
53
OD

3.071779
3.089233
3.106686

58

3.141693

60

a.D4r3g

Scconds

0'

0.000000

0.000291

0.0005E2

2
3
1

0.000005
0.000010
0.000015
0.000019
0.000024

0.000873
0.001464

138
139
140

1.535890
1.553343
1.670796

JO

0.00116'1

1.396263

1.518.13{t

92
93

16
17

88

32

2
3

2.3736-18
2.391101

1.500983

33

2.12.9302

r37

87
89
90

2.111848

16

86

30

0.000000

2.286381
2.303835
2.321288
2.338741
2.356194

0.453786
o.471239
0.488692
0.506145
0.623699

29

0'

2.216568

72
73
71

1.r170

0.001745
0.002036
0.002327
0.002618
0.002909
0.003200
0.003491
0.003782
0.004072
0.004363
0.004654
0.004945
0.005236
0.005527
0.006818
0.006109
0.006400
0.006690
0.006981
0.007272

6
7

10

1l
12
13
1'1

16

t7
18
19

20

2l
22
23

24
26

0.000029
0.00003.1

0.000039
0.000044
0.000048
0.000053
0.000058
0.000063
0.000068
0.000073
0.000078
0.000082
0.000087
0.000092
0.000097
0.000102
0.000107
0.000112
0.000116
0.000121

0.007563
0.007854
0.008145
0.008436
0.008727

26

2t)
30

0.0001.r1

0.009018
0.009308
0.009599
0.009890
0.010181

31

0.000150
0.000155
0.000160
0.000165
0.0001?0

0.010472
0.010763
0.011054
0.011345
0.011636
0.011926
0.012217
0.012508
0.012799
0.013090
0.013381
0.013672
0.013963
0.014254
0.014644

2A

3,1

38

39
40
41
43

41
46

48
49
60

0.000126
0.000131
0.000136
0.000146

0.000175
0.000179
0.000184
0.000189
0.000194
0.000199
0.000204
0.000208
0.000213
0.000218
0.000223
0.000228
0.000233
0.000238
0.000242

0.014835
0.015126
0.015417
0.015708
0.015999

51
52

0.000247
0.000252
0.000257
0.000262
0.000267

0.016290
0.016581
0.016872
0.017162
0.017463

56

0.000271
0.000276
0.000281
0.000286
0.000291

59

60

ITT GITINNIILL PIPING DT]SIGN AND ENGINEERING

NUCLEAR PIPING

INTRODUCTION

No book on the subject of piping would be complete


without some discussion of nuclear piping. While much of
the information in this book is applicable to all piping,
many of the requirements for design and stress analysis
of nuclear piping are beyond the scope of this book. The
following discussion is included to acquaint the reader, in
general terms, with the subject of nuclear piping and the
nuclear piping Codes.

Nuclear Codes
Prior to the publication of nuclear piping Codes the
piping in nuclear power plants was generally designed
and constructed to the rules of 831.1 and additional
requirements specified by the designers to achieve the
dependability requirerl for the critical nature of nuclear
piping. Starting in 1960, a series of Code Cases
designated as "N" cases were issued to supplement B31.1
for nuclear piping. The first nuclear piping Code "B31.7
Nuclear Power Piping" was pubiished in 1969 and
was replaced in 19?1 when these piping rules were
included in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code Section III. This Code is revised semiannually
through the publication of addenda. Once every
three years a new edition of the ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code is published incorporating the
previous addenda. Nuclear piping must comply with
the Code requirements of the Code edition and
addenda which are mandatory on the date of the
purchase order or contract.
Section III, Division 1, contains rules for vessels,
pipiug, pumps, valves, metal containment structures,
tanks, component supports, and core support structures (Section III, Division 2 contains rules for concrete vessels) and is published in seven separate

volnmes as
Subsection
Subsection
Subsection
Subsection
Subsection
Subsection
Subsection
Appendices

146

follows

NCA
Nts NC ND NE -

NF NG -

General Requirements
Class 1 Components
Class 2 Components
Class 3 Components
Class MC Components
Components Supports

Core support Structures

Section III, provides rules covering materials, design, fabrication, installation, examination, and testing of three classes of nuclear piping which denote
three levels of quality and are referred to as Classes
1, 2, and 3. It is the responsibility of the designer to
select the class that will provide the quality required

for the intended serwice, Requirements and guidance


on this subject may be found in publications of the
Nuclear Regulatory Comrnission and the American
Nuclear Society.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission


The rules and regulations of the United States Nuclear

Regulatory Commission (NRC) are published in the


Federal Register under Title l0-Atomic Energy. Of
particular interest to the nuclear piping designer is 10
CFR 50. 55a "Code and Standards" which limits the time
periods for which applicable Code editions and Addenda
for a component may precede the date of the application
for construction permit. At the time of this writing,
piping cannot be constructed to Section III rules in effect
more than six months prior to the formal docket date of
the application for construction permit.
Also of interest to the nuclear piping designer are
NRC's Regulatory Guides. Compliance with Regulatory
Guides is not mandatory; however, thev are issued to
describe methods acceptable to the NRC for imple-

menting specific parts of the Commission's regulations, and to provide guidance to applicants for construction permits and operating licenses.
Regulatory. guides sometimes refer to ANSI Nuclear
Standards and state that compliance with the referenced
ANSI Nuclear Standard is an acceptable method of
meeting the requirements ofthe Regulatory Guide. ANSI
Nuclear Standards cover a broad range of subjects
concerning nuclear, material and nuclear power
generation. The N45 seriesofANSI standards which deal
with quality assurance, cleaning, packaging, shipping,
handling, storage and housekeeping are some of the
ANSI N standards which are related to nuclear piping.
Design of Nuclear Piping
The principal differences between nuclear and nonnuclear piping lie in the more sophisticated and

NUCLEAR PIPING

demanding design analysis. additionai non-destructive

examination (NDE), quality assurance. and Code


inspection and stamping. The tl'pe of piping materials
and piping product forms used for nuclear piping are
essentially the same as those used lor non-nuclear piping.
ASME II1 requiles the owner. to plovide, or cause
to be plovided, design specifications for components,

(the term component inchtdes jtems such:rs vessels,


piping systems, pumps, va)ves and storage tanks),
appulten2tn(es, core srlppol.ts, or component stlppot ts.
Sepalate design specifications ale not reriuir.ed
fol palts, piping srrbassemblies, appur.tenances or
component suppofts \!hen they are inclLrded in the
design specific:rtions for the comporenrs; lro\l.ever,
applicable data in the form of dlawings in srrfficient
detail to ptovide for fabric:rtion in accordance with
the Code must be provided to the part or piping subassembly manufacturer. The Code requires design
Specifications to contain sufficient detail to provide
a complete basis for construction in accordance with
the Code and must contain the functions of the items
coveled, the design requirements, the environmental
conditrons including radiation, the Code classification
of the items covefed, definition of the component
boundalies, and the material requirements including
impact test I'equirements as applicable, Design specifications are required to be certified to be correct,
complete, and in compliance with the Code by one or
more registered professional engineers competent in
the applicable field of design and related nuclear
po$el plant requirements, Copies of the desigal specifications, in their entirety, must be filed with the
enfolcements authorities having jurisdiction at the
nuclear plant location L,efore the components are
placed ln service and, except for parts and piping
snbassemblies, they must be available to the authorized Code inspector at the manufacturing site before
fabrication is started.
All loadings must be considered in nuclear piping
design including, but not limited to. pressure. $.eisht of
the component and its conienl s. pressure .l ue to.t at ic ancl
dynamic load of liquids, superimposed loads due to other

components, operating equipment, insulalion and


linings, wind and sno*' loads, vibrations and earthquake
]oads, reactions of supports. and temperature effects.

The specific combinations and values ol mechanical


loadings to be considered in conjunction with design
pressure and temperature must be desiqnated as the
design mechanical loads and includcd in the desisr,
specifications. These loadings, movements due to boih
earthquake and anchor movements, and the number of
cvcles f.o be used in analvsis must also be part of the

design specifications.
Design specrflcatrons are required to categorize the
operating conditions to which piping may be subjected as
Nonnal, Upset Enery1ent,u, Faulterl. and Zcst conditions.

These terms are fully described in ASME Ill and are


mentioned here merely to point out that the stress limits
rrhich mrrst be satisfied are different for each of these
conditions.
For Class I nuclcar piping, ASME Ill requires the
llreparation of a stress leport rvhich must include both

thc rlesign drauings and

complete stress

anal-vsis

calcuiations establishing that the design shown by the

rlra$ings uscrl for construction complies rvith the


requirements of the design specifications and the rules

of ASME III. Anl computer programs used ih the


calculations must be fuilf identified and described in the

stfess leport. The o*ner, or his agent, is required to


relre\r the stl.ess feport and certify that the stress
report satisfies the requir.ements of the design spec_
ification. CoDies of this cer.tificatior must be attached to copies of the stress repolt and filed with the
autholized code in-spector and the enforcement au_
tholities haviug iulisdiction over the nuclear. Do$.r
pllnt installation.
The Code includes tables of stress values for the
materials permitted lor use under the rules of the Code.
Fol Class 1 materinls the tables give allowable design
stless inteilsity vlhres; for the other Code classes the
tables give allorable str.ess values. Ilecause of the
mole vigolous design analysis requirements of Class
1. (omponents the allouable stress intensities are
higher thxn the allo$able stress values for the same
mlteriris rlhich appear. in the tables fol. the other

Code classes.
It should be noted that only those materials included in

the stress tables may be used as pressure retalnlng


malerial texcept for I in. and smaller line fittings which
may meet other special requirements) and that these
materials are to be in accordance with SA or SB
specifications which appear in Section II of the ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Hou,ever, ASME III

permit the use of material produced underan ASTM


designation provided the corresponding SA or SB
specification is designated as being identical with the
does

ASTM specification for the grade, class or type produced.

Materials
Essentialiy all material, including welding and
brazing material, must be identified and certified.
Identification consists of marking the material with the
applicable specification and grade of material. heat
number or heat code or, alternatively, a symbol or code
which identified the material with its certification. The
required certification in most cases is a Certified
Materials Test Report which must include the results of
all the required tests and examination performed. There
are few exceptior:s to this requirement. At this time. a
Material Manufacturer's Certificate of Compliance may
be provided in lieu of a Certjlied Materials Test Report
for piping material 3l in. nominal size and less and non_
147

ITT GRINNELL

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERIN(;

plessufe retaining material which is welded to


pressure retaining material which is welded to pressure retaining material. The only non-certified
material is material used for temporary or minor
permanent attachments such as nameplates, insulation
supports and locarrng lugs.
A Certificate of Compliance is the material man-

ufacturer's certified statement that the material


complies *'ith all requirements of the material snecification and the additional requirements,

if

for nuclear piping, are significantly more


to stress corrosion cracking than non-

sensitized (solution heat treated) stainless steels.

Regulatory Guide 1.44 addresses the subject of control of

the use of sensitized stainless steel covering protection


against contaminants, cleaning, solution heattreatment,

welding practices and testing for verification of nonsensitization.

any, speci-

fied by the purchaser. Results of tests and examinations are not required to be included in a Certificate
of Compliance.
Fracture toughness requirements for materials are
included in ASME III. While impact testing of
nonferrous materials and austenitic stainless steels is not
required, the Code is very specific and detailed regarding

impact testing for other materials. The requirements


depend upon size and thickness ofthe material, and vary
from no impact testing requirements for small size or

thin material to very extensive requirements for thick


material. The required impact test properties are related
to the lowest service temperature to which the material

will be

subjected, and the number of impact tests


required depends upon the material product form. It is
sometimes necessary for the designer to specify finegrained material such as SA333 in lieu of SA106 in order
to meet the impact test requirements.
To reduce the possibility of the occurence of
microfissures in austenitic stainless steel welds, the Code
requires that weld filler metal contain delta ferrite and
states the minimum acceptable delta ferrite content as
well as how the determination of delta ferrite content
must be performed. Regulatory Guide 1.31 also deals
with the subject of delta ferrite and precautions to be
taken during welding to assure the presence of delta

ferrite in completed welds.


Unstabilized austenitic stainless steels in a sensitized
condition, including AISI types 304 and 316 frequently

148

used

susceptible

Inservice Inspection
In addition to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code Section III, the designer ofnuclear pipingshould be
familiar with Section XI "Rules for Inservice Inspection
of Nuclear Power Plant Components". Section XI
contains requirements for inspection and repair of
nuclear components throughout the life of the nuclear
plant. Although the nuclear components are constructed
in accordance with Section III, it is important for the
designer to provide the accessability and space necessary

for performing the required inservice inspections. In


addition, welds which require ultrasonic inservice
inspection should be ground flat orotherwise conditioned
lo facilitate this rype of examination.
It is important for the nuclear piping designer to have
knowledge not only of the nuclear piping Codes, but also
of piping material product forms, dimensional standards,

and piping fabrication and installation practices. If the


designer is not specific regarding items such as ovality in
pipe bends or type of branch connections, re-analysis of
the piping design may be required because the piping
fabricator used a product or fabrication detail having
stress intensification factors different from those used in
the piping anaiysis. Costly re-design and analysis can be
avoided if the designer has a thorough knowledge of the
practical aspects of piping product forms and fabrication
details, and his specifications are sufficiently detailed to
assure construction which is compatible with his design
analvsis,

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS

THE DESIGN OF PIPE HANGERS

INTRODUCTION

It has become rvidely recognized that the selection


and design of pipe hangers is an important part of the
engineering study of any modern steam generating or
process installation. Problems of pipe design for high
tempemture, high pressure installations have become
critical to a point rvhere it is imperative that such
aspects of design as the effect, of concentrated hanser

loads on buildirrg siructure, pipe weight loads on

equipment connections, and physical clearances of the


hanger components with piping and structure be taken
into account at the early design stages of a project.
Engineers specializirrg in the design of pipe hangers
have established effcient meihods of performing the
work required to arrive at appropriate hanger designs.
llolvever, the engineer who devotes varying portions
of his time to the design of pipe hangers often must
gather a, considerable amount of reference data reculiar
only to the hanger calculai ions for his current projecr.
It is the purpose of this article to present a compilation of all information necessary for the design of
hangers, including a technical section devoied to the
listing of piping material, weights, and thermal expansion data. Also, the discussions of the various
steps involved in designing supports, presented here in
their proper sequence, should serve as a good reference
source for the engineer who only occasionally becomes
involved in the essentials of hanger design.
The first of these steps is that of determining and
obtaining the necessary amount of basic information
before proceeding r,i.ith calculations and detailins of the
pipe supports. No design is complete unless the
engineer has had the opportunity to review the equivalent of the fol)orving project data:

The pipe hanger specification, when available (A


typical hanger specification is shown on pages 1Zg
and 1?9.)
A complete set of piping drawings.
A complete set of steel and structural drawinss
including equipment foundation and boiler structure
details.

A complete set of drawings shorving the location of


ventilating ducts, electrical trays, pumps, tanks, etc.
The appropriate piping specifications and data,
which will include pipe sizes and composition identification, r'all thicknesses, and oper&ting tempereturcs.
A copy of the insulation specifications rvith densities.
Yalve and special fittings lists, which will indicate
weights.
The movements of all critical equipment connections
such as boiler headers, stearn drums, turbine connectlons, etc.

The results of the stress, flexibility and movement


calculation performed for critical systems zuch as Main
Steam, High Temperature Reheat, etc.
The steps in which the engineer will apply this basic
information are as follows:

(1) The determination of hanger locations.


(2) The determination of the thermal movement of
the piping at each hanger location.

(3) The calculation of hanger loads.


(4) The selection of hanger types, i.e., spring

as-

sembly, either of the constant support or variable


spring type, rigid assembly, etc.

(5) The checking of clearance between the hanser


components and nearby piping, electrical cable
trays, conduits, ventilating ducts, and equipment.

The final step will not be discussed to any gres,t


degree. Obviously, this aspect of design is governed
solely by the requirements and layouts of the individual job. Instead, attention rvill be devoted to steps
1 through 4, where the scope of good hanger practice
can be generally defined for any installation.
Recognizing that each new piping design presents
an abundance of new problems to the engineer. no
attempt is made to state fixed rules and liriits which
would be applicable to every hanger design. Rather,
the intention is to illusLrate ideas which will serve as
a guide to a simple, practical solution to any pipe
support problem.

THE DETER]IINATION OF HANGER LOCATIONS


HANGER SPANS

In

order to avoid crcessive ovcrhang of the pipe beH-l and II-2, the doclc4rcd lcrrgth of
pipe bet\\'ccn t.hose harrgcls is madc ltss than tlrrcetrvecn harrgers

Support locations are dcpcndent on pipc sizc, piping

colfiguratiol, the locatiou of heavv lalvcs and fittings,


ard thc structure that is availablc for thc sr.rpport of
thc piping.

No firm rulcs or linrits eri-qt l-hich lill positivcly


fix the location of cach support on a piping systcm.
hlsiead, thc errginccr must exercise bis ol n judgcncnt

in

each casc

to

detelminc thc appropriatc hanger

locatton.
'I'he suggestcd maximum spans lrctlecn hangcrg
listed in table belorv reflect thc practical con-.idcrations involvcd in dctcrmining support spacings on
straight runs of ,qt&udard l'all pipe. 'I'hey are normally used for the support spacings of critical systems.
'l'he spans in table bclorv are bascd on a combircd
belding and shear strcss of 1500 p-si rrhcl the pipc is lillcd
rvith s-aier and .o inch dcflcction is allorved betl'een

supports. Thcy do not apply rvhere conccltrated


rveights such as valves or heavy fittings or where
chargcs in dircction of the piping systcm occur be-

trvcen hangers.
In case of conccntrated loads the supports should
be placed as close as possible to thc load in order to
kecp bending stresses to a minimum,

\Yhere changcs in direction of thc piping of any


critical system occur betrveen hangers, it is considered
good practice to keep the total length of pipe between
the supports less than three-fourths the full spans
in table belorv.
Whcn practical, a hanger "<horrld be located immediately adjaccnt to any change iu direction of the piping.
In the sample problem, illustrated in Figure H-1
(page 160) seven supports are shoivn on the 12 inch
line, and two on the 6 inch pipe.
Note th&t hanger H-1 has lleen placed adjacent to
the valve l'cight concentratiol. The proximity of the
hanger to the valve is hclpful in keeping the load at
termiral connection A to a minimum. Also, the bending stresses induced in the pipe by the valve l'eight are
kcpt to a minimum.
The selection of the location for hanger H-2 entails a
change in direction of the pipe betrveen trvo hangers.
Nonlinal

Pipe Size

Span
150

1 lt,z 2 21: 3 31,


7

12 14 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
10 11 12 13 14 16 17 19 22 23 25 27 28 30 32 33 33 34 34 35 35
4

810

fourths thc suggcstcd nrrinurm span irr table bclorv,


In considcring t,he vcrtical scction of the pipc on
which I-l-3 and H--l arc shol n. it should 6r.st bc notcd
that this sectiol of ihc pipe could bc supportcd by one
hanger rathcr thal t\\'o as irrdicatcd. 'Irvo hargcrs,
certainly, rvill prolidc grcater stability than s.ill a
single hanger. Arothcr dr:cidirg factor as to s'hcther
one harrgcr or a multiple of haugers should be uscd is
the strength of the supportilg stcel membcrs of the
stmcture. The use of tl.o hangers n.ill pcrmit the
total ri,.cr ueight to be proportioned to tir.o elcvations
of the structlrrc, avoidiug thc conccntration of all the
riser load at onc buildiirg elclation.
The location-q for hangers I-I-5 and II-6 are governed
by thc scggested maxintuur -span as lell as thc position
of the concentratcd valve s'eight. Conscquently, II-6
has been located adjacer.rt to the valve, and II-b at a
convenient location betryecn the valve and the 12
inch riser.
The location of hanger H-7 u'ill be determined by
calculation to satisfy the condition that no pipe load
is to be applied to terminal connection C. It is obvious
that by moving the hanger along the 12 foot section of
pipe, the amount of load on connection C rvill vary.
One support location exists rvhere the entire section
will be "balanced", and the load at C equal to zcro.
'Ihe calculations performed in dctermining the exact
location of H-7 are shorvn in the scction entitled "The
Calculation of llanger Loads".
Consider next the 6 inch section of pipe on which
H-8 and H-9 are shorvn. One of the requirements for
this hanger problem is that the load at terminal connection B shall be zero. By placing H-9 directly over
connection B, ve can easily assure that this load will
be zero. Also, this hanger location eliminates any
bending stresses in the pipe that l'ould be caused by
the weight of the valve and vertical pipe at point B.
If H-9 could not be located at this point due to structural limitations, it I'ould be desirable to place it as
close as possible to the 'veriicel section of pipe to keep
the cantilever effect to a minimurn.

42
36

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS

Hanger H-8 is located at a convenient distance betrveen H-9 and the intcrsection of the 0 inch and 12 inch

pipes. In this instance, the location of

adequate

building structure rvill determine the hanger position.


The meihods involved in locating hargers lor this
problern are typical of those employed by thc haugcr
engineer in ihe design of pipe supports. Although the
individual piping configurations and structure layout
l'ill vary in practically evcry instance, the general
methods outlined above rvill apply for any critical
piping system.
For economy in the support of lorv pressure, Iorv
temperature systems, and long outdoor transrnis-sion
lines, hanger spans may be ba-"ed ou the allol'able total
stresses of the pipe and the amount of allorvable defleciion betrveen supports.

In

steam lines rvith long spans thc dcflection caused

by the rvcight of thc pipe may be large enough to cause


an accumulation of condensate at the lorv poilts of the
line. \Yater lines, unless properly drained, carr be

frcezing. Thcse conditions can be avoided


by erecting the line l'ith a dos'rru-ard pitch in such a
manner that succeedirg supports are los'er than the
points of maximum deflection in preceding spans as
damaged by

represent safe values for any schedule pipe from Sch. 10


to XS pipe.

For fluids other than water, the bending stress cal


be forrnd by fir,st flndi1g the added stress causcd bv
rvater from ihe Chlrts on pages 209 and 210and niultiplying by the specific gravity of the fluid. Add this
to the stress value of the pipe empty.
For lines l'hich are thickly insulated, find the deflection or bending siress resulting from the l'eight
of pipe bare and multiply by a ratio of the neight of
pipe per foot plus insulation to the rveight of bare pipe
per foot.

To illustrate the rrse of the deflection


charts, consider the follorvirrg examples:
Problem

ald

stres-.

Find.: The maximum economical hanger spacing for


a 10 inch nou-insulated steam trausmission liue, 1200
fcct long, lhich rvill prolide sr.tfficient dlailage lith
minimum deflection l'ithin an allol'able bending -stress
liruit of 10,000 psi. The maximum dif{erence il elel'a-

tions of the ends of the line is 5 feet.


Solution: Maximum Slope

Maximum Slope

shoryn:

<{r *roi-/{+
12 rI/ ru.

v r!.

1200
1

{t.

in In 20 ft.

From the Chart on page 208, find the intersection of


the Curve l inch in 20 feet, and l0 inch nominal pipe
size. Read left to find the allol.able pipe sprr of
40 feet.

From the Chart on page 210, the bending stress for


10 inch pipe rvith a support span of 40 feet i s 3249 psi,

which is below the allorvable 10,000 psi.


,4ns. Span

The stresses indieated in the Chart on page 208 rnd


the Chart on page 210 are bending stresses resulting

from the weight of the pipe betl'een supports. It


should be realized that this stress must be considercd
with other stresses in the piping, such as those due to

10

ft.

Extract From
Chait on page 208

the pressure of the fluid rvithin the pipe, the ber.rdiug and
torsional stresses resulting from thermal expansion, etc.,
in order to design the system for lolol allorvable stress.

The stresses and deflections indicated in the Charts


on pages 208, 209 and 210 are based on a single span of
pipe with free ends, and n.rake no allowances for coucentrated loads of valves, flanges, etc., between hangers.
The stress and deflection values shorvn in the Charts
on pages 208, 209 and 210are based on a free end be&m
formula and reflect a conservative analysis of the piping.
Actually, thc pipc line is a contiuuous structure partially
restrained by the pipe supports, and the tme stress ard
dcflection values lie betrveen those calculated for the
free end beam and a fully restrained structure.
The deflections and bendins stress valrres indicated

Problem

Ffndr The maximum economical spacing to pror-ide


sufficieut drailagc for ur 8 inch s'ater filled line ij00
feet long. The allorvable bendiug stress is 6000 psi,
I

DT

ITT GRINNELL

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING

and the difference in elevations between the ends of


pipe line is 5 feet.
Solafion.' Max. Slope
10

ft.

5It. x 12 in/ft.
600

fr.

the

:1in.in

Problem:
From the Cha,rt on page 208, find the intersection of
the curve 1 inch in 10 feet and 8 inch pipe, and read
left to a span of 43 feet.
From the Chart on page 209, for an 8 inch water
filled line with a support span of 43 feet, the bending
stress is 8289 psi, which is greater than the allowable
6000 psi. Therefore, the maximum span should be
based on the allowable bending stress of 6000 psi.
Referring to the Chart on page 210, the maximum
span for 8 inch pipe and an allowable bending stress of
6000 psi is 37 feet.

Ans. Span

37

ft

Problem:
Find.: 'Ihe maximum spacing and slope for a 6 inch
water filled line where the allorvable bending stress is
10,000 psi. The difference in the elevations of the
ends of the system is not limited.
From the Chart on page 210, the maximum spa,n for
a 6 inch water filled line with an allowable bending
stress of 10,000 psi is 42 feet.
On the Chart on page 208, read from the 42 foot span
value to the 6 inch pipe curve. Interpolating between
the slope curves 1 inch in 10 feet and I inch in b feet,
read the slope 1 inch in 6 feet.

das. Span

!q!E:

ALLOWAALE LOAD AT CONNECTION A IS 50OLBS.


ALLOWABLE LOAO AT CONNECTIONS B AND C IS ZERO.

OPERATING TEMPERATURE

aLL P|PE rS

SCH.

t60

8ENDS.

IS IO50'

F.

A 335 Ptz,

lr'e

Figure H-1

152

42

ft

Pipe is sloped at 1 inch in 6 feet.


elevation of 7 inch between supports.)

.(/

ALL BENDS ARE 5 OIAMETER


ALL ELBOWS ARE L.F. ELLS.

(A difference in

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS

TIIERMAT MOVEMENT CALCIILATIONS

i
I

The ne>,-t step in the design of pipe hangers involves


the calculation of the therm'al movements of the pipe
at each hanger location. Based on the amount of
vertical movement and the supporting force required,
the engineer can most economically select the proper
type hanger (i. e. Constant Support, Variable Spring,
or Rigid Assembly).
The determination of piping movements to a high
degree of accura,cy necessitates a highly complicated
study ol the piping system. The simplified method
shown below is one rvhich gives satisfactory approximations of the piping movements. Whenever difierences

occur between the approximations and actual movements, the approximation of the movement will always
be the greater arnount.

Figure II-1a

Step

Draw the piping system of Figure H-1 and show all


knowa vertical morlements of the piping lrom its cold

to hot, or operating, position (see Fig. H-la). These


movements will include those supplied by the equip
ment manufacturers for the teminal point connections.
tr'or the illustrated problem, the following vertical
movements are known;

Point A
2t' up, cold to hot
Pont B -16't up, cold to hot
Point C * 11" down, cold to hot
H-+ - 0" , cold to hot
The operating temperature of the system is given as
1050'F.

ITT GRINNEI,L

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING

Referring to the thermal expansion table (page 7), the


coefficient of expansion for low-chrome steel at 1050' F

is .0946 inch/ft.

Calculate the movements at points

and

Step

IV

E lry

rnultiplying the coefrcient of expansion by the vertical


distance of each point from the position of zero movement on the riser DE;

ft. X
20 ft. X
55

Step

.0946
.0946

inch/t :
inch/ft

5.20 inches w at D
1.89 inches doun aL

The next section of pipe on


which there are two points of
known movement is the length

,E-"I. The movement at -E was


calculated as 1.89" dolvrr.
The movement at "/ is equal to
the movemeut at the terminal
point C (rltt down) plus the
amount of expansion of the

ffi

46'

tr

Ieg C-J:

.125 inch

Make a simple drawing of the piping between two


adjacent points of known movement, extending the
piping into a single plane as sholvn for the portion of
the system betrveen .4 and D.

3.5

ft X .0946 inch/ft

.46" down

As

A,:7)/.1.43:.72'l
+z

The vertical movement at any hanger location will


be proportional to its distance from the end points:

LH-7:.12t'+.46t'

4
a1 :5i x 320
ar : '41"

The vertical movement

tll-l- :

at H-l

.41't

AI1-7

17

+ 2'l

aH_6:.58+.46,1

2.41" up

411-6

AH-2

LF:7.02 1.46

2.27tt

AF

+ 2"

1.48" dowrr

2'

1.43:
all-5:1.09+.46
AII-5
Step V

the coefficient of expansion.

to the

ft X .0946 inchft

as:1x
+z

To calculate the vertical


movement at IH, multiply
its distance from If-4 by

AH-3

1.04" dowr
30

4.27tt up

40

Ar:aXL43:t.02tl

227"

The vertical movemerr!, at H-2

.58// dow:r

Ae:l^X1.43:.58'/
+z

22
Az:orX3.20

Az

--

.J.

1.55// down

Draw the section G-I{. The movement at G is equal


movement at F minus the expansion of the

Leg

GF:

/6 lncnes
AG

3.78't wp

AG

Elevation

154

1.09"

: 1.48// down
4 ft X .0946 inch/ft
:1.10" down

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS

TIIERMAT MOYEMENT CALCWATIONS (Contiaued)


The movement at, I/ is equal to the movement of the
terminal point B (t/a" up) plzs the expansion of the
leg B-H:

After calculating the movement at each hanger


location it, is often helpful, for easy reference when
selecting the appropriate type hanger, to make a simple
table of hanEer movemeuts.
Hanger
Nurnber

:
aH :

AH

.0625tt up
.91" up

+ I ft X .0946 inch/ft

Since I1-9 is located at point 11,

AH-9

AH

.91" up

1'

A,,:
x2.01 :
- 23.
=r
All-8:1.10-1.04
AIl-8

.06// dorvn

r.04tl

H-1
H-2
H-3
H-4
H-5
H-6
fr- /
H-8
H-9

Movement

2.4r" ,tp
4.27tt ttp
3.78" up

0"
r-aD oown
1.04// down
.58" down

.06" down
.91" up

ITT GRINNELL- PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING


IIANGER LOAD CAI,CI'LATIONS
The thermal expansion of piping in modern high
pressure and temperature installations makes it necessary for the designer to specify flexible supports, thereby

requiring considerable thought to the calculation of


hanger loads.

Turbine and boiler manufacturers are especially concemed about the pipe weight on their equipment and
sometimes specify that the loads at pipe connections
shall be zero. The hanger designer must be certain
that the loads on the equipment connections of a piping
system do not exceed the limits specified by the equipment manufacturers.

The majority of supports for a high tempemture


system are of the spring type. The designer must work
to a high degree of accura,cy in determining the supporting force required at each hanger location to assure
balanced support, in order to select the appropriate size

and type of spring support.

We have prepared a sample problem, illustrated


in Figure H-1, in rvhich all of the hangers except 11-Z
have been located. This illustration is limited to as
few pipe sections as possible but incorporates most of
the problems encountered in hanger load calculations.
The calculation of loads for hangers involves dividing
the system into conyenient sections and isolating each
section for study. A free body diagram of each section
should be drawn to facilitate the calculations necessary
for each hanger load. Most of the free body diagrams

presented here are those which include as large a


section of the piping system as is practical for a simple
arithmetical solution to the problem.
The solution that follows is not intended to illustrate
the only method which could be applied. Rather, it isintended to show a composite of various accepted
methods which, for the problem under consideration,
produce a well balanced system. Of the approaches
that could be made to the solution of any problern, there
will be one method that will produce the best balanced

Figure

H-2.

Plan View

Note that the value Ior H-2 on this section of thc


piping system represents only a part of the total hanger
force at

H-2. For clarity,

rve have labelled this force


for the next section of pipe
beginning al H-2, we will call the hanger force at this
point I1-2l/. That is:

E-2'. In the calculations

H-/ + H-dl

+t

system. Although the individual loads may vary, the


total of all hanger loads rvould be the same in every case.
The first step in the solution of a hanger load problem
is to prepa,re a table of rveights. For the pipe line
shown in Figure H-1, the table on page 165 has been

Also, note that we have considered the weight of the'


90'bend acting s,t the center of gravity of the bend.
The distance B is determined from the Chart on page
151 which bas been drawn for convenience;

B:

prepared.

Draw a free body diagram of the piping between


point ,4 and 11-2, shorving all supporting forces and all
valve and pipe xeights (Fig. 2). We .will consider the

A, H-l and H-2


acting about the axes r-rl and. y-yt. We will apply
the three equations LM.-,, - 0: EMr-u, : 0j and
loads and supporting forces betrveen

>v :0.

roo

Step

Radius

X.637,

or

5'X.69Z

A.185t

I
:
:0

Taking moments about axis A-A', EMu-u,


1.81(1418)

2567

8(1084)

+8672:

H-2'

1r(H-2')
rl(H-z',)

70221b.

0,

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS

Weight

Description
12" Schedule 160 Pipe
12" Schedule 100 L.

lt.

160.3 lb/ft,

375 lb
3370 1b
4650 lb
843 lb
1258 lb

Dlbow.

12" 1500 h Check \-alve


12" 1500 lb Gate \.alve

12" 1500 tb \\.. N. Flange


12" 5 Diemeter Bend

6" Schedule 160 Pipe


6" Schedule 160 90' L. It. Elbow
6" Schedule 160 45" Ilbow
6" 1500 tb Gate \'alve

Tolrl
$-ciehi

k/It

180.7

61.2 tb

436.2 lb
3533.2 lb

163.2 lb

4813.2 lb

30.6 ln

873.6 lb

160.2 lb

1418.2 tb

53
26

t7.2 Ib

rb

lb

6.9

1595 lt'

lb/ft

( a'icularions
180.7

436 lb
3533 lb
4813 lb
874 lb
1418

li

56.8 lb//|t

70.2 lb

70ln
33 lb

ti

1676 lb

80.5 lb

Next, consider the section of pipe betrveen 11-2 and

LM,4 : O,
1.81(1418) + 6.5(512) -7 (H-I) +e.5(3533) - i1(,4.) :0
2567 + 3523 + 33564 : 7(11-1) + 11Q4)
3e654 : 7(11-1) + 1i(.4)

I1-3 to determine the l.eight distribution, betrveen


these trvo points, of the four foot sectior of pilre and
the five diameter bend.
H-2"

III

tV : 0,
A + H-L + H-z', - 3i33 Adding forces,

1,118
: -6577 tb -

542

A + H-r + H-2',

1084

:0

Substituting the value of 11-2l, calculated as 1022 lb


in Step I,

: 6577 1b
,4:5555-t/-i

A + H-r

1022

Step IV

List the three equations developed in the preceding

Figure

H-3,

Elevation View

steps:

(1-) H-z',

lbilft

56.8 rb/fr

32.9

1b

\\i,isht tsed in

Ii/fr

163.2 lb

11.5

Taking moments about axis r-xt ,

Step

20.4

45.3lb/It

II

Step

Tnsrrlarion
,Ca-Si)

\\ eighr

1022

(2) 39654 :7(H-r) +


(3) ,{ : 5555 - A-1

Step
Step
Step

LL(A)

I
II

III
Solving Equation (2) by substituting for .4 : bb55
H-r,
39654 : 7(f1-1) + 11(5555 _ 11_1)
I1-1 : 5363 lb
Substituting for I1-1 in Equation

:
A:
A

55551b

LMx-z',

:0,
2(723)

5363 lb

rvhich is belorv the allorvable load at ,4 of 500 lb.

9(H_2") :
:
H-2't 848llt

7.1e(1418)

l1-B' :

_ e(rl_3/)

t29B lb

ZM s-a' :0,
1.81(1418)

B,

l92Ib

H-2:H-zt+H-2tl
H-2
I1-2

L022lb
1870 lb

848 lb

(723)

ITT GRINNI'LL

PIPING DESIGN AND DNGINI,DITING


Chart A

pro203040506070

E IN DEGREES

99 90 too 0 l2o llo t4o t5o t6o t?lc

l,l

o
l

LC

ct

,g

I()

=
LJ

z
o

,7

.l

.G

3n

,9

,8
,7
,6

.5

,'

,4

.4

trl

-o
=

z_

.3

lrJ

(!

.2

.l

fo 2o so 40 ro eo-zo ao eo roo ro po J6l;;"6-Jgol;*i;o


CENTER OF GRAVIW OFAN ARC

o
l

6
tt
!

o
=
IrJ

z
o
E
o
uo
lrJ
-o
=
=
o
o

dt

o r0 zo go 4o 50 60 70 80 90 roo lo tao t3o t4o t5o teo Fo


9

158

IN

DEGREES

tgo-

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS

In the next free body diagram consider the 65 foot


vertical section of the piping system to determine the
supporting forces for I1-3" and 11-. .

It is apparent that the combined forces H-3" and. H-4'


rvill equal 65 ft X 180.7 h/ft.
Further, both H-3tt and. H-4'
could be any value, provided
the relationship H-Ttt + H-4'
: 11746 lb is maintained. It
is not recommended, horvever,
to select arbitrary values for
these tt'o forces; instead, the
load for each hanger should
be such that the elevation of
the pipe attachment is above
the mid-point of the length of
pipe supported by the hanger.
Thus, the support will be
located above the point rvhere
I
\_ one could consider the rveight
Figure H-4.
of the pipe column acting,
Dlevation View
thereby avoiding a condition
where the location of the support Iends itself to the
(tippirrg" tendency
of the pipe when the support is
located belorv this point.
Since there is 10 feet of vertical pipe above I1-3l/,
and 40 feet of pipe betrveen H-Ztt and. H-4t,let H-Zt,
support l0 feet plus 30 feet of pipe load:
H-3" G0 fr + 30 ft) (1s0.7 1tlft)

Consider the piping betrveen H-4' and II-b to determine the weight distribution of the b diameter bend
and the 5 feet of horizontal pipe:

ZM

a-+"

:0,

1.81(1418)

ZM a-s'

7.5(e04)

H-5' :

8.19(1418)

H_4,,

f1-4

:
:

935

:0,

2.5(904)

H-4

- tb10(E-5l) :0

H-4t +
5905

H4" :

- 70(H4t'):0

1387 Ib

4518 1b

1387

ib

1b

H4" : 7228 Lt)


: H-3' + H-3"
:
and I1-3t
1298 Ib (See Fig. H-3),
H-3 : 1293 lb + 7228 lb
/1-3 : 8521 lb
s-4'. : (L0 ft + t5 fi)(180.7 tblft)
H4', : 4518 tb
since I1-3

Figure

H-6.

Elevation View

tr'igure H-5.

159

ITT GR]NNELL

It

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEF]RI\G

is obvious that some portion of the rveight of the

6 inch pipe betl.een the 12l'line and I1-g must be


supported by H-5" and 11-6. Therefore, be{ore

proceeding thru 11-5 and 11-6, calculate this pipe rveight


load l?1, and irtroduce it into the free body diagram
for I1-5 and f1-6.

LMu-y'
.07 (33)

:
+

o,

+ 4.81(70) + 5(2031) _ 5(r1_9)


II_9 : 2258 lb

2.34(341)

,M,.", :0,
.

(70)

19

2.66 (3.11 )

20.73(70)

5.03 (33)

2rR1

(r1_8)

12.78 (S49)

13387: e (r1-8) + 2r(R)

tv :0,

Rt-| H-81H-9
R1

2031

I1-8

70

- 3.11
- BB -849 - 70:0
: 3394
Ib

11-9

Since I1-9 has been calculated as 22b8 lb,


ar + 11-8 3394 lb 2258 tb 1136 lb

I1_8:1136_8r
Substitutiug this value for IJ-8 in the
13387:9(11-8)*2L?r,

Equation

13387:.e(1136 _ R) + 27Rl
Er : 264 lb
Since I1-8

1130

11-8 :
H-8 :

Er,
1136 lb
872 Ib

264 1t

Figure

FTx55.3.185
R" 264

r60

t/2wEtcAr tz" ELL.

II-7.

Plan View

H-9. Plan View


Dimension .a is determiaed
from the Cbart on pa,qe 166.
For the sample problem. E :
.726x1.5ft:1.09ft.
Figure

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS

The free body diagram shorvn in Figure I{-8 extends


from 11-5 thru the 12l/ 90" elbow. This is intended to
illustrate that the rveight of the 90" elbow may be
considered as supported on a beam rvhich passes thru
the center of gravity of the elbow and rests on the
extensions of the tangents, as shown in Figure H-g:

In Figure I1-8, EM s-s,, : 0,


2(449) +5(1807) + 11.5(4813)
18.e1(218)

LM s-a :
3.5(4813)

15

(H-6)

f/-,

10(1807)

13(449)

-.75(994) -3.91(218)

:2t8lb +

1626 1t

: .1DID ID

436 lb

:
-tI-5 :

X:

3.b2 feet

Support Force
Plus Terminal
Point Loads, lb

TVeight of Piping System, lb

ft of 12" Pipe @ 180.7 lb/fr.. . .19787


(3) 12" 5 Dia. Bends @ 1418 lb. . . . . . 4254
(2) 12" 90' L. R. Ells @ 436 lb . . . . . . 972
30.45 ft of 6" Pipe @ 56.8 1i/f1...... 1740
(2) 6" 90' L. R. Ells @ 70 ft. . . . . . . . 140
109.5

The following diagram shows a method for arriving

at the location of I1-7 which will allow zero load

on

connection C.

(1) 6" 45'EII @ 33 lb . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


33
(1) 12" 1500 lb Check Valve @ 3SB3 lb 3bBB

(1) 12" 1500 lb c&te Valve @ 4813 li. 4813


(1) 12" 1500 lb WN Flange @874Ih. 974
(1) 6" 1500 lb Gate Valve @ 1676 1b.. 1626

Total Weight of Piping Sysrem. . . .37212

2FTXl8o7' 361

l/rwercat or
-zla

ELL=

1626

Figure H-10, Elevatioa View

I2

FLANE=

:0

As a final step, check to ensure that the weight of


the entire piping system is equal to the total supporting
forces of the hangers plus the pipe weight load to be
supported by the equipment connectrons:

H-5' + H-|'t :g3b Ib + 2610 lb


3545 lb

1235 lb

x(H_7) : 12369
x(3515):12369

H-5tt :26!011)
H-5

Solving for distance X, t M" : 0


.54(436) - X(H-7) + 6(1626) + 10.91(218)

+ 15.75(994)+

0,

H-7

rl-o : cDl l lo

75(H-5't)

The value, in pounds, for I1-7, is equal to the weight

of the piping section:

I74

r;;;Fi735

.A Il-1 :

H-2:
E-3

Il-4
Il-5
H-A

H-9

192

5363
1870

:
=
:

5905
3545

:
=

a72
2258

852r

Tolal = 377L2

ITT GITINNI'I,I, - PIPING DI'SIGN AND IJNGINI'I,]IiING


SELECTION OF THE PROPER HANGER
Selection of the appropriate type hanger for any
given application is governed by the individual piping
configuration and job requirements. Job specifications

covering hanger types, horvever, are of necessity


written in broad terms, and some emphasis is placed on
the good judgenent of the hanger engineer to ensure a
satisfactory, yet econornical, harrger system.
The type of hanger assemblies from which the
hanger engineer selects the appropriate kind are

generally classified as follorvs:

(1) Flexible hangers, which include hangers of the


constant support and variable spring types.

(2) Rigid hangers, such

as rod hanqers and

are not required. The inherent characteristic of a


Yariable Spring is such that its supporting force yaries
rvith spring deflection and spring scale. Therefore,
verticrl exprrrsion of the piping cluses a corresponding
extension or compression of the spring and

l,ill

cause a

in the actual supporting effect of the hanser.


The variafion in supporting forcc is equal to ihe
produr.t of the amount of verticll expansion and the
spring scale of the hanger. Since the pipe rveight is the
same during any condition, cold or operating, the
change

variation in supporting force results in pipe rveight


transfer to equipment and adjacent hangers and
consequently additional stresses in ihe piping system.
lVhen Yariable Spring hangers are used, the effect of
this variation musi be con,idered

stanchious.

(3) Rollers
The location of anchors and restraints is not usuallv
considered r responsihility of the hanger designer.

it is necessary to determine the location of anchors


and restraints before accurate and ,final stress analvsis
is possible, ihey are considcred a part oI piping design.
Since

VARIABLE SPRINS
HAiIGER

Flexible Ifangers
When a pipe line expands vertically as

thermal expansion

it

is

necessary

to

result, of
provide flexible

pipe supports rvhich apply supporting force throughout


the expansion and contraction cycle of the system.
Flexible hangers are of tryo types: Yariable Spring
and Constant Support.

Constant Support hangers provide constant supporting force for piping throughout its full range of
vertical expansion and contraction. This is accomplished through the use ol a helical coil spring rvorking
in conjunction with a bell crank lever in such a way
that the spring force times its distance to the lever
pivot is always equal to the pipe load times its distance
to the lever pivot.

Variable Spring hangers are recommended for

general use on non-critical piping systems and where

vertical movement is of small magnitude on critical


systems. Accepted practice is to limit the amount of
supporting force variation tro 2b/e for critical system
applications on horizorrtal piping
To illustrate the difrerence in the effect of usins a
Vari:rble Spring as.ompared rvith a Constrnt Support
hanger, refer to the sample problem shown in Fisur"

H-I. page

160.

The load for hanger H-l was calculated as bB6B lb.


The verlical movcmenf ct H-l was calculated as 2.il
inches up, from the cold to the hot position of the pipe.
If a Yariable Spriug hanger were used at H-1, the
effect of the variation in supporting force would have

to be considered. The amount of variation can be

Fd =PD

CONSTANT
SUPPORT

Because of its constancy in supporting effect the


Constant Support hanger is used rvhere it is desirable to
prevent pipe weight .load transfer to connected equ;p-

ment or adjacent hangers. Consequently, they are


used generally for the support of critical piping systems.

Variable Spring hangers are used to support piping


subject to vertical movement, where Constant Supports
L62

determined by multiplying the spring scale in pounds


per inch by the amount of vertical expansion in inches.
Iit,r exum1,le. if rhc ITT Grinrrell I.igure ts-268 Variable Sprilg hanger were considcred, the proper spring
size would be number 16 which has a spring scale of 1800
pour.rds per inch. (For convenience, neglect the weight

of the pipe clamp, rod and hex nuts. In designing


hangers for an actual pioblem, the weight of components should be added to the calculated load.)

The amount of variation is 1500 lb/in. X 2.41 in.

lb.

3615
Standard practice is to calibrate the hanEer
in such a way lhat rvhen the piping is ar its hot posilion

the supporting force of the hanger is equal to the


calculated load of the pipe. This means that the

HANGF]RS -\ND SIIPPOITTS


maximum lariation il supportiug force occurs l'hen
the piping is ai its cold positiou, ri-hcu stresses addcd
to the piping as I lesrrlt of r-ariatious in supporting
forces are lcss clitical.
'I'he hot load for thc r.ariable spr.irrg, then is 5363 h.
As the dilectiol of rnor.ement fi'om cold to hot is
upl'ard, the cold lord i-q 5303 tb + 3615 Ib, or 8978 lb.
Iig. H-a shot s thc pipe ard spring at the cold condition,
aird Fig. H-b lt the hot conditiorr.
Thc purposc ol the colrsidcratiorrs given to the variatiorr in supporting cffcct is apparelt lten it is recalled
that the pipc rrcight docs not change throughout its
cold to hot c1'clc, lhile the srrpporting force varies.
Irr Fig. I-IJI, thc supportirrg force is equal to the pipe
\-eight. Howe\-er, i:r Fig. ll-a, the supportirg force is

ib lhilc the pipe *cight is 53(jB lb. The halger


trould exert au nnbalanccd force on the pipe equal to
the amount of r-ariation, or B61i Ib. llost of this
forcc r-orrld be inrposed directly orr conlection A,
rvhere limits are establishcd for the force r*hich may
897E

be applied.

Further', safe piping design rnust be based on rolol


pipe stress rvhich includes bcnding, torsional, shear,
loDgitudiual, aud circunfcrcutial stresses. The additiol of largc forccs resulting fronr sprirrg variations
can raLlse strcsses lrhich liil grcatly reduce the factor
of safctt' of thc entire pipilg systerr.

supporting force is too great for the cilical location


at H-1.
The approoriatc harrger t5.pe for H-l is a coustant
support iranger. This hanger 1\.ould be calibrated to
the calculatcd pipe l'eight. It I'ould apply a con-stant
supportiDg force, iDsuril1g conplcte support of the pipe
throughout the pipirrg cxpansion. That is, its suppoltilg folce lould be 5363 lb lhen the pipe l-as at
its cold position, and 5363 lb also rvhen the pipe las
at its hot po,sitior.
Hangcr I{-2 has a calculated load of 1820 h. The
vertical mol.cment at tliis location is 4,2? inches up, cold
to hot. -\lthorigh the load may be considcred slight,
the magnitude of the vertical movement is great, and a
corrsideralile amount of supporting force chalge n ould
occur if a variable spring l'cre used.
For example, the appropriate size variable spring
is a f12, Fig.9E (the 4.27 inch travel is beyond the
travel capacity of the Fig. 8-268), r,hich has a spring
scale of 225 lb/in. The amount of variation equals
4.21 inches X 225 h/in., or 917tb.
This variation, expressed as a percentage, is
947 Ib

1gi0 Ib

100, or greater than

50/6.

Unless the hanger

engineer were rvilling to perform some rather elaborate

stress calculations to determine the effect of this


variation, it rvould be safer to apply the accepted rule
rvhich limits variability to 25/6 for oitical systems,
and rule out the selection of a variable spring in favor
of the constant support type h&uger.
The vertical moven.ieut of the pipe at H-3 rvas calcu_
lated as 3.78 inches up, and the load as g521 lb.
Irr selecting the spring type for this hanger assembly,
it should be recognized that any variation in supporting
force rvill not produce bending stresses in the piping
system. As the supporting forces at H-B and H_4 are
concurrent, no bending is produced as a result of spring

Figure H-b.

variction at H-3. Raiher, any supporting force


variation rvill merely resrrli in a corresponding load
change at the rigid hanger H-4.

The hanger type for H-B may be a variable spring


necessary that the variable spring
have a travel capacity l'hich is some amount greater
than the calculated pipe movement of B.Zg inches.
_ Such a variable spring hanger is the Fig. 9g, thich
has a rvorking travel range of 5 inches.
As this assembly is of a riser ,,trapeze,, type, t$,o
spring units rvill be used, each supporting one_half the
total load of 8521 h, or 4261 Ib. 'Ihe appropriate size
hanger is a 115 Fig. 98 l'ith a spring scale of 540 lb/inch.
The amoult of variation per spring is 3.Zg inches X
540 lb, inch, or 2041 lb. The hot load setting for each
hanger is equal to one-half the calculated load, or

type. It is only

It is lrossible to reduce the amount of variabilitv bv


using a variable sprirrg rvhich ha. a smalJor spring scale,
an IT1' Grinnell Fig. 98 (Variabte Spring Hanger).
. ]he /16 Fig. 98 hrs a spring scale o[ 7j0 lb,in., orre_
helf that of {he 8-268. The amounl of variabiliiv
rvould be reduced by orie-half, or 2.1I X ZS0 : l80g h.
Horvever:, it should be obvious that elven this chanEe
in
as

163

ITT GITINNI'LI,

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERINTi

lb. As thc direction of movement, cold to hot, is


up$?rd,_the cold Ioad sctting $-ill be 4261 Ib + 2011 h,
or 6302 lb.
Figures I{-c and H-d shorv the supportilg forces at
H-3 and H-.1 rvhcn the pipe i-q st its cold ancl its hot
position. The rveight of riser clamps, rods, etc., are
not included, for conveDience.
4261

CoLD LOAD =
4?6t + ?O4t =
650 21+ (EACH)

H-3

5905- 2X204t
tez3 {+

the sprilg varirtion cffcct can be corrsiclcrccl rrcgligibJe.


The load las calculatcd as 872 Ib, the mor.crncut as

ilch dorlr.r.
Thc amonnt of variability for a /8 Fig. 8-26g is
.06 irrch X 150 lbf ilch, or g lb. For prnctir:tl purposcs,
a 9 1} charrgc in supportirrg force coulcl bc rcgkrctcd,
ard a lariablc sprilg sclcctcd for Hargcr I.I-E.
Thc selcction of hangcr typcs for stippor.ts H_1
through H-9 in the samplc problcm ilhrstrates the
manl.corrsidcrations l.hich should bc givcn il sclccting
the appropriate flcxible halgcr at each support location
for ary major pipirrg s1-stcrn.
In ,"p1s.1h* flcrible hangcr t1'pcs thc crrginccr sliould
consider that:
.0(i

trYherelcr constatt support hangcr.s arc uscd, the


supportilg forcc equals the pipe I.cight throughout
its eutire exparr-siorr cycle, and no pipe l.cighl reacttons arc imposcd at equipment conncctions

LOAD:

H-4

and movcment at this hangcr location arc so -qlight that

and anchors.
ToTAL SUPPORTTNG FORCE

2x63O2+ tA23 = t44ZTit

Fieure H-c.

HOT LOAD =
426ti+ ( EACH)

H-3

LoAD

: 5905 {+

Rigid I{angers

TOTAL SUPPORTING FORCE:

ZX426l + 59O5

14427.rF

Figure H-d.

The design load for H-B should allow for a calculated cold load of 6302 1b X 2, or 12,604 lb.
The load at rigid hanger H-4 is 1823 lb cold, 5905 tb
hot. All hanger components should be designed for
the larger load.
Variation in supporting forces at Hangers H-b, H-6,
H-7 and H-9 ilill produce reactions at connections B
and C. As one of the requirements of the problem
under study is that weight loads at B and C.shall be
zero, these hangers must be of the constant support
type.

Although

variation
L64

it

l'ill

\\'hercvcr variable spring hangers are used, the


elgiuccr must check to a-s-qurc that the totll lariation in snpportirig effect docs rrot result iu halmful
stresses ard forces l ithin thc pipitig system.
Where piping stresses and reactiorrs are knorvn to
be close to allowable, the simplcst and, in the long
run, most economical type of flexible support is
obviously the colstant support hanger.
Where piping stresses and end reactions are
knol'n to be lorv, variable sprirg hangers can be
used satisfactorily for most nor-critical piping
support, and for the support of critical systcms
ryhere vertical movements are of smlll nragrritudc.

holds tme that at H-8 any hanger force


cause ri'eight loads at B and C, the load

Rigid hangers are normally used at locations ryhcre


no vertical movement of the pipilg occurs.
The design considerations for a rigid harger are pipe
temperature, for selection of appropriate pipe clamp
material, and load, for selection o{ components suitable for the pipe weights involved.

Pipe clamp material is usually carbon steel for


temperatures up to 750" F, and alloy steel for teDlperatures above 750' F. Malleable iron pipe clamps may
be used at temperatures up to 450' F.
For piping systems of Iorv operating tempcrature,
rvhere vertical expansion,is usually not a factor, the
rigid hanger assembly components are sclccted aud
designed on the basis of calculated or approximatcd
loads.

In some instances, however, the rigid hanger is used


in a manner rvhere it does more than merely support,
the pipe rveight, but acts as a restraint agailst ve$ical

HANGERS AND SUPPOITTS

piping movements. It is in thesc cases that the enqineer


should csercisc crre in lhe locnllen oi tho rigld bengcr
and the design load he uses in the selcction of components.

The location and effect of any restraint, guide or


anchor on a high tempcrature and high pressure system
is of necessity a function of the stress a.nalyst. The

irdiscriminate placing of a restraining device on a


piping system could alter the piping stresses and end
reactions to a serious degree, changing a conservatively
designed system into one rvhich exceeds the limits of
good design practices.
The hanger engineer, though not as rvell acquainted
rvith the total stress picture of a piping system as is the
stress analyst, must usually decide if the problem is of

this "critical" nature, or whether the system under


study is such that the effect of adding a restraint for
his convenience rvill be negligible. His decision is
based on the factors of operating temperature, operating pressure, and the configuration of the system.
Recognizing that pipe design is based on total pipe

Figure ll_e.

:
AA

stress, he must determine rvhether the stresses produced

by the addition of a rigid hanger, or vertical restraht,


are crilical.

This article is rzol intended to present a short-cut


method for the stress analysis of a piping system. In
any instance where it is not obvious to an engineer that
he is dealing rviih a non-criticai case, the probiem should

either be revierved formally from a total stress viewpoint, or the decision to use a rigid hanger should be
changed and a flexible support should be utilized.
This article is intended to provide the engineer rvith
a simple and quick method of deciding horv he can

rrost

economically treat vertical thermal movernent on a


long, horizontal section of a non-critical piping system.

Often, his problein can be expressed

in the

simple

terms of r,vhether he will be able to use a rigid hanger

(See

40 feet

.0182

inch/ft.

.728 inch dorvn

"The Calculation of Hanger l{ovements,,, page l6t)

From the Chart on Page 208, using values of 6 inch


pipe and a deflection of f; inch, read 17.b feet. This is
the minimum distance from the riser where the first
rigid hanger may be placed for this problem.
If the locations of the hangers are fixed, as they are

for this

case, then

H-2 must be a spring hanger

as-

sembly because it is Iocated only 12 feet from the riser.


Therefore, the nearest rigid hanger will be hanger H-8,
located 29 feet from the riser.
The amount of vertical movement at hanger H-2 will
be proportional to its distance betrveen H-3 and the
riser, and can be approximated as shorvn in Fig. H-f:

rather than a flexible hanger without,

producing
obviously harmful stresses in the system.
Consider a simple example, shonn in Fig. H-e, where
the hanger engineer is confronted with the problem of
how he can best treat vertical movement resulting from
thermal expansion of the riser. The horizonlal sections
at, both the top and the bottom of the riser are of anv
considerable length. He must determine which of r,hl
hangers H-2, H-3, H-4, etc., should be spring hangers
and rvhich rvill be rigid hangers (vertical restraints in

this instance). He must satisfy a condition that the


bending stress produced by the restraining action of the
hanger is no greater than some acceptable amount.
say, in this instance, 10,000 psi.
For an operating temperatu_re of B00o F, the expansion factor for carbon steel pipe is .01g2 inch
Der foot.

AH-2"17/29X.72en

H-2 =.43"ooWN

Figure H-f.

Thus, H-2 would be selected as a variable spring


hanger for .43 inch of dorvnrvard vertical movement,
and H-3 would be designed as a rigid hanger.
In the above problem the hanEer locations were
fixed. If this were not the .".", unJ th" hangers could
be placed at any convenient location subjeci to usual
165

ITT GRINNELL

-PIPING DESIGN AND EN(I]NI'I'ITIN(;

hanger span limits, then H-2 would be placed at any


distance 17.5 feet or more from the riser. This rvould

satisfy the condition that a maximum bendins stress


10,000 psi would result from the restraining effect
of the hanger. If the allorvable effect rvas given as a
higher stress, then the hanger could be placed closer
to the riser; if lower, the nearest rigid hanger would be
placed a greater distance from the rrser.
If the hanger were located closer to the riser, a
greater restraining force would be applied to the pipe
by the hanger. As the location is changed to a greater
distance from the riser, a lesser force is required. As
illustrated in the following sample problem, this force
can be an important factor in the design load of the

of

rvill exert suficient force to deflect the pipe ] inch,


producing 10,000 psi berding stress. (See Fig. H-h).
To find the lalue of force P, refer to the Chart on
page 213. For a pipe size of 10 inches and a span of
18.5 feet, read P as approximately 2700 lb.
This force is applied by the pipe hanger H-1, and,

H-2

hanger.

1""

Problem:
Gium: l0-inch Sch. 40 pipe, and allowable bending

I'

{,

o'*"*

"-n'

therefore, must be included in the design load for H-1.


rvhere the piping movement is in the
dovnward direction, the force P is added to the pipe
weight to be supported by Hanger H-1. If the pipe
weight for H-l were calculated as 2000 lb, then the
design load for the hanger components is 2000 h plus

fn this instance,

2700 lb, or 4700 lb, as shorvn in Fig. Ii-i.


To solve for Lr, refer to the Chart on page 211, and,

using values of ]-inch deflection and lO-inch pipe, read


L2 as 13 feet, the distance to the proposed rigid hanger
H-3. As discussed for H-l of this problem, hanger H-3

Figure H-g.

stress

of

10,000 psi produced

by the restraining effect

Figure H-i.

nf +ha hqnoarc

Find: (7) L1 and L2, the distances to the nearest


rigid hangers H-1 and H-3, see Fig. H-g. (2) The
forces rvhich the hangers must apply to the pipe to
allorv the ]-inch and ]-inch deflections resulting from
the thermal expansion of the vertical pipe.

Solution: From the Chart on page 211, using values


read L1 as 18.5
feet, the distance from the riser to the rigid hanger H-1.
This means that at a distance of 18.5 feet, the hanger

of |-inch deflection and l0-inch pipe,

r66

'

PIPE WEIGHT:2OOO+
+ P" 27Ooi+
T OIAL = 470 0

ii

must apply sufficient force to restrain the pipe vertically


against the force resulting from the thermal expansion
of the Yertical piping above H-2.
The force P which is required at H-3 can be deter-

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS


mined from the Chart on page 213. Using values for
lO-inch pipe and a l3-foot span, P is approximately
3800 lb. Silce this force restrains the upl'ard mole-

calculated as 3000 lb, then the net force is 3000 lb


38001b, or E00 1b rrp* ard, as shol'n in Fig. H-k.
The hangcr, il this case, rr-ould not be considered as
a support for the pipe, but a vertical rcstraint against

fe
r--

l-igure H-k.

ment of the pipe, it should be checked against the pipe


rveight load to assure that the harger assembly can
exert a force equal to the diflerence of the force P and
+la6 hihd ...6;nLf

t^.,1

To illustrate, assume that the pipe load at H-3 I'ere


calculated as 5000 lb. The difference betl'een the
pipe rveight and the force P rvould equal 5000 lb
3800 Ib, or 1200 lb, as shol'n in Fig. H-j.
The design load used for hanger H-3 should equal
5000 lb, or pipe rveight only, in this instance. Where
the vertical movement is in the uorvard direction. and

{
I
|

prpg wEroHt= sooo{ts

FoRcE p = 38oolt
ruer roRce= eoor+

uprvard movement. Therefore, either a greater span


should be used in ordpr 1o redune rhe force P, or a
spring hanger should be used if L2 is maintained as
13 feet, in order to provide support and allow the
piping to move uprvard ai this hanger location. Using
the values of L1 and Le as determincd iu the original
problem, the forces P at each hanger are as shorvn in
Fig. H-1.
The forces at H-l and H-3 have been discussed in
some detail, but it should also be noted that the design
3800

1+

H-3

i .rooo

Figure H-j,

PIPE WEIGHT= 50OO+

FoRcE Pr3800+

Hn ronce'

raoo

the force P approaches the pipe weight load, ihe rigid


hanger will tend to unload. That is, as the pipe
expands upward the net force applied to the pipe by the
hanger becomes less. If the force P becomes greater
than the pipe rveight at the hanger, the net force on
the hanger becomes compressive rather than tensile.
When the system has expanded its full amount, the
pipe till tend to lift from the hanger, and the supporting
effect of the hanger s,ill be zero.
If thc pipe weight for the sample problem had been

Figure

II.l.

e7004*

rvell. For
this example, the design load for H-2 equals the pipe
weight plus 3800 lb, minas 2700 Ib, or design load :
pipe weight load plus 1100 1b.
load for H-2 should include these forces as

ITT GRINNEI,I,

PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEEITING

In the

preceding problems, the allorvable bending


to the restraining effect of the hanger l'as
given as 10,000 psi. This allolable stress l'ill, of
coruse, vary rvith the indilidual case. Where the
stress is other than 10,000 psi, use the Chart on page 211
to read the minimum span, and multiply the span in
stress due

leet by the factor indicatcd in the Chart belorv for


the specific

strciJs.

Correction Factor for Stresses Other Than 10,000 psi


For Bending

Ilultiply

Stress Of:

Length By:

2000 psi

2.24

3000

1.83

{000

1.58

5000

10000

1.41
| .29
1 .12
1 .00

12000

.91

6000
8000

15000

.82

20000

.71

llustr cltiue P roblem

plying 29 fcct by 1.83, the span for 4-inch pipe l'ith


3-iuch deflection at 3000 psi is 29 X 1.E3, or 53 feet.
'l'hus, 1,, the minimum distauce to thc first rigid
hanger, is 53 feet.

The first rigid hanger in the above problcm rvill be


H-5, locatcd 60 fcct from the riscr. The force P rcquired to restrain the piping vcrtically carr be detcrmined from the Chart ori page 213 as about 83 pounds,
using yalues of 4 inch pipe and a span of 60 feet. The
effect of this force rvill be considered negligible for
this problcm.
The vertical movements at hanger locations bet\yeen
H-5 and the riser are as shol'n in Fig. H-m.
The above results are based on an approximate
but conservaiive analysis. Wherever the appropriate
charts &re uscd, the values listed should assist, the
engiueer il arrivilg at an ecolomical, safe design for
any rigid hanger assembly.
The examples dcscribed tcprcsent situations not
frequently encountered in pipe support design, but do
point out that the rigid hanger in some instances is
more than a simple pipe support, and that good design
must allorv for all applicable corditions.
Rollers

The pipe attachment and structural attachmelt of a


hanger assembly should be such that thcy rvill permit
the hanger rod to swing to allorv for latcral novement

of the piping rvhere horizontal pipe

expansion is

anticipated.

In

some instances, rvhere piping expansion is slight

and hanger rods are long, the suirrg permitted by thc


pivoti[g of the rod at the upper and lorver colncctions
is sufficient, &s sho\rn in Fig. H-1.

A : 3 inches, and 3000 psi


maximum bending stress through the resira,ining
cffect of.the first rigid hanger.
Giaen.: 4-iuch Sch. 40 pipe,

Find; L, lhe distance from the riser to the first rigid


suppori.

From the Chart on page211, using values of 4-inch


pipe and 3-inch deflection, read a span of 29 feet. This
span is besed on a stress ol 10,000 psi, and, to correct

for 3000 psi, refer to above Chart. For a stress of


3000 psi, the correction factor for spans is 1.83. Multi-

lLr-

AH-l.i3x3=2.4"
x3 = l.a"

H-2=

18

H-3.

:t x3

l-2"

AH-4.:*x3".6'l
168

Figure H-u

IIANGDRS AND SIIPPORTS

In other instances the angularity caused by the


horizontal piping movements can appreciably effect
the position of the piping system, and can cause harmful horizontal forces rvithin the piping system.

hangers located on the same long section of pipe, the

effect of the total horizontal force can be serious.


(See Fig. H-q.)

zt):

L,,,.

Figure ll-o.

In Fig. H-o, note that,

Total horizontal force


860 Ib.

86

772

Certainly, for any sysiem subject

of the large axial


piping movement and short hanger rod, the pipe is
pulled f; inch ofr elevation when it expands 6 inehes
horizontally.
The condition described also places a horizontal
force component into the piping system, For example,
assume a pipe weight of 1000 lb for the above hanger,
as in Fig. H-p.
because

258

to

+ 344:

horizontal

expansion, the rod angularity from the vertical will

result in a horizontal force component. The point


where this angularity becomes critical cannot be defined for every ca.se, but accepted practice is to limit
tbe srving from the vertical to 4".
Where this angle is greater Lharr 4", a pipe roller
should be considered.

Pipe roller supports are of two basic types: those


which attach to overhead structure, and those which
a,re placed beneath the pipe as base supports.

It

should be noted that where rollers are required,

the pipe operating tempemtures usually are sufficiently high that pipe insulation is used to reduce
heat loss and for personnel protection. In these
cases a pipe covering protection saddle should be used

in conjunction with the rollers to

Figure H-p.

l,oooo

,oooo

The 258h horizontal force by itself may not be of


great consequence, but where there is a series of

keep the insulation


from crushing.
Where the piping is not insulated, the pipe will rest
directly on the roller. This is common practice for
the support of long transmission lines where the gas
or fluid transported is not of elevated operating temperatures, but where the pipe run is subject to some
change in ambient temperature, as from summer to
winter variances.
For example, a pipe Iine 300 feet long subject to

TT
tl
tlttl

tftl

r5a--t---\-r5

+rnv--'--\+
TYPICAL ROLLEN HANGER ASSEMBLIES

TYPICAL BASE ROLLER SUPPORTS

169

ITT

(i]tI\\ IiI,I, PIPI\G

DESIGN

A\D I!\ CIINTiI'IIIN(;

ambient changes from 70oF to 110'F expands only


.00300 inch per foot from the lorv to high tcmperature.
){ultiplied by 300 feet, hol-ever, the total axial expansion is 300 fect x .00300 inch,ifoot, or .918 inch.
In instalccs of this nature, rollers l'ill be used, but,

amount of cspansion up to thc full rccommcncled


n'orking range of the spring, proliclecl the change
in supporting effect, of the variab)c spring is
addcd to ihe design load of the rigid -.upport

the pipe covering protection saddlcs s-ill not be required.

\\'hcre transfer of load to adjaccnt hangers or


eqrripment is not critical. and rvhcre the lertical
movemeDt of the piping is lcss than f ilch,
variable sprirrg harrgors may bc uscd, providcd

assenlblY.

A TYPICAL PIPE SUPPORT SPECIT'ICATION


1. Scope
Thi-" specification shall apply for the design and
fabrication of all hangers, supports, anchors, and
guides. \Yhere piping de,.,ign is such that exceptions to this specification are necessary, the
particular system irill be iJentified, and the exceptions clearly listed through an addendum rvhich
s'ill be made a pari of the specification.

2. Design
(a) All supports and parts shall confor m to the latest
lcquilemeuts of tlie ANSI Cotlc for Prcssule
Pipirrg I331.1, anil \ISS Stlndarrl Plictice
SP-i8, except rLs srrpplerncrilccl or modifictl by

the r.ariation in supportiug cffcct docs

its total vertical traYel.


(h) The total travcl for constant support h&ngcrs
nill be equal to actrral travcl pliis 20/6, It no
case s ill the difference bctrvccn actual mrd total
tralel be less than ] ilch.

(i)

stops lill be factory installcd so that the halger


Ievcr is at the "cold" position. 'l'he trtrrcl stops
rvill be of such dcsigu &s to pcnnit fllture reengagemcnt, eYen iri lhe cvcDi the lever is at a

thc requiremeuts of this specificltiott.

po,"ition other tharr "cold",

be beam clamps.

(g) For critical, high-temperature pipiug, at hanger


locations rvhere the vertical movenent of the
piping is f inch or more, or rrhere it is necessary to avoid the transfer of load to adjacent
hangers or connected q-lipment, pipe ha)Igers

tr

alrproved cottsttrtt sul,polt dcsigtr,


as I'I1'Grinrcll Fig. 80-\'arxl ltig. 81-H, ot eclual
An exception may be made in the instance
where the piping movement occurs at a hanger
supporting a portion of a piping riser on $hich a
shnll be of

rigid support is also located. In this case,


variable spring hangers may be used for any

170

l'ithout having to

makc hanger adjustments.

(j) For non-criticalr low

tempera.ture systcms,
rrhere vertical movements up to 2 inchcs are

anticipated, an approvcd prccomprcsscd lariable


sprilg dcrign similrrl to I1'T (irirrrrell Irig.
13-268 nrlry bc tist'rl. \I'hel: tlrc vcttir:rtl movcnrcrl is grcxlcf thrrn 2 irtchc,.', l vutiairk'slrt'irtg
hrrrrgel sinrilur' 1o I'l"l' (ilirrrrcll l is. 1)8 nlry bi:
trscd. \\rhclc rno\'('rn(rl1s rLto of lt smitll Iultgttitrirlc, slrtitrg lrltLgels siurilrtt to I'l'11' (ilirrrrell
Irig. 82 ol light duty I''ig. 217 rnrLy bc rt-*ccl.

to

determine the required supporiing


force at each hanger location and the pipe l'cight
Ioad at each equipment connection,
(d) Pipe hangers shall be capable of supporting the
pipe in all conditions of operation. They shall
allorv free expansion and contraction of the
piping. and prererrt exce..ive stres" resultitrg
from transferred l'eight being induced into the
pipe or connected equipment.
(e) Wherever possible, pipe attachments for horizontal piping shall be pipe clamps.
(f) Wherever possible, structural attachments shall

made

Constant supports shall be furnished l'ith travel


stops which shall prevent ups ard and dorvn-

l-ard movcment of the hanger. 'I'hc travcl

(b) Designs generally accepted as exemplifying good


engirreerirrg pnctine, using srock or production
pafts, shall be utilized rvherever possible.
(c) Accurate $'eight balance calculations shall be

not

excccd 25fi of the calculated pipiug load through

(k)

All rigid

hangers shall provide


vertical adjustment af ter erectiol.

means of

(l) \\'here the piping s1'stem is subjeci to

shock

loads, such as scisniic tlisturbanccs or thrusts


imposed by the actu&tion of s&fety valves,
hanger design shall inclrde provision of shock
absorbing devices of appror.ed dc-"ign, such as

(irirrrLcll Irig. 200 shoclt riritl srlay sulrltres-sor, oI equal.


(m) Selection of vibration control devices shall not
be part of thc hanger contractor's rrork. If
vibration is encountercd after the pipir.rg systcm
is in operation, appropriatc vibration cortrol
equipment sill be installed at the direction of

I'fT

the engineers.

(n) Hanger rods shall be subjected to terrsilc loading


only. At hauger locations rvherc latcral or

HANGF]RS AND SUPPORTS


axial moyement is anticipated, suitable linkage
shall be providod ro pclnrit srling.

(o) lVhere hodzontal piping movements are greater


than I irrch, or l'here the hanger rod angularity
from the vertical is greatcr than 4 degrees
from the cold to hot position of the pipe, the
hanger pipe and structural attachments shall be
offset in such manner that the rod is vertical in
the hot position.

(p) Hangers shall bc designed so that they cannot


become disengagcd by movements of the
supportd pipe.

(q) Hangers shall be spaced in accordance with


ANSI B31.1.
(r., Where plactical, riser piping shall be supported
independently of the connected horizontal piping.

Pipe support attachmenis to the riser piping


shall be riser clamp

lugs.

\Yelded attachments

shall be of material comparable to that of the

pipe, and designed

in

accordance

rvith gov-

erning codes,
(s) Supports, guides, and anchors shall be so designed that excessive heat I'ill not be transmitted

to the

building steel. The temperature of

supporting parts shall be based on a temperature


gradient of 100" F per inch distance from the
outside surfrce of t he pipe.

IIANGER DESIGN SERVICE


Ilangers for piping 2| inch and larger, and all spring
support assemblies, shall be coi:rpletely engineered.

(a) Engineered hanger assemblies shall be detailed on


8] inch x 11 inch sheets.
Each sketch l'ill include a location plan shorving
the location of the hanger in relation to columns
or equipment.
Each sketch rvill include an exact bill of material
for the component parts making up each assembly.

(b) Each engineered hanger assembly will be individually bundled and tagged as far as practical, ready
for installation.
Hanger material for piping 2 inch and smaller shall
be shipped as loose material, identified by piping system

ouly. A piping drardng marked with approximate


hanger locations and types, and hanger sketches showing typical support arrangements will be furnished..

L7r

ITT GITINNELL - PIPING Dt slc-\ AND IIN( I I Nllllttl-\ t'


WEIGIITS OF PIPING MATERIAIS

'Ihe tairuhtion of

rveights

of standard piping

materinls has bcen arratlged for conveniertce of selection


of data that formerly consun,ed considerable time to
develop. For specirl rnaterills, the three formulae
listed telou'lor l'eights of tubes, l'eights of coutetrts

of tubes, and

rveights

of piping irsulation rvill

SPEC

ASrl!

AS t'\l

tr\reight of rube

10.68

X T X (D

T) 1b/tt

? : lall thickness irt irches


D : outsidc diametcr in inches
i' : relatile rveight factor
leight of tube furnished in this piping data is
per
based ol lorv carl)on steel s'eighiug 0 2833 poultds
The

cubic inch.

Relative Weight Factor F

Aluminurn
" " o'35
Brass
"" ' 1'12
Cast Iron
"'' " 0'91
| 14
CopPer.
Ferriticstainlcsssteel..... 0'95
l02
Austenitic stainlcss steel
......... i.00
Steel....
." 0'98
Nrought iron
Weight of contents of a tube

Gx.3lo5:xiD-2T)2 lb/It
G : specific grar'ltY of contents
1' : tube lall thickrress in ir.rches
D : tube outside diameter in inches

TOL!]RANCI'

IFICATION

be

helpful.

t72

The leight per foot of stecl pipc is subject to the


follol'ing tolerlnces:

A;l
li,*, -i7
I ilo,,\t
A-120
irS ri r -' i0-o. l0-o
-

*";x",'

ASrNr

A-1oo

.A.srr{

A-385 l?*1;9,*o* *oil",' -tui?

33fi ii;1?1.

-i:.:?"

|sli i_313 r2'landurrder +$.57a, -2.57a


API

5L

+6.57a, -3.s7o

All sizes

The l"eight of l-elding tees and latcr&ls are for full


size fittirgs. 'l'he l eights of rcducirrg fittings are
approrimately tbe same as for fuiL size {itiirrgs'

The leights of rvelding reducers are for ole size


reductiou, alcl are approximately correct for other
reductions.
\Yeights of lah-es of the same type may vary because
of indilidual tnatrufacturet's dcsigtrs Listed valve
leights alc lpplorimate otrly. Specilic valve u'eights
should be used rvheu available.

\l'here speciiic iusulatiort thicklesses and densit'ics


differ fron.i those shosl, refer to "Weight of Piping
Insulatiorr" formula belolv or to Table on page 207'
Weight of Piping insulation

I
:
?:
D:
1

X.021E

x?x

(D

1')

Iblft

itisulation delisity in poutrds pcr cubic foot'


irrsrriatiou thickness in itrchcs
outside diameter of pipe in inches

HANGIIIIS AND SUPPORTS

1t' ptp" r.3r'' o.D.

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

{/
/.4

u-r'
z
F

z
E

i />
uJ

{i\

E=:I

z,\

E_=_:ir
t_i___-J

ku
Temperature Range 'tr'

Magnesia

2 Calcium
F

Combina-

tion

FiberSodium

Boldface

iype is

weight io

ffi

pounds. Lightlece type beneath

MM
d

Insulation thicknesses and


weights arc based on average
conditions end do not constitute

tNf.sF

ihicknesses ol materials. IiT sulation weights are based on 85le


magnesia and hydrous calcium
silicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The
lisied thicknesses and weishts of

weight

Njs

z
F

A)

IA

recommendation

for

for

specific

combination coverine ar1 the


s]lms of ihe inner layer of diatomacecus e&dh e,t 2l lbs/cubic

foot and the outer la,yer at


11

,\.

is weighi factor

insulation.

/tN

lbs/cubic foot.
Insuletion lveights include al-

for wire, cement, canvas, bands and p&int, but not


lowances

special surface finishes.

To find the weighi of covering

on flanges, valves or fittings,

@
,r\
+

rc

Flaneed Bonnet

checl

* 16 lb cu. ft. densiiy.

multiply the weight factor by the


weight per loot of covering used
on stnight pipe.
Valve weights &re &pproximate. When possible, obtain

weights from the manufacturer.


Cast iron valve weights are for
flanged end valves; steel weights
for $'eldine end valves.

All

flanged fitting, flanged

valve and flange weights include


the proportional weight of bolts
or studs to xoake up ell joinb,

173

]TT GR]NNELL - PIPING DIISIGN AND ]'N (] I \

l/a"

ercn

1.660, o.D.

F]I,]]iINC;

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

Wall Designation

r'2

la

{_!_/

trt.
w
{t\

|.

r-:-i

.4'd.

/N

f-+r

\JJ
Temperature Range "F

Magnesie
Calcium

Nom. Thick.,In.

3
.l Combina-

iron

FiberSodium

ffi
SW
fs-i,N$
$:si,sB

AI

T}

.A
N
/>

Boldface type

is l'eight

in

pounds. Lightface type benea,th

weight

is weight factor

insul&tion.

for

Insulaiion thicknesses and


'$eights are based on average
conditions and do not constitute

recommendation

for

specific

of mate als. Insulation weights are based on 85%


magnesia and hydrous calcium
silicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The
thicknesses

listed thicknesses end x'eights of

combination covedng are ihe


sums of the inner leyer of diatomaceous earth at 21 lbslcubic
foot and the oute. layer at
11

lbs/cubic foot.
Insulation weights include al-

lowances for wire, cement, csn-

vas, bands and paint, but not


special surface finisbes.-

{={3

ltl' )

+<i

rc

174

Io find the r|erght ot covenng


on flanges, valves or fittings,

mrrltinlv the rveicht factor bv the


ueighi !er foot 6f covering used
on strargnt prpe.

Valve $ eights are :rpproximate. lYhen Dossible. obtain

weights from th6 manufacturer.


C&st iron valve weights arc lor
flanged end valves; steel weights
for xelding end valves.
AII flanged fitting, flanged
valve and flange weights include
thc DroDortional lve;qht of bolts

or si,udi to make up all joints.

* 16 lb cu. ft. densitY.

IIAN(-:iENS AND SITPPORTS

WEIGIITS OF PIPING ITATDRIALS

r.eoo" o.D.

l/2"

etea

is

weight in

z1
at

z
F

w
t^
w
{i\

L::I

: -4,L,

/i\

L]--,-)

\U
Tcmperoture Range "F

Magnesia
Calcium

F
Combina-

tion

tr'iberSodium

Soldface type

M$
z

strri$

Njs
$:1Is
z

,'A

/A

/}}
B' .tl

,N

,k{3
Fr

@
li|1

+<J

KU

* 16 lb cu. ft. density.

pounds. Lightface type beneath

*erght rs lvelgnE Iacior Ior


insulation.

fnsulation thicknesses anil


weights are based on average

condiiiods a,nd do not constitute


a recommendation fot specific
thicknesses of rnaterials. Insulation weights are b&sed on 8570
maenesia :rnd hvdrous crlcium
silicjte at 1l lbsliubi. foot. The
listcd thiclinesses and u'eights of
combin:r.tion covering are the
sums of the inner laver of diatrom&ceous earth a6 21 lbs/cubic

foot and the outcr layer at

lbs/cubic foot.
Insulation weights include ol-

11

lowances tor wire, cement, can-

vas, bands and paint, but not


specjal surfr.ce fi nishes.
To 6nd the weight of covcring

on flrnges, vrlves or fittings'

multiply the we;ght fector bl' the


we;ght per foot oi covcring used
on shra;qhi pipe.

lre approxi-obto;n
possible,
\yeiqhts from the ma,nufacturer.
Cast ilon volve $eiqhts rre lor
flcneed cnd velves; steel weights
for ileldinE end valves.
valvt

w,lidhts

mate. When"

All

flaneed

fitting,

Ranged

valve end flInee weiqhts jnclude


tle prot,ortion;l wciAht of bolts
or siudi to make up cll ioints.

t75

ITT GITINNII],I, -- PIPING DESIGN AND I]NGINI]ERING

2" pwn zB7''o.D.

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

fr

4J-{

tu?

{T\
E=:I

z
=
E

/T\

L_t_,

\t"J
Temperature Range "F
Magnesia,

2 Calcium
F

Combina-

iioD

FiberSodium

ffi
z d.ll1l.\$

N]s
$i:N
AI

L}

.A

,N.

/N

]}', 'it

1-{]

@
|lll

+<i
F$0
176

type is weight in
welgnl ls wergh! laclol ror
Boldface

pounds. Lightface iype beneath

insulation,

fnsulation thicknesses and


weishts ere based on averaqe

coniitions and do not constituie

s, rccommenda,iion for

specific

thicknesses of ma,terials. Insulation weights are based on,857o


maqnesla and nvorous calclum
siliAte st 11 lbs/cubic Joot. The
listed thicknesses and weighis of

combination covering are the

sums of the inner l&yet of diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic

Joot and the outer l&yer

e,t

11 lbs/cubic foot.

Insulation weights include alfot wire, cement, canvas, bands aDd paint, but not

lowances

surface finishes.
special
-

To find the weight of covering


va,lves or fittings,
multiply thg weight factor by the
wergnt per looc oI coverrng useo
on straight pipe.

on flanges,

Valve weishts are

approxi_

AII flanged fitting,

flanged

mate. When- Dossible,

obtain
weishts from the manufacturer.
C:&st iron valve v.eights a,re for
flanged end valves; steel weights
Ior weldine end valves.

valve and flanee weiehts include


the DroDortion;l weisht of bolts
or siudi to make up all joinrs.
* 16 lb cu. ft. derxity.

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS


WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

2.878 o.D.

2/2"

ewn

(J-/
z
F

{!.}

{i\
Ei:l
//\^
/\

!-l__,

s*lJ
Temperature Range

'F

Magnesia
Caicium ,

,t Oombin&-

tion
Fiber
Sodium

ffi

&
Nl-$s

N
(,

r.4

#
,N

d.4

+.
.t

@
n

+<i
FSO

* 16 lb cu. ft. density.

Boldface

type is *'eight in

pounds. Lightfece type benc&th

{,eighi is weigh6 Jactor for


insulation.

Insulation 1hicknesses

and

weights are based on average

conditions and do not constitute

recommendation

for

specific

thicknesses of metedals. Insutstion lveights are based on 85%


magnesia and hydrous c&lcium
silicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The
listed thicknesses and \reights of
combination covering are the
sums of the inner lalrer of dia-

at 2l lbs/cubic
foot and the outer layer at
tomaceous earth
11

lbs/cubic foot.

Insulation *'eights include a1.lowances


iot $1re, cemen[, c&n-

vas. bands and Daint. but not

speiial surface finishes.


To 6nd the weight of covering
on flanges, valves or fittings,
multiply the n'eight factor by the
\aeight per foot of covering used
oI1 straight pipe.

Valve weights are approxima,te. When possible, obtain


$eights frorr the manufacturer.
Cast iron valve weights are for
flanged end valves; steel \reights

for welding end valves.

All

flanged fitiing, flanged

valve and flange weights include


the proportional weight of bolts
or studs to make up all joints.

tt prpn B.boo' o.D.


Schedrrle No.

Wall Designation

Thiknegs-In.

WI'IGIITS oII
40

srd.
.2t6

3
i/!|

a5

L.R. 90" Elbow

L!r'
{h

S.R.90'Iilbow

:Z {r\
t*rJ
A 4',4.
ttrf,t-l

ri\
{-t
\JI

L.R. 45" Elbow

.300

.433

.600

14.32

18.58

3.20

2.86

2.35

4.6

6.1
.8

E.4
.8

10.7

.8
.5

.5

4.4

5.4

.8

.3

.3

7.4

9.5

12.2

14.8

Tce

.8

.8

.8

.8

Lgteral

t.ri

l3

l9
t.s
2.9

3.7

Reducea

.3

.3

.3

1.4

.1.8

3.5

.5

,5

.3
.5

100-190 200-299 300-3$9 400-4$0 500-599 600-699 700-790 800-899 900-sr9 1C00-1099 1100-1200

2%

3.01

3.01

4.07

5.4

(ittnl)ir)a- \onr. 'Lhir,k., ln.

2)1

3\/4

31,t

uon

5.07

6.94

6.94

6-94

9.17

9.t7

Calcium

\om. T|ick., In.

I}s Iit

\om. TLick., Lr.


Ll,s,/|t
Prcssure Rating

1.25

1.25

,@
Srirs
N-l-s
$s<Fs

r#)
,'11

<-::
E ts' tfl

3t/4

3%

1.6r

l.6r

1.61

2.74

2.74

3.9E

3.98

6.99

6.99

8.99

8.99

(jast lron

Steel
20

20

1l

l9

Welcling Neck

1.5

t7

Lap Joint

9
1.5

19 110

20
53

250

t0

1.5 11.5

S.R- 90" Elbow

3.9

46 t32
4 | 3.9

30

50

L.R. 90' Elbov

4.3

26

4l
45" Elbow

3.5

3.6

39

61

Tee

5.9

Ilanged Bonnet
Cate

66
7

7.4

Flanged Bonnet
Globe or Angle

7.2

7.6

Flanqed Bonnet

46

r00

Bolnet---Globe

6.65

t7

Pressure SeaI

6.65

9
1.5

Bonnet-Cote

5.24

Slip-On

Pressure Seal

s.24

1%

600

Blind

3%

r%

400

ot

3%

300

Scren ed

125

Chec-k

178

2.08

RN

6/\

1t

150

psl

9
E

Il;s.'l't

Sodium

80

.3

'l'

I,S

Maglesia

Fiber-

.3

Tonll)er&ture Ruge

2.4

cap

}I.\TI.]III'\

160

r0.25

Pipe-Lbs/Ft,

\\'rter-Lbs/Ft

80

I'IPI\(i

tt2
r2l

40

63

4.3
46

3.5

6l

2500

6l

102

1.5

l.D

38
1.5

6l

rl3

1.5

1.5

l9

t9

36

60
1.5

99
1.5

24

38
1.5

6l

r05

67
4.1

9E

150

4.4

4.6

is weight in
weight iactor for

Boldfece type

beneath
Dounds. Lichtface tvpe
-

*:eight

is

insul:rtion.

1.5

Insulation thicknesses

rc based
Dased on
$eiqhts are

and

average

constitute
conditions and do not constitute

specific
endation for sPecific
recommendation
materials. Insula,_
Insulaof materiels.
ts are based on 85%
tion \i'eiqhts
calciurn
hydrous calcium
macnesii and hydrous
foot, The
The
11 lbs/cubic foot.
siliAh at ll
(nesses and weights ot
of
listed thicknesses
)n covering are the
combination
're inner layer of dia_
diasums of the
tomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic

thicknessesr

layet
the outer laYet
foot and ihe

60

93

r35

3.8

3.9

r02

151

23E

5.9

6.2

10

125
4.4

t55

1500

27
1.5

1.5

4.3

900

6.9

4.8

260
5

410
5.5
495

60

95

4.3

4.5

4.8

60

70

120

I50

4.3

4.4

4.8

4.9

5.8

20E

235

3.2

t35

1E0

440

a,t

ic foot.
11 lbs./cubic

rn *'eights include alInsrllation


can\\'ire, ccnlent,
cen\ent, cirnor \\'lre,
lo$aDces for
a.nd ptillt,
vas, bandsr and
;!aint, but not
face finlshes.
finrshes.
surface
sDecial
'To find
the ueight of covering
hLtings'
i, valves or nlungs,
on flanges,
by ihe
the
factor bY
ie weight fa,ctor
multipltthe
usecl
weight.per' foot of covering used
DiDe.
on s[rarghiI prpe.
approxia.re approxl'
viilhts are
Valve weight"s
possrDle, oo@rn
obtain
hen possible,
rnate- When
rm th6 manufaciurer.
manufacturer.
weishts from
valve weights are for
C-"ast itonn vs,lve
weightl
steel weights
d valves; stiel
flaneed end
for i'eldineE end valves.
flanged
iged fitting, fla4ge.d
All flanged
jnclude
weiqhh jnclud
flanse weighk
valve and flange

bolts
'tion;l $eiEht
$eight of boltr
the proportionat
up all ioints,
o mal(e uP
or siudi to
ioints.
* 16 lb cu. ft. density.

IIAN(-i]'ITS AND SIIPPOIiTS


WEIGHTS OF PIPING T,{AT]'RIALS

4.ooo"

o.D.

3/2"

rwo

Pipe-LbsTFt

Weter-Lbs

ft

Uf
z

,.>

t!L_.4J

ft

E.;f

,t\
!__

_--t

Temper&ture Itange
flegrresia

'F

Nom. Thick.,In.

Calci[m

Combina-

Nom. Thi(k., In.

tion

FiberSodium

typc is rvcight in
$ eight is *eight tsctor for
Boldface

pounds. Lightf.lce tl pe bcneath

N;lS
O

insultrtion.

Insulation thicknesses and


Neights arc basecl on average

$rrtM

conditions :rnd do not constitute

Nls

{N.is
.-x

specific

(iombinstion coverilg arc thc

sum-. of thc iDner

,-a

tomaceous eerth

l:rler of

di.!-

at 21 lbs,'r:ubic

foot anll the outer loycr

dt

11.lbs cubic foot.

,N

Insulation $eights include al-

/9s

for

magnesia end hl drous crlcium


silicate at 11lbsr'cubi| foot. The
listed thicknesses .rnd $ cishl.s of

/11

recommendrtion

thickncsses of materials- Insulatiorl lveights are based on E5%

lorvanr.cs

foLLrirc, ccment, cxn-

va.., bdncls and paint, but not

special surf ar:e {inis}rcs.

To finrl the geight of covering

on flengcs, valves or fittiIlgs,


multt)l)-the \reight ftrctor bI tho

|{
a

wcight per foot of covcring use,l


on.'truighl pip"-

@
fil

cu.

ft.

ts jlrc

rlrpro\r-

All

rc
li

\\'crgr

Lrlrtxin
rveights from the m.rnulacturer.
Cast iron vslve $cights are for
flanged end valves; strlcl \leights
for rvekling end valves.
I1:rnged fitting, flangcd
valvc and flange rveights include

+<J
* 16

rl\.c

mrte. lVhcn possible,

the ploportionll weight of l)olts


or studs to make up all joints.
density.

I'iT (iIII\\I]I,I,

4" ,t

"

4.soo" o.D.

PIPING DI'SIG\

A\I) I]\(;I \

I.]1'II,I\

(i

WEIGHTS OF PIPING X{ATERIAI,S

d)

Ltr
z

{ ,^\
u.e

tF

ft

(.)

E--'-I

g\

dllr
-JI

\IJ
'l'empcruturf lilrngo'lr
N{agnesia

-\om. 'I'hi(ik., In.

z Calcium,

(lomlrinr-

tion

Fiber-

\om.1'Iick., In.

Sodium

(llsi, Iron

ffi
z

$fi$
N_l_s
trl\ir,sN
-41
/A

L.L

N
/>

E44A

Boldface tvpe

pounds. Lightface

lveight

is weight in
tlpe

beneath

is $eight factor

lor

insul&tion.

Insulation thicknesscs

and

weights are based on average


conditions and do not constitute

recommends,tion lor specific


of materi&ls. Insulation weights are besed on 85%
magnesia and hydrous cakium
silicate a,t 11 lbs/cubic foot. The
listed thicknesses a.nd \reights of
combinatioo covering are the
sums of the inner layer of diotomaceous earth at 2l lbs/cubic

thicknesses

foot and the outer


11 lbs/cubic foot.

ls,l

er at

Insulation lveighls include al-

lowa,nces

lot vire,

cement, can-

vas, bands and paint, but not


speeial
surface finishes.
-

To find ihe reight of coverinB

F{3

@
r\
lAi

+<f

t4

on flanges, valves or {iltings,


multiply the weight ir.tor l,J'

bhe

weight per foot of covering uscd


on straight pipe.

Valvc weights are approximate. When possible, obtain

\\'eiqhts from thc manufecturer.


(hsi iron valvc wciqhts are for
Ilanged end velvcs; stiel rveights
Ior n eldine end valves.
ALI flanged fitting, flanged
valve and fiange weights include
the orouortionirl rveieht of bolts

or studi to mrke up all joints.

* 16 Ib cu. ft. density.

180

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS


1VEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

\f nter-I

bs7 t

{a

o.D. 5

tt

prpn

u-/
z

5.563"

15.6

t7 .7

{l\-" _t

1-

.4'A
t---i

\1"'
Tcmperature li.:r.nge "F

FiberSodium

,l Combina-

tion

Ilo)dface iype

is

s-eighi in

pounds. Ligbtface t1'pe beneath

4q-$

\reight,

${r..;M

Insulation thicknesses and


\reighis arc bascd on :r.verage
conditions and do not constitute

N-IS$
Els'i:s

4
/,4

,41

|.

/r4
,N

/?s

is $eight f&ctor

for

insulation.

recommendation fot speci{ic


of materials. Insulation lveights are ]rased on 85%
mngncsia ancl hldrous calcium
siliCatc at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The
listed thicknesses and rveights of
combinetion covcring are the
sums of the inncr laier of diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs,/cubic

thicknesses

foot &nd the outer la,r'cr at


11 lbs /cubic

foot.

Insuhtion \reights inclrrde al-

lorvances

lor

\\_ire, cement, can-

ves, bands and pdini,, but not


special surface finishcs.

1-{

@
lll)

l<ql
l<,t,J
1 16

lb cu. ft. density.

To lind thc rvcight of covering

on flanges, vrlves or fittings,

multipl-\' the \\eight factor bt'the


$eight per foot of coverirrg used
on -qtraight pipe.
Valve l'eights arc approxi-

mate. lVhen possible, obtain

weights from thc manufacturcr.


Cast ilon valve Ycights :rre for
flanged end velvesistcel $ eights
for r"eldins end valves.
ALI frrrigetl fitting, flangcd
vrJve rnd t nge rveighhs inrlude
the proportional weight of bolts

or studs to makc up all ioinis.

6" ptpn

6.625, o.D.

WIiIGII'I'S OT PII'INCI XI,\TI1RI,\LS

\\"ster--.Lbs Ift

U,tz

fn
{i\
fJ:I

z
tl

a-j-,

E--

/\
fr-D

\JJ
'l empcraturc lhngc "F

l{agnesia

\om. TLick., In.

o Calcium

Conrbinrtion

\om. Thilk., In.

FiberSodirm

4d-x$
z

i #r-rM

N+S
0s:s'

/41

/,4

Boldface type is *eight in


pounils. Lightfa.e tl pe bene.rth
\r'.lght rs \elgnL rscrnr ror
insulation.

Insula.tion thicknesses

magnesia and hydrous calcium


silicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The
listcd thicknesses and veights of

combination covedng &re ihe

sums of the inner layer of diatomrceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic

foot rnd ihe outer l&yer at

11

lbs,tubic foot.
Insulation Neights include al-

lorvanccs

z
IP

LI]

F4l

v2

+<J

rc

r82

and

weights are based on cvercge


corditions and do ltot constitute
a rccommcndation for specific
thickne-.ses of meterills. Insulation rveights tre bascd on 85/p

for \rire, cement,

can-

v:rs, bands and peint, but not


soecial surface finishes.

' To find the {eight of cqvedng

flsrrges, valves or fittings,


the \\'ejghi fr, tor bJ- the
\\ergh! ler looi ol covcfltlg useo
on straight pipe.

on

multipll

\ralvc $'eights are &pproximete. When pos-.ible, obtain

\Yeights from the manufecturer.


Cjast iron valve \rcights arc for
flangcd end valves; stcel rveights
fol rvclding cnd v:rlves.

All flnnged 6tting, flrngcd


vxlvc and flrnge \\'.iglris include
tlre rrror)ortionxl lv.ight of irolts
or siu,l! to mrkc up rll joints.
* 16 lb cu. ft. density.

HANGERS ,\ND SUPPORTS

WEIGI]TS OF PIPING MATERIALS

8.625"

o.D.

8"

prpo

$ratcr-Lbs/l t

f,,7

ta

L!./
! /)
x_p

{i}
LJI

-4\

i tr::t

di\

\IJ
Tempcrature Iiange
Nlagnesia

'F

Nom. Thi, li., In.

2 Calcium
o
F

Clombine-

Nom. Thick.,

In.

tion

FiberSodium

7
El

is

ffi

ilsulation.

sm$

rveiglrts ale besed

Nis

(x!\Nl
z

Ilolclf.rce t-\'pe

A
4l

rveight in

p,,un,ls. Lighth, e t.vpc l,enccLh

\ cighl is

\\

L,ighb

Jirtor

for

Insuhtion thi(knesses :lnd


on average

coDditioDs and

do

recommendstion

ot constiiuic

for

spccilic

of matcrirls. hsulation Ncights arc bascd on 85!i


thicknesses

magncsia aDd hldrous calcium


silicate it, 11 lbs/cubic foot. Tbe
listed thicknesses and rveights of

combination covering are the


sums of the inner layer of diatomeceous earth

at 21

1bs,,/cubic

foot and the outer ldl.er at


z

,N
/>

c3:9E

11

lbs/cubic foot.

Insulation rveights include al,lowances


1or \\ lte, cement, caDve,s, ba,nds and Daint,
sDecial
surfecc finishes:
-

but not

To find the $eieht of coverine

{.<3

t4

+<i
FSO

* 16 Ib cu. ft. density.

on flanges, vdves or fittings,

multiply the $ ejght factor by the


\eight.per foot of covering used
on sirarghl prpe,

\.alve s.ciehts are aunroximate. l\rhcn- possible, 'cjbtsin

'\rcights from the m'rnufttctluer.


Cast ilon valve Neiehts ere for
flangcd cnd valves; stiel veights
for * elding end valves.
.\11 flanged fittins, flansed
v&lvc and lirrnge veiglrts in.lude
thri troportionrl \leight of bolts

o! studs to makc up all joints.

I'IT GITINNI'LI,_ PIPING DESIGN AND

10tt ptpn ro.zbo" o.D.

ENGINI]ERINC;

WEIGHTS OF PIPING X{ATDRIALS

,A.

{-p
fl.r
EJ:I

,l
F

f,1-t
L-r----,

\]J
l'empcrr,ture lirngc "tr'
Mggnesia

z Calcium

Combin&9 tion

FiberSodium

ffi
z

s{-F$

Nls
$::i:.{}
z

.A
z

,t

+<{

rc

Boldfa.ce i"1'pe is $'eight ir


bcneath
oounds. Liehtfcce
tIDe
-

i\eight

is

rveight

Jsctor for

insulation.

Insulation thicknesses

and

weiqhts are based on average


conilitions end do not constituie
a recommendation for specific
thicknesses of materi&ls. Insulation weights are based on 85%
mcsncsia and hvdrous celcium
silicrte at 11 Ibs/cubic foot. The
listed thicknesses and weights of
combination covering are the
sums of the inner layer of diatomeceous earth s,t 2l lbs/cubic

foot and the outer layer at


11

lbs/cubic foot.

Insilation weights include allowances {or \tire, cement, can-

vas. bands and Daint, but not


surfoce finishes.
speiirl
To find the veight of covering
on flanges, valves or fit[ings,
multiply the r-\'eight factor bv the
werghl per loo! or coverlng useo
on strcight pipe.

Valvc rrcights sre rppro\imrtc. Whcn possible, ol)t$in


\\'cights lrom thc manuf3cturcr.
C{st, iro \'rh.c \\'cights are for

flauged end vrlvcsr steel $'eights

fol rveldine end valvcs.


.\ll ftanged fitting, flonged
velve and lluqe reislrts include
tle DroLortionll rveicht of holts
or s'uu,l! to make up all joints.
* 16 lb cu. ft. deisity.

HA\GERS AND SUPPORTS


WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATI'ITIALS
Schethrlc

\o.

20

30

40

\\'all Dt:signation

ui

nw
zf\
F flII

E PrT\
o t-+-+

3 g'r.

F:

Thickness In.

.250

.330

Pipe-Lbs/Ft
Water-Lbs/Ft

33.3E

43.8

49.6

51.10

49.7

49.0

.562

.687

73.2

47 .0

46.0

88.5
44.0

L.R. 90" Elbow

157
3

S.R.90'Elbow

80
2

l04

60

7E

1.3

1.3

r32

t67

Tee

100

120

.8{3

r.000

|
|

107.2

41.6

375
3

lEl
360

2.5

2.5

44
,7

94

30

3E

E9

'F

100-1!9 200-299 300-399 400-409 500-599 600-699 700-799 800-899 900-9c9 1000-1099 1100-1200

Nom. Thick., In.

1j;

1t'

Ilrs/Ft

6.04

6.04

tion

I-bs/Ft

Fiber-

\om. Thick.,In.

Sodium

Lbs/Ft

r%

8.

21/l

t3

10.5

ll/t

1rz

1%

1%

Cast Iron

3%

4t/t

414

12.7

15.1

17.9

17.9

20.4

20.4

3\l

411

4k

17.7

21.9

26.7

31.1

31.1

2%

2t4

14.20

14.20

24.64

4.64

32,fi

32,fi

Steel

Pressure RaiiDg
psr

125

250

150

300

400

600

900

1500

2500

Screwed or

7l

r37

72

140

164

26t

388
1.5

E20

16ll

W-elding Neck

88
1.5

163
1.5

212

4s4

843

1919

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

Nji$

Lap Joint

I6,t

rE1

1.5

286

433

902

1573

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

{3<sNN

Blind

IIE

209

261

341
1.5

475

92a

1775

1.5

669

8r5

1474

5.8

6.2

Slip-On

a.4
a
/t
?
/11

S.R. 90" Elbow

L.R. 90' Elbow

L{

45' Elbow

1.5

96

265
5

453

6.2

414
4.3

4.3

4.3

403

684

5r3

7.8

808

9.4

j!|J

Flanged Borrnet
Check

Bonnet-Clobe

159E

6.2

383

Fbnged Bonnet
Globe or Angle

* 16 Ib cu. ft. densrty.

624

6.2

4.3

, F{3

Pressure Seal

485

235

687

1298

7.8

Bonnet-Ga.te

509

6.2

Tee

Pressure SeaL

345
5

6.2

Flanged tsonllet

rc

r77

375

1=43

+<l

34.9

33
.7

f,

<-::,
E IP

39.3

Reducer

Combina- Nom. Thick., In.

B,N
(J /9N

1.312
160.3

5.4

/A

1.125

139.7

Latera.l

Maqnesia
Calaium
Silicate

zs{i$

1G0

2.5

,ffi

140

ptpn

180

Tempcnr.turc Rlnge

48.5

.500

65.4

119
3

L.R. 45" Elbow

80

12"

XS
.406

Crp

;z

60

srd.

rz.lilo'o.D.

5.2

4.7

4.8

754
7.8

943

1361

1928

8.3

4.7

s.3

10r5

1420
5.5

21s5

2770
7.2

1200

710

1410

9.5.

674

1160

9.4

9.5

560
6

Insulation thicknesses and


rrc Lrse,l on evcrnge

\YPiqhts

corrclltrons

crL.L

FcolnmL,r

'

ilo not constitute

lxtion Jor

tion lreights ale

1410

6.5

listed thir:knesses and treiqhts of


combinatiol coverinE are thc
.qums

of tbe inncr hr:er of dill-

2i lbs/cubic
foot and the outer la\.er at
tonLlccous e:uth et
11 ll)s/cubic foot.

hsulation lcights include al,lo\tences


lol \\'lrc, coment, cllll-

vas, blrncls and Drint, but nob

4650
8

3370

7.2

2600
8

1975

2560

4515
7

on 85%

brLscd

magncsia ltnd hldrous calcium

spu(irl sur'facc lini-sLes.


To find the \eight of covering
o|1 fl3nHcs, l.rlvcs of ]ittinss.
multit,l.r th! \\ciglrtf.L,.toL l,.r' the
\"rAht t,rr'foot oI covc|ing uscd
orl strll rarrL pllr(,.
Vrtve 1v;iih ts

720

stre,,itic

tLi, kI csq,s of matc|j]]s. Insuh-

silicite at 11 lbs,/cubic loot. The

tt24

469

4.5

is rr,,ixht jn
tytr
b$erth
\\ crglLt js $ ciglrt futtor for
Boldfrce t1'pe

pounrls. Lightfeco

rrc

er,rlori-

m;rt". 1\'hpn 1,os*ilrts,,rlrtrrin

\'eights from tirc mamufroturer.


Oest iton valve rveights are for
fl.Lrrjje,l,, n,1 vulvrs: sterL rrciglrLs
tOt

\\ eLLl

,1ll

Ing Cnd

flc

r,Aed

virLVCS.

fitting,

flrnged

rnd Ilxngc \\'ciglrts inrlude


proportioncl \rejg
thc l)rolrortioncl
\rejght of bolts
or studs io make up all joints.
v:Ll\ c

I6D

ITT GIiINNEI,L PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINODRI]{G

14" *r*" 14" o.D.


Schedule No.

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATDRIALS


10

20

.250

.312

30

Thickness-In.

Pipe-Lbs/Fi
Water-Lbs/Ft

W
f4

{Jj

Eh,
F{#

E
{i\
I t-+-l
3 4',4^
EE-

s6.71
62.06

.438

45.7

54.6

60.92

59.7

63.4

140

.593

.537

1.093

1.250

1.406

34.9

106.1

130.7

150.7

170

r89.I

50.0

47 .5

55.9

5E.7

160

42.6

45.0

r54
3.5

L.R. 90' Elbow

r02

135

2.3

2.3

S.R. 90' Elbow

100

L.R. 45' Elbow


203

159

Tee

2.8

2.8

218

340

Lateral
Reducer

63
1.1

83
1.1

\jJ

cap

t.7

1.7

46

Temper a,ture R&nge "F


Magnesia

E g,il::Yi

Fg

.1 LOmotna-

6 ilon

1100-1200
100-1s9 200-29S 300-399 400-499 500-5s9 600-699 700-799 800-E99 900-99S 1000-1099

Nom. Thick.,In.

Lbs/Fi

6.16

1%

2th

3%

4%

4%

6,16

8.3E

10.1

13.1

13.1

15.8

1E.5

18.5

21.3

21.3

3%

4)A

1E.2

22-a

27,5

]2.4

Nom. Thick.,In.

Lbs/Ft

FiberSodium

\om. Thick.,In.

1t1

1la

Lbs/Ft

7.90

7,90

Pressure RstiDg

,ffi
3$N
-

dN-iM

{fiw
o

r$l
2M
F

-tt
rA

fiA
zh4

.!l
E It'
ll---iJ

ru

*@
3U

+4J

rc

186

120

.500

Ll-,

100

XS

srd.

Wall Designation

EO

60

40

psl

Screwed

o!

C".l I-.

11.r8

11.18

18.00

18.00

25.42

25.42

St"l

125

250

150

300

400

600

900

1500

93

lE4 |
1.s |

96

195

235

31E

460

1016

1.5

1.5

113
1.5

217

642

110

220

254

1.5

1.5

1.5

Slip-On

Welding Neck
Lap Joint

Blind

7.90

406

1.5

617

497

632

664

91E

1549

5.9

6.4

767

622

6.6

6.6

6.6

497

377

587

63E

EE3

1246

4.3

4.4

4.6

4.8

4.9

683
8

96E

1131

1652

2318

8.9

9.6

1920

2960

4170

6.3

312
192

4.3
563
8

956

Tee

Flanged Bonnet

92r

1762

7.9

8.8

Flanged Bonnei
Globe or Angle
Flanged Bonnet,
Check
Pressure SeaI

BonBet-Gate
Pressure Seal
.

Bonnet-Globe

8.4

905
4.9

.nd do not constitute


con-ditions and
specific
ndation for sPecific
a recommendation
lnsula"
materials Insulathicknesses of materials.

E5%
tion rveiqhtsr are based on E5%

I1 lbs/cubic: foot.

alweigbts include aL
n rveights
Insulation
can
rr wlre,
cement, caD_
wire, cemeni,
lowances for
no'
p3jnt, but
bub noi
vas, bends and paint,
finishes
ace finishes.
sDecial surface

6425
8.8

'To find the


coverint
eight of covenng
he $$eisht
fittings
vulvEs or fittings,
on flanses, valves

th'
frctor bY the
multiph: thee weight factor
use(
foot of covering usect
l'eighi per fooh
pipe.
on straight p1pe.

'eichts are approxl


approxl_
Valve weiqhts

9.9

9.9

and
r thicknesses and
Insulation
weiqhts are, based on average

crlcium
hr drous calcium
nd hldrous
meenesii :rnd
Th
foot Tbe
silic;te at 11l lbs/cubic foot.
of
lesscs end \Leights ol
lisi,ed thicknesscs
the
covering are th
covedng
r jnner
combin:r,tion
dia
ls1er of dia_
sums of the: inner layer
lbs/cubic
serth at 21 lbs/cub(
iomaceous eerth

1.5

ttll
EE5

Boldface ivpe is rteight in


l,iqhthce t\'pe bcneith
ireight is - \\eight lactor for
Dounds.

al
l&Yer at
outel l&yer
foot and the outer

8.3
6

1076
1.5

437

r42

45' Elbow

Gote

574

354
1.5

239
1.5

292

477

267
1.5

126
1.5

S.R. 90' Elbow

L.R. 90' Elbow

349

insulation.
1241
1.5

1.5

2500

32.4

obtair
eri possible,
mete. When
Possible, obtain
m the
th; manufacturer.
manulacturer.
weights from

1010 11155

sls.2

2620
ti

3475

6380

ro
$elghts are for
Cast ilonL valve weishts
welght
sheel weights
flanged endt valves; sGel
for weldins i end valves.
frenged
ged frtting, frenge'
flanged
lnclud
eights lnclude
lcnse $$eights
valve cnd frcnge
t)olt
of bolts
\eighL.ot
tionrl \eisht
the proportionrl
uP all joints.
m:l,ke up
Jolntr
or studs ior rnake
16 lb cu. ft. density

All

'

I]ANGI]RS AND SUPPORTS

tu'o.o.

1YEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

16"

prpo

u_/
z
F

f>\
u,r
{i\
L-I

g\.

Tempcreture Rcngc

'F

Megnesia
Calcium

F
Combina-

tron

FiberSodium

ffis

&

Nlrs
N
z
|.

A
rA
,N

/F

tvpe is rveight in
r\cight is $eight factor for
lnsulaitonInsulation thicknesscs end
\4eights 3re bascd on cverage
Boldface

pounds. Lightfrce tJ.pe bcnerth

conditions and do not constihule

recommendation

for

specific

thicknesses of rnateri.rls. Insulation weights are based on 85/6


magnesia and hydrous calcium
silicate at 11 lbs/cubic foot. The
listed thicknesses and weishts of
combination covering ar-e the
sums of the inner layer qf diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic

Ioot and the outer la,yer


11 lbs/cubic foot.

s,t

Insulation wcishts include allowances for wira, cement, canvas,,bands &nd paint, but trot
speelat surtace nnrshes.
To find the weieht of coverins

on flanqes, valvis or fittinesl

multiplttlie

@
hJ

+<l

t4

* 16 lb cu, ft. density.

weight facior by t-he


weight per foot of covering used
on-sIrfLrgnt prpe,

valve \4clghts are &rJDroxtmrte. When- possible, obtrin


weights from ihi manufacturer.

Cast iron valve weights are for


flanged.end valves; stiel reights
IOr Wetorng eno valves.

AII

flanged fitting,

flanged

velve and flanee weiehts include


the proportion-el weight of bolts

or studs to make up all ioints.

ITT GITINNI'LL PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINI]I'RIN('

18tt pt""

18'o.D.

\\'ater-Lbs

!'t

to

z
F

{p

EJ-I

WEIGHTS OF PIPING ]\{ATERIALS

{;\

-rt.,\,

A
\J-J
--

'f0mper.rturc llllngc "F

M&gnesia

Calcium

(lombireiion

FiberSodium

ffi

ffi
Ssjs
Enw

ttfe is rcight in
ir.igl,t is- $cigl't irctor for
IJollhce

nourrils. I-ielLthL e tvnc beneith


insul&tion.

Insulation thi.knesses

and

$'eiglrts arc brscd on average


conilitions and do not constitute

a lccommc[(htion for

spcciGc

thiekDcsscs of mri,cri&ls. Insul&_


tion \\ciqhts ue )rased on 85/6

maqnesii nnd hrrilous calcium

silicate ct 11 lbs/cul)ic {oot The


listcd thickncsscs and rveights of

combination covering erc the

rA

t-

sums of the inrrct h1'er of diatomaceous etith at 21 lbs/ctrbic

foot and the outerr laYcr at


11 ]bs,/cubic foot.

hsuhtion Neights includc alccmenl, ca,nfor $;rrc,


\';irc, ccment,
lorvtnces ior
lowrn(es

vus,.l,rnrls cnrl. l,nint, Lut not


\iia r'rI sulfrcc
srtl l:rcc nnlsllcs,
s1r'iirl
'to rir',1 tt,c reiglrt of coveling

on lling"s, vJv"s or fittings,

$ cight Jxctor l'J the


rreigl,h por foot oI coverints uscd
on straight l)ipe.
Vnlvc Neiglrts 3re spproxrmate. 1\then possil,Je, obtain
$eiehts from the msnufa,ctuler.
Cast iron vllve rveights are for
fl:r,nged end vaivcs; steel \teighis
for ;et(line end valves.
All fltneed fitting, flanged
valve en.l flrnge \\'uights include
the uoDc,rtionirl rreiEht of bolts
or siudi to m;rke up all joints.
* 16 h cu. ft. deDsity.

multil'll:ihe

@
ltu

i-<i

rc

188

I]ANCERS AND

STTPPORTS

20-

TTEIGHTS OF PII'ING }I'\'IDRIALS

z
F

o.D.

20" ,t

&?

f^

i_:-.t

{i\
trJ:I

g\
E=_r
L!_'

T, rnfrrxiurc llrr,A,

z
o

Magnesi&

\om. Thirtr., In.

Calcium

'F

Combir)tr-

Nom.l'hick.,In.

tion

FiberSodium

ffi
$4-iM

\rcights ele brsccl on average


rrr ditions and do not constitute

N+s
trNrN!
z
k

Roldface tvpe is \\'cight in

rrounds. Lightface tl pc l-.eneath

A
/,\
,--l
/A

/>
,L\

ir'eiehi is l\'eiglrt fLiclor for


in-rul&tion.

Insul&tion thid(nesscs

a recommcn(ll.ti(nr for

end

specjfic

thichncsscs of matcri$ls. Il$ulDtion weighls .rrc bescd on 85?'o

megnesia rnd lrldlous rralcium


silioete at 11 lbs,,(iulric foot. The
listed thi(ikness$ ancl rvoights of

combin&tion .overirg l|tc the


sums of thc inner l:r-ver of diatomilceous ellrth at 21 lbs,/cubic

foot .rnd the outcr la)'e! at


11 lbs,/cubic foot.

Insulation \\cights inrlude allo$urces for rvirc, cement, c{Lnvas, barrds cn(l print, but not
speciLrl surface linishes.

To fnrd thc xeight, of covering

on flangrs, vllvcs or fittings,

@
r\
J<{

rc

* 16 lb cu. ft. deDsi',y.

multil)h thc \veight frctor bt'the


$eight l)er foot of .ovcling used
on slreight pipe.

\-rrlvc 1\'cights rfe sptrfo\imrto. \1lren possil,le, ,,l,trin

cights fiom the manufactlucr'.


Cast iron valve rreights arc for
flanged end vrlves; stcel Neights
for Nelding end vrlvos.
All flansed fittine, flanged
velvc rnd Hrng" $eights in,lu.lc
$

DroDortionLrl \\eiqlrt of l,oLts


or siuJi io m.rke up rl1 joints.

thc

ITT GITINN]'I,I, PT?I\(i DUSI(I\ AND I'\(}IN]JUR,IN(

24"

ptpn

24" o.D.

1YDIGHTS OI' PIPING TI.A.TI'RIALS

Wai,cr*l,bsi/1,'t,

{6
t\-

{/>

{i\

1-.:i

8\.
E.:-J

t----l-!
'-l'cn1per:rturc

Maqnesia

llLu)ge'l'

Nom. Thid<., In.

2 Calcium
o

F
f

Combina-

tiol

FiberSodiuDl

ffi

Boldface tr.pe is $ciqlrt in


luunds. Ligl'Ifi,.e tJ pe bineatlr
\1eight is \reisht Iactor for

slt-|ts

$cights rrc brsetl on

Nls

qAsir$

Insulation thicknesses

and
average

co.diLions rnd do not constitute

recommendation

tLicknesses of

for

maierirls

specific
Tns,,llr-

tion rfeights are bascd on 85ol


mrgnesia and h1'drous c:rlcium

sili{rrte .'t 11 lbs/cubic foot. The


listed thicknesscs and lveights of
combin:rtion covering are the
sums of the inner laver of dirtom&ceous earth :rt 21 lbs/cubic

z
N

/>

lPq
tt---.u

1=<3
J

insulation.

@
ff1

J-<t

rc

190

foot and ihe outer laver at


1l

lbs/rcubic foot.
Insulation i{eights include allo$anccs for wire, cement, canvasj bands and print, but, not
specisl surfuce finishes.

To find the rveight, of covering

on fianges, valves or fittiogs,

multiplJ' the weight, factor by the


weight per foot of covering uscd
on straight pipe.

\'alve,neights are

mrtc. \lhen

approxi-

possible, uLtain

weights from the manufacturer.


Cast ilon valve $'eiehts :!re for
flanged end v.rlves; stlel rveights
for rrelding end valves.

,{11 flarged

fitting,

flanged

valve and ffrnge rvcights include


the proportional $eight of bolts
or studs to make up all joints,
+ 16 lb cu. ft. density.

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS


\\ EIL;HTS OF PIPINU MATERIALS

za"

o.n

26"

prcn

fr?

uj
11.

{i\
E::I
-f/\
t-'-l
rl\
r-h
\"J
Temperature Range "F
[I{Lgnesia

Cslcirrm

"

3 combinaA
E

tion

;r=::;FiberSodium

Boldface type is weight in


pounds. Lightface type beneath weiEht is weight factor

Sqr$
G

#rI1$

Nls

Insulation thicknesses and


weights are based on average
conditions and do not constitute a recommendation for
specific thicknesses of mate-

rials. Insulation weishts are


based on 85% magnesia and
hvdrous calcium silicat at

{N
z

for insulation.

,11

,-11

11

lbs/cuDrc roof,. I ne llsreo f,ntcKnesses and weights of combination coverine are the sums

of the inner laver of diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic

foot and the outer layer at


11 lbs/cubic foot.

,N

itN
eE:E
D',

.{

F<t

ltl' )

+<l

rc

* 16 lb cu. ft.

Insulation weights include


for wire, cement,

allowances

canvas, bands and paint, but


not special surface finishes.
To find the weight of cover-

ing on flanges, valves or fittings, multiply the weight factor by the weight per foot of
covering used on straight pipe.
Valve weishts are aporoxi-obtain

mate. When Dossible.


weights from- manufacturer.
Cast iron valve weishts are
for flanged end valves; steel
weishtsforweldinsendvalves.
A-il flanged fitting, flanged
valve and flange weights include the proportional weight
of bolts or studs to make uD

all joints.

ITT GItlNNI,ll,l, PIPIN(; DltSItlN A\D

28" *rr,

28" o.D.

lrN( iI

\ Itltlti)i(

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

{F

u-f

f^

t-lJ

{T\
.fA
f,-JI

z
F

ds
{---1-r
\IJ

Temper&ture Range'F
Magnesirl

Calcitm
Combina-

tion

FiberSodium

Boldface type is weigbt in


pounds. LiEhtface type beneath weight is weight factor

for insulation,

Frr$

Insulation thicknesses and


$eishts are based on avelage
conditions and do not consti-

&

tute a

Nis
{N

z
ti

l6s/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weights of combination covering are the sums

of the ihner layer of diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic

foot and the outer layer at


11 lbs/cubic foot.

Insulation weights include


allowanees for wire, cement,
canvas, bands and paint, but
not sDecial surface finishes.
To-ffnd the weight of coverins on flanges, valves or fit-

,N

/>
E!!4

tPtl
lHl

tings, multiply t}le weight factor by the welg:ht pe.! root or

{=<3

covering used on stralghl PtPe.


Valve weights are apptoxi-

@
m
+

mate. When possible, obtain


weiehts from manufactulet.
C-ast iron valve weights are
for flanged end valves; steel

weishts f orweldinEend valves.


A'il flanged fitting, flanged
v-alve and flange.welgnls. lnclude the proporuonal \,r'elgnl
of bolts or studs to make up

t4

792

'16

recommendation for

sDeciic thicknesses of haterials. Insulation weights are


based on 857a magnesia ahd
hvdrous calcium silicate at 11

all joints.

lb cu. ft. density.

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS


WEIC}H'IS

0!' I'IPIN(}

MATERIALS

so"

o.D.

30tt

"t""

t1

!f\/>

t-

1L4J

{\
LiJ

;
r_t__)

\JJ
Temperature Range "F
\lagnesia
Calcium
Com

tron

FiberSoditm

ffi
e{'J$
N+S
0;::p

for insulation.

Insulation thicknesses and


weights are based on average
conditions and do not constitute a recommendation for
specific thicknesses of mate-

rials. Insulation weights are


based on 857. magnesia and

/.4

hydrous calcium silicate at 11


lbs/cubic foot.The listed thicknesses and weights of combination covering: are the sums
of the inner layer of diatomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubic
foot and the outer layer' at
11 lbs/cubic foot.

/9\

allowances

,-q

Boldface ti'pe is weight in


pounds. Lightface type beneath weight is weight factor

B' .{
LHI

Insulation weights include

for wire,

cement,

canvas, bands and paint, but


not special surface finishes.
To find the weight of cover-

Fl

ing on flanges, valves or fit-

GD+

fr

mate, When possible, obtain


weights from manufacturer.
Cast iron valve weights are
for flanged end valves; steel

eD+

all joints.

@
* 16 lb cu. ft. density.

tings, multiply the weight fac-

tor by the weight per foot of


covering used on straight pipe.
Valve weights are approxi-

weights forweldingend valves.


AU flanged fitting. flanged
vaive ano nange werghls tnclude the proportional weight
of bolts or studs to make up

193

ITT GITIN\I.]I,I,

32" *tr"

Bz" o.D.

I'I I'I N(i

I)l,lsl(l\ A\I)

I'lN( it

NllllltlN(l

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

f.2

{U

{l\
tr:J

tr-l

/T\
rrl

\IJ
Temperature Range

'F

Ma,gnesia

Calcium

{ uomDlna5 lron

+Asbe!tos

FiberSodium

Boldface tYPe is weight- in

pounds. Lightface tYPe

ffi

sffi
fsim
dl:jN

/.4
z
F

ot

maEe'

are
rjals. Insulation weights ano

85q magnesla
hvdrous calcium srllcale al rr
lbs/cubic foot The listed thrck'
nesses and werghts or comolnation covering are- the sums
of the inner layer ot dlalomaceous earth at 21 lbs/cubrc

based on

foot and the outer layer at

allowances

/>

tr'.s
tB---{t

{.<l

@
fi)

+<i
F+O
194

sDecific thicl<nesses

/'11

acA

be-

ireath weight is v/eight laclor


for insulation
Insulation thicknesses ano
weichts are based on average
conditions and do not cons"tltute a recommendatron ror

- 16 lb cu. ft. derl"sitY'

11 lbs/cubic foot

Insulation weights include


for wire, cement,
canvas, bands and PaDt' bu!

not special surface hnrshes'


To find the weight or covering on flanges,.valves or "nriin-es. multiPlY the weight facof
loot ol
toabv the weight pe.r
Per foot
ioi-'6v--it'",idisttt

used on stralgnt PrPe'


covering
-Valve-wei ghts are-aPProxi-

mate. When Possible-, oolaln


weiEhts from manutalturer'
Cast iron valve weights are
steel
for ffanged end. valves;valves'
weiehts fol weldingend

A-ll flanged fitting' flangeo

valve and flange weights. ln_


clude the PropoltionaL wergnt

of bolts or studs to make uP


all joints.

HANGIIRS ANI) SUPPONTS

WEIGI{TS OF PIPING MATERIALS

34"

o.D.

34"

prrv

Water-Lbs/Ft

A
tlf

f-2
(!-/

f\
w

{l\

Fi

EJ-l

-','>^

[*_lJ
Temperature Range'F
Nom. Thick., In.

.N{agnesia

Caicium

FiberSodium

Boldface type is weight in


Dounds. LiEhtface tYPe beireath weighl is weight factor
fo! insulation.
Insulation thicknesses and
weiqhts are based on average
conditions and do not constitute a recommendation for
specific thicknesses of mate-

ffi
z

slit.$
Nj_s$

rlals. lnsulation weights are


based on 85% magnesia ancl

(N

lbs/cubic foot. The listdthicknesses and weights of combi-

z
F
F

hvdrous calcium silicaie at

,-rl
/A
/.\

nation covering are the sums

,N

allowances

of the inner layer of diatoma_


ceous earth tt 21 lbs/cubic

foot and the outer layer at


11 lbs/cubic foot.

Insulation weights include

/D

11

for \tir,

cement,

canvas. bands and paint, but


not special surface finishes.
To-find the weieht of cover-

ins on flanqes. Glves or fittinss- multi;lv the weiEht fac-

tor"by the fueight per foot of


coverrng used on stralgnl pIpe.

+=<l

Valve weights are approxi-

@
If)

mat. When possible, obtain


weiehts from manufacturel.
Cast iron valve weiEhts are
for flanged end valves; steel
weiehts forweldinEend valves.
A'il flaneed fitting, flanged

+<J

v;lve and flange weights in-

rc

'

16

lt

cu.

ft.

clude the proportional weight


of bolts or studs to make up

all joints.

density.

195

ITT Gn,INNllt,L PIPIN(; l)llsI(lli

36tt

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

86'o.D.

"trp
Schedule No.

std.

tr'i"t'"* I* T:rz T lrs I

xs
.500

F o"--it.r r t T-r I 4ttl 189.6


r e. I

w.t".-Lb.VFt f425.9l

UJ

L.R.90' Elbow

{J}
f>,
gtt
F

{i\

S.R. 90" Elbow

L.R. 45' Elbow

f,.J-l

Tee

.4
E-- '.

Lateral

422,6

4t6.6

1040

r380

12

12

692

9r3

5r8

686

4.8

4.8

t294

t6lo

340

360

.625

/50

236,r | 2A2,4
4r r.o

405.1

3.6

3.6

Reducer

.10

30

20

10

Wall Designationl

"r'"4

,\\I) I'l\(;l \ I'lliltl )i(i

235
cap

100-199 200-299 300-399 100-499 500-599 600-699 ?00-799 800-899 900-999 1000-1099 1100-1200

Temperature Range "F


trlagnesia Nom. Thick., In.
Calcium.
Lbs/Ft
z srhcate

14.2

14.2

2Yz

3th

19.2

24.2

29.5

34.8

40.3

F^L omDrna

Nom. Thick., In.

31/2

5 tion

Lbs/Ft

49.4

Fiber
=TR6;ffi

Nom. Thick,, In.

<

Sodium

40.84

Lb-s/Ft

Cast

Prssure Rating
psr

s$
6{trM

Welding Neck

s$ls
dfsv
F
F

Biind

r22.O

4%

4rt

40,84

40.84

40.84

40.84

40,84

1500

71.48

Steel

r50

300

480

1200

1325

600

900

1600

3350

1.O

1.5

1300

1750

3450

2500

it'
tHl'rl

Tee

1.5

for insulation.

Insulation thicknesses and


*.eiehts are based on averagp
and do not consti"onditions
tute a recommendation for
sDeciflc thicknesses of mate-

2275 2525 2950 4900


1.5

hvdrous calcium silicate at 1I

lbs/cubic foot. The listed thicknesses and weights of combi_


nation covering are the sums

of the innet laver of diatoma-

at 21 lbs/cubic
foot and the outer layet al
ceous earth

11 lbs/cubic foot.

Insulation wights lncluoe

Gate

Flanged Bonnet
Globe or Angle

Flanged Bonnet
Check

Bonnet-Gate
P!essure Seal

mate. When possible, obtain


weiEhts froru manufaeturer.
c-ast iron valve weights are
fo! flanqed end valves; steel
weiEhts ior weldingend valves.

all joints.

Bonnet-Clobe

ft.

cement,

A1l flanEed fitting, flanged


valvi and flange weights. include the proportional wergnl
of bolts or studs to make uP

Pressure Seal

16 lb cu.

for v"ire,

canvas. bands and Paint, but


not special surface finisles.
To find the weight ot covering on flanges, valves .or -tr!!ings. multiPlY tne welgn! 1actor by the weight Per oo! or
covering used on straight PlPe.
Valve weiqhts are aPProxl-

Flanged Bonnet

71.48

Boldface type is weight in


pounds. Lightface tYPe beneath weight is weight factor

allowances

45'Elbow

ll l.o

40.84

I125

/F
E44

+q]

100.2

rlals. Insulation weights are


based on 85% magnesra and

L.R. 90' Elbow

llt' )

a9.7

Lap Joint

/A

69,3

520

S.R.90" Elbow

l.<1

Slip-On

/.'ll
tA)
,N

6Yz

,J

250

Screrved or

400

63.s

45.9

5%

Iron I

densitY

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS

WEIGHTS OF PIPING MATERIALS

42"

o.fr.

42"

prpq

Water-l,bs,/Ft

lr)
L.R. 90' Elbow

UI

tr2

S.R.

!0

Elbow

[^

d.u

{l}
L:J

-f\
tr-:-\_u
Tmperatur.e Range'F
E5,,i

I'J

Nlagnesia
CalciLrm

z
F

om. Thicl., In.

Combin a

tion

tz

FiberSodirlm

Boldfa(e tyPe i" weieht, in


nounds. I iqhtface tYPe beneaih \eighl is weight factor
for insulation.

ffi
rlTT\*
z qFL
I lvl Weldlng Neck

nesses and weights

L4
z1

L.R. 90" Elbo*i

tP

.!t

ll-rl

1.<n

@
fi1
| ,-1Y

Flanged Bonnet
Clobe or Angle

of

combr-

r<[J
cu.It

foot and the ouier layer ai


11 lts cubic foot.
I nsulation \!eights include
allowances for wire, cemen!,

canvas. bands and Paint, but


not sDecial surface finishes
To fin,t the weight of coverinE on flanqes, valves or fittirigs, multiply the weigtrt factur by the weight Per loot or
covering used on stralght PlPe.
Valve weiEhts aIe aPProxlmate. When possible- obtain

weishts irom manuracturer.


Cast iron valve weights are
for flanEed end valves; steel

$'eiohts iorweldi ns end valves.

T=u-rJ
* 16 Ib

mate_

nation covering are the sums


of the inner layer of diatoma_
ceous e3rth at 21 lbs/cubrc

?.

ol

"ilicate
1bs/cubiu foot. The listed thick-

rfl;:::is

sDecific thicknesses

rials. Insulation weights are


based on 85ti magnesra ano
at 1l
hvdrous calcitrm

N+S

Tnsulation thicknesses and


weights are based on averag
conditions and do not- cons-trtute a recommendatlon ror

Plessure Seal

Bonnet-Globe
density.

A'il flanged fitting, fianged


'.,alve and llange weights. Include the Proportrona I welght
of bolts or studs to make
all joints.

uP

197

ITT GRINNI]LI, PIPING DI'SIGN AND IINGI\D!]IIING


THERMAL EXPANSION OF PIPE MATERIALS

^l
*l

;l

;
a

z
I
I

F]

? -I
---t
:^ F-{

;l

.-l

al
tl
i6
.J

;t

i
do
U)

>o
:L-

e^

61/;,

INCHES PER FOOT

HAN(iERS'\ND SUI'PURIS
CHARTS AND

TABLES

INSULATION WEIGIIT FACTORS

To determire the leight per foot of any piping

insulation, use the pipe size and nominal insulation


thickness to find the insulation l'eight factor F in the
chart shorvn belorv. Then multiply l? by the densiiy
of the insulation in pounds per cubic foot'

i'_ominal
Pipe Size
1

r'/1

tll
2

2r/l
3

3%
4

l)
6
8

--t':-\

1 l-^

.057
.051
.066
.080

.10

.091
.10
.15
.13

.19

-n-1
,1

.1,1

.21

.36

.27

.31

.40

.30
.38
.37

.39

.,13

t2

.50

14

.5r

9.211b/tr.

Thirl,n'ss

1%"

.4ti

.70

.44

.68
.66

.7E

.63

.77

.96

r.04
r.13

.97
1.10

1.20

.?\

.88

.38

.64

.83

.97

1.36

.93

t.t2

1.17
1.32

1.07
1.11

1.23
1.34
1.49

1.52

1.7 4

18

.ti-1

20

.70

.96

24

.83

1.13

.80

.88
.90

l.0r

t.21
r.37

1.t2

1.50
1.77

1.23

6"

5%"

.83
.81

.,)d

.6ri

,
I

.59

.34

.68
.70
.78
.87

.57

,48

.39

.17

10

12

1"

.23

.15
.17

.22
.29

.30

3"

2t/r"

.25

.17

is .77

\ominal In.ul"'ioq

.16

.11

Erample. For 4" PiPe rvith 4tl nominal thickness


rl the insulation densit'Y is
Insulftlon, | =.1i.
then the insulation rveight
foot,
per
cubic
pounds
12

1.34
1.75

1.79

2.10

1.99

1.99
2.07

2.50
2.62
2.88
3.14

3.40
3.92

1.74
1.92

2.0r
2.2r

2.29
2.51

2.24
2.34
2.58
2.82

2.09
2.44

2,40
2.80

2.73
3.16

3.06
3.54

1.81

1.ti4

1.76

ROD
LOAD CARRYING CAPACITIES OF THREADED HOT ROLLED STEEI,
A.-36
CONFORMING TO ASTM

Nominal Rod

Diameter, in.
Root Area of
Thread, sq. in.
Max. Safe Load,
lbs. at Rod
Temp. of 650"F

Vz

.068

1/z

3/+

.126 .202 .302

.419

.552

1r/s

1l+

7Yr

.69 3

.889

1.293

13/+

1.'i 44

21/4

21/2

2.300

3.023

3.?19

4.619

3Y4

3h

5.621

6.720

?.918

20?00 21200 33500 41580 50580 60,18C 11240


610 1130 1810 2',tt0 3770 4960 6230 8000 11630 15?00

199

ITT GIIINNI']LI,

P]PING D]']SI(IN AND IINTIINDEITING

DEFLECTION OF EMPTY PIPE,


STANDARD WEIGHT, CAUSE D
BY LOAD BETWEEN SUPPORTS_

BASED ON SINGLE SPA.N WITH


FREE ENDS.

^,#++

w.lVElGHt ll{ Poul{OS PER LlflEAR lt{oH


0 = oiiilrce BETwEEI{ HAt{GERs lll ll{cxEs

= OOULUS OF ELASTICITY
I - o EIt oF |I{ERTIA

l!r!
I

DEFLECTION

INCHES

r*I$,"**i:rft*iJjjsLr"fri{fu:trliiJif"{}k.;r,"i:';i#h1iiirl:ii;}:}xf*}i$""l;f,{lt.l:fi"i;:fsiiiiLrili"'1"#Jffi
tor dlainage.

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS

BENDING STRESS

IN EMPTY

PIPE,

STANDARD WEIGHT, CAUSED BY LOAD

BETWEEN SUPPORTS - BASED ON


SINGLE SPAN WITH FREE ENDS,

^
W

WEIGHT

IN

,[ . orsrarcr

1!

POUNDS PER

LINEAL

INCH

BETTvEEN HANGERs rN rNcHEs

Srr = SECTION MoDULUS

LU
LU

LL
I

z.
o-

MAXIIVUM BENOING STRESS

PSI

201

ITT GITINNIII,I,

I'IPING

DT']SICIN

AND ]'NGINEEIIIN(i

BENDING STRESS IN WATER FILLED


PIPE, STANDARD WEIGHT, CAUSED

BY LOAD BETWEEN SUPPORTS


BASED ON SINGLE SPAN WITH

FREE ENDS.

"=
W = WEIGHT
-E-

'

lN

wle

POUNOS PER Lll{EAR lttcH

OISTA'{OE SETTVEEN HANGERS

Sm' SECTIOX

II{

INOHS

ITIODULUS

F
I

z
3

e E sps
202

a:333
;
;
o oo
;

MAXIMUM

BENDING

F@

STRESS- PSI

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS

MINIMUM DISTANCE TO FIRST RIGID HANGER

, : \-i@;s:lo,ooopsi
---- 1ss

"

I'ipe Size
DeflccI

r/7

t).1

2k

3t.,

80

1.5

50

5.5

0.0

65

73

0.5

70

7;

3. ir

c.5

10.5

tl

'/+

8.0

90

rJ.5

10.4]

11

.5

13

l1

tl

t2

I3.5

15

16

t2

13.5

l5

16. 5

9.0

10

.5

1%

10

11

rt,

ll

t2 .5

135

l5

1r;

t2

13.5

1l .5

l6

13

14. 5

15.5

t7

2\
21/,

r5.5

3t'

2+i

205

23

26

2S

2l

22 .5

2t,

29

32

29

20

22

23.5

2iJ

30.5

2!5

32

.5

26

.5

27 .5

29

25

27 .5

29.5

38

29

.5

31.5

.{0.5

20.3

20 .5

22

21.5

27

2t .5

23

26

2E

24.5

27

30

325

39.5

.5

33

285
36

.5

{1 .5

39.5

435

37

38.5

40

52

47

.5

01

33.5

.5

39.5

3t.5

.11

43.5

37

39

12

.1.1.5

47

41 5

425

4C

55

29

36

5()

19.5

25

34.5

4-l

.17.5

5{t

50

49

52.5

5l

55

1E.5

43

23.5

37

385

25 .5

.5

23.5

11 5

28

39

20

17

27 .5

10

2t)

19

30

22 .5

26.5

23

.5

20

22

21

26

10

2l

t9

22

22

19

21

2l

305

22

21 5

20

27

20

5%

18. 5

24.5

18

20.5

16 5

22

17

I3

21

15

19

16

195

23

4!'t

i5

28.5

2l

IE

1.1

1.1

25

I'J.5

t2

l3

17

.5

10

11 5

10

23

\7

l2

95

20.5

16

1.7

3.5

195

ll.5

55.5

61

5g

63

66

63

67

70.5

t-l

75

60

Li3

67

ii3

66

70.5

66

69.5

09

72.5

79

83

77

.5

82

86.5

203

rTT GRINNELL

PIPING DESIG{

Al',rD',

uxgxxlltt}ig

BEAM DINIENSIONS
TW

ta
:a
ta
L(a

r-'v\n

r"';11:'i:ttr'i;:r"":

s.r

3
.25

5.0
6.0

I'h
4

5.{
'1.25

l; I

13.0

2,h

9.8

t2.25

l{.75

I
9

14.?5

3y1

12.5

314

t7.25

3%

.375

.375

zt\

r3?s

I3.4

2%

15.0

zyz

3?5

-1;F
12

30.0

"" \

i\"t_

.438

51L

5'/r

.688

5%

.688

15

18

25.0
30.0

:.

33.9

3'A

40.0

3'/,

50.0

3'/.

42.7
\
4s.8

I
sr.s
sg I|

s0
.813

20
.938
.625

4
4

24
.625

I
s0.0

r0o.0

4%

ros.e

{Y.

120.0

I|

.8?5

7%

i;i

7 !/.

r%
8

103

1623

I688
I 748

12%

;s i;r
7f, I

rrta
.465
540

.516

.64r
.576

.64I
.606

.736
.?96
.856
.921
.986
106
1.236

1486
1716

.383
.453

lb%l

'\2 |
12 |
I4v, I
l[v' |
rqyt |

ll4

.400

.6?

J
\
Br. \

8%

8v,

tt1/

1248

lg le I
4s l8 |
s:lsl6sg
tjl lru
r,
I+ Il6s
llo I

Ll25

1 563

l3:
18 l;?

868
.998

3
3

87

l5%

fl

.808

I 106 I tzy.
I rzo I tz't'
I 133 I 12%
lzYl

74
?8
84

2ll

.428

9i:

;;;
87s

I l:: lllll *;

.JlJ
.528
.593

7s.e

873

.s63

iii

|
l4o l8
lrsso la8'l.
I I
ls3 llo
ls8
lro
I 6s I l2
12 | 72 \tz
l?s l12%
I 8s
I l2r.
I s2 I r2".
| 99 lrzvl

38

t4% |

I ;;l?
| sor
I qs1:
cn I ?,/. L628

::i:

I ztg l tsz.
228 l ls7, l
I 237 ls% I
7
|

433

lsr

Pd {r ' lldns' lot llonee

,^ | se jei,J
'"
ffi I I ?i iiit i
|
Iz8L8tI

Itox
I
ro7.

Il2

w.iq ht

.340

I i;;:
I lo%
I loz. I
I ro% I

I 16I I

20.7

t2

378

5th

I5

3os

-ln\av'
l3r36 l6'/'
6%

l5%

40.8

2%l

25.0

.50

35.0

50.0

20.0

72
77
89
100

25.4

3s.0

.438

ll:

66
.438

23.0

t0

.456

zr \ 5r4
25 \ s',/,
I 2e I s%
133 l8
J3s l8
l4s l8
l4e llo

at

\_

10 1:1

18.4

'37s

""
,r, \

oea
eoa

r3

20.0

20.o

IO

i5.3

433
4e3

21A

.375

!*1,"1
,%
I
I
I
ltr^l,,l_
r5.3

I8.5
25

I
I I .3s8
I zs I e'2, 1 .lo:
181
^ l3t
b
lss le I ssa
Iao IaT.
I
I ra I e'2.
1
I se I e'2.
1
e'2.
I ez I I s:g

313

":,
2

2%

rz I sv. I
-l I zo
I sz.
2a 67'

.3

l0.s

7.7

10.0

l1/r

8.2

2'h

s.5

9.0

.25

75 I

3'I3

67

2%

I
I

I lle I la% I s38


\ r27 ta/,
I ss8
I 136 t41/. II 063
142 l5% I 063
tso ts,a L I izs
I lss I ls.^ 1188
I l5'/. I 1248
',r+ iL tez
rre ls% I l3l3
184 ls% I 378
I438
I I93 1 rs%
zo2 ls% I I.s03

*l::' ;::l: *t*' !"tt{ *l'""' *tl:

4-l
l1/z

1lb

\n

Americdn
Sionddrd
chonncls

,omi^dl

.718
.?18

.774
.688
.748

.813

199
,)r \ 82
-^

I
I
I

.686
.751

.83I

.83I

ll../.

.9Il

th

.99 r

8,A

.615

at/.

.685
.740

tt

at/.

s6

I
I

lI2

I3

\27

I3

taz

t3,/r

176
184

tll
.6ss

I
9

.795
.935
.865
.985

L095
.682
.772

Irn
loo

I
)l |
I

1Z

\)o

1Z

.885

120

12'/t

.930
.900

I|

l:3
150

l{

.872

L020

t4,/t

l.t3s

Llo \ .747
llo | .s27
lr{
llo%l .932
27
ras lla I .e?s
160 l14 I l.o7s
rz7 l I4', I Lt90
I lo8 I lo% .?so
I It6 I lo% ij .8?s
I 124 I to7, .s3o
?nll3zlloT'il.m
'- I rrz lts I lo6s
I leo Ils I ltss
| 2lo I lsY. I l3l3
e4
roz

SUPPORTS

HANGERS

F
trl
ulo

LL^
I

z.a
o-7
U)

FORCE 'P" BASED


N SPANS OBTAINED
IN CHART ON PAGE
168 AND SCH 40 PIPE
FOR OTHER SCHEDULES
OF PIPE, MULTIPLY "P"
BY THE RATIO OF THE
MODULUS OF THE
SCHEDULE PIPE TO THE
SECTION MODULUS OF SCH
40 PIPE.

5
o

o !o(oo
a (t
o o oooo
o
o o o oooo

o o {o('o
o o oooo

FORCE

lbs.

x :

333333
a a 3a 33:333

ITT GITINNELI,

PIPING DT]SIGN AND ENGINI'EIIIN(I

THERMAL EXPANSION OF PIPE MATERIALS


INCHES PER FOOT
Intermediate
Temp.

"F

PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM


(Standard Barometer 14 696 Psi)

Gauge Pressure'

Alloy Steels
(57 Thru

Copper

Brass

Aluminum

lb/sq in.

-.0373
-.0310
-.0244
-.uL Io

97. Cr Mo)

,.0275

-200

-.0231
-.0183
-.0132

-IDU

-100

-50
0

50

0?87

0247
0190
0137

-.0079
-.0022

-.0081
-.0023

-.0104
-.0030

70

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

100

.0022

.0034

.0035

.0046

150

,0058

0091

,0093

0123

200
250

,009 4

0151

.0L52

0200

.0132

0208

.0214

.0283

300

.0171

.0267

.027 6

.0366

.0210

0327

0340

,0452

.0250

03

88

.0405

.0539

.02e2

,0449

.0472

.0628

.0335

.0512

.0540

.0717

350
400
450
500

I
i
|I

550

0379

0574

.0610

.0810

600

0424

0639

.0680

.0903

650

0469

,0703

.0753

700

.0514

.0?68

.0826

750

,0562

0834

.0902

800

.0610

.0900

.09? 8

850

.0658

.0967

.1056

900

.0707

.1037

.1135

.1216
.1298

950
1000

56

.1105

,0806

.r\75

1050

.U6DA

1100

.0905

1150

0952

07

1200

1000

1250

,1053

1300

.1106

1350

.-LIOO

1400

.1205

10

20
25
30
40

60
?0

80

90
95
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500

600
650
?00
?50
800
850
900
950
1000
1050

GI,]N]i]

RAI, T.\RLES

TEMPERATI'RE BY COLOR
In moderate difiused daYlight

930'Ir laint

tiio.l' Salmonl
1630'F Darl' Orangee
I725"F Oruge

1275"F l{edium 0}rcrrY


1137;i'l' Ohert 1'
1.1J0'F I} ight CircrrY

Red

107;-r'| lllood llcd


1175'F Dalk CherrY

r Sealing

1830'F

Lemon

197;'t' Light Ycllorv


2200'! N hite

! Frce Seeling Ileat

Ileat.

BTU CONTENT AND THEORETICAL AIR REQUIREMENTS


FOR COMBUSTION OF VARIOUS FUELS
Air lt{xluircd

Coal and Coke

for 0omllusl ion,


cu [t l)ef
lb fuel
125.7

BTU
per llr
12,500
13.500
8,300
12,900

l.4ti .5

Gas (Continued)
Natural

(l&s,0hio

X"iu.rt C*, P--rvLvatria.

OilGas...
RetorL 0o.rl G!,s.....

. '

1025

10.70

1025

11

.1.

510

5.00

t1. I

Fuel OiIs

146.8

RTU
per srl

I}'f U

Dcr cu lt

(i,orv )ict

.. '.
Anthracite Produccr Gas
Bilurninous I'rodu(rcl- (;rs. . . . . . .
Bluc \\'ltcr (ias.
Cirburl'ted \!xter Grj
Cohe Oven Grs.
)i rtural Gss, California . .

-..
N.rtural Gas, llid-ContiDentrl ..
.

for Cornbustion'
cu ft aif Per
cu ft gas

'195

320

gal fuel

226

1.18,500

1468
1498

11.26

127,800

.05

1370
1395
1.131

L52,000

4.37
5.19

1085
E70

Air ltequired
foI C.lombustion,
cu ft :rir per
1312

1.21

1+0

280

91

130,000
138,500
111,000
1+5,000

125

.70

51o

79,500
135,200

9.17

I{EAT LOSS FROM I{ORIZONTAL BARE STEEL PIPES


li'fL pcr Hour per Linear !'oot lmbient Air Tetnpe|rture 80' F' be used'
may

pipes the follorving lel:iliorr


To calculate the loss in fuej auc tu trcat loss irrrougn rrorzo.t.r U"re

Fuellostpe]'hou]'()b,gal,orcuft):ffiiencyo|Boiler

Temperaiure Difference

Nominal
Pipc Size,

820

7r6

1,013
1,252
1,565

30,1

206

373

884

255

4ti.1

1,103

115

289

526

1.11

355
123
508

6,r7

3tl

228

310
364

612
742
920

464

1178

24

581

167

202

16
18
2A

394

r36

55
67
82
102

168

8
10
12
11

Pipe to Atr

.r00

inchcs

'F

I
i rl7
|
1699 I
1810 |

030

4E3

1,,+82

2,139

2,851

6,04.1

6,002
7,517

5,4'18
6,761

6,894
8,562

8,673
10,700

8, t-11

10,317
12,507

12,90,1

i'1

3,61'J

4,C't5

2,231

1,373

5,850

2,533

3,61tt

.1,968

6,6.19

8,7

2,E36

4,051

5,570

7,458

9,7E0

11,222
12,599

3,1i2

4,965
5,870

6,83.1

9,16r

12,022

8,075

10,8-18

1,1,248

7,570
9,350

10,'1.13

11,O24

18,.136

t2,912

22,a33

15,213
10,718

r7,355
20,505
22,330

2{i,993
29,1t'2

3.1,89r

38,059

37,525
44,402
4a,352

25,439
28,60,r
31,638
37,817

33,551
37,7.t1
,11,768
,19,955

43,346
18,771
54,056
64,620

55,091
61,953
68,738
a2,244

1,853

1493
1691
1892

4,100

1,780
2,199

3,217

5,280

2iil,8

.1318

6,512

3137

5086

7 ,tJ7

5
E,388

11,031

82.1

6309

0,5.10

13,682

18,949

925

707tj

15,368

1021
1213

7815

10,70E
t 1,E38
15,652

17,003

21,297
23,540

20,253

24,t17

9303

4,778

2,967
3,722

3,869
4,809

2,639
3,186

12.10

3118

3,1r5

1,242
5,260
6,330
7,6ii3

1,5-16

3506

729

2,275

t2,o22

3,882

2,469
3,064
3,805

1,929
2,391

1,022

1,252

2169

671

1,835

3,013

841
1036

2312

1,120
1,381
1,709

9,863

,1,E25

15,651

1.1,236

17,822

15,988

20,022

15,500

19,680

19,763

23,317

24,659
29,267

23,801
29,500

30,261

37,955
47,089
55,7 42
60,7 47

6S,237

77,a87
86,364
103,342

207

ITT GRINNEI,L PIPING DESIGN AND DNC'iI\T]ERIN(i


WIRE AND SHEET-METAL GAUGES
(Dianeters ard ihick

esses

in decim&l pafis of an inch)


U.S. standard
gsugc for sheet

Birmi qham flre


(-B \\'.C l
or \\ ashburn, rd saux.
-(l,rr steel \!ire
St,rPL $ LIe ga,ug,.

stccll

0.460
0.410
0.365
0.325

0.3938
0.3625

0.289
0.258

0.2830
0.2625

o.229
0.204
0.182

.3310

0.3065

0.2,137

0.2253
0.2070

0..169

0..$E

0. -l0ti

0.454
0.425
0.380
0.340

0.375
0 .3.+,1

0.312

0.284

o.227
0.219

0.259
0.238

0.207

0.300

o.212

0.220

0.204

0.203
0.180
0.165
0. 1'18

0.201
0.199
0.197

0.180
0.178

0.1196
0.1046
0.0897
0.0747
0.0673

0.175

0.062
0 .05{i

0.0598
0.0538

0.168

0.0,178

0.161

0.050
0.0438
0.0375

0.0418
0.0359

0.032
0.028
0.025
0.022
0.020

0.157
0.155
0.153
0.151
0. 148

0.0344
0.0312
0.0281
0.0250
0.0219

0.0329
0.0299
0.0269
0.0239
0.0209

0.0181
0.0173
0.0162
0.0150

0.146
0.1,13

0.0188
0.0172
0.0156

0.134

0.01.11

0.0t4d

0.018
0.016
0.014
0.013
0.012

o.\27

0.0125

0.0179
0.0164
0.0149
0.0135
0.0120

0.010
0.009
0.008
0.007
0.005

0.120
0.115
0. 112
0.110
0.108

0.0109
0.0102
0.0094
0.0086
0.00?8

0.0105
0.0097
0.0090

0.0063
0.0056

0.0132
0.0128
0.0118
0.0104
0.0095

0.0050
0.0045
0,0040
0.0035
0.0031

0.0090
0.0085
0.0080
0.0075
0.0070

0.004

0.106

0.0070
0.0066
0.0062

0.0067
0.0064
0,0060

10

0.128
0.114
0.102

1I

0.0s1

0.144

0.1920
0. 1770
0.1620
0.14E3

0.1s4

0.1350

0.134

0.191

to

0.120
0. 109
0.095
0.083
0.072

0.188
0.185

0.057

0.1205
0.1055
0.0915
0.0800
0.0720

17
18
19

0.051
0.045
0.040
0.036
0.032

0.0625
0.0540
0.0475
0.0410
0.0348

0.065
0.058
0.035

0.0285
0.0253
0.0226
0.0201
0.0179

0.0317
0.0286
0.0258
0.0230
0.0204

0.0159
0.0142
0.0126
0.0113
0.0100
0.0089

0.081
0.072

0.064

22

2+
25
26
27
2a
30

0 .0080

33
35
30

38
39

{}
41

42
43

44
46
48
49

50

0.2391
o.2242
0.2092

0.125
0.109
0.094
0.078
0.070

2l

0.281
0.266
0.250
0.234
0.219

0.150
0.141

0.162

20

lb

0.1943
0.1793
0.1644
0.1495
0.1345

ll

0.500

0.4900
0..1615
0..1305

.180

per cu

(for steel wire)

.0071

0.0066
0.0062
0.0060
0.0058
0.0055
0.0052
0.0050
0.0048
0.0046
0.0044

0.04s
0.0.12

0. 182

o.t72
0.16,1

0.13'

0.103
0.101

0.0s9
0.097
0.095
0.092
0.088
0.085
0.081
0.079
0.077
0.075

o.072
0.069

0.203

0.1t8

Q.Ii2

0 .0082

0.0075

GDNERAL TABLES

DRITL SlZ ES
\unrl,rer and Letter Sized Drills

rli,.,
7g
78
77

73

7l
70
69
68

ti7

iiti
65

64
63
62

r'

.257
.201

.26ti

38

.I015

.0i80

.00025,1

37

.1040

.00810
.00850
.00893

.00950
.00968
.01002

.000i65
.00020I

.0200

.00031+

3ti

. 1005

.0210
.0225
.0210
.0250
.0260

.0003+6
.000398
.000453

35

.1100

.000531

.0280
.02925
.0310
.0320
.0330

sq rn,

.l110
.1130

33

3I

.1200

.0l130

.000615
.000672
.000755
.000805
.00085ri

30
29

1285

2E

.1'105

27

.14.10
.1,170

.01298
.01152
.01550
.01629
.01ti97

.0350
.0360
.0370
.0380
.0390

.000s62
.001018
.00107i;

25
21

.1360

ztJ

.0r055

.1t6U

.000'191

K
L
XI
N

.302
.316

.323
.332

t7

.1695
.1730

1ri

.1770

.02.161

.1170
.1236
.1278

15

.1800
.1820
.1850
.1890
.1910

.o2512
.02ri03
.02685

.413

.13-10

.00385
.00419

.1935

.029'1

1960

.0302

.0015.1

rs90

.0311

46
45

.0820

.00528

.0E60

.005E0

.0890
.0935
.0960

.00622
.00686
.00723

I{
L3

t2

Ll

.00"184

.00515

t{i10

It

.023,18

.2010
.2040

.0316
.0327

.2055
.2090
.2130

.0332
.0343
.0356

0.0r9
0. 112

0.125

0.13E

0. 151
0.164

8
9

0.t77

28
26
22
20

it

t6

l4

Dianleier,
lnch

Threads
per inch

1.1

o.212

16

0.268

.294
0.320

8
8

0.372

18

24

ijv_2r*,
!s's

2r+',

frurn
to B,

.11I6

TAP DRILLS FOR ANSI


PIPE TIIREADS

l3

20

Lo

.0409

0.190
0.203
0.216

t0
1l
t2

Lr'-lz;-r',
I ,"s irom

.038'1

.2280

Number

r6{ s frorLI

L(" to 1r+

.0280s

.22t0

Threads
per inch

Ltj

.02E05

AMERICAN NATIONAL
WOOD SCREWS

.2s5

()

.386
.397
.404

.0700
.0730
.0760
.0785
.0810

.0020
.0660
.0ri83
.0716
.0784

.290

.02258

.00213
.00238
.00278
.00317
.00352

.2E1

Sizes Av.rilable

.0601

.1063

.0520
.0550
.0595
.0635
.0670

0 .086

.05E0

.368

.00170

.2i2

.001.15

.0519
.0535
.0556

.02039
.02162

l8

rncn

I9

0.060
0.073

0+'J

.339
.318
.358

.15.10

.00 r 13.1

Diametet,

.0{00

.0820
.086ti
.0901
.0050
.1005

t620

. 1660

Number

l_r14..

.01755
.01812
.01863
.01935
.01985

.1495

4I

.O0t'77

20

48

.250

.00755

.001257
.001320
.001385

50
49

.0-r75

.u

.0080
.0995

.0400
.0410
.0420
.0430
.0465

53
52
51

.216

40
39

2l

55

.0.1,10

.000143

.00r195

56

.0430

.238
.21'2

.0135
.0115
.0160

.1570
.1590

60
59

.231

Size

22

til

;n.

Area,
sq lD.

ul.
EO

I)id.,

Fractional Drill
-{rea,
sq xr.

-_.
DIze

Size of

Pipe Tap
%
%
%

t2
t1

l0

%
%

Size of

Tap Drill
'tY3z

|r42
234

riln

r%

1v

rr4

214

r%

lztiz

209

TAP DRILL SIZES FOR IINIFIED AND


AMERICAN SCREW THREADS
Str(rss Arca,

.000)

80

.073)
073)
.0Etj)

64

2
2

0E6)

NI'
(,1

Nt'

4U

45

3
3
4
4

.099)
.009)

{5

NC)

56
40

NC

5
5

Nl'

,1,1

.1.12)

.18

NF

4l

.125)

40

NC

37

0.

36
33

0. 1065

.lt2)

10

t2
t2
12

NC)

r38)

:.r38)
i. rii4)

,10

NF

32
36

NC

(.1$0;
(.190.
( .2l rj.

21

i.l6'rl
10

42

A.F

.r25)

..

0505

0.0ri25
0.0730
0.0730
0.0820
0.0E00
0.0935

lla

NF

53

NC

72
56
b+

0.0.1ti9

(.2rtj

23

32

NC
N.t'

20

0.1{05
0. t5{u
0.l610

2+
2a

NIT

1J

0.1770
0. iiJ50

U)i

20
28
32
18
2.t
32

t!

t1
%

5/s
5/s

,k

N.U.t'

UNO

UNF
N

]t!'

UNC
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GENERAL TABLES

SAFE LOADS FOR ALLOY STEEL

CHAIN SLINGS,IN POUNDS

Chain
Size,

Inches

1/R

Single

Double Sling

Branch
Sling -

Horizontal Angle

at 90o angle

at 600 angle

at 45o angle

3,250
6,600

5,650

11

,400

4,550
9,300

900

11

zso

19,500

15

s/R

16,500
23,000

28JsO

28,500
39,800
49,800

23,300
32,500
40,600

38,75 0

67,100

1.1/8

44,5 00

77 9oO

54,800
63,000

r-rl4

57,500

99,500

81 ,000

1-3l8

67,000

I i 6,000

94,000

1-112

80,000

38,000

1-3l4

100,000

112,500
140,000

18

at 30o angle

-[lAlal^

r12

'7

t't2,000

32s0

6,600

11

,250

16,500

23,000

28Jso
38,75 0

44,500
5?,500
67,000
80,000
100,000

Reporter'
and
Additional data can be found in OccuPational Ffetv
{aJth
u'r
wastungton'
'
Ailairs'
of
Nalional
publisned by The Bureau

zrr

SAFE LOADS FOR IMPROVED PLOW STEEL


WIRE ROPE SLINGS. IN TONS (2OOO LBS.)

Trao-Leg Btidle or Basket Hitch

Single Leg

Digtueter
(in.)

MS

HT

MS
6

3B
112

5la
314

7la
1

1la

1.3
2.3
3.6
5.1
69
9.0
1i.0

12

1.2

2.2
3.4

2S

4.9
6.6
8.5

4.2
5.5

10.o

9.0

3.0

72

1114
1

3la

1 112

13t4
2

2114

*lf

13
15
18
25
32
,rO

14
17
20
27
34
43

slinss are used

to

d: il;.H;#i;"';pf

1l
13
16
21

28
34

MS

HT

MS

HT

MS

HT

Wire Rope Core (Illy'RC)


X 19 Ctdssifrcation Collstruction with lttdependent

92
1.6
25
3.6
48
6.3
79
6

HT

0 Degrees

45 Degees

0 Degees

Vertical*

Choker

Veftical

Rope

92
1.6
2.5
3.6
43
6.3
79

92
1.6

2.5
3.6

4.4
6.3

79

25
45
72
1o.o
14p
18.0
225

2.4 2.4
4.4 43
63 6.0
9.8 aA
l3O 110
17.O 14.0
20.O 18.0

2.3
4.0
62
a1
12.0
6.0
19.0
,f

2.1
38
59
8.5

29

15.0

121

1',1.0
17.O

35
52
73
9.5
16.0

1B
3.3
5.1
7.1
99
13.o
't6.0

1:t
3.1
48
69
9.3
12.O
140

7A

h)ire Rope Care (IhtRc)


X 37 Azssification Construction with lndependent

9J
12
14
19
24
30

9.7
12
14
19
24
30

91
12
14
19

24
30

28 26
34 30
40 36
54 50
686/.56
86 80

22
26
32
42
68

24 23
22623
35 3t
47 43
59 55
74 69

be.used to plolect the


handle loads wlth sharp cornets. pads oI saddles should
be used'
should
ratins
t'itch
cr'o*"'
iittre raoius oi"be-n[ ii srnal"'l

19

2a
36
48
59

Iope' The

20 18
24 21
29 25
38 35
4a 45
61 57
radius

13
23
3,6
5.0
7!
9.O

1.7

23
42
53
10.0
13.0

1.O

14
17
20
27
34
43

t6
1A

23
30

40
4a

,lts

-:-

12

22

34
49
65
8.5

10.0

13
15
18

25
32

40

of bend should not be smaller than five

"

S = Socket or swaged terminal attachment


MS = Mechanical sleeve attachment
HT = Hand-tucked splice attachment
Tableisbasedonadesignfacloroftiv,slinganglesfolmedbyoneleganda'verticalLinethroughthecranehook,andrrnifofmloading.rolthleelegbddle!i *o t* rt* teg bridle slings' multiplv bv 2'0'
mutriply safe load l.,rn!,, ,o, ,*o ,"g o""li ffiJi'l
Additional data can be found in occupltional safety

a.nd

National Mfairs, washington' D'


Health Reporter, published by The Bureau of

.:
.:
:r.

_F

{IENEI]

\I,

'IABLES

SAFE LOADS FOR EXTRA IMPROVED


PLOW STEEL WIRE ROPE SLINGS'
IN TONS (2000 LBS.)
Two-Leg Bri(lle or Basket Hitch
0 Degees

X I9 C.lassificatiotl Construciott

1.5
2:1
4,1
5'9
8.0
10.0
13.0

'2
-3
-3

1.4
2.5
3.9
5'6
7.6
9.8
12.O

13
2.3
3.5

4.4
6.4
8.3
10.0

1.',l
19
29
4.1
5.6
72
9.1

1.1
19
23
4.1
5.6
72
9.1

1.1
',19

29
4.1

5.6
7.2
9.1

3.o
5.4
a2
12.O
16,0
20.0
26.0
6

16 15
19 18
23 21
31 28
103732
49 46
T -:-

are useal

24
40

11
13
16
21
2a
35

to handle loads with shalp

; .;#;ilh";;;iittre
- ;lcket or

13
15
18

swaged

raaius or

rcni

11
13
16
21
2a
35
col

11

13
',16

21

2A
35

ne$, pads ot

2a 25
5.0 4,6
78 73
11.0 9.6
15,O 13.0
20.0 17.0
24.O 20I

23
4J
7.1
100
14.O
17.O
23p

2.4
4.3
6A
9.7
13.0
17.O
219

2.3

4S
6.1

8.3
11.0

143
17.0

2.1
38
5.8
8.3
11.0
14.0
18.0

1,0 1 a
3.5 3.3
55 49
71 6.8
11,O 9,0
14.O 124
17 .O 14.O

'f.5
21
4.1
59
8.O
10.0
13.0

1.4 1.3
2-5 2.3
33 3.5
5.6 43
7.6 6,4
9.8 8.3
12.O 10.0

23
27
33
44
57
69

21
25
30
40
52
65

16
19
23
31
40
49

15
18
21
2a
37
46

X 37 Classification Constructton

32
38
46
62
80
98

30
36
42
56
74
92

26
30
36
48
64
80

sadalles sho uld be used

2a 26
33 31
4[3631
54 49
@6455
85 80

23

26
42
69

to plolect the Iope' The latlius ol b en'l

sho

la
21

25
35

45
57

uld not be smallel

24
32

40

is smatler, a choker hitch ratins should be used'

terminal attachment

leg
line thlough the clane hook' al1d unifolm loadine' FoI thle
on a alesign factor ot tive, sling
-sffis angles folmeal by one leg and a-vertical
by
2,0.
multiplv
bi t 5 ana for iour leg bridte slings,
*= -t ,"i"-f*i fi",itr-f"r two leg bridli
Bureau of National Affairs, washington' D c'
,!r-:.:nal
found in occupational safety and Health Repoder, published by The

1A

tha[ five times

{ . !rechanical sleeve attachment


- - -and'tucked sPlice attachment
.rLo

13
15

dle slings'

baseal

clata can be

2L3

IJ

..1

(-)

<r:

v-).

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x66;
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ITif (iR]\\ I!I,I, PII'I\G

DI|SIGN

FOR DIAMETERS
AREAS AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES
IN UNITS AND FRACTIONS
Circum.
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Lr ll53 Irl
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%
%

5.3153
15.5116

%
ri

]|118 .4')
lr 51 .20

tn

l18.I90

118.665

Lr$ 119 147

l8

%
%

%
)5

4.9226
5 .1r89

1316

,h

r.,

%
%

rYra

4.2201

ul
.".,
,1

t\6'|17.257 11.7262
117.721

.k

lrl
%

,t

rs l1t5,r7

3s lt40 50

tyt6
\%6

tl

,/:

% 114.607
% 115.033

nul

ot

12

:tt

38 l10t 62

31 1108 13
7s l1t0.75

'l:

) ''l

%
%
%

1346

112.566

Y.,9

8131

1 .0095

rs/ra

y* le .saz

lr.0 32I

l1t ,+I6
% llr .7e3
Li16
lr2 r77

li1:1,

Il | 95.

t8

r3

2W

t\

.1919

lri

t1

,zl

10..1065

2 1 9.621

li

l6

78.

| 80 5l
182 5l
I t4.511

rr

:;l

2y',n

rYt6

::

,d

,l
111

ii6

?A

1188 6ll+8 6e1


% 1191 751{11.0871
% llrl.83l{9 -1t01

lt
%
%

GENERAL TABLES

AREAS AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES FOR DIAMETERS


IN UNITS AND FRACTIONS (Continued)
Dia.I

Dir.

ill0

,\
'ln

t1
5,A

E2

5,llL00

8r6

861101 .31
823.21 101 .

)1

1.1

,rr.,-

:".

tn
I

1|1

lr
|,z
lx

t(

1r7r

1.!

33

\1

Eri8 31110+.

871 E5 10,t

trt7e.

39

11194.

1a

t81

;/t

1t225

:'r
901 .261106.421

7.1

Jl241

t25.271

5'10
1599.

60 .221

79 o71

160 614

163,t

16,13

1652.

r44

51

1707 .4

l|l],2

l]

41

l01l.

,1

!)82.8,11111.1

ti

tA

I,A

1017 0

lli'\,.

1025 0
1032.1

li;

03c.2

t4 1046.3
,1 1053 5
% 1060.7
% 1068 0
1075 2
1082 5
1097.1

',

%
%

711

111 910

010.8

12

184.961

12E.41

tn

t4

680.0
16E9.l 145.601

s lt28o.3

1A

975 9l 110

t%
|;:

15ti.

1661.
1670.

1125(l

t.i

tA

1572

11

,4

29

)1
%

t4

15ti{

1626

1233.

176.7r

1608

s Ll26{
+ 11272

122.91

s li 248.

%\

%
%
19C3.1

130 801
'/+

11210

:.i

f.i

0i

!, 11217.

t/,

11 105.

13C

120.951
.

11

,1
851

ti
,i

r5
11202.

1i

50

)lt

ib l lE6.

"1.\

tA

381

r8ll1i6

,t0

:1

l9

1( llr11
r1 lt r10.1

14 11161.

5i

%
74

lr l3-r l l

38

32

26

Dia.

Die.

Arca

.31

l2l

501

131

.10I

ili
11 11352 .
1360.

!(

11361)

7A 1377.

42

31.554

114t0

r,
ss

1E00

r837.

1876.

%
%
%

35.481
35.E71

1895.4 5,1 331


1905.
1gI'1. l55 .l r

lg24

t4

193.1

l r19.2

1943.
1053.

43

.8

1a 1126

189.281
1E9.67

1.71.2r

133 51
1427. 133 9l

11104 5
1111

170 .,131

li 418

1443

168 86r

1828.

% lr433.

'%

50.011

1809
1819.

1385.

rr 113e3
,1 t102.
3A

187.31

1781.

\71.751

93 60r

FOR DIAMETERS
AREAS AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES
IN UNITS AND FRACTIONS (Continued)
Dia.

Area l('ircum

*'.,]l,

74

19.11194.77911 68
1s
131195 t

71l

i;l

%
%

/:.1

'

ltl
ftl
,rl

.871
l4s2s .e1233 263

114315

)<

%l

92

4/6

I4SUU.lJlrJz
.4|1232

)l

tA

11344 5 233

14359 .2 234

lr7

.0't9

14373 8 234.141

75

14417.91235.61

ss

e2.611s7.13511 %
04.91197.5281t %

63

29 61198.3131 1{

l42.olls3.706l

rz

% lnor,

166.91199.49111 %

ri li*ni

%
%

11 \1506 .7'

26

lr$6.5J238

469

Y4 O17.61275.675

761

liisi

ilzsn ,;o

14566

412tse

% \52t'7
% l'3r3

ls

.11258
.31258

',"

14581 3123e.

% lss29 11258.789

t,:
li:
tn

)1

145s6 .3\240

"*

t;

1461i.4 2,10
s.4 .11626.4\241 t1.7
% 11641 51211.51o

77

7l

'l^

',% lioii

l:

1,1656.6

241 903

*jzCI

14686.91212

%l

'il

)4

!b

91

,:l

%
%

/ul

tj6u

14717 31243.4
11732 ;1243
14717 .8\211 .

l8

11?63.11211 6s2

%
%

%
%

%
%

e16lL 1,

14128 21227 765

s9 1120e.70lll 34 14156.8122s 5i1


rz llzto ov+lL ?s J4r7l 11228 944

7A

z9

li,
\'"
\,:

li:
I i''
2L8

y1

r.6{i5

.14870.71247
14886 .21247

11917
11932 .71248

%
t4

Y2
74

2l

%
%

%
%
90

,8

%
%
%
%

9r

85

lc5o3.91285 885

t
%
3.4

11228.51230.51

s,1.

s8 4257 1231
,4 1979.5250.1.49
i zlztz.+sol 'i
j;;l;i;;nll]
11995.2250 .512
iiit stis' t"z
rs alzr:.2:o

1615r.11278.031
16168 81278.424

14 16186 21278 816

%
%

.9r1

)/4

.21248.57!

l,

89

83

%
%

l4cot 71248 1

.11276 853

?8 15394 31260 359

84

66

%
,4

ls3+s 6125s.181

bs 1s3ff1 81259 57-l

16 14702.11243.081
r

16090

'/,+.

.81273 711
8.S1274.104
1

% 16013.21274
r8 16030 41275.

i"

l+szr .rlzzs.

i'

25'l

1s153.o

too

iii
2iJ1

%
%

18 15168 912s4.
I'3s 15184.9 25s.2;4
ls2oo.8J255 647

n\rr,

y4 1bt21,.2253 684
7s 15137 I125+

2;3

81

11417 .41231i .

ya lssaz .z)psa

2')1

lb1o.-) 4

42a6 3 232 085

%:oro.gzso.gls

t(

15758.3 268.evv

% \stz;.t',zog .sgz

287.848
165e3.5
3/4 66rr.5'Paa.241
% jeozo.a zsa oa+

G]]N]IRAL TABLES
ENDS
TABLE FOR GAUGING I{ORTZONTAL CYLINDRICAL TANKS-FLAT

|aD :
%C

Percentage of Total Diameter of Tank

Percentage of Total Capacity of Tank

%p

%D
0.1

01'f49

0.0053

0.2

03
0.l

0 .0152

0.5
0.6

0.0279
0.0129
0.0ri00
0.0788

0.7

0.0f)1r2

08
09

1.0
1.2

l.ti
18
20
22

11

.4

3060

(i.,t08i

11 8

6. (i320

12.0
12.2

0.7970

13 .0

7. ti3{r0
7 . 8110

0.2t00

13.4

7.9840

25.5
20.0

0. 3,r19

1580

26.5

13.8

8.3330

4773

14.0

5094

27 .O
27 .5

0.7001

1'1.6

9.0.140

2.8
3.0
3.2

0.7886

14.8
15.0

I .221t'

t5.2

1 0533
15.ti

3.6
3.8

1.1.170

4.0
4.2
4.1

1.3418
1.412C

1.54ti1
1

.6515

1.7j11).1

5.0

1.8093

t'2

9.956

10 703
10. E92

16.E
17.0

11.082

11.273

17

.2

11 .465

2.2116

17.0

11 851

3.0771
3.2082
3.3408

0276

31.802
32

.412

33.025
33.638
34.254
34.869

41

.5

39.233
39.860
40.490

3.6106
3.8869

28.781
29.330
29.981
30.587
31.192

13.832
14.035
14.238

19.8

3.7.180

28.18,1

35.491

19.6
20.0

202

14.41-1

14.649

.4
20.6

M.454
15.060

20

8.6

4.1696

8.8
9.0
9.2

4.3131
4.4582
4.60,r5

20.8

9.6
9.8

4.9015

21

5.0523

21.8

10.0

5.2044
5.3580
5.5126
5.6690
5.82tt2
5.984E

22.O

42.O

425

15.ti83
15.892
16.101

460

16.312
16.52,r
16.73?
16.949

47

22.4
22.6
22.8
23.0

17. 161

17.376

47 .O

.5
48.0
48.5
49.0
49.5
50.0

55.0
56.0
57.0
57.5
58.0

61

61.5
62.0
62.5
63.0
03.5
6.1.0
6.1.5

65.0
66.0

670

74.4
78.6
78.8
79.0

8,r. 108

.a

77

78.0
78.2

8,1.525
84 733
8,1.940

9,1. 1738

94.3310

89..1

89.u

9,1 'lui 4

89.

9.1.6-12{)

90.0

9,1.795{i

so .2

9+.9"177

90.4
90.6
90.8

95 0985
95.2+75
9.5 39t55

95 5,llt

91 .0

9t .2
91.4

95.6369
95.8304

85.351
85.556
85.762
85.965
86.168
86.370

91.6
91.8
92.0

95.9721

80.8
81.0
81.2
81.4
81.6
81.8

86.571
86.771
E6.970
87. r09
87.367
87.563

92.8
93.0
93.4
93.6
93.8

97. 1789

65.746
66.362
66.975
67.588
68.198
68.808

82.0
a2.2

E7.760

94.0
91.2

97.5503
07.0703

94.6
94.8
95.0

97.90+-1
98. 1086

69.413
70.019
70.620

83.2
83.4

95.2
95.4
95.6

98.2.106

96.0
96.2

98.6582
98.7568

96.4

98.8530

.2

99.1258
90.2114
99.2939

792
.4

85.146

58.251
58.884
59.510

00.767
61.396

?9.6
79.8
80.0
80.2
80.4
80.6

62.023
62.645
63.268
63.890
64.509
05.131

60.

i.l0

79

42

.4

82.6
82.8
83.0

87.954
88.149
88.343
88.535
88.727

71.816

840

44.2

88.918
89.108
89.2rl7
89.485
E9.673
89.859

84.4

90.044

71

.2r9

68.0

836
83.8

36.732

69 .5

?0.0
70.5
71 .0

71.767

850

75.319
75.924

a5

7t.5

76.506

72.0
72.5
73.0

77.O77
77 .647

38.604

81.317

50.989
57.621

73.004
73.593

4.182

E4.6

84.8

90.224
90 .412
90.59.10

96. 1131

96.2520
96.3894
96.5251
96.6592

922
.4
92.6
92

93

96.7918
96.9229
97.0517

.2

97.3048
97.4285

944

958

96.6
96.8
97.0

99.3733
99.4499

86.0
86.2
86.4
86.6

91.4906
91.6670
91.8420
92.0160

99 .7777

43.011
4ts .644
44.274

74.5
75.0

79.897
80.449
80.670
80.890
81.108
81.325

86.8
87.0
87 .2

92.1890
92.3010

98.8
99.0

92.531,1

99.

E7.4

92.7010
92.8695
93.0370

99.2
99.3
99.4

81.543
81.760

88.0
88.2

s3.2030
93.3680
93.5315
93.6940
93.8551
94.0152

99.5
99.6
99.7

75.4

47 .457

76.0
76.2

48.093
48.729
49.366

76.8

50 .000

77 .O

46.819

98.9,167
99 0375

97.6
97.8
98.0
98.2
98.4
98.6

79.339

45.550
46.188

98.557r

91.13.19
91 .3133

97.4

74.O

44. 913

98.3485
98.4539

85.6

85.,1

42.379

75 .2

98.1307

97

.5

73

97.7E8{

90.7754
90.9560

.2

78.215
78.778

44.5
45.0
45 .5

.6

21.2
2r .1

5.1.0

55.087

89.2

68.5
69.0

41. 11{i
41..749

15 267

51..450

82.839
83.051
E3.263
83.476
83.688
83.899

36. 110

43.0
43.5
44.0

2l .0

53.8r.2

53.0

59.5
60.0
00.5

.233
25.818
26..r07
26.996
27 .589
25

38.5
39.0
39.5
40.0
40.5
41.0

3.4749

53. 181

24.651

12.633
12.831
13.030
13.229
13 .429
13.630

19.4

52.0

59.0

12 .437

18.4
18.6
18.8
19 .0
rtJ .2

2.9.+83

35.5
36.0

.0

24.O72

37.0
37.5
38.0

2.6952

2.a2Il

34.5
35.0

22.353
22.923
23 .494

12.210

12.0-10

b.4
6.6
6.8

2 .57

11.657

3,r.0

2t.745

18.0

t'

.4,\97

.0

1(i.,t
1ti ti

1.8914
2.095{i
2.321)

31

32.5
33.0

t5

10.2
10.4
10.6
10.8
11.0

t'

70.327
10.515

18.2

84

16.2

16.0

6.0
6.2

E.2

9.588

29.5
30.0
30.5
32.0

7.6
7.8
8.0

L4060

28.0
28.5
29.0

10.14r

1.2432

4.E

7.2
7.4

250

13.6

I.1.4

7.O

21

0.,t077

0.ti207

58

2L .222

0. 111(i
0.1(ilr2

0.962i)

51

r8.022

19.3:t0
19.551
20.103
20.061

7 .1036

0.87.12

17 .806

18.8S2
19. 110

7.29110

50.5

18.210
13.4s7

IJ

12.8

o.2223

17.590

21.0

23

126

0.5501

5.6

236

0 . 1212

2.1
2.6

46

234

21.4
21.6

?.1305

8. ti8ii7
8. E65i

'1

.2

'J{i30

1,1.2

3.

23

50.634
51.271
51.907
52 .513

87.6
87.8

9S.8

99.9
100.0

99 .5227

99.5923
99.6581
99.7200
99.8308
99.8554
9S.8788
99.9008
99.9212
99.9400
99.9508
99.9571
99.9848
99.9947
100.0000

2r9

GRI\NELI,

I1'T

PIPINT] DESIG\ T\ND r]NGINI'FJRI\G

WEIGIIT PER FOOT OF SOLID STEEL ROUNDS


\\'eightsshowIr&refo|s()lxlIoLllrC1speIfoot()flellg1h''fodetel.miethe\r.eigh1

footoftheI.l).fromttre*'eigtrtpe,iuuioiir'"ri'il..,,qrr,'"igr'l"ar'ebasedonst.eel*'eighiIrg0'2833pourldsp
of other metals see relxlive \{eight factors on 1'g 177

16.6E8

,#\

t7.532

96.120
98.136

gV\

Y:l

20.1S2

r.04.30

27.t20

106.39

1x46

wl

22.O70

108.51
110.65

rYra

,rl

*l

Yxl

i*l
';\

0.1669
o.2712
0.2607
0.3155

24.030

T^\

v\

o.37 55

0.4407
0.5111

ial
{^\

i\tl

1.0430
1.1499
7.2620
1.3794

"rr\
'%l

;)

1.5019
7.6297

\34:6

1.7627

i\

^r#\

214

:)\

n\

\Vr6
st
1
Yt6

.'''

135.55

137.94

rYt6

140.34

%
r'/a

40.09r
4r.397

747.7\)

42.719
44.066
45.432
46.819

150.19

323.O7

152.70

326.7 5

48.227

fi^

N6

757.79

Y\6

160.37
162.97

%
"/s

%6

t/t

IT

73.595
75.356

204.12
207.36

%
%
%
%

Tl,

74.942

13.517

t:

ll

77.t40

?),

1%6

l\ rx

80.768
82.614
84.480
86.370

,46

ryt6

872.57

376.51

ro/ra

2t9.29
222.32
225.34
228.46

1321.8
1336.7

1381.9
1397.1

74t2.5

ln
l\%
Y",

t..

%
%

l2
t%
t'"
lso

:l
n\

2323.6

78

2403.0

1458.9

r474.5

1,4

1490.2
1506.1

%
%
%

2443.1
2463.5

2483.8
2504.2
2524.7
2545.2

2565.9
2586.7
2607.5
2628.4

1602.7
1619.1

2649.3

261-O.1

1635.6
1652.r

1537.9
1554.0
1570.1
1586.4

v,

31

lg
%

3364.9
3388.7
3412.5
3436.3
3460.5
3484.6
3508.7
3532.9

36

%
%

I*
|

"{i

3557.0
3581.5
3606.0
3630.8

l"'r
l{a

3655.2
3680.1
3704.9
3729.7

'.4

|t%
t^-

242it.r

7427.n
1443.3

t522.O

,#\

2245.5
2964.9
2244.4
2303.9

29

1292.3
1307.0

'/"+

,u'"
{)
926.22
938.70
951.24
963.89
976.60
989.42

t2
%
%

210.3r
2r3.28
276.27

| 'r'
ll Y"
\*
ll%

ll* %l

UI
7^3.

269r.6
27 t2.a

32

1685.5

rA

"n*l
%

t702.3

1719.2

r736.2

%
%
%

77 53.2

%
%

1770.4
1787.6

%
%

1804.9

26

1002.3

1668.8

2820.2
2842.O

2907.7

33

%
%

4165.9

2863.8
2885.7

427l.S

40

297 4.1

Ya

4325.7
4352.5

2996.4
3018.8
3041.4
3063.9

%
%
%
%

4379.4
4406.6
4433.8
4461.0

1839.8

1857.4
1875.0
r892.8

1081.4
1094.9
1108.4

l"',r();
|

459.97
468.77
477.b4

3155.0

l7a

%
%

446.62
495.66

1t22.1

r:

%
%

3178.0

504.81

5t4.O2

1135.8
1149.6
1163.5

1910.6

l%

t\

ll

Yt

4298.8

2951.9

%
%

%
%

r.068.0

to64.7

4245.4

7422.4

451.23

1041.5

4192.4
42).4.9

2929.1-

.j.

4061.2
4087.3
4113.5

4\35.7

1028.3

3957.8
3983.3
4009.1
4035.0

1015.3

nl

425.60
434.06
442.55

%
%

3855.5
3881.0
3906.5
3932.0

'll
,"1

4\7.20

13

3779.7
3804.8
3830.3

201.51

222t).2

1366.8

337.92
341.69
345.47
349.29

7r.851

X6

2207.O

t",

330.46
334.18

%
%

12i7.7

|*

319.41

t55.24

187.28
190.09

1263.1

%
%

l'3

308.56
312.75
315.78

192.91
195.76
198.64

'ts/tn

lr;

15.864

133.18

,6

184.49

2168.7
2187.8

\,,
123

294.37
257.49
301.42
304.98

66.751
68.431
70.130

1Yt6

12.Osi12.777

15.061

tA

368.62

\;

th

7.6032

).4.278

I|

?4

181.73

10.680
r1.358

r:.

"s

t76.27

t:.

60.244
61.839
63.454
65.092

6.0074
6.5187
7.0504

8.7716
9.3870
10.023

/t

rn6

123.92

170.88
173.56

r248.6

IY

164.22

t234.2

l"'N

t42.77
t45.22

49.658
51.106
52.578

10

121.\7
126.20
128.50

1219.9

1205.1-

%
%

'/2
i.7

178.99

t7;

'46

r7t6

l7;

37.549
38.810

4.1720
4.5997
5.0481
5.5176

a.777

2a.202
29.297
30.414
31.550

%6

\Yt6

lY;

119.4r

v,

2.6700
3.0142
3.3793

3.765r

lr*

27.118

7,'. )

2093.3
2112.0
2130.9
2149.8

28

1177.5
1191.ti

353.12
356.9ti
360.83
364.72

%6

l^u

25.O12
26.O74

112.81
114.99
117.19

130.83

0.6675
0.7536
0.8448
0.9413

Y"l

702.22

2l

Y-rq

100.17

23.039

lnches

inches

18.398
1S.285

o.t27a

IVeisht,
pounds

Diam.,

Weishl,

%
%
%

3086.6

34

310S.3

3132.r

3201.1

3224.2
3247.5

| .,
'{2

tn

4598.6
4626.2

4654.1
4681.9

GENERAI TABLES

Weisht,

Diam., WoieLt,

Dram., Weisht,

Diam..

Diam., Weieht,

Diam.,I lveieht,

oi"-.,lw"igr't,
rnches

Diam., Weieht,

eounds
I

87rs | 20,210
| 20,268
%
| 20,326
3,6
I

42

%
%

%
'/2

%
%

,14
43

%
%
%
%

%
%

4709.fr
4738.0
47 66.2
4791.5

4s)4

4822.7
4851.2
4879.8
4908.3

50

%
%

%
%
%

4936-9
4965.8
499'{.4
5023.2
5052.5
5081.4
5110.6
5139.9

%
%
%
%
51

%
%

44

519E.7

%
%

5228.2
5257.8

5247.4
5317.0
5346.9

%
%
45

5376.E

5406.7
54:t7.0

%
%

51t)

%
%

5527.7

5588.6
5619.2

%
46

t-

.2

54\)7.2

%
%

641.1

11,108

%
%
%

11,151

11,194
11,238

8,675.1
8,713:2
8,751.3
8,789.3

1,4

8,827.7

65

6708.4

,6

8,E60-9

6712.1
61-7 5.7

%
%

6541.5
6575.5
6608.5
6641.8

6809.4
6843.1
6876.7
6910.7

7041,.7

%
%
%
%

7359.5
7394.5
7129.5
7464.4

%
%
%

%
%

5898.0
5929.6
5961.2
5992.5

%
%
%
%

7930.6
7967.0
8003.7
8040.1

%
%
%
%

6280.8
6313.1
6345.4
6378.0

55

%
%

8076.8
8113.5
8150.5
8187.3

%
%
%
%

4224.3
8261.4
8298.8
8335.8

11,411

tA

9,0:0.8
9,059.6

9.|17.4

,i

11,455
11,499
11,543

11,5E7
11,631

66

9,176.5
9,21ti.0
s,255.1

%
%
%

9,294.5
9,333.9
9,373.4

11

9,4r2.8

9,452.6

%
%
67

11,719
11,763
11,807
11,852
11,897
11,941

11,986

%
%
%
%

9,612.0
9,652.1
9,692.3
9,732.7

%
%
%
%

12,165
12,210
12,256

61

%
%
%
%
%
%
%

9,773.2
9,813.3

%
%
%

%
%
%

I,E54.r
9,894.5
9,935.3
9,976.1

%
%

10,017

r0,058
10,099
10,140
10,181

10,222

10,264

62

68

10,305
10,347

10,388

%
%
%
%

10.430
10,172
10,514
10,555

%
%
%

10,597
10,639
10,682
10,724

%
%
%
%

10,766
10,809
10,851
10,894

72

tl
%
%
%

12,075

72,r20

73

%
%
%
%
%
%
%

13,986

14,034
14,083

16,875
16,928
16,982
17,035

%
%
80

17,088

77,t42
17,195
77,219

14,131

14,180

76

%
%
%

t2,620
12,666

%
%
%

12,758

12,804

%
%

%
%
%
%

72,457

12,850
77

12,943
12,SS0

%
%

13,036
13,083
13,130

13,t77
t3,224

13,271

13,318
13,365

t3,412

%
%
%
%

77,572
17,627
17,681

14,572

15,019
15,069
15,119
15,170

12Aa3

17,518

t4,522

%
%
%

12,437

%
%

14,473

14,820
14,869
14,919
14,969

%
%
%
%

17,464

81

%
%
%
%

12,34{t
12,392

72.529
12,574

14,37 5

14,671
14,72\)

12,301

17,303
17,356
17,410

14,229
14,277
14,326

%
%
%

7s%

14,62r

69

70

13,841
13,8S0
13,938

%
%

\4,770

t5,220

17,735
17,785
17,844

17,953
18,008
18,063
18,118

82

%
%
%
1,4

18,173
18,228
18,283
18,338

%
83

18,394
18,449
18,505
18,560

15,270
15,321
15,371

15,422
15,473
15,524

15,626
15,677
15,728
75,779

18,676
%
54 || 1.8,672
3l | 1e,728
% 1 18,784
84 | 18,840
% | 1s,8s6
Y.a I rs,ssz
3/e | 19,009

15,831

rZ

49

6410_6

,i

6443.6
6476.2
6509.2

63

8373.2

84r0.6

%
%

8448.0
8485.7

%
%
%
%

8523.5
8561.2
85S8.9

8637.0

64

%
%
%

10,937
10,979

lt,o22
11,065

7l

7a

13,460

%
%
%

13,507

\A

13,650
13,698
13,7 46
13,791

%
%
%

zo.q+z

3l I| 20,559
,4 | 20,618
88 | 20,677
:,4 1 20,786
tt I zo,zs+
2o,5or

15,882
15,934

J+

16,037
16,089
16,141

16,193

/a

85r

1s,065

119,178
| 19,234
I

19,2S1

19,3a8

l/8 |

19,462

r+6

13,602

%
%

16,215
16,297
16,349

16,401

%
%
%
%

16,453
16,506
16,611

119,405

r," I19.519

5; l1e,s76
/1 | t9,633
| 19,690
86 I 19,748
)4 | Le,8o5
% l 1s,863
34 | 19,920
\4 | !s,s78
9/s I 20,036
3l | 2o,os4
'% | 2o,t sr
I

79

%
%

16,664
16,717
16,769
16,822

20,8s3

| 20,91.2
20,971
3l || 21,03r
Ji | 2r'oeo

t/,42

51

8e
y8

%
%

23.907
23,971
24,034
24,097

95

%
%
%

24,16t

%
%
%
%

24,351
24,415
24,479
24.543

24,224
24,288

24.607

96

%
%
%

| ,r.tnn

%
%
%
%

|
1.1 |
3; | 21,428
)/4

23,844 |

2r,2os
2r.268

24,67r

21.85

24,300
24.864
24,929
24,993
25,058

| 21,38a
21,447
I
'tt | 21,507
21,567

%
|
3/4

eo |

21,687
| "t.un
rZ I 2r,1- 48

Ys

t1 |

_l
r2 |

2r,8oa
21,868

| 21'92s
| 2r,985
7s zz,oso
]
91 | 22.111
Y8 | 22,172
li | 22,232
31 | 22,2s3
,l5 | 22.354
I 22,415
3,4 | 22,476
1; | 22,588
'/8
3A

25,122

97

%
%
%
%
%
%

95,187
25,252

25,3t7
25,382
25,447

25,512
25,574
25,643

98

%
%

25,708
25,774

25,840

%
%
%
%

25,905

25,971
26,037
26,103

26,169

99

%
%
%

26,235

%
%
%
%

26,434

26,301
26,368

rs |119,121

4a

t, I
3;

941,4

20,384

9,532.1
9,572.3

%
%
%
%

7606.6
7642.3
7678.0
7 t'l4.O
7i 49.7

12,031

60

7 570.9

%
%
%
%

8,943.;l

%
%
%

%
%

7 500.2

%
%
%

59

%
%

7785.8
7821.8
7858.2
7894.2

6151.9
6183.9
6216.2
6248.1

5773.2
5E04.5
5835.4
5866.7

6024.4
6056.0
6088.0
6119.6

7279.7
7251.4
72ti9.4
7324.4

52

%
%
%
%

%
%
%
%

%
%

%
%
%

8,90,1.11

11,324
11,368

9,09E.7

7116.0
7150.4
7185.1

%
%

%
%

%
%

11,281

%
%

8,982.1

6944.7
6978.7
7013.0
7017.4

5649.8
5680.4
5711.3
5t- 42.3

tA

%
%

rs | :z,oor
\a | 22,722
J3 22,784
|
1/4 |
58 |
3/4 |
%|

22,846
22,907

22,969
2z,oz1

93 | 23,093
23,155
X
ta |I 23,218
3,4 23'280
|
I

|
|
3/4"

Y2

./a

23,342
23,4O5

| 22,467
'% 23,530
|
94r/4 | 23,593
| 2\,6ss
r/4 | 28,7].8
% zs'zzt
|
|
I

26,501
26,567

26,634

I
|
|

I
|

I
|
|

I
|
|
|
|
I

|
I

|
|
I

|
|

ITTGITI\NIit,I, PIPI\Ii
RATES
EQUAI,IZATION OT' PIPE DISCI{ARGE
14

21

'-*

.l
2.

2.

42
86

t)

18

7.
16

24

2
2,

244
384

104
164

286

668
968

4t4

65
94

1336

67!

130

24
3?

46
71

1689

Fr

-l

;;i';

2.

1.6

3.
6.

10
18
29

1.52

2.4
3.8
1.1

20

74

t't2

l5

',,

1.8

'1
5.6

10il
77

52

19

ll

15

1.

2.

6.

2l

I3

2.

30

19

7.

3.

'1

81

52

29

5.

111

6.2

223

721

t9i
2.D

443

3.0

68
r08

7490
13849

6240
2923

335 l53l

29 151
?1
t5 26
IL

11 9.2 4.
30 116 7.
44 123 111
60 32 116

lt'tL

1635
809

8.

151

2.

rar,

3l
Ili

1.

231
362

2377

10

31
1t i 5.8
6.81

li

5ii

i1 -1
ool

7.

t3292

39 632 1867 11525 2'11{


2!7
l{07 7lo 11133
1e,i lr 0r r?5 531

120

2.9

129

1l

t8 .liil
4l I t-1
19 3ti

16 30 ri0
7.7 1-1 I 2E
3 6L o. rj t3
2.01 3

1.

10

l. I 1 1 l';

3.

5.

2.

3.

8.
5.

1.

2.

t.

1.

1.

2.

EXTRA STRONG WALL


of a larger pipe under the same
size required to equal the delivery
The iabulateil velues show the mmber^oJ piqes of one

' f$i:i-J,'*1*!'#'H"jr*i"t;;** ,iflf"tln:;ril,*',1'j

lfr:".1"*.1$-:"J1il5.',\.'ji'i';:s l:

3i

'l'jin"ia"

he&d' Thus

ai""'"'

DISCIIARGE RATES
EQUALIZATION OT' COPPER TUBING
Tube
in.
%
%
%

t.0

2
2Y2

L7
26

90

8.6

3.6

4.8

2.O

1.8
2.6
6.4

la
8.2
3.3 I

3.1
6.4 |

2.L

8.s I

6.6
8.2

61

1?111

2a4

146

5l
1.5

rz

206

46

13

2.6

30
44

9.4

23

1.7 1
L
1.5

11
19

3r/4

140

2.5

8.8

21
46
7L
104

--

2.4
4.9

1%
114

1.8

31/4

214

Size,

10

7t)

L21

13

68
27

1i
9.0

3.1
2.O

250

,10

55

20

28

8.3

-1

5..1

1.7

2.7

2.3

1.6

3.

3.6
2.7

14.I

180
99

t7
1I

3.9

5.,1

1.5

2.O

1.6

2.0

1.4

GENERAL TABLES

SAFE LOADS ON STEEL PIPE COLUMNS


Allorvnble Concentric Loads in

KII'S

(1000 ib)

STANDARD \Y'ILL PIPE

Nominat Pipe Size and $'all Thickness inches


Etrective
Lensi,h,

Efiectiv(
Lenslh,

t2

fr

0.3:2

8
10
13

12

1l
16

19

t4

18

20
22

23

30

2t)
17
15

27

2l
19

24

140
13rl
13{i
13:l
129

200

,46

198
196
194

211
212

125

187
162

116
110
104

17E

231
227
222

167

26
2t3

r90

21D
237

231

1li

200
237

la

296

2t)

293

217

254
25r
245

22
24

161

2t2

2.!Ll

2ii.l

154

20ti
200

r47

30
32

ft

375

139

t31

193
186
179

36
38
40
42
44

171
163
154

46
48
50
52
54
56

235

2:9
2:3

289

2t0
2i5

26
28

2t-O

30
32

217

204

34

210
203

258

36

19tt

2'16

1tis
179

2:)9
231

171

224

7$2

216

252

20E

199
190

38

40

46
50
52

50

NorE: Yalues below heavy line are for //Eo tatios sreater than

120'

EXTRA STRONG WALL PIPE


Nominal Pipe Size and 1\iall Thickness inches

l4
0.218

0.500

I8

325
323
320

lt
I
252
216
210
232
221

36
32
29
25

18

20
22

0.500
6

8
10

t2

317
313

4l

16

0.500

309
304
299

344

16

339

18

391

20
22

329
323

386

286

26
28
30
32

216
207
197

279
271
263

317
310
302

376

26
98
30

1E6

254
245

294
245

370
363
356
348

36
38
40
42

163

234
224

276

213

257

341
332
323
314

36
38
40

304

44

46
48

294

46
48

52
54

261

267

246
235

Norr:

2S3

381

284
273

Yaluea below

hesw liDe a.e for l/,&e ratios greatr than

32

52

120.

223

I1'T GRINNI.]LL PIPINCI D]ISIGN AN]) ENGINEERI\C


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD TAPER TIIREADS
irformalion is abstracled from Ihc \maricxlr Nariunal Slerrdard
PiDe Tbread- ANSI 82.l whi.h ha- bcan csrrbhjbed to cover

pii. rhrpad'for variorLL prrrporc\. This:rarrdsrd wt! orte of thp


hri e"tal,li.hed arrd rs als6 rhe muir comm,'nlv rr-ed O'her
rhreaJins. randard- ir'.ludc Ameri.an Pel r,,lerlm I nolilrlly StB ndard- No. i.t, 6 \ arrd iL, \al,i.h cover oil field I'rb'rl!r marerial
su,.h as lirre pipe and .a.-ing Ibrerd. Lirra pipe.rhreld' h5v" Ihe
same form i,rd raper an Amerlcsir Nall"r'31 Slalrdard rlpe

THEEADS DUE

TMPERFECT

Tbreads, -{.NSI 82.1.

in inches
a -\lso lenqth of thin ring gage and lelrgth from gaeing notch
to small e A of plug gage.

OF THREAD

IN

]6

,\ll

dimensions

a
o

-q.ho

pilch di&neter &t

g.r.ging

notch (halr(l-tight pla'ne)'

lurgth oi plug gage.


o Thc lpnr:'1, L5 from rl," "nd oi rl ' r'ilo 'lPrernrirrcs rlt' planp
rhp'l,rc,,l r,,r rs irnl''rf'' t rl th" rr'5r' lh' rte\l
bcr'"r,,r
'rhi"h ptsrfp, rr rl 'rr"or \r rrri Itl:tir^ rl" "o'le f"rrtcd
,"" ii'*,,4". , Psrs I'rcr"rrs lr," c\lirrJ'f Iurr irrg IhF e\r'"rrrl
bv ,rr. rhrpr'l

MEASURED ON DIAMETER

,Uso

s,lrface of the pipe. Lb

: L, -

2P.

0 \rrcn'h
t \rn$-\uvr lcror ruri.rl SpF.rficuriorts arp f iseiIj,or'Jirn"nsions
ihr.. rl.r"-,ls 3jincl,"s und snrrll"r'
'u
',,.1"-uo
are: :iz; 2 r,.inch 2.ii:,6.1r -i2.3 i,.1,33l7l1r'

PLUG GAGE TO ENTET


UNTIL NOTCH 15 fTUSH
WITH fIRST IHREAD
STANDARD TOLERANCE

IS

ONE THREAD

DINIENSIONS

Diam.
of
Pipe

Length

Lengih

0.11t 1
0.1667
0.1667
0.21,t3

0.1E98

+07R
0.5337

0.3800
0.5025
0.6375
0.791s

0.5457

1.001E

0.2113

1.2563
1.6013
1.3,f13

0.2609
0.2609
0.2609

2.3163
2.7006
3.4156
3.9156

0.2601)

0.5826
0.8875
0.9500

0.2500

1.0000

0.2500
0.2500
0.2500
0.2500
0.2500
0.2500

1.0500

D
0.2ffiq

0.405
0.540
0.675
0.840

0.40r8I
0

1.050
1.2136

1.315
1.660
1.900

1.7961

2.375
2.875
3.500
4.000

4.500
6.625
8.625
10.750
12.750

0.D.
r6 ().D.
14

14.000
16.000
18.000
20.000
24.000

T-

Lt

8
8
8
8
8

8
8
8
8
8

13.9156

15.9156
17.9156
19.9156

23.9156

0.2500
0.2500
0.2500
0.2500
0.2500

0.2907
0.2967
0.3909
0.4029
0.5088
0.5329
0.5496

0.3017
0.3017
0.3017

t.2625
r.4625
1.6750
1.8750

0.4337 I 2 6937
0.4337 | 2.E837

0.4$7

I 3.0837

0.4337 | 3.2837
0.4337 13.6837

\.T T,\BLES

GF]NET?

AMERICAN NATIONAI, STANDARD STRAIGI{T THREADS


Ldormeliori is abstr:rcted irom i,he ,\;:-:ricau Netional Standard Pipe Thrceds,
ANSr l]2.1
l straight thread grger :tre useri to grge mechanical joint, straight pipe threads'
* Americen Nrtional Slotr.lxrd taper ],ipe thre3(l plug gagss 3re used io_ ga,ge
.'ri,igl -. p'p" rhrp:rd. rr, ,n'rt, irg- sir' il' -grgir'e-n,rclr eomirrx flu"h,rith the
c,lco .t the thr''.r'l "r s llr rl, l' 1l nr ul "lrc_nlcr, Il 'hrmlereq. allowrng z
hrlf t].llns lar8e or small
ldierance oi one &ud one

The actu:rl pitoh ciiameters oi the tappe,l hole E'ill be slightly srna,ller than the
velues given.

BASIC DIMENSIONS

I'itcl t)irr
StrAiglrt Pipe

Threads * in I'ipe

fiPu
Dlze
In.
%

%
%
%
%

Threads
Per

'1'hread

llax I

xfin

\Iax

NIin

\1ax

27
18
18

0.0370
0.0556
0.0556
0.0714
0.0714
0.0870
0.0870
0.0870
0.0870
0.1250
0.1250
0.1250
0.1250

0.3782

0.3713

c.t748

0.3713

0.3782

0.37.18

0.-1951

0.4899
0.6270

l4
rr)4
LlY2

Ill,4

,'/2

trll

2t4

3%
4
5

8
10

l2

lnlernal

Inch

rrl
3

ti\l( rn3l

Tnternel

I'itch ot

Straight Pipe Threads for


Locknut Connections
(Loose Fitting l{echanical Joints)

Straight Pine Tlrreads


F,,r lTechariic!,] Jointst
(!'ree Fitting)

Couplings (Prcssure Tight Joirts)

\ominai

eter

8
8
8
8
8
8
8

0.r250
0.1250
0.1250
0.1250
0.1?50

0.r$5r 0. +8.17
0.6322 0.6218
0.7851 I 0.7717
0.9956 i 0.9822
1.21rj8 I1.230;
1.5vr5 | 1.5752
r.8305 | 1.R112
2.3011 | 2.2aar

2.ii39

3.-1002

3.9005
4.3988

2.7505
3.3768
3.8771

-1.3754

0.1899
0.(i270

0.7784
0.98E9
1.2386

1.5834
1.8223

2.2963

2.it'22
3.3885
3.8888
4.3871
5.4493
6.5060

|
0.6218
0.7717
0.9822 |
0..1847
r 2305
t.5752
r 8142
2.2881

0.6322
0.7E5r
0.9956

| 1.2468
| 1.5915
1.8305
| 2.3044

I
2.1505 2.7735
.j.3768 I 3.4002
3 8771 | 3.1005
+.37s4 | 1.3988
5..1376

5.4610

0.4943 16.5I77

tr{ax

o.7784
0.9889
1.2386
1.583.1

Intemsl

Errternal

I{in

NIin

0.3840
0.5038
0.6409
0.7963
r.0067
1.2064
1.605r

0.6357
0.7896

0.3808
0.5125
0.6496
0.8075

1.0000

1.0179

t.2523

r.2739

1.2658

r.5970

1.6187

1.8576
2.3315
2.8129
3.4393
3.9396
4.4379
5.5001
6.5567
8.5508

1.6106
1.8495

0.380s
0.'19Ett

|.8223

1.8441

2.2963

2.3180

1.8360
2.3099

2.7622
3.3885
3.8888

2.7534

2.78\7

3.4198
3.9201

3.,10E1

-1.3871

4.,1184

.1.4067

5.4493
6.5060

5.4805

5.4688
6.5255
8.5196

6.5372

3.9084

8.5313
10.6522

10.6405

12.6491

12.6371

10.6717
12.6686

0.3863
0.5073
0.6444
0.8008
l 0112

2.3234
2.8012
3.4276
3.9279

4.4262
5.4841
6.5450
8.5391
10.6600

12.6569

GENERAL INFORMATION

The symbols recommended for use in designating the


various types of pipe threads are as follows:

NPT:

American National Standard taper threads

NPSC: American National Standard straight pipe


threads in pipe couplings
NPTF: American National Standard taper pipe
threads for pressure-tight joints for use
without lubricant or sea,ler *
NPSF: American National Standard straight pipe
threads for pressure-tight joints for use
lvithout lubricart or sea.ler* (Dryseal)

NPSI:

American National Standard internal straight


pipe tbreads (Dryseal)
NPSM: American National Standard straight pipe
threads for mechanical ioints
NPSL: American National Standard straight pipe
threads for lochnuts and locknut pipe threads
NPSFI: American National Standard straight pipe
threads for hose couplings and nipples
NPTR: An.rerican National Standard taper pipe
threads for railing fittings.
+

I..iubricant may be used

in making up

these joints

when desired,
225

tTT []lU \\l.lLi,

l:,lI'l\(

BRITISE STANDARD TAPER THREADS

lniorrrn,ru r "l'-'r.r'',,1 trom lIn Rririqh Engino"riog


llPp.rr \o. 2l-lrr3R'

i.1rJ\ \\!".iirion

Whitworth 55' forru of thrcad.


Total taper: )i inch Pcr toot.
IIand Tigltt
I'itch Diemeter Engrgemeot l'e.il"gi"',irlgof i$;crr Ii\t''rrrrl

Pitch
oI

I'lrterrr:LlThread

Thn,erl

Approriimrte

oD.

l
I

Jrirl I'rrcfrrrLl
Threrds Lr

0.25.15

0]l&'t

.,t0(t3
.5313
.6375

013t14
0.3947

0.052(l

0.0;26

0.071.1

,31:i3

0.07I,t

1.0i125
1.3-138

1.90ii3

0.571,1
0.65111

0.0909
0.0c09
0.0909

1.6S75

051?8
0.7500
0.7500

2.2883
2.9013
3.401Il

0.0$00
0.0909
0.0909

3.E91S

0.01109

0.090{}

4.3918

0.0909

53918
6.3e13
7.3860

0.011t9

0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1000
0.1250
0.1250

8.3t60
9.3360
10.3360
11.3700
12.3700

All dimensions in inches

NORMA' ENGAGEMENT FOR TIGHT JOINTS


(Lcngth of PiPe Enterine Fitting)

ThF lpnsth of rngagam.nt

bptwepn. male and

'nrk. liP.hl lorn'- rs l"rcao on


ih. rh'.".1. bning manhincJ ro rha Amprrcan
ii"ri"ra tor pip" ;t'*adq or t h' \PIbr'sndafdror
iine ;i;; rhr;xll" rnd has bo"n r-'rahl\sh"d trom
pt""r ical\ orkrng 'ondir iuns For
i".i.'"ira.
rt rc
"",t.'m.l3lc and q:rll lhrckn^sscc
various sizps,
to
;;;"*;;.;,; annlt difror"nr to"qurs in ordPr
l;"s'i' or "nscs'menis lisred in the
;-;-ii';
rable. ln consi,l".ing rhF lFng1h ol engrg'menr
for s"rp*ed "omt:rnron flangFsrhrs lahla ''oP' nol
;;oii .i";; ;h";'is, c"mcniwill depond. upon 'he
Iemale rhr.ads ro

American Standard
and API line
pipe thretuls

Shoulder tyPe
fitting threeds

drainE.ge

Railing fitting
thread assembly

r,i.

211

All dimensions in inches

226

pe of

joinr, pr^s'ure cooditioos aod lhe

oI the flanges.

3r.1

15

16

I7 16

llsi

n_Flgnr

GENERAL TABLES

TRIGONOMETRIC FORMIJLAS
Oblique-Angled Triangle

For Radius,

,{E :

AG:
BC :
AC :

FG: sina
DE : tat a
AD : sec a

AB:c
AC -b
AD:M

cos

cot a
csc

a
FormLrlas

Given

srn a

sin2o*coszo:1

cos o

A,B,a I C,b,c

sec2o:1*tan2a

csc2a:llcoL2a

. : cos a
.srn o

$no

ian o
cot a

b, c,

cot q,

Vt -

I
sin'a

Bln 4

V1 - sin' o
V1 - "i":stn

A B,C,a

a,c,A I

C,

x ; ;B

1so"

(d

+c);

..sinB

cot o

orE__Two values for C, B, and b arc


possihie.

cosx a

.A
t

sln

tan o

a,

h-

lt," i,a :r, - rjrn ! B +c' ^i i{'


la' : 6r * c2 -2bccosA; orh - csin.4;
[n=ccosA; n-b-m; &' = h1 +tu'

B,b sinc = sin4

1+ten'a
1-

BC:a
BD:K
DC:n

a,b,

cos

.i.
.unt
Right Triangle
a,b,

c I n,n

c,
+b2 - a,
____26
i
^ -

n--

62

b2 2b-

c2

+b2: &
h
l-eot.A:
l:tan,4
-cotB
ba
a2

: s6sg 9:
ca-.io4
!:
:
cb "o"4 "1n6 !:

csc

tanB

A:

secB

cscB

sec.

227

I'fit' (inI\\l,ll,l,

PIPI\(l l)ltsI(l\ '\\D

llNclINl'll'lltTN(

NATURAL FUNCTIONS OF ANGI,ES


Sin

0' 00'

oooo

1.0000

10
20
30
40

0020
0058
00E7

50

1" 00'
LO

.0000

.0029 313.8
00;lE l7l.9

1.0000

.00iJ7

0116

0.ltl199

01.15

0.9999

.0116
.0116

0175

999iJ

02{)+

1)91)E
it(.197

20

O2:J|J

30

02ri2

40
50

0291

I1.1. ti

85.91
rjS.75

57 .2tJ
1l). 10

.0175

020l

,12

lL

38.11)

.029I

0320

9997
999{i
t1]95

.02ti2
.0320

34.37
31.24

0319

.999-l

0311)

28.6{

t0

0378
0107

.91)U3
.991)2

0378

20
30
40

0436

.9U90

0-137

0lri5

.9989

0-+66

0.104

.01188

0+il5

3" 00'

0523

.998ti

10
20

0552

.99E5

30
40
50

0610
0610
06ii9

2" 00'

4' 00'
10

20
30
40
50

O5IJI

.9983
.9981
.9980
.997E

20.13
21.51
22.90

0.107

11" 00'

)0" 00'

.0000
r .0000

2t.17

" 20.21
0521 I 19.03
0553 r8.07
05E2 r7 .17
0612 1ti.35
00.11 15.60
0670 I 14.92

50

It)

40

20
30

30
20

l0

i1)ti,-)

.9805

.l91J+

.2022

.2051

50

i3'00'

.1903
.1937

.9816

12" 00'

.2079

40
50

.21{)3

.1)7;7

2217

+.{19

30
2t)

.2221

.9750

22 r-8

4.390
.1.331
4.2r-5

10

2250

97-14

2309

50

1U

22la

2339

40

20

30
20

30

1)72-t

!)717

.2.101
.2 t:J2

l0

50

230ri
2331
23ri3
23t I

9737
9730
9710

.2.ltr2

.9?03
.0ri96
.9089

2193

88" 00'

13" 00'

40

87" oq

14" 00'
10

50
40
30
20

t9

211t'
2I7tJ

26

r7

:1.821

50

2500

.9007

2ii.18

3.77b

25E8

9059
9052
9644

.2679

3.1'32

.271t

3.0t9

.2712

3.6-17

.10

.27i3

3.60{i

9ti28

.2805
.2836

3.siir;

30
20

3.526

28tr

3.4E7
3..150

16'00'

2tt r-2

2700
2728
.27 56

.0875

9959

.090.1

I1.06

50

10

20
30

0921)

0!157
995.1

.01)3,1

40

20

.24t2
.28-10

0987
1{Jl6

9951

.011'J2

30
20

30

40
50

40

i
9C+5
9942
9939
993ti
9932 I
!929

.1022

10.71
10.39
10.08
9.788

.2E68
.2896

30
40
50

7' 00'
10

20
30
40
50

8" 00'
10
20

30
40
50

.1219
.1248

.1276
.1305
.1334
.1363
1392

1421
1449
1478
1507
1536

1110

.1139

.11i'9
.1198

10

50

18'00'

.3r85

3.1.r0

.3217

3.10t

9511

3219

3.078

3281

3.0i17

3314

3.018

.10

33.16

2.989

30
20

3.172

13r7

.3173

9911
9907

1346
1376

40

9474

3378

2.960

t0

50

.3201
.ts228

9465

3.111

2.932

9903
9899

1405

989'1

1465
1495

.9890
,9886

r521

.98S1

40
50

1u5t

9E33
9827

1880

9822

1883
1914

11'00'

1908

.9816

1944

98.13
rJ838

Sin

1703
1733

Cot

6.314
6.197
6.084
5.871
5.769

5.485
5.396
5.30S

5.226
5. 1{5

Tan

82" 00'

19" 00'

3256

10

4U

20

3283
3311

30
20

30

3338

40

33ii5

50

3393

10

81' 00'

20" 00'

50
40

20

30
20

10

30
40

40
30
20

20
30
40

3584
3611
3638
3665
3692

10

50

3719

?9' 00'

22', 00'

10

71" 00'

2.501
2.877
2.850

50

.357 4

2.821
2.798

30
20

.3607

2.773
2.747

3511

9336
9325
9315
9304
9293
9283

2L" 00'

50

3476
3508

9397
9387
.9377
,9367
.9356
.9346

80' 00'

10

72' 00'

34,13

3448
3475
3502
3529

l0
10

.9455
.9446
.9436
.942tt
.9417
. s407

3640
3673
3706

3420

10

9528
9520

9537

30

7.115
6.968
6.827
6.691
6.561
6.435

50
40
30
20

50
40
30
20

30
20

1,135

IO

74" 0A'

3.201

95.16

30t9

7.596
7 .429
7 .269

10

50

3121
3153

3057

12E7

50

00'

3.2r-l

9563
9555

9918
9914

83" 00'

10

t5"

?3'00'

9502
9492
9483

\a22

228

40

3.3rJ5

20

30

Cos

30

20

3026

4U

1763
1793
1823

20

30

3.556
8.345

3.376
3.340

7.770

9848

10

a.7i7

299.1

3090
3118
3145

1736
1765
1794

10' 00'

20

3.112

8.144
7.953

1614
1644

40

40

2952
2979
3007
3035
3062

2899
2931
2962

1257

1534

30

2924

10

9613
9605
9590
9588
9580
9572

t-

I22a

9872
s868
s863
9858
9853

20

17" 00'

50

9621

9922

987?

10

.2 t-84

gii30

3.8ri7

9925

1564
1593
1622
1650
1679
1708

9" 00'

1U

84" 00'

50
.t0
30
20

.9ti7l

9002

514

7G'00'

.96E1

0901

1]'255
9.010

I{)

2532

0872

3.1)11

30
20

2;0{

12.23
11.83

.1080

.10

4.2t1)
4.165
4.113
4.061
4.011
3.9ri2

q0

40

0810
0846

86" 00'

2ij21

l0
77' 00'

30

30
20
I{J

2370

2555
2586

20

10

21

12.7r

.10i1

50

l0

0787

.1074
.1103
.1132
.1161
.1190

00'

.5I

2t)+1

.10-15

-1.{i3E

215(i

78

-1

2iil6

10
20

l0
.1.705

2217

20
30
40
50

6' 00'

20

.201)5

1)7ti3

10

99.1E

:ii-l

-1.8{3

.2161

16'00'

.0963

l0

l5

30

30
20

50
40

094r8

.1)

l.;7.1

86' 00'

11 . ,13

0781

2l2i]

2130

10

6" 00'

.9793
.9737

.20ii5

ir0

l.9E1)

117611

14.30
13.73
13.20

.2035

73'oo',

.213(i

0729
0758

0843

.07!9

200{

i.otiii

20

0690

08I4

'10

9974

0785

.11)74

.9ill

.210s

9C76

.9969
.99ti7
.99ri4

Cot
I

rs4

10

O72

9971

in)

0698
t-

r-'

Sin

Cot

Cos

.10

10

70' 00'

2.723

50

2.699

40

3739

2.675

30

3772
3805

2.651

20

2.b28

10

3839

2.605
2.583
2.560
2.530

3872
3906
3939
3973

4006

2.5t7
2

.496

.3746

.9272

..1040

2.175

Cos

Sin

Cot

Tan

69' 00'
50

40
30

20
10

68' 00'

GENDRAL TABLES

NATURAL FUNCTIONS OF ANGLES (Continued)


Sin

u2i2

22' 00'

23'00'
l0

40.10
,107i!

3E00
3827

9261
9250
9239

3854

9224

4108
4L12
417it

3881

921ri

42r0

3!07

9205

42

3034

919+
9182

4279

10

20
30
40
50

Tar

Cos

.455
.431

50

2.111
2.351
2.375

30
20
.t0

2
2

:tU

9r7
9159

4318
4383

2.282

91{7

14r7

2.2t1

4007

9r35

4152

2.2.1tJ

409.1

tJ

t21

44E7

50

20

4120

1522

30

411t-

9I 12
9100

2.229
2.2LT

.194

30

40

4173

1)0E8

20

4200

9075

1592
4628

t-7

5{J

2.161

10

4226
4253

9003

42i9

9038
9026

3961
3987

,10

4014

50

24" 00'

l0

.101i

26" 00'
10

20
30
40
50

26" 00'

4305
4331
4358

4384

9051

8988

4877

2.050

4913
4950.
4980
5022

2.035

4950
4975

30' 00'

l0

20

30
40

31" 00'
10
2\)
30

40
50

i0
20
30
40
50

37"

OO'

l0

20
30

1.804

8746
8732

87r8
8704
8689

5619
509ri

8675

L.744

.t0

8616
8587

5890
5930
5969

1.709
1.698
1.686
1.075

8572

6009

8557

6048

8542
8526
8511

6088
6128
6168
6208

8.180

{i249

10
20
30

5324

84ri5

5348

8{50

40

5398

50

5122

8,r34
8-f18
8103

6289
6330
6371

.5446

.8387

6112
6.153

.6494

Cot

1.664
1.653
1.643
1.632
1.621
1

.611

1 . 5-10

67" 00'

Tsn

l0

6248
62i L
0293

7E26
7E08

7790
7?71

75tiii

IO
20
30

6-106

7753
7735
77ItJ
7698
7679

7ri23
7604

,10

7089
7133
7177

722r

50

1.455
I .4-10

30
20
10

1.'137

'128

7581

1.319

1'627

.311

50
40

7673
7720

1.295

30
20

b3" 00'

7860
7907

r.303
1.2E8

10

1.280

62" 0U

1.265

40
30
20

795.1

L257

E002
8050

1.250
| .212
1 .235

51" 00'

1.224

50
40

83-12

r .220
1.213
1.206
1.199

8301

r.192

60" 00'

8{11

1.185
I. I78

50

8541
8591
8612

1. 171
t6.1

30
20

8098
8146
81'J5

82r3
82'J2

8l9I

.7 52a

6ri0.1

.7509

6626

.7 490

88{7

6618
6670

.7470

88119

.7.151

669I
67r3

.7.131

1.157
1.150

30

8152
90{J4

1. 111

1.098

6777

9217

1.035
1.079
1.u72

10
20
30
40
50

6$67
6988
7000
7030
7050

46' 00'

.70;1

v325
9380
9435

r . 006

72'o1

9.190

r .0i.1

72t1
.7153

.7133
112
. t'092
.

927

1.091

7314
7294

.7I93

t-

.70r-

Sin

10

49" 00'
40

40

0{J

,10

1.130
1.124
1.117

1 r0l

50

10

1.r37

9057
9110
9163

6884
6905
6$26
ti947

30
20

1. t+-1

6734

6802

10

20
30

6841

l0

1.335

d583

10
20
30

30
20

1.3r3

10

43" 00'

40

7415
7490

20
30
40
50

.7333

50

7'100

8093
8744
8796

6799
fi820

66" 00'

1.419
1.411
1.402
1.393
1.385

50
40
30
20
10

65tir

10

,10

1.308
1.360
1.351

6539

44"

1..173
1..1$4

64" 00'

50

42" 00'

l0
56" 00'

I.37{t

7265
7310
7355

4L 00'

,10

50
40
30
20

6225

7ti6{)

10

68' 00'

6180
6202

7898
7880
7862
7844

ti428
6450
6172
619+

59' 00'

1.000
1.590
1.580
1.570
1.560
1.550

I57

40" 00'

10

40
30
20

ti

79i6

6338
6361
6383

60" 00'
50
40
30
20

.6134

71J34

ii3I6

61' 00'
30
20

.6I l1

79Eti
7969
7!)51

10

10

.10

1.732

5299

20

E107
E090

20
30
40
50

62' 00'

1.780
1.7b7
1.75ri

5851

Sin

39" 00'

IO

50

8631

8,196

50
40

r.792

5050
5075
5100

E601

'10

r.868

1.816

.585.1

.5995
.6018
.60+1
.6065
.6088

54$7
5505

8r24

800,1

5317

87ri0

.5831

E021.

50

8829

4771

8lt1

.5972

{0

64' 00'

40
30

7046

8073
805ri
8039

20

r .842
1.E29

EI75
8 r58

.5925
.5948

1.907
1.894

5392
5430

.5ii07

i002

t0

8857
8813

8802
87E8

.57rio
.57E3

61112

20
30

30

8810

12

6910
6959

.5t78
.500r

1.$21

.88I

.5ri88

.10

.492

r .4E3

8211
8225
8208

36" 00'

5206
5213
5280

5169

.56-10
.506-+

.5i

63' 00'

32" 00'

33" 00'

ii830

1.963
1.949
1.935

|.720

.5225
.5250
.5275

82;8

5095

5812

.5200

0703
67+5
6737

8290
8214

10
20
30
40
50

8fi60
8646

olou

.E307

10

2.020

5000
5025

50

55ii8
.5592
.5tt16

1.9t'7

4592

40

30
20

5059

8897
8884
8870

30

1.501

38" 00'

89r0

20

tio01

20

45-10

l0

.8323

1.991

45I4

4848
487 4
4899
4924

1.5r1

2.006

50

29' 00'

6619

50
40
30

8936
8923

4823

.E339

50
40

10

8949

10
20
30
40

66' 00'

2.0ii6

4488

4695
1720

2.115
2.128

48.11

44tr2

28' 00'

55I9

l0

900.t

30
40

4ri69

50

20
30

1.530
1.520

66" 00'

90r3

8962

4643

6536

t0

2.097
2.081

4436

4ti1/

.l

30
20

30
20

4.110

30
40
50

4663
4699

2
2

.E371

l0

4U

2.tt2

10

10
20

14

1734
4770
4806

20

21'Oo',

,13

5l7l

20
30
40

50

b7" oo'

10

50
00

6?" 00'

Lrot
1.5+U

ti.l94

5116

68' 00'

2.350
2.337
2.318
2.300

20
30

t5

Cot

r.000

0{8

9601
uti57

1.0J2
1.036

9713

9770
9827
9884

1.024

9912

1.0000

Cot

.030

1018
1.012
1.006
1.000
an

20
10

4E-

rJo',

50
40
30
20
10

47" 00'
50

40
30
20
10

46" 00'
50
40
30
20
10

46' 00'

I{ARDNESS COMPARISON
'lcnsilc

10r,1m,3000

Slrengt h
of StecL
psi X1000
9.r0

t{i1

920
900
880

{30

159

1i)3

860
810

.1.85
.t 90

'1

115

l+6

5.00

l{3

66

ti5
65

820
800

t-22

2.30

il3

6.1

698
ti82

780
700

2.35

63
03
Ir2
61
60
59
59

i20

0.-r3

ti38

.45

()27

020

.30
.55

601

2.60
2.65

555

2
2

5.50
5.55
5.00

116

t)5

J29

46

3.00
3.05

.115

4b
43
42
40

120

217
210
202

{01

1115

3ES

188
1E0
175
170

i0

3.15
3.20
3.25

217

363

39

3s2

3E

375
363

331

37
36

350
339

321

3+

330

311

3.35
3.40

63
62
00
59

309
297
289

221)

3.

70
08
67

118

47

101
3E8

2.40

t2t

,lll

12+

.15

,t6l

16it
1(i0

76

1I't

102

2.50

100

t07

.55

99
97
96

105
103

2.$O

93

2.65

90
89
87

112

101
9U

2.70
2.75

2.80

310

t56

30i,
29ii
28t'
219

150

2 t-7

33
32
31
30
29

3.70

269
2n2

28
27

274

133

t29

3.80
3.85
3.90

255

263
256

12(,

218

t22

311
302

293
281

21

248

2tr

l.t5

l{1

118

9I

86
85

5t
50

81

48
47
45

80

;9

77
76

35

3.05

71
70
69
08
67
06
65

2a
26
25
23

2.95
3.00

s9
s8

22

115

2l

Il0

310

i 217
| 2r2

97
96
9ri

20
18

105
103

3.15

t7

100

ti3
ti2

207

95

.20

1202

9+

2it

61
60
59

3.30

57

50
a55

4U0
4 tji
4.70

93
92

lRi

9l

| r83
| r;,J
lL;+
lr;0
I I lio
| 103

90
89
88
87
86
E5

89
87
85

tr_1

310

8.1

82
81

13

4l

3.95 235
4.00 i 221|
4.05 223

11)6

49

i5
i4
i3
i2

2.90

23

192

32

83
82

100

98
96
95
93
91

59
57
56
55

E}

21r

4.10
4.15
4.20
4 25
4.30
4.35
4.40
4.45

65
6+
63
62
00

78

2.45

"127

3.45
3.50
3.55
3.60
3.65

i1

.15

109

5.90

1-7

74
72

64

477

285
290

79
78
76
75

72

5..10

5.80

84
83
u2
81
80
79

2.3:t

2.23

121)

319

259

of steel

t-+
1-3

321

264

2.20

r3L

070
0rio

2a4

Dl'lt I

2.30

t3l

329

51

Yickc$l Strensth

lllll\

70
68
66
65

137

tit0

57
56
55
55

41)5

1-l!)

128

5.30

;00

rrt.,

1t0

l -10

5.10
5.15
5.20

52
52
50

2.70
2.75
2.80

l{I-\ lrrl'

6E

ti6

070

Irdeni.,

68
67

2.44

10nru 500Iig

10mnl,3000
Di,rm.

3.50

56
55
5+
53
52
50

39
38
37

3.1

33
31
30

2l

55
52

105
103 |
10r I
s9 I

51
50
50
49

GENERAL TABLES

PROPERTIES OF COMMON MATERHLS


Weight

lb/cu

Timber, U.S.

seasoned,

l5 20% by

Moisture

1leight
Ash, rvhite -red . . . . . .

Birch.....
Cedar, white
Chestnut.

red.

4l

Cypress...
Fir, Douglas .qpruce.

Fir, Eastern . . . . . . . . . .

Hickory...

30
32
25

3,960

48

10,420

43
33
54
59
41

7,840

:tii

7,7 50

2,920

llaple,hard..........
Nlaple, white. . .. ....
f)ak, chestnut. . . . ....
.

Oak,live.

7,600
9,560
3,030

40
32
22

Xlaho any

ft

....
......

Oak, red, bhck. . .


Oak, white.
Pine, Oregon. . .
Pine, red . .
Pine, white. . . . . . .

7,270

30
26

...

2,720

Pine, yellow, lorrgJezr,f . 11


f ine, yellolv, short-le&f 38
Redwood, California. . 26

4,280

2t'

1,940

Spruce, white, black . . Teak, African........

3,570
4,1rjo

62

Teak,Indian. . .......

48

Walnut,bhck...-....
Wa,laut,s/hite.,......

26

Specific Gravity

(Air

Gases

Air, 0'lC-760 mm. . . .


Ammonia.

t)

0.0807
0.0478
0.1234
Carbon Dioxide......
0.0781
Carbon Monoxide. . ..
Gas, Illuminating. . . . . 0.028 0.036

0.59
1.53
0.97
0.35 11.45

0.038-{.039

0.47-0.48

0.00559
0.0784
0.0892

0.068

Natura,l.........
Hydrogen..,........
Niirogen. ..,. ,......
Oxygen..,.,.........
Gas,

Aluminum, broDze...

Brass, Tacopper Tazlnc


20

80
70
60
50

30
40
50

Bronze
copper 95 io 3070. .I
tin
5 to2lYa..J
Copper, cast, rolled. . .

169
481

0.97
1.10

100,000

536.3
523.8
521.3
511.4
552

.00

Tensile Strength, psi


13,000- 24,000

Metals

Aluminum,2s...,....

.0

73,000
76,000
80,000
83,000

50,000 145,000

32,000 60,000

Iron

Graycastiron......
Malleable. . . . . . . . . .

WrcughtIron......

Lead................
Monel. ..............

Nickel . , . . . . . . . . . . . .

450
461
480
710

18,000- 24,000
25,000

42,000- 52,000
3,000
160,000

120,000

231

WEIGI{T IN

],tsS,/FT3

OI' AIR AT VARIOUS

Rcprintcd from "Compres.cd Air

PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES

Deta." Courl"sy

of C^lnprosscd Air Mrgzzioe.

Gauge Pressure (s,bove atmosphere)

Air

rf

-20
-100

.0882 .1

.1485 .2

.086,|.11

.1.155 .2

10
20

.1

30

.0811t.1
.0795 .1
.0780 .1
.07G4.1

40
50
00
70
80
90
100

.7

.701

.139;.1

.687
.673

r3381.1870
13101.r3311

.660
.649
.635

.1738

.622

.1707
.1676
.1645
.1018

.611

.1500
.1565
.1541
.1482
.L427

.570

.07

.0
.071

120
.067

1'10

150

175
200

.599
"589

.552
.531
.511
.491

225
250

.0941

275

.054

300
350

.0491

400

.1

.458

.0910.1

.415
.3S1
.36S

.0621

.150

500

47

.716

.1,125.1

110

130

1.010 1.16511.31
08J 1.139 1

.0900

.351

.041,1

.333

600

Thed,,r,qiryforrnyc-rsurrrl.r.rry,.u.,JrtionsofpressrrreandlFmppratureisAqualtotlreproductofsa,(th.spe.ificgr:rvilyofthe
rir at thp parri'ular coodr(loos ol presiure ano lemp'r&lure

relared t,r [r;c air), iin,es the der'sitv ot

SPECIFIC GRAVITY S. OF GASES RELATED TO FREE AIR


(t'ree air
Specific
-s

Gas

Ammoni&. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Arqon. , , .

,.......
Blue Water Ga,s.
Carbon Dioxide.............
CarboD Nlonoxide...........
Cerburetcd Water Cas......
Chlorine. .
Co{rl -lletori Gas...........
Coke -Oven Gas. .. ........
Dichlorodifl orometharle F-12.
Ethr]ene...................
ttllst-t lrrnace lias.

Ethyl Chioride.

Helium.....

Acid.,,....,.,
Hydrogen..,,.,...,.,.....,
Hydrochloric

232

Gravity

(Air =

Acetylene.......,......,...
Arr,.....,...........,.....

0.899
1.000
0.590
1.378
1

.000

0.530

l.530
0.967
0.6.10

2 48ii
0.,120
380

4.250
0.96S
2.2(t0
0.138
1.260

0.06s6

Air at I atmosPhere and 60'F)


Specific Gravity

Gas

s (Air

1)

Ilydrogen Sulphide..........
Methane. . . .
Methvl Chloride. . . . . . . . . . . .
N

atural Ges

Neon......
Niiric

Oxidc

.. ..

...........

Refinerv (;rs:

D\ibbs.....
lloudrie. .

0.696
1.038
r .522

Pintsch Gas.... -.. .........


Producr:r Gas, Coal.........

Sulphur Dioxide.

1)

0. 57-0.71

0.970

Nitrogen. - . .
Nitrous Oxide.
Oil Gas.....
Lrxyger!.,,

Propilne..

1.190
0.544
L.744

0.480
1.105
0.840
0.870
1.560

0.s60
1.510

2.213

GENERAL TABLES

TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS
Fin.l eiven value in mi.l.lle columni if in degrees Centigrade, load Fahrcnheit equilalent in risht hand column; if in deerees Fahrenheit, read
CeodsreJc

erui!alrr' r.

lerr har,

!'
I

-2i3
-20t
-26:

-3
-2 s
-.! I i

Jia
-4.14

-.lJa

-257
-251

l ''lrrnrr"

('

424

2-t6

-ll
1

-2.10

-:3.1
-229
2.!;t

.JSA

Stia

-JlA

-.,.10
3JO

J10

.1

-,J00
,294

-173
-109
-168
-162

2;3

-2ta

-264
-254
2),0

-151

a0a
194
164

112

-164
164

-107
- lLl I

-96
-90
_79
-73OIJ
_
-v2

114
130
124

1ta
1AA

90

-84

{5.1

- ilJ6
t tli

-400

I I

;i(i4

10.0

ti0

E6.0

0i)

E7.l
19.6

,J2

9l.4

106

ll.1
11

71

7i
62

93.2

.ia

95.0

gti ii

93
99

95. {i
IOO..1

10?

100

loi.

107.0

r04

11

ltl.!

110
116

45

1i3.0

r2l

127

l09.!l

.li
i0
ti1

n2

.7

211:

t2.2 54

271

l:.f.

l.t.li

110. 6

1IE.4

t32
r3E

31O

177
182
1S3

-202

15.{l 59

13ri.4
136.2

l8+

15.{i 00

1.10.0

201

141.E

210
216

)1.1

tLr.I u1
l1i.7 ti2

7t)

40
40

na

5a
40

ri.2

63
17.ti 64

147 .2

r99

22\
221-

260
266

161.6
163.4
165.2

2t-I
242

J7lr | 950
J?l] | s6E
bso | 956
stto

107.0

288

650 ll\22

70

71

17.6

32

2:l 3 71

\7 .2

I
I

33.8
35.6

23
21
25

I
I

77

170.6

39.2

il5

26

79

),74.2

2$9
304
310

2li

EO

176.0
177.6

316
321

!1

22
22

Iti.7

a
4

37.4

.0
42.E

15. O

:11

11.1
13.9
13.J

44. (i

12. u

12.2
11.7
11.

10.6
10.0

6.7
6.1

5. {i

5.0

61

83

1A
11

50.0

29

t2

51.iJ
5;1.6

30

r4

57

.2

59.0
60.8
17

62.6

l9

6ii.2

2A
21

6E.0

ti4.4

69. E

76

27 6 a2
2iJ 9

8.9

7.4
7.2

2i

73

4E.2

9.4
IJ.3

4(i.4

i2

a5
86

30 c

3l I
3l 7

a8

32
32
33

90

3:)

91

92
93
94

35
35

95

96
97

22

7r.6

2:J

7:1.4

36 I
36 'i

24

37 2 99

5.2

l{tE.l{
Ii-2.4

r79.6

1rJl.4
18J.2

lli5.0
rIJ6.E

2 t-7

293

327

332
338
3.13

349

l6a_ 0

35.1

190.4

360

1,92.2

366

194.0
r95.E
197.6
199.4
201.2
203.0
204.8
206.6
20rJ.4

210.2

I
I

E7u
s96

| 9r4

,* | n"t

11004

,';, llo4o
'uo
ll0s8
580
6e0

11076

600

)lll2

.jto

lr0e4

lTtJU
tizO l114tt

.Bo l\166
640
lrrE4
650 11202
66A 1220
67tJ l23E

68A 1256

6ta

1274

7AA 1292

377
3IJ2

71A 7370
72A l32a

393

73tJ t346
7,10 1364

399

75A 7342

388

404
410

4rt

421

760

1400
770 )7174

780 l\436

7454

577

604

ti10
616
{t21
627

632
636
643
649
654
660
666
t)77
682
6EE

693
699

i04
710

7t0

721
727
732

738
74:l
749

754
760
766
71-7

777

742

fiaa

SS2

Etiii

ii93
8il9
90.1

td70
ld60

910

1234
1244
1254
1284
1274
128A
1294
13AA

lala
1324

1354
1a60
1570
1380
13eO
|
14OO |
1|ta I

r360

1744

42O

14SO

1760 il20t)
17i0 3218
17E0 32:16
1790 3254
1800 3272
1810 3290
182A 3308
1E30 :1326
1840 3344
1850 3:162
1800 3:lao
r87' 33{}8
1880 :1416
1890 3131

9ti0

9!iii

1010
1016

102i

7043

to4\)

1051
1060

1066

r0t-7
lO t-7
IOa2

r0s8

2372

ll2i
lt:12
llSti

2494
2518
25:t4

tlo4
Tlto

1116
1727

1900
1910
1920

816 1500 2732


82r t5t0 275D
827 1;20 276a
1332 t53O 2786
838 16@ )| 2AU

t4I6
r121

3686
3704

1443
1449

22SA

471J4

2',t30

4S46

2740

496,1

2760
2760
2770
2780
9790

4942
5000

r516

r538

4E20

4838
4856
487 4

5018
5036

5054

2800
2810
2820
9830
2810

5072
5090
510ti

5162

t577

2850
2880
9870

1582
1588

2890

5198
5216
5234

2900
2910

29m

5252
5270

161{J

e$o

5288
53iJ6

1616

29/!O

5324

1621
1638
1643

2954
2964
2970
2980
2990

5342
5360
5378
5396
5414

1649

gAn

5432

1543

1593
1599
1604

t627
r632

1243 | 2270 4r1a


1249 1 2980 ) 1136
7254 12290 14t54

473\)

4748
4766

1.199

r566

4046.

4676
4b94

2591)

4892
4910
4928

t177

3812
3830
3848
3866

| 22.1A 4OU
\232 | 2250 4082
723a | 2260 4100

465E

2584

2700
2',/ 10
2720

1471

1560

ltil.i 2rr,
I193 PrE'
lTgtt 21t0
1204 2200 3tg2
r2IO 2atA 4rtq
l2lti ) 2p2a l4o2a

25iA

1488
1493

r466

r549
r554

31r:ll
:i93ri
3U;6
3974

4622
4640

4802

3791

3'.tO2

2560

2650
2660
2670
2880
2690

37;8

3E84

4568
4586
4604

2614
2.i20
9634
2640

t43E

1521
1527
1532

2A4A

26&

26A0

366E

2420
2a3a

2514
2524
2530

1,4:12

1510

2A1A

217O

t427

3622
3650

\766 | 2130
1171 | 21/0

1399
l:104
1410

2000

1149 12100
7754 ) !|tA
1100 i2t9d

1227
1227

l38E

r3s3

r504

788 145A | 2642


793 U6A | 266A
799 1t7A | 267r\
Eo4 I riso 2696
810 1490 2714

13E2

36r4

25t.1tj

2606

4532

1980

1t70

1177 2t 60
1182 Pl,rd

l.UA | 2624

25AA

t377

reeo

3722
3740

1371

14E2

1950

1960

2050
20(i0
207a
2080
20s0

1143

2480
2490

3542
3560
3578
3596

1940

4424

1366

1,454
1,160

19iJ0

4262
.1298

4442
4460
4474
4496
4514

3452
3470
3488
3506
3521

)570

2552

3lA4

1750'3142

954

7093
7099

2161)

4352
1370
4388
4406

241O

3146

9.13

2282
2:lt)0
2318
2336
2354

2462

43:14

2.!A)

:lt2a

1i2A
r7J0

93fi

1038

240A

4316

2394

1349
1354

1714 :trlt)

\J:12

1032

13SA 2426
134A 2444

r321

2S8A

2450
2460

2lO2

2:1.10

1316

42E0

13.13

2Oa4

222a
2216
224

1299
1304
1310

4190
4208
4226
4211

2350
2360
2374

3092

1021

2211)

r293

17AA

201a
2066

27\]2

2340

927

993
999
1004

12AA

t2a2

1288

2$A

2120
2/t30
2140

t95A

121A
129A

2314
2320

t2i7

1327
1332
1338

982

1174 2l3a
1184 2156
1194 2ri 4

r266
r271

3038
3056
30t-1

7922
1910

116A 2l2t)

2SA0

1690

10n0

1114
1124
11SA
1144
1164

C
1260

916
921

966
971
977

rg t'6
1994

2972
2930
2914
2946

1(i10
1A2A
163A
1640 | 2s84
teso I zooz
16ti0 3i20

ai7

1O.1O 1904

20:t0

158.0
r59.E

2l I

17O
48O
19O

560

11AA 20t2

734

866

i38 1000 rr32


51:l lrt, I 1rJ50
549 irrz, i 1rJ6E
55-1 lOJ' 1666

593

|
t)a | 752
/,10 | 770
120 | 78E
13, | 8oo
uo I a24
io | A60
460 | "n"

li60

949

599

19..1 67

l4

16.1

3n

lt5{

532

582
588

,nn I uu"
i6o I c8o
37O I 698
s8o I 716

li49

lt-94

527

60u
626
b14

232

2A
1A

2J

5:l

t06a
1070
1084 )
1090

23E

254

493
499

571

1;O.E
152.6
154.4
156.2

21:l
249

4Ea

591)

149.0

20.0 68
20.6 09

143.6
l:15.4

llJb

sta
320
s30

ll:i.3 65

lE.9 66

22

I ort
230 146
2/+o 161
I
250 42
26A 500
,;o 5la
28A 536
29A 5,54
nuo

\77

1,27 _4

482

1550 2 22
1560 2a10
li;o :ssrJ
1580 2at-6
1590 2a91

843

'-t---t----

510

r29.2

195.0

t3.l.0

ia

601

4t3.6

30o | 572

132 .8

6A

212

S;0 15C2
8r0 tib0
a;0 1J9E
68' 1616
894 r$u4
9AA i 1652
910 rC t-O
,90 l6rJE
,J0 1706
94O 1i24
950 1i42
9ti0 | t-AO
r7 t-,
970
gEA

149
l5-1
160
166

131.0

- 166
- lilE
130
-ll2

15.r
foo
400
1;1
1t-7

| 284

1::.0

nn

-::0

,ro |
160 I 32O
"o,
170 334
180 356
194 :li+
2AA 392
21A 410

11O

14u

13.3
13.9 ti7

-256

8oo 1472
stl) t{ir0
32' L 1;0r.t
dJO 15:6

1?0.?

r:3.8

F I'-

{t;
132
438
.143

ri

CJ

100 2t2
i'rg ?rii
13a 2lrB

l0+.0

.1

-3:S
310

51

29

a4.2

30

1!

57

1A
3A

I
I

ti

jll6

-r29
- 193
118

:19

,13

l:l.-l

35
:l 36

il59. il

-3f:

-r'16
-140
13:t

6
0
(i

lio.0

23
29

I I
I I

-J;A

- 218
-!l:
-20i
-:lol
- 190
- r90
1E4
- 179

3li

78.r

il

77.0

2E80

5126

5741
51E0

ITT GRINNT]LL . P]PING D]ISIGN AND

ENGINEFJRING

PRESSIIRE CONVERSIONS
Final qiven value in middle column; if in feet of *-ater, reed PSI equivalent in left, hand columo;
hand column. Valucs based on w&ter at 65'F.

Water

0.43
0.86
1.30

2.16
2.59
3.03
3.46
3.89
4.33

Water

PSI

2.3t

6 |I

9.23

s |
4
6
7
8
I
10

4.62
6.sB

11.55

26.42
26.85
27 .29
27 .72
28.15

61
62
63

65

140.91
143.22
145.53
147 .84
150.15

28.58

66

t52 .46

13.86
16.17
18.48
20.75
23.10

68
69

154.77
157.08
159.39
161.70

29 .02
29 .45

29.88
30.32

70

6.06
6.49

11

13
14

25 .41
27 .72

30.03
32.34
34.65
36.96

6.93
17

39 .27

18
19
20

41.58
43.89
46.20

9.09
9.53

21

22

48.51
50.82

10.39
10.82

24

55.44

L\ .26
11.69
12.12
12 .55
12.99

26

7
7

.36
.79

8.22
8.66

L96
26
27
28
29
30

60.06
62.37
6,1.68

66.99
69.30

30.75
31.18
31.62
32.05
32.48

71

72

'/3
71
76

164.01
166.32
168.63
170.94
173.25

|
|
|
I
|tl
35.08 |
35.52 |
35.95 I
36.39 |
36.82 |

76 | 175.56
77 | \77.87
78 1180.18
7s 1182.49
80 I 184.80
8.1 | 187.11
82 | 189.42
8s 1191.73
84 I 194.04
85 1196.35

37

.25
37.68
38.12
38.55

86

38.98

87
88
89
90

32.92
33.35
33.78
34.21
34.65

198.66
200.97
203.28
205.59
207.90

I
|

325.71

87

328.O2

330.33
332.64
334.95

146
147
118

337 .26
339 .57

|
|
|
|
|
65.40 |
65.84 I
66.27 |
66.70 |
67. 14 I
67.57 1
68.00 |
63.43 |
68.87 |
69.31 |
69.74 |
70.17 1
70.61 |
71.04 |
71.47 |
71.91 |
72 34 |
72.77 |
73.20 |
73.64 I

1.49

160

13.42
13.86

t4.29
11.72
15.16

31

3S

34
36

7t.7r

as .42

91

zto.21

73.92
76.23
78.54
80.85

39

.85

92
93

212 .52

96

219 .45

40.28
40.72

4t.r5

214.83

2t7.14

36

17.75

41

18. 19

42

18.62
19.05
19.49

43

19.92

46
47

37

38
39
40

22L.76
221.07
226.34
228.69
231.00

83.16
85 .47
a7 .74
90.09
92.40

41.58

98

42.O1

97
98
99
100

94.71
97 .02
99.33
101.64
103.95

43.75
44.18
44.61
45.05
45.48

101

45.91
46.34

106 | z+q.so
10f | 247.r7
108 1219.48
109 | 251.79
110 | 254.10

48.08

.45
42.48
43.31
42

44

16

20.79

48
49

21.65

60

106.26
108.57
110.88
113.19
115.50

22.09

61

117.81

22.55

53

23.39
23.82

61

20.35

2t.22

4ti.78
47.21.
47

.64

109
10s
104
106

111

48.5r

112

122.43

48.94

115

124.7 4

19.38
49.81

114
115

r20 . 12
t27 .05

237 .93

240.21
242 .55

256.41
258.72
261.03
263.34
265.65

74.07
74.50
74.94
75.80

181

182

183
181
185

291.06
293.37
295.68
297 .99
300.30

341.88
344.19
346.50

1s0

429.66
431.97
434.28
436.59
438.90

1sl

44t.21

1e2

443 .52
445.83

186
187
188
189

1es
1s4
196

448. 14

84.90
85.93
85.76
86.20
86.63

196
197
198
199
240

452.76

.07

201

87.50
87.93
88.36
88.80

202
203
204
205

89.21
89.66
90.10
90.53
90.56

206
207
208
209
210

475.46
478.17
480.48
482.79

211

487

212
213
214
215

489.72
492.03
494.34
496.65

|
|
|
I
|

24.69
25.12
25.55
25.99

234

66

60

129.36
131.67
133.98
136.29
138.60

50.24
50.68

116

267 .96

117

270.27
272.58
274.49
277 .20

CI.II

118

51.54
51.98

119
120

76.23
76.67
77 .rO
17

.97

450.45

457.38
459.69
462.00
464.31
466.62
468.93
47 r .24
473.55

485. 10

.4l

169
160

360.36
362.67
364.98
367 .29
369.60

93.56
93.99
94.43
94.86
95.30

216
217
218
919
220

498.96
501.27
503.58
505.89
508.20

161

371.91

221

162

a7

510.51
512.82

166
167
158

348.81
351.12
353.43

164
166

378.84
381.15

95.73
96.16
96.60
97.03
97 .46

166
167
168
16s
170

383.46
385.77
388.08
390.39
392.70

97.90
98.33
98.76
99.20
99.63

226
227
228
229
930

171

395.01
397 .32
399.63

100.00
100.49
100.93
101.36
101.70

231

4.22

163

172
173
174
176

,i01.94
404.25

222
223
22.1

176
177
178
179
180

406.56
408.87
411.18
413.49
415.80

702.23
102.66
103.09
103.53
103.96

5\7 .44

225

|
I'1
|

522.06
524.37
526.68
528.99
531.30

236

535.92
538.23
540.54
542.45

236

545.16

238
239
240

549.78
552.09
554.40

232
233

24.26

418.11
420 .42
422.73
425.04
427 .35

358.05

169
153
154
156

233.31
235.62

284.13
286.44
288.75

78.40
78.84
79.27
79.70
80.14

91.39
91.83
92.20
92.69
93.13

161

15.59
16.02
16.45
16.89

Head

1/,2
1/t3
144
145

62.37
62.81
63.24
63.67
64.10
64.54
64.97

\Vater

141

.07 I
61.51 |
61.94 |
61

tr'eei of

314.16
316.47
318.78
321.09
323.40

28t.82

of watr in dghi

PSI

302.61
404.92
307 .23
309.54
311-85

279.51.

4.76
5.20

read feei

|
|
|
|
|
80.57 |
81.00 I
81.43 |
81.87 |
82.30
|
82.8 |
83.17 |
83.60 |
84.03 I
84.47 |

| 121
| 122
| 12s
| 124
I 125
54.58 I 126
55.01 | 127
55.44 I 128
55.88 | 129
56.3i I 130
56.74 | 131
57.18 | 152
57.61 | 1s3
58.04 | lsl
58.48 | 135
58.91 I 156
59.34 | 137
55.77 | 138
60.21 | 139
60.64 I 140

52.41
52.84
53.28
53.71
54.15

|
|
|
|
I

PSI

Head

IIead

1 |
2 |

Feet of
W&ter
Head

Feet of

Feet, of

PSI

if in PSI;

psl

GENERAL TABLES

PRESSURE CONVERSIONS (Continued)


Fincl eivenvaiuc iD middle colurnn; if ir feeL ol \rater', rcarl I'SI ccluiv;rleDt irr lelt ha[d columnl if in PSI, read feet oI rvater in right
hand coiLrmn. \'atucs blsrd orr \\rrt1'.rl ti5" F.
Feet of
Feet of
leet of
Fect of

PSI

PSI I
I

llcud

104.39

241

104.E3

242
243
244

r05.20
105.6!)
106. r3

106.5ri

roti.99

550.71
559.02
5ril .33

113.06

505.9;

121.29

113.l9

Il0.91i
l l$. 12

5ii3. (i1

2j6
2j7

568.20

123 .15

21E

572.E8

125.62
r27.7E

2t|9

57o.19

12C.95

107.43
107.86
103.29

2i0

r08.73

251

109.16
109.50
110.03

252

110.,+6

255

110.89
111 .32
111.76

256
257
253

t2n3
25.1

25t

112. 19

It2.tr2

260

'ii.50
57it.81

r3{.28

582.

r3it..16

t2
58t.43

.l3E.62

586.74
589.05

1-10.79

591.3ti

r45 . 12

593. ii7

117.28
149.45

142.95

595.98
5t)8.20
600.rio

r51.61
153.78

I tl,t"t
I llead

261 I ri02 91
262 160i].22
2it:) 623.70
275 (t35.25
2s0 L 6.16.80
.

2si
ass. rs
2!)0 J 6{i9.90
2t5
90a I
30i |

PSI

PSI

. 1{l

3t5

83r .60
813.15

160.27

370

E51.70

I ri2 . .15

375

6I

330

806.25
877.E0

1ti6. 7iJ

3u5

E09.35

364

155.'J-l

l5il

10+.

gta
s9t

r6E.94

693.00

r71.11
r73.27

70.1.55

184. 10

./125

31A 7r0.10
Jli I 72:. C5
sta I i3c.20
,t2J I 750.75
350 7ii2.30
s35 I 773.85
S/tt-) 1785.i10
3.15 I 79rj.95
350 E08.50
355 L 820.05

195 . 0t)
205 .77

454

2r6.58

500
525
550

6Et.15

IIe.rd

Hcrd

40t)

4i5

.12
238.25

22 t'

2{9.09
259.90
270.73
281.56
292 .40

303.22

700

31,1.05
32.1.88

?25
750

335.i2

900.90

I t2.45
924.00
981.75
10-10

i733

';i5

1790

800

1E48

825

1906

368.20
379.03
389.86
400.70

854

i964

900

2021
2079

925

2r37

411.54

95A

2195

.133.18

9i5

2252
2310

92.45

r097

1617
1(i75

1213

ti49.7

1000
1540

1271

866.3

9040

'1620

3000

6930

600

1328
1386

6i25

1414

650

1502
1559

1300

3465

PROPERTIES OF WATER AT SATURATION PRESSIIRE


Tmpefctule,
".F'

32
.10

50
60
70

80
00
100
110
120
130
110
150
160
170
180

rg0
200

2to
2t2
220
230
210
250

Srturxti(nr Pressure,

psi (abs)

500

550
600
650
700

Density,

Conversion,

lb,'g.Ll

fi oI $ ater/psi

Absolute Viscosiiy,

tbi,It3

2.307
2.307
2.307
2.309
2.311

0.001203

0.000513
0.000460
0.000415
0.000376
0.000313
0.000316

0.0885
0.1217
0.1781
0.2563
0.3631
0.5069

62

.12
62.43
62.41
62.37
62.30
62.22

8.3,16
8.3,17

8.3r9

2.3r5

0.{i9E2
0.9492

62.12
62.00

8.305
8.289
8.2ri8
8.253
8.228
8.208

2.318

8.182
8.157

2.353

|.275
1.692

2.222
2.889

61.8'1

61.73
61 .51
61.39

8.344
8.330
8.330

2.328
2.333
2.340
2.3.16

3. 718
4. t'41

61.20

5.S92

60.79
60.57
00.35
60.13

8. 128

8.098
8.069
8.039

2.386

5S.88

8.006

59.81
59.63

7.S97

7.510
9.339
11.53
14.12
14.696
17.10
20.78
21.97

ii1.01

5C.38

29 .82

59.10
58.82

.42
67.01
134.6

58.09
57.31
55.59

122.6
680.8

,19.02

45

300
350
400
450

Dcnsiry,

1045

2208
3094

45.47
42.37
37.31
27 .10

2.360
2.369

2.395
.405
2.408

.973
7.939
7.002

2.415

7.86'1

2.448

7 i67

7.662
7 .132
1'.773
6.892
6.554
6.133
5.665
4.98E

3.623

.425

2.436
.479
2.513
2.591
2.684

lb/sec. ft

0.0010'12
0.000E80

0.000753
0.000657
0.000579

0.000290
0.000269
0.000250
0.000233
0.000218
0.000205
0.000193
0.000191
0.000181
0.000171
0.000163
0.000154

2.938

0.000136
0.000124
0.000108
0.0000874
0.0000806
0.0000672

3.139
3.399
3.860
5.314

0.0000605
0.0000538
0.0000470
0.0000269

2.793

235

ITT GRINNULL-PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING


DECIMAL EQUWALENTS

I
3

DECINIAI"S of a FOOT

s
0

5
%,

I
I]

'/B
Ysz

36

15

%
%

17

th
19
s/s

2l

rt42

%
25
t34z

27

0.0833
0.0846
0.0869
0.0872

0.6667
0.6680
0.6693
0.6?06

0.7600
0.7513
0.?626
0.7539

0.8333
0.8316
0.8369
0.8372

0.916?
0.9180
0.9193
0.9206

0.0052
0.0065
0.0078
0.0091

0.0886 0.1?19 0.2662 0.3386 0.4219 0. 6062 0. 6886 0.6719


0.0898 o.fi42 0.2565 0.3398 o.4232 0.5065 0.5898 0.6732
0.0911 0.L746 0.2678 0.3411 0.4246 0.50?8 0.6911 0.6746
0.0924 0.1758 0.2591 0.3424 o .4258 0.5091 0.5924 0.6758

0.7662
0.7565
0.?678
0.7591

0.8386
0.8398
0.8411
0.8424

0.9219

0.0104 0.093? 0.r71L 0.2604


0.0117 0.0951 0.1784 o.2rit7
0.0130 0.0964 0.179? 0.2630
0_0143 0.0977 0.1810 0.2643

39

4l

0.3333 0.4167 0"6000 0.6833


0.3346 0.4180 0.5013 0.5846
0.3369 0.4193 0.6026 0.6869
0.3372 0.4206 0.5039 0.5872

0.3437
0.3451
0.3464
0.3477

0.9246
0.9258

0.4284 0.5117 0.5951 0.6784 0.7617 0.8451 0.9284


o.4297 0.6130 0.6964 0.679? 0.?630 0.8464 0.9297
0.4310 0.5143 0 .5977 0.6810 0.7643 0.8477 0.9310

17

0.6E23

o.0247 0.1081 0.191,1 o.2747 0.3581 0.4414


0.2?60
0.2773
0.1120 0.1953 0.2786
0.1133 0.1966 o.2799

0.0260
0.0273
0.0286
0.0299

0. 1094 0. 1927
0.1107 0. 1940

0.0312
0.0326
0.0339
0.0352

0.1146
0. 1159
0.1172
0.1185

0.1979
0.1992
0.2006
0.2018

.5247

0.608i 0.6914 o.7747 0.8581 0.9414

0.3694 0 .4427 0.6260 0.6094


0.3607 0.4440 0.5273 0.6107
0.3620 0.4463 0.6286 0.6120
0.3633 0.4466 0.5299 0.6133

0.692?
0.6940
0.6963
0.6966

0.?760
0.7773
0.7786
0.7799

o.2412 0.3646 o.4479 0.6312 0.6146


0.2826 0.3659 o.4192 0.5326 0.6159
0.2839 0.3672 0.4606 0.6339 0.6L72
o.2852 0.3685 0.4518 0.5352 0.6185

0.69?9
0.6992
0.7006
0.7018

o.74L2 0.8646 0.9479


o.7426 0.8659 0.9492

0.1198 0.2031 0.2866


0.1211 0.2011 0.2878
0.1224 o.2067 0.2891
0.1237 0.2070 0.2904

0.3698 0.4631 0.6366


0.3711 0 .4544 0.5378
0.a724 0.466? 0.6391
0.3737 0.4570 0.5404

0.8694
0.8607
0.8620
0.8633

0.8698 0.9631
0.8711 0.9544
o.4724 0.966?
0.8737 0.9570

0.7917
0.7930
0.?943
0.7956

0.8?60
0.8763
0.8776
0.8789

0.9683
0.9596
0.9609

0.3802
0.3815
0.38S8
0.3841

0.4636 0.6469 0. 6302 0.?136


0.4648 0.5482 0.6315 0.7I48
0.4661 0.6496 0.6328 0. ?161
0.461-4 0.5508 0.6341 0.7174

0.?969 0.8802
0.7942 0.8815
0.7995 0.8828
0.8008 0.8841

0.9636
0.9648
0.9661

0.2188 0.3021
o.2201 0.3034
0.2214 0.3047
0.2227 0.3060

0. 3864

0.7188 0.8021 0.8864


0.7201 0.8034 0. 8807
0.72L4 0.8047 0.8880
0.7227 0.8060 0.8893

0.9688
0.9701
0.9?14
o.9727

0. 041?

0.0621
0.0534
0.0647
0.0560

0.1364
0.1367
0.1380
0.1393

0.4688 0.6621
0.3867 0.4701 0.5534
0.3880 o.4714 0 .6647
0.3893 0.4727 0.5560

0.6364
0.6367
0.6380
0.6393

2Yr2

r5

61
63

236

0.06?7 0.1610 0

o.3!77 0.4010

.4a44
0.0690 0.1523 0.2357 0.3190 0.4023 0.4857
0.0?03 0.1636 0.2370 0.3203 0.4036 0.4870
0.0716 0. 1549 0.2383 0.3216 0.4049 0.4883
0.0729 0.1662 0.2396 0.3229 0.4062 0.4896
0 .o7 42 0.1576 0.2409 0.3242 0.4076 0.4909
0.0?66 0.1689 0.2422 0.3266 0.4089 o .4922
0.0768 0.1602 0.2435 0.3268 0 .4102 0.4935

0.0781
0.0794
3r4 0.0807
0.0820

0.1616
0.1628
0.1641
0.1654

234!|

0.667?
0.5690
0.6703
0.5716

0.6610
0.6523
0.6636
0.6549

%
s/s

21

t/"2

%
25
tY,*

29

0. s674

%
t74
Ys
rsiz

39

4I

0.8229 0.9062
o.8242 0.9076
0.8266 0.9089
0.8268 0.9102

59

0.2448 0.3281 0.4116 0.4948 0.6?81 0.6616 o.7444 0.8281 0.9116 0.9948
0.2461 0.3294 0.4128 0.4961 0.5794 0.6628 0. 7461 0.8294 0.9128 0.9961
0.2474 0.3307 n /l1n 1 0.497 4 0.6807 0.6641 o.7474 0.8307 0.9141 0.9974

61

o.2447 0.3320 0.4154 0.4987 0.5820 0.6654 0.7447 0.8320 0.9154 0.9987

0.43?600

0.453r25

0.600000
0.515625
0.631260
0.546875
0.662600
0.578125
0.693760
0.609375

2/"2

0.812600
0.828125
0.843760
0.859375

114a

63

0.376000
0.390625
0.406260
0.421a75

0.760000
0.765625
0.781260
0.796875

29(z

0.9935

0.312600
0.328125
0.343760
0.359375

254

o.9922

0.260000
0.265625
0.281260
0.296875

0.687600
0.703125
0.718760
0.734375

51

0.9896
0.9909

0.18?600
0.203125
0.218760
0.234375

234

o.7344 0.4177 0.9010 0.9844

0.6729 0.6662 0.7396


o.5742 0.6576 0.7409
u.0 tDD 0.6689 o.7422
0.5768 0.6602 0.7435

0.126000
0.140625
0.156260
0.171875

0.626000
0.640625
0.666260
0.671875

17

0.7357 0.8190 0.9023 0.9857


0.73?0 0.8203 0.9036 0.9870
0. 7383 0.8216 0.9049 0.9883

0.062600
0.078125
0.093760
0.109375

214

15

49

0.015625
0.031260
0.046875

0.468760
0.484375

31

o.9622

0.0586 0.1419 o.2253 0.3086 0.3919 0.4753 0.5586 0.6419 o.7253 0.8086 0.8919 0.9753
2342
0.069s 0.L432 0.2266 0.3099 0.3932 0.4766 0.6699 0.6432 0.7266 0.8099 0.8932 0.9766
0.0612 0.1445 o.2279 0.3112 0.3945 o .4779 0.5612 0.6445 0.7279 0.8112 0.8945 o.9775
% 0.0625 0. 1468 0.2292 0.3126 0.3968 0.{t92 0.6625 0.6458 0.7292 0.8126 0.8968 0.9?92
0.0638 0.1471 0.2305 0.3138 0.3971 0.4805 0.5638 0.6471 0.7305 0.8138 0.8971 0.9805
25h 0.0661 0.1484 0.2318 0.3161 0. 3984 0.4818 0.5661 0.6484 0.7318 0.8161 0.8984 0.9818
0.0664 0. 1497 0.2331 0.3164 0.3997 0.4831 0.5664 0.6497 0.7331 0.8164 0.8997 0.9831
r%6

l9

0.?839 0.8672 0.9506


o.7452 0.8685 0.9518

0.6198 0.7031 0. ?866


0.6211 0.?o44 0.7878
o.6224 0.7067 0.7891
0.6237 0.7070 0.7904

)'i

0.9463
0.9466

t% 0.0673 0.1406 o.2240 0.3073 0.3906 o.4740 0.6673 0.6406 0.7240 0.8073 0.8906 0.9740

49

l5

o.9427
0. 9440

,i)
3l:6

0. 0208

0.4683 0.5417 0.6260 0. 7083


0.4596 0.5430 0.6263 0.7096
0.4609 0. 6443 0.62?6 0.7109
0.4622 0.5456 0.6289 o.7122

43

l1

0. 1042 0.18?6 0.2?08 0.3642 0.4376 0.6208 0.6042 0.68?6 0.7708 0.8642 0.9376
0.9388
o.0221 0.1055 0.1888 0.2721 0.3555 0.4388 0 .5221 0.6055 0.6888 0.772r
0.0234 0.1068 0.1901 0 _2784 0.3668 0.4401 0. 6234 0.6068 0.6901 0.1734 0.8668 0.9401

0.1823 0.2666 0.s490 o .4323


0.6990
0.1836 0.2669 0.3503 0.4336 0.5169 0.6003
0. 1849 0.2642 0.3616 0.4349 0.6182 0.6016
0.1862 0.2695 0.3529 0.4362 0.5195 0.6029

'/t6

,s

13

0.0990
0.1003
0.1016
0.1029

'4)

3,iz

0.4277 0.6104 0.6937 0.6771 0.7604 0.8437 0.92?1

0.3760
0.3763
0.3776
0.3789

o.9232

0.1260 0.2083 o.2917


0.0430 0.1263 0.2096 0.2930
196 0.0443 0.L276 0.2109 0.2943
0.0456 0.1289 0.2122 0.2956
% 0.0469 0. 1302 0.2136 0.2969
0.0482 0.1315 0.2148 0.2982
rsa 0. 0496 0.1328 0.2161 0.2996
0.0508 0.1341 0.2174 0.3008

2tAz

0
1

0.7666 0.8490 0.9323


0.6836 0.7669 0.8503 0.9336
0.6849 0.?682 0.8616 0.e349
0.6862 0.7695 0.8529 0.9362

0.0166
0.0169
0.0182
0.0195

0.0366
0.0378
nh 0.0391
0.0404

%
33

0.1667
0.1680
0.1693
0. 1706

0.2600
0.2513
o.2626
0.2539

11"

0.0000
0.0013
0.0026
0.0039

%6

29

9"

5',

0.876000
0.890625
0.906260
0.921875
0.937500
0.953125

3t4 0.968750
0.984375

GENERAL TABLES

METRIC CON\TERSION TABLE

0
Vrzs

Yaa
Ttza
3,(4
7.42s

Convert 3.7643 metors to


fcct, inches end frrctious
3.76-13 mctcrs

0.0000
0.1984
0.3969
0.5953
0.7937
0.9921
1.1906
1.3890

3.6556
t0&

ZO

Convert 15'-6146" to meters

:4.5720 meterc
: .163513 meters
15, 6Z*, : J3E51B meters

l5'

1211

626"

m*

107.95 :
412 in.
t4r'
:
.75
3.7643 meters : tZ' +%r

-4

INCIIIJS AND FITACTIONS-[,IILLIX,tETERS


Millimeters
%
%
Yra

52.3876

3. 1750

2%

53.9751

t-tr25

2yt6

55.562ri

i}.3500

2%

%
%

2yt6

1i.

5250
1125
7000

Inches

%
4r:A

6tA
6yt6

157. 163

8%6

8%

209.550

2t/t6

58 737d

4"1e

106.303
107.950
109.538

61ls

8Yt6

214

211. 138

60. 3251

1'/s

153.750
160.338

63.j

161 . 925

2!la

61.9126

4\6

111. 125

8%

6yt6

1)1

163.513

03 .5001

112.713
114.300

6%

846

165. 100

81/4

212.725
2t'1.313
215.900

65.0876

u.247 5
15 8750

2%

66.6751

4r
4%

115.888

2tyt6

68.2626
69.8501

1tyt6

1%

tYt6

19.0500

2%

20.6375

2tyt6

22 2250

2%

23.8125

2tYra

25.4001

1%

26.9876
28.5751

314
3%

13,(a

30. 1626

3%6

1s/ra

lYn

1%
1'/t6

I'A

\n6
1%

115/a

50.8001

1.%
11Yt6

r%

Ityt6
1%

166.688

8ry'.6

2r7 .48a

168.27 5

119.063

8%

61Yt6

$%

169.863
171.450

8%

6t"/t6

219.075
220.663
222.250
223.838
225.425
227.013
228.600

71.'1376
73.0251

4\yj6

4%

74.6126
76.2002

1ty't6

125.4r3

127.000

77 . r'87

t-

5%6

128.588

TYra

79.3732
80.9027
82 .5502

5%

130.175
131 763

7%

5%

133.350
134.938

b\6

6rYt6

6%

9Xa
91.4

t-Yt6

170.388
180.975
182.563

7%

184.150

e%

7y'ta
7 r.6
77

185.738
187.325
188.913
190.500

95/t6

53/4
5%6

88.9002

514

136.525
138.113
139.700

3!16

90 .1a77
92.O7 52

5%6

141 . 288

7%

5ryt6

142.875
144.463
146.051

t47.63E
149.225

7t3/t6

7t,/,t
8

3%
StYtr

3%

3t94
3%
3r016

93.6627
95.2502
96.8377
98.1252

5%
5t%6

100.013

5ty't6

101.600

150.8 r3

152.400

8%

8t/6

.312i

a7

8tyt6

176.213
177.800

3:4

3716

81t4

r73.038
174.625

7rA

71t16
7 3/t

t'%

Inches LMillimcters
255.588
257 .176
254.763
260.351
261.938
263 .526

207 .963

6Y6

120 650
122 238
123.425

a5.7252

3{i.5126
38.1001

t:),i

6%

t17.4t'5

84. 1377

34.9251

39.6876
41.2751
42.8626
44.4501
46.0376
47 .6251
45.2126

1Yt6

3ti

31.7501
33.3376

8%

4t
4%

Yra

,04 JS8
206.375

153.088
155 575

1501

57

2\/t

. 4t325

6%

t-

Millimeters

103. 188
101.i t'5

12

1\6

Inches

230. 188

265. 113

266.701
268.288
269.876
271. .463
273.051
27.1.638

276.226

277.8t3
279 .401

llYn

280.988
282 .576
284.163

t7"/t6

287.338
288.926
290.513

lrrA
t1:'
rryl

s\6

23]..775
233.363
234.950
236.538
234 .125
239.713

9r/r,

2,11.300

I1716
11r,4

192.088

er{6

s%
9\t 6

242.888

71Y16

193.675
195.263
196.850

214.47 5

11%

246.063
247.650

198. '138

9ryf,

1t%

200.025
201.613
203.200

s%

93/t6

9rA

s%

2$ .23a
250.825
252 .413

91X6
10

254.001

Ilzls

t71yt6

lttyt6

rr'%

Ilt"/16
12

285.75r

292.IOI
293.688
255.276
296.863
298.451
300.038
301.626
303.213
304.801

FEET INTO METERS


Feet

Meterg

Feet

Meters

0.3048
0.6096

16
17

0.91,14

18

4.8768
5.1816
5.4864

19

5.7912

20

6.0960

I
4

t.2t92
1.5240

6
7
8

1.8288
2.1336

2.4384

10

2.7 432
3 0480

l1

3.3528

12
13

14

3.9624
4.2672
4.5720

Feet

Meters

Feei

MeteN

Feei

MeteN

9.4488

46

14.021

18.593

9..7536

47

14.326

10.058
10.363

48

14 630

61
62

49

l0.668

50

.14.935
15.240

10.973

51
52
53

7.6200

36
3t38
39
40

26
27
28

7 .9218
8.2296

41
42

12

2S

8.8392
9. 1440

22
23
24
25

30

6.4008
6.7056

7.0r04

7.3t52

11 278

l1

582

1r.887
12.1.92

16.764

.197

56

13. r06

8. 534,1
41

66

13.411

13.716

59
00

17.069

lt'.374
r7.983
18.288

20. r17

77
78
79

84

71
72
73

2t .611
21.946
22,250
22.860

23.470

27.736

92

23.774

93

28.041
28.346
28.650
28.955

25

21.031

22.555

MeieIs

91

24.689
24.994
25.297

20.726
21 336

Ieet

23.165

24.079
24.384

68
69
70

20.422

MeteN

80
81
82
83

15.850
16. 154
16..159

t2.402

64

18.898
19 .202
19.507
19.812

Feei

.602

25.907
86

26.212

87

26 .317

88

26.822

89

27
27

90

.126

.432

94
95
96
97

29.260

98

29.565
29.870

99
100

30.480

30.

t74

ITT GRINNI'LI, PIPING DESIGN AND I'NGINI'I'IiIN(i


CONVERSION FACTORS
To Obtaitr

Multiply
Absolute viscosity

BTU,/minute

Gram/second centimeter

Absolute viscosity
(centipoise)

0.01

Poise

Acceleratio due
io gravity (9)

32.

980 6

Feet/second'
Centimeters/second'

acres

0.4047

Hctares

10

Square Chains
Square Feet

(poise)

4017

0.001562
4840
160

Areg

Bushels

2150..1

Oalories (Kg)/Kilogrant
Oubic inchcs

Liters

35 21

I'ecks

a2

Quorts (dry)

Cables

120

Fathoms

Calories (gm)

0.003$68
0.001

tsTU

0. 0011628

Litels

1.558

4185

0..12ti5

L1628
Cal (gm)/sec/cm'/'Cl
cm

Calories (Kg)

3.968

BTU

l0s

)Ietels

0.001558
.1185

Joules

0.01

Hectares
Square Feet

42tr.5
0.0011628
1.1628

1000
3088

14.69ti3
1.058
1013 15
235.1408

Pounds/Squrre inch
Tons/Square foot

Calories

(Kg)/Iig

Calolies

(Xg)/minute

Bags of cement

94

Pounds of cement

Barrels of oil

42

Grllons of oil (US)

Berrels of cement

376

Pounds of cement

Barrels (irot leg&l)

31

Callons (US)
Gallons (US)

Boerd feet

144

Boiler hoNe power'

33,479

33.9.1
10,333

or

X I in.'

9.803

34.5

252.016
0.252
777.51
0.0003927
1051.2
107.5
0.0002928
8.89

Iics. Squar. meter


Xlillibars

Cubic inches
Kilowatts
Pounds of w&ter evaPo_
rated/hour at 212'F

Calo cs (gm)
Calories (Kg)

238

51

'13

09351

r2.96

Foot pounds/second
Homc power

Horse pov'er

N{illigram

Centares (Certiares)

Square mters

Centigram

0.01

Grams

Centiliters

0.01

Liters

Oentimetels

0.3s37

Inches

0.01

fleterc
flillimeters

0 032808
10

CcntimcteN of Hg
at 32'F

0.0r316

4461
136

27.45
0. 1934
Centimeters/second

Feet

Atmospheres
Fcet oi rvater at 62' F
Kgs/Square meter
Pourds/Square Iuot

rourcls/squere

1.963

Feet/minute

0.030

Iiilometers/hour
)Ieters/minute

0.$28r
0. ti
0 02237

"t

Cal (Ks)/Hr/v'1/"C/

Foot pounds/second

200

C.rlories (Kg),rCu meter


32" F

1.49

BTU/Hr/ft'/'F/foot

Carlts (diamond)

Joules

Kilowatthours

BTU/Cu foot at 0' C

Kilow.rtts

Horse power houm

Kilogram meters

Iiilogram meters
Kilowatt houN
Watt houls

BTU/pound

1.8

Calorica (gm)

0.06972

Foot pounds

Cal (gm)/Sec/cm'?l"C/

0.0r757

(Ks)/IIr/lI'/'C/N{ 0 671

BTU/hour

0.00.113

0.02356

Cal

Ounces/Squarc inch

0.0003728

fliles/hour
llils/minute

Ccntimetrs/second'

0.03281

Feet/second'

Meter

Centipoise

0.000672

PouDds/sec fooi

2.42
0.01

Poise

Kilowatts

Chains (Gunter's)

1
66
100

cn

Feet/second

cm

* For thickness less ihan 1 in. use actual thickness in decimals


of an inch.

hours

BTU/t{r/ft'l'F/ft

Ca]ories (I{g) /Cu meter 0.112'1

BTU/minute

liilowatt

Foot pounds ,
tlorse pol!er nours

29.92r

/Hr/rt'/'F /rt

Ifilogram meteN

212.13

Cnls of Hq at 32" F
Inches of IIe at 32' F
Feei. of \\'alcr tt 62' F

B"rU

Joulcs
6

Cubic fcet/N1inute
Gallons/N'tinute

76.0

BTU/Cu foot

X r0

pounds

IIorse po$,er hours

10-6

726
5430.86

o .0247

BTU

Ioot

Cubic Feei
cs.llons (US)
Cubic f{eterc

1076.39

Atmospheres

Oalories (Ks)

3.08E

325,851
1233. '19
1,233,4S0

angsiroms

0.556

Square XIeteN
Square flilcs
Seuere Yards
S{uare Rods

43,560

Acre-feet/hour

BTU/pound

4
4

17

43,560

Acre.feet

To Obtain

Multiply

Pounds/hour foot

Feet

Links

GENERAL TABLES

CONVERSION FACTORS (Continued)


To Obtain

Multiply

by

To Obtain

N{etdc horse Dower

Cubit

0.98632

Horse power

106

Circular mils

0. 7854

Square inches
Square mils

18
1440
24
86,,100

Inches

Days (mean)

Days (sideresl)

86,164.1

Solar seconds

Square mils
Circula,r inches

Decigmms

0,I

Granrs

Deciliters

0.1

Liters

Cubic feet
Cubic inches
Cubic rneters
Cubic yards
Gallons (US)

DecimeteB

0.1
Meters
60
Minutes
0.01745 Radians
3600
Seconds
0,5556
Degrees C
1 lplus 460] Degrees F -above

Multiply
Cheval-vapeur

CircuLar inches

Kilogranr meiers/second

785,400

Circular mils

0.7854
10-6

X 10-5
3.531 X 10-'
7.854

Cubic ceniimeters

0.06102

106
1.308

10-6

0.0002642

Cubic feet

0.001
0.002113
0.001057
0.03s1

Liters

2432O

Cubic
Cubic
Cubic
Cubic

Pints (liq. US)


Quarts (liq. US)
Ounces (fluid)

1728

0.02832
0.03704
7 .48052
28.32 .
59.84
25.92

2.296

10 !

alrsolut u

Degrees C

1.8
I

lplus 32] De$ees F


lplus 273] Degrees C above abso-

Degrees/second

Quarts (liq. US)


Acrc feet

Dekagrams

0.01745
0.1667
0.002778
10
10
10

lute 0

Radians/secoad

Revolutions/minute
Revolutions/oecond
Grame

Pounds at 39.2" F
Pounds at 62' F

o.1247

Cubic centimeteN/sec
Gallons (US)/second

Diameter (circle)
(approx)
(approx)
tapprcx./

3. 14159265359 Circumference
3.1416

Gallons/24 hours
Acre feet/24 hours

Diameter (circle)

0.88623

o.707r

Side of equal square


Side of iiscrib6d square

Gellons (US)/24 hours


Gallons/minute
Acre feet/24 houls

Diameters (sphere)

0.5236

Volume (sphere)

Litels/second

.472

62'F
Galons (US)/minute

Pounds \r'ater/min at

0.033058
646,317

448.831
1.98347
16.387
0.0005787
1.639 X 10-6

2.143

0.004329
0.01639
0.03463
0.01732
106

61,023

1.308
264.2

10-5

Cubic centimeters
Cubic feet,
Cubic meters
Cnbic yards
Gallons (US)

DekameteN

Diaro (major) X diam


(minor)

0.7854

Area (circle)

Diameter, (sphere)

3.1416

Su

Diam (inches) X RPM o.262

Beli speed ft/minuto

Quaits (liq. US)

Digits

o.75

Inches

Cubic
Cubic
Cubic
Cubic

Drams (avoirdupois)

27.34375
0.0625
L.77lU5

Grains
Ounces (avoir.)
Grams

Pints (liq. US)

centimeters
feet
inches

yards

2t13
1057

Quarts 1liq. US)

764,600

Cubic centimeters

27

202

Cubic feet
Cubic inches
Cubic rneters
Gallons (US)

764.6

Liters

807.9

Pints (liq. US)


Quarts (liq. US)

0.45

Cubic feet/second

3.367
12.74

ace (sphere)

Liters

Feet

1616

3.14

Arca of ellipse

Fathoms

0.7646

Meterc

0.7854

Liiers
Pints (liq. US)

46,656

Literg

Diameiert (circle)

GaJIons (US)

1000

Cubic yards/minute

62.4266
62.3554

7. 4805
10,772

Cubic ya,rds

Degrees

Uess 321

yards

Bushels

62.36

Cubic meteN

Seconds

Dekaliters

Cubic inches

DegreeB

mete$

Litels
Pints (liq. US)

Cubic feet/miauto

Cubic feet/second

inches

Gallons (US)

0.803564
Cubic feet of water

centimeiers

Degrees (angle)

Minutes
Houls

Gallons (US)/second
Liters/second

tr'eet

30.48

t2

Feet of water at 62

Feet/miDute

Ceniimeters
trnches

0.3048

Meters

Yards

0.06061

Rods

0.029465
0.88162
62.3554
0.43302
304,M

Atmospheres

0.5080
0.01667
0.01829

Centimeterr/second
Feet/second

Inchesof He at 32o F
Pounds/souire foot
Pounds/s<iuareiach

Kilogram/sq metcr

Kilo4etrs/hour

239

ITT GRINNDLL -

PIPINC,i DIISIGN

AND IrlNGINltltltIN(;

CONVERSION FACTORS (Continued)


To Obtaitr

Multiply

by

To Obtain

0.3048
0.01136

N{eters/minute

Grains/gallon (US)

17. 118

Parts/million
Pounds/millioo gallons

30.48
1.097
0.5921
18.29
0.6818
0.01136

Centimeters/second

Multiply
Feet/minute
Feet/second

142.86

Miles/hour
Kilomcters/hour
X{eteIs/minute
Miles/hour
Miles/minuie

30.48
0.3048

Centimelers/second'?

Flet of a hexagon

1.155

Distance across corners

Flat of a square

1.414

Dists,nce across cor[ers

Foot pounds

0.0012861

BTU

Feei/second'

Nletcrs/second'

o.32412
0.0003241

5.05

X r0{

1.3558
0.13826

3.766
Foot pounds/minute

Xilogram meters
10-7

Furlong

\l-ati hours

0.001286
0.01667

BTU/minute

Gallons (US)

3.03

Horse porver
Calories (Kg)/minuie

10-6

Pounds/cubic foot
Pounds/cubic inch
Grains/100 cubic ft

Grsins/gallon (US)
Pounds/100 gallons (US)
Pounds/cubic foot,

1000

Parts/million

32.174

Feet,/second,

980.6

Centimete.s/second!

Inches
Centimeters

HectareE
107,639
100

Square feet

Ares

100

Grams

Kilowa,its

Hectolitels

100

Liters

,10

Rods

llectometers

100

Metels

220

Yards

660

Feet

Hecto\vatts

100

W:rtts

0.125

Nttiles

Kilometers

Hogshead

63

Gallons (US)

Cubic inches

I{orse power

23a.1759

Liters

4.543

Gallons (US)

3785

Cubic centimete$
Cubic feet

0.13368
0.00.1951

Cubic inches
Cubic meters
Cubic yards

3.785

Liters

Pints (liq. US)

10.7
o.7457
745.7
Horse power (boiler)

Gallons (US) of water/


minute
6.0086
0.002228
0.13368
8.0208
0.06309
3.78533
0.0044192
1
1
1

0.0648
0.0020833
o.0022857

33,479

9.803

34.5

Acre feet

Ilorse power hours


8.3357

.44

1.014

Quarts (liq. US)


Callons (Imperial)
10-6

42

33,000
550

1.20095

3.069

240

Pounds

Ilectograms

0.83267

Grains

5a .417

10.16

Kilowatts

Calories (Kg)/minute

8
4

Gallons (US)/minute

Pounds/inch

Ounces (troy)

Ilorse porver

0.003785

at 62" tr'

0.0056

8.345
o.062427

Gravity (g)

Kilogl'ams
X{iliigrams

Ounces (avoir.)

0.036r3
4.37
Grams/liter

!Jno"

0.03527
0.03215
0.002205

Grams/cubic centimeter 62.43

Hand

BTU/minute

o.o77L7
0.001818
0.01945
0.001356

231

Gallons (US) of water

Grums/centimeter

Foot pounds/second

0.2012
Gallons (Imperial)

Kilowatt hours

0.0003766

0.0003241
2.26 X 10-5

Foot pounds/secoDd

Calories (gm)
Caiories (Kg)
Horse power hours

1000

JOUteS

980.7
15.43
0.001

Knois

(US)

rounds oI

w:t

641,700

ter

641.1-

1,980,000
2,684,500

Tons of water/24 hours


Cubic feet/second
Cubic feetlminute
Cubic feet/hour
Liters/second

273,7 40

Inches

Liters/minute
Acre feet/24 hourc
Grains (evoirdupois)
Grains (apothecary)
Grains (troy)
Grems
Ounces (iroy)
Ounces (avoir. )

2546.5

BTU/minute

Foot pounds/minute
Foot pounds/second
Nfetric horse po*er
(Cheval vapeur)
Calories (Kg)/mio

Kilolvatts

Waiis
BTU/hour
Kilowatts

Pounds of water evaporated/hour at 212" F

BTU

Calories (gm)
Calories (Kg)
Ioot pounds

Kilogram meters

0.7455

Kiloivatt houN
Watt hours

2.51

CentimeteB

0.08333

Feet
NIils
Lines
Points

1000
12

Inches of Hg at 32" F

Litels

0.03342
345.3
70.73
0.49117
1.1343

Kilograms/square meter
Pounds/square foot
Pounds/s<iuare inch
tr'eet of w;ter at 62'

GENERAL TABLES

CONVERSION FACTORS (Continued)


Inches ot Hg at 32'

Multiply

To Obtaitr

Multiply

Inches ol \raier at 02" F


Ounccslsquare inch

r3 .611{

7.85872

IDches of waier at 62" F 0.002.155

0.073.{7

10-?
7

980,665
2 205

Lines

0.083-33

Inches

l{iloiYatt hours

Links

Wult

Liters

secoDd

32 . 1507

0 009302

BTU

0.0023.1,1

L 80ii

Fooi pouDds
10

Horse poiver hours

Xilowatt hours

I(ilograms/cubic meter

0.06243

Pounds/cubic foot

Kilograms/meter

0.6720

Pounds/foot

Kilograms/sq centimeter

71

Kilogram/sq nreter

9.678

.223

X 10 6

lvatt

0.003285
0.002896
0.2048
0.001422
0.007356

Atmosphercs
Fcet of \reler at 62' F
Inches of Hg ar 32" F
Pounds/square foot
Pounds/square inch
Centimete;s of IIg at
32" F

Kiloliters

1000

Kilomei,ers

100,000

Kilometers/hour

KilometeIs/hr/sec

Kilowatts

14,250

i3t'.6
1.341

Kilowath hours

Centimeters/second

0.06

Kilometers/hour

Feet/minute
Feet/second

0.03728

lliles/hour

0.03728

NIiles/minute

I{eters

llcters/second

N{iles/hour

l{icrons

10-6

Meters

0.001
0.03937

X{illimeters

0.001
0.0254

Inches

Fcet/second

25.1

Nlicrons

Nteters/minute
tr{iles/hour
Knots

160,934

Centimeterc

5280

I'eet

Feet/minute

Centimeters/sec/sec
Feet/sec/sec
N{eters/sec/sec

BTLi/minute

Foot pounds/minute
Fooi pounds/second

r000

Calories (Kg)/min
W&tts

3413

BTU

1+.3.1

1.667
3.281
0.05468

Centimetels

Centimeters/second

56.92

Kilometers
Millimeters

Kilometers/hour
Kilometers/minute

27.7a

o.2774

1000

0.06

Yards

0. 9113

Centimeters
Feet
Inches
Yards

Gallons (US)/minute

Liters

1094

27.t-8

100

Gallons (US)/second

Feet/second

I{iles

0.5396

Cubic feet/second

Feet/minute

Feei

0. 6214

Pounds of water at 62'

0.0005886
0.004403
0.26418
3.281
39.37
1.094
0.001

Meters/minute

Cubic ceni,imeters
Cubic fect,
Cubic inches
Cubic meters
Cubic y:rrds
Gailons (US)
Gallons (Imp)
Pints (liq. US)
Quarts (liq. US)

196.8

o.62L1

0.9113
16.67

Liters/minute

Inches

3.2E1

1000
3281

54 68

8.107 X 10 t
2.2018

hours

Pounds/sq inch
Nletdc rtmosphere

.22

.114
1.057

Joules

.721 Y. tO-6
0.002724
2

0
2

Caiories (gm)
Calories (Kg)

2.311

7.233
3.653

6r.02

Clrams

Ounccs (avoir.)
Ounces (troy)

35.271

1000

0.001
0.001308
0 .2612

l'ons (shori)

1000

.92

0.03531

Dynes
Pounds

0.001102

Kilogrnm mctcrs

N{iles

Foot pounds
Ilorse po\,i'er houm
Xilogram meters

Kilograms

ots

Calories (gm)

0.101s7

I-eagues

Ca,lories (Kg)

X 10
0.0002778

Kilogram meters
Wei.t hours

r.4932

BTU

2.778

If

Horse power hours

Nautical miles/hour
Miles/hour
Kilometels/hour

0.239
0.000239
0.73756

1000

Calories (gm)

Crlories (Kg)
Foot pounds

1.1516

0.00094869

3.72

2,655,200
1.341
3,600,000
367,100

Xilogran$/squdre mcter
Ounces/stluarc inch
Pounds/square foot
Pounds/squale inch
Inches of llg at 32"

860,500

860.5

Atrnosphcres

25.37
0.5771
5.1963
0.03609
Joules

Kilowatt hours

Miles/hour

N{ils

Nlillimeters

63,360

Irrches

1.609

Kilometers

1760
80

YDrds

320

Chsins
Rods

0.8684

Nautical miles

44.70

Centimeters/second

88
1..167

I'eet/minute

1.609
0.8684
26.42

Kilometers/hour
Knots
Metels/minute

Feet/second

24r

ITT GRINNELL - PIPING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING


CONVERSION FACTORS (Continued)
Multiply

by

To Obtain

Multiply

Miles/minute

2682
88
I .609

Centimcters/second

Poncelots

Feet/secold

60

Miles/hour

Kilometers /minuie

Milliba,rs

0.000987

Atmosphere

Milliers

1000

Kilogra,rns

Milligrams

0.001
0.01543

Grame

Grains

Milligrams/liter

Parts/millioo

Milliliters

0.001

Liiers

Million gals/24 hours

| .54723

Cubic feet/second

0.1

Centimetels
lnches

Millimeters

0.03937
39.37

Microns

Miner's inches

1.5

Cubic feet/miaute

Minutes (angle)

0.0002909

Radians

Nautical miles

6080.2
1.1516

Feet
MiIes

Ounces (avoirdupois)
437.5
0.0625
24.349527
Ounces (fluid)

Ounces (troy)

Drams (avoir. )

7000

0.0005
453.5524
1.21528
14.5833
Pounds (troy)
240
12

373.24t77
o.822a57
13.1657
0.00036735
0.0004114:|
0.00037324
Pounds of water at 62"

F 0.0f604
27.i'2

Drams (avoir.)
Grains

Tons (short)
Grams
Pounds (trov)
Ounces (irov)
Grains
Pennyweights (trcy)
Ounces (troy)
Grams
Pounds (avoir.)
Ounces (avoir.)
Tons (long)
Tons (short)

Tons (metdc)
Cubic feet

0.120

Cubic inches
Gallons (US)

0.0002673

Cubic feei/second

Pounds/cubic foot

0.01602
16.02
0.0005787

Grams/cubic centimeter
Kilograms/cubic meter
Pounds/cubic inch

Pounds/cubic inch

27.68

,728

Grams/cubic centimeter
Kiloerams/cubic meter
Pounas/cubic foot

Pounds/foot

1.488

Kilograms/meter

Pounds of water/min at

62' F

LiteIs

0.25

Gills

Pounds/inch

178.6

Gm,ms/centimeier

480
20

Grains
Pennyweights (troy)
Pounds (troy)
Glams

Pounds/hour foot

.4132
0.004132

Centipoise

14.881
1488.1

Poise grams/sec cm

0.016037
4.882
0.006944
0.014139
0.0004725

Feet of water at 62' F


Xilograms/square meter

0.068044
2.30934
2.0360
703.067

Atmospheres
Feet of water at 62' F
Inches of Hg at 32" F
Kilosrams/square meter
Tnchis of waier at 62'F

0.0625

12725

0.004253

Cubic centimeters

Ounces (avoir.)

Pounds/square inch
Inches of ;ater at 62' F

Pounds/sec foot
Pounds/square foot

Centimeters of water at
62' F
Inches of Hg at 32' F
Atmospheres
Pounds/squsre inch
Inches

Palms

0.0584
0.07016
8.345

Pennyweights (troy)

Grains/gallon (US)
Grains/gallon (Imp)
Pounds/million gal (US)

0.0041667

Grains
Grams
Ounces (troy)
Pounds (troy)

Gills

0.05

0.5

28.875
473.r

Ounces (fluid)
Quarts (liq. US)
Cubic inches
Cubic ceniimeters

Pipe

126

Gallons (US)

Points

0.01389

Inches

242

Ounces (avoir.)

Cubic inches

o .

Poie

16

1.805
0.02957
29 .57

1'732
4.39

Pints (liq. US)

Horse power

Ounces (troy)

31.103481
1.09714

Parts/million

Xilogram meters/second

1.315
256

Grains
Pounds (avot.)
Grs,ms

100

0.9r15

0.08333

Ounces/square inch

Pounds (avoirdupois)

Mils

1000

To Obtain

by

27,6&

27

Quadrants (angul*r)

.9r2

rolse gfams/sec

cm

uenllporse

Pounds/square inch
Inches of IIg at 32' F
Atmospheres

Degrees

90

5400
324,000

|.75r

Minutes
Seconds

Radians

Quarts (dry)

67

Qua s (liq. US)

2,

Pints (liq. US)

32

946.3

Ounces (fluid)
Cubic inches
Cubic centimeters

i01.28

Pounde

.54
101.43
101.41
220 .46
roL .47

PouDds

Quintal, Argentine
Brazil
Castile, Peru
Chile

o.0672

Pounds/sec foot,

242
100

Pounds/hour foot

Metric

Ceniipoise

Mexico

.20

0.9463

125

Cubic inches
Liters

Pounds
Pounds
Pounds
Pounds

GENERAL TABLES

CONVERSION FACTORS (Continued)


by

Multiply
Quires

To Obtain

Multiply

by

To Obtain

Sheets

Square miles

27,878,400

Souare leet

2.590

S<iuare kilometers

Hectarea
Square yards
bqu&re rooa

57. B0
3438
206,625

Degrces
Seconds

259
3,097,600
102,400

0.637

Qu&drants

Sections

Radians/second

57.30
0.1592
9.549

De$ees/second

0.01

Square centimeters
squafe rncnes
-qLlare mrls

Radians/second!

573.0
0. 1592

Revolutions/minutet

Radints

Reams

RevolutioDs

Minutes

Reiolutions/second
Revolutions/minute
Revolutions/secoud'

500

Sheets

360

Degrees

4
6.283

Quadrants

0.00155
1550
1973

Square

Square yerds

Radia,ns

Radians/second
Revolutions/second

Stere

Revolutions/minute'

0.001745
0.0002778

RadianB/second'
Revolutions/second'

Stone

Revolutions/second

360

Degrees/second

60

Revolutions/minute

6.283

Radians/second'
Revolutions/minute'?

Feei
Yards

Rods
Seconds (angle)

4.848

Sections

Side oI

Tons (long)

Radians/second

3600

square

10-6

Tons (short)

Radians

Diameter

.4142

of

inscribed

equal srea,
Spaa

Inches

Square ceniimeiers

0.001076
0.1550
0.0001

Square feet
pduare inches
Dquare melers
Square millimeters

2.296

10-6

929.0

lM

Square kilometers

Square ceutimeters
Squs,re
Sq:uare

Square rniles

1,000,000

feet
millimeters
Cfrcular inches
Circular mils
Squa.re mils

247.r

Acres

10,760,000
1,000,000

Squarc feet
Squarc metels
Square miles
Squa.re yards

1,1s6,000
Square metels

0.0002471
10.764
1.196

10

Pounds

Kilograms

1016

2240

r.l2

Kiloqrams
rounos
Tons (shori)

1000

Kiloarems

2205
1.1023

Tons (short)

2000
32,000
907. 185

12,000

Acrcg
lQuare feet,
DQUare v&rqs
C6ntare!

640

Acrcs

t,ounds

Pounds
Ounces

KilogIams
Tons (meiric)
Tons (long)

BTU/hour
BTU/24 hours
Pouads of water/hour

Gallons (US)/minute
Cubis feet/hour

BTU/minute
Foot DouDds/minute

Ioot lounds/second

rtorse Dower
C,a,loriris (Kg) /minute

Joule/second

3.413
860.5
0.8605

BTU

2655

Watk/squa.re inch

Square feet
Square meteN
Square miles

6.35029

0.056s2
44.26
0.7376
0.001341
0.01434
0.001
Wa,tt houN

Cubic meters

I .3263

leuare incbes

0.0069,14

0.3861

Tons of water/24 hours


83.33
at 62' F

Squa,re centimeters

6.452

7,273,89

0.0002066

288,000

Acres

0. 1111

645.2
1.27324

Square inches

0.16510

Dquare me,iers
es
Dquate
S{ua,re yorde

0.0s29
3.587 X 10-3
Square inches

Tons of refrigeration

Diameter of circle wiih

100

10--6

0.90718
0.89286

circle

7.1284

Squere feet

Tons (metric)

Squaxe miles

Circular mils
Square millimeters

3.228

0.1047
0.01667

6.283

0.0006452

0.8361

DeErees/secoDd

Revolutions/minute

Revolutions/secondt

nils

Circular mils

Calories (gm)
Calories (Kg)

Foot Dound6

0.001341

Hor,se power hours

3600

JOtUeS

367.1
0.001

Kiloqram meters

Kilo;a,tt hours

8.2

BTU/square foot/
Dinute
Foot pounds/sq ftl

0.1931

Horse power/square foot

9L.44
0.9144
0.1818

Centimeters
Feet
Inches
Meters
Rods

8760

Hourg

iunute

Year (365 days)

244

ITT GITINNDLL PIPING DESICiN AND I'\CI:{EERING


PROPERTIES OF PIPE
Tbe lollowing lo.Inulds ore used
showa in tbe toble:

t wetght ol pipe

per foot

i lt lerritic

steels DC.I' be dbout 5% l*s, atrd the du.stelitic stdi:rless steek qbout 2 qreoter thdn the vqluos shown in this tdbl
which dle bd5ed on weigbts lor. ccrbon steel.

the computotiod ol the vclues

(pounds) = 10.6802(D-0

weight oI wqte! p! Ioot (pou!ds)


square feel outside surface per toot
Bquore feet iDside surroce p! loot
inBide qred (squdre inches)
d!d o( meldl (squdre idches)
moment oI irledid (inches.)

=
=
=
:

0.3405dt
0.2618D

=
=

0.785(P-d?)
0.049r(D.-d.)

* scbedule nurBbrg
Stoadcrd weight pipe dnd schedule 40 ale the sdtre j! dll sizeg
tbrcugh lo-indr; tlom l2-!rch lhrough 24-inct, Brdndord weight pipe
bds d wdll thiclcress ol %-i:rch.

0.26f8d

0.785d

Enro strolg weight pipe old schedule 80 ale the sdme in dll sires
thtough 8-inch; flom f-inch through 24-inch, extrq sttong weight
pipe hqs d wdu lbicktess of %-inch.

Bec{ior Dodulus (iDcbeBr)

Double extrq strorlg wight pitr hos no coresponding schedule


nueber.

rddius ol gyrotioE (inches)

1{- = qreq oI metol (aquore irches)


d = iNide dio'neter (idches)

D :
Fa =
t =
|to!rinql
PrPe

aite

outtide
didmeter,

gchedule

lrcll

lurnbera

thick-

%
0,405

40
80

std

%
0.540

40
80

std

iD.

10s

40s
80s

l0s

xs

7a

0.675

oulsid didmete! (inches)


lodiu3 of gFatiotr (ircbes)
pipe woll thicloess (inches)

40
80

srd

xs

40s
80s

sq

neaa,

i|r.

in-

pe!

0.049
0.068

0.307
0.269
0.215

0.0740
0.0568
0.0364

0.0s48
0.0720
0.0925

0,410
0.364
0.302

0.1320
0.1041

0.095

0.065
0.088

0.I19

ss

0.065

r0s

0.065

40s
8os

0.091

0.126
0.065

0440

40
s0

;;;
XS

r0s

0.083

40s
80s

0.109

r60

0.t47
0.187

xt(s

0,294

0.065

t/
,.050

40
80

J;
xs

l0s

0.083

40s
80s

0.113
0.154
0.218
0.308

xxll
I
t.3t5

40
80

;;;

t.660

80

xs

sq

lt

irside

li

perlt

0.r06
0.r06

0.0804
0.070s
0.0563

0.0970
0.1250

0.r41

0.1073

0.141

0.0716

0.15t4

0.141

0.0s55
0.0794

0.?10
0.545
0.493
0-423

0.396

0.1582
0.1245
0.1670
o.2173

0.220
0.177
0.L77

0.1859

o.t77

0.1106

0,710
0.674
0.622
0.516
0.466
a-252

0.3959
0.357
0.304
0.2340
0.1706

0.1583

o.220
0.220
0.220
0.220
0.220
0.220

0.920
0.884
0.424

0.565
0.614

0.742

0.432

0.614
0.434

0.2s6r
0.14?9

0.5r0
0.t18

t.r03

0.2553

0.2333

0,1910
0.1405

0.lxs9

0.533

0.rg-74

0.2503
o.320
0.383
0.504
0.2011

0.2s21
0.333
0.435

1|'eight

weight ol wdter
pr Il,
perll,
surldce, sudqce,
out!ide

lbt

0.00331

0535

0.0310

0.00378

0.0r032
0.01230
0.01395

0.538
0.423
0.568
0,739

0.1716

0,0I197

0.0285

0.l0rr

0,00586

0.0173?

0.0827
0.060s

0.00?30
0.00862

0.02160

0.2150
0.2169
0.2090

0.02554

0.1991

0.1859
0,1765

0.s38

0.171

0.0I20

0.0285

0.671

0.1s47

0.01431

0.m4t

0.r628

0.851

0.13r6

0.01710

0.1433
o.1220
0.0660

r.oB8

0,1013
0.0710
0.0216

0.020r0
0.02213
0.02425

0.0407
0.0478
0.0s27
0.0577

0.27s0
0.2692
0.2613
0.2505
0.2402

0.215
0,275
0.275
o.215
0.215
o.275

0.2409

0,684
0.8s7

028A2

0.02{51
0,02970
0.0370
0.0448
0.0527
0.0s79

0.0467
0.0s66
0.0706
0.0853
0.1004
0.1104

0.349
0,343
0.334

0.443
o,428
0.421
0.407
0.387

0.1427
0.1295

0.23t4
0.2t57

1.304
1.714

0,2661
0.2301

0.1875

1.937

o.1284

0.1r3t

2-111

0.0541

0.310

0.868

0.478

1.404
1.679

0.409
0,374

0.0500
0.0757
0,0874

0.0760

0-2872
0.2746
0.2520

2.t72

0.31r

0.r056

0.1606

0.2r34

2.444

0.2261

0.1570

3.659

o.t22t ,

0.1252
0.1105

0.19m
o.zt37

0.1038
0.1605
0.1948
0.2418
0.2839

0.1250

0.56{

0.193{

0.341

0.411

0.550
0.540
0.524
0.506
0.472

0.1s80
0.2469

0.1663

0.2818

1.076

0.065
0,109

1..530

1.839

0.s26

0.434

0,401

r.107

0.7s7

t-442

1.633

u.531

0.434

0.378

1.805

0.1cl

0.140

1.380

1.496

0.669

0.434
0.434
o.431
0.434

0.361

2.213
2.997
3.765

0.548

0.{97

0.463

1.214

1.067

0.49?

0.{40

2.085

0.962

t%
r0s

0.065

t-770

0.109

r.682

2-461
2.222

0.375
0.613

t.534

0.2t92

L,414

0,599

0.896

0.1215
0.1146

1.t31

0.s22

0.382

0.00122

0,1943
0.1607

0.8r5

1.107

0.16s4
0.1628
0.154?

0.00279

0.0451

0.250
0.358

0,88r

0.t27r

0.0572

0.957

1.283

0.00437
0.0052s
0.00600

0.330
0.425

0.3r5

0.I79

1,057
0.631

in.3

qrrqtion,
i'r"

0.0008

0.133

1.27A

ina

rddiua

0.00r06

40s
80s

1.160

ineliid,

modulua,

0.0246
0.01s7

0.413
0.494
0,839
0.838

0.191

teclion

ol

0.032r

0.945
0.864
0.719

0,250

Etorled

0.r86

0.109

40s
8os

ruEbers

0.215

0.106

l0s

xxs

244

836.19 Btainless steel pif'e Bcbedule

0.344
0.344
0.344
0.344
0.344
0.344

t60

r.900

c: ANSI

lun$rs

lomirql woll dickness designdtiod.

1.I85
r.097
r.049

r0s

s;;

036,10 stel pip

0.06s

xxs

10

3q. iD"

b: ANSI

5S

r60

1%

i..

836.10 sl6el pipe schedule

tt

ingide
iasido rnetdl
diqtnelet,
cq.

d: ANSI

0.335
0.304
0.2346

0.458
o.2132

0.ll5l
0,132s

0.2345
0.29r3
0.342

0.259S

0.321

0.304
0,2840

0.361

0.649
0.634

GENERAL TABLES
PROPERTIES OF PIPE (Continued)
noEircl

schedule

prpe 3ir(

lulrber'

outside

dioEeter

10

srd

80

xs

40s
80s

rh

180

xxs

.1.@

ingide

thick-

didlll-

nea&

in.

*qit
iD.

2.375

;;

srd

80

xs

40s
80s

150

xxs

;; ;;
80

1.338

1.406

1.429

0.400

1.

r00

t.885

0.525

0.850
0.600

0.950
0.567

2.247

0.283

2.551

0.497

0-472
0.776

0.622
0.622
0.822
0.622
o.622
n-622
o.622
o.622

0.588
0.565

0.7s3
0.753
0.753
0.753
0.753
0.753
0,753
0.753

0.065
0.109

2.245

0.15{

2-067

3.35

0.218
0,343
0,436

1.939

2.953
2.240

t.229

3.199

0.781

3.641

5.76

0.728
1,03S

t.704

3.334
3,260

8.73
8.35
7.39

0.89r
t.274

0.083

3.834

tii

l0s

o-t20

3.760

{0s

r<s

80s

0-226
0.318
0.636

4.334
4.260
4.124
4.026
3.826
3.626
3.500
3.438

14.?5

40s
80s

ns

0,083
0.120

0.t88
40s
80s

0.237

80

4'Jco

120

0.337
0.437
0.s00

r80

0.531

ro(s

0.671
0.800
0.s2s
5S

;; ;;;
xs

t20

':o

2.709
2.635
2.469
2.323

2.190
2.656

0.083
0.120
0.216
0.300
0.437
0.600
0.725
0.850

;;

80

1.25I
1.00I

t.774

5.2t2

l0s

5.56'

1.689
1.503

l,075
t.411

t,276

t60

40
80

0.083
0.120
0.203
0.276
0.375
0,552
0.675
0.800

2.t57

t.275

xs

r;;

r0s
40s

t::

Frft

0.281

1.826

10s

audsce,
per It

0.4s?
0.497
0.497
0.49?

1.525

80s
':'-

xxs

4n

0.49t

1.068

1.171

;; -..

3h

0.799

2.254
2.915
4.03
4.663

160

80

2.036
r.767

Burlcrce,

1.610

4.79
4.24
3.55
2.464

t(s

xrs

3
3.500

{0s

sq. !n"

lt

inside

1.500

0.687

2%
2.875

aq. rn.

Eg

oulside

0.145

0,562

los

It

rnetql

0.200

0,650

t0s

irl.

aq

ilside

0.10
0.134
0.258
0.375
0.500
0.62S

0.750
0.875
1.000

2.t25

0.s7I

1.163

0.979

t.312

I.104

10.882

0.769
0.533

t.442

t.2r40

12.385

0.341

r.5r30,

12740

0.64t0

0.709
0.690

2.475

2.493

0.494

3.531

2.36t

0.710
0.988

0.68?

0.646

5.793

2.076

1.530

1.064

1.837

1.925

1.339

r.067
o.192
0.554

2.353
2.872
3.0890
3.2250

0.988
0.975
0.947
o.921
0.894

1.998

0.8{4

2.1490
2.2430

0.8140
0.7860

3.78

I.301

0.714

1,208

3.61

t-822

1.041

3.20
2.864
2,345
1.80r

3.02
3.90
s.03
5.99

t-724

1.164

2.226
2.A78

1.136

3.4S

1.047

4.859
6,408
7.7

t0

8.678

o.4t2
0.246
0.123

1.604

2.638

1.582

0.5i1

3.653

r,455

0.508
0.442
0.393
0.328
0.282

5.022
7.444
9.029

1.280

0.608
0.556
0,464
0.399
0.334

1.004

l.l0

1.463

3.548

9.89

3.36d
2.728

8.89

2.680
3.68
6-721

1.04t
1.04,
t.047

5,345
5.295
5.047
4.813
4.563
4.313
4.063
3.813
3.563

3,631

10.0t
13.70
15.860

17.129
3.03
4.33
7.58
10.25

t4.32
18.58

0.420

0.56r
0.73I

0.623
0.605
0.581

0.549
0.5200
0.4980

1.09{

2t.487

1,431

6.S010

3.7ts0

1.0140

24.057

1.103

6.8530

3.9160

0.9840

0.980

r.385
1.372

1,047

0.715

22.850

2.394
3.14
4.9240

1.337

12.51

2,756
4.19
6.28
s.8480

1.378

0.929
0.881

5.01
4.81
4.25
3.85
2.530

1.960

0.984

3.47
4.91

1.152

1.178

r.t35

3.92

2.81t

1.249

1,562

t4-25

1.651

1.115

1.549

2.547

2.600!

1,5250

12.73

3)1

1.178

1.054

3.96
5.8500
1.29

t.762

13.357

1.178
1.178

3.2I

1.510

I1.50

4,41

1.t78
r.178

1.800

2.900
2.650

iE,

0.817
0.802
o.787
0.766
0,729
0.703
0.6710

1.047

0.9I6

UoD"

ir!.3

0.2652

1.021

5.{7

0.882
0.?65
0.608

9Yrs-

lua,

0.315
0.499
0.666
0.868

6.317
7.073

5,42
4.15
3.299
2.543

2.300
2.050

2.224
3.02
4.21

2-7tS

inertio,

rcdius

0.326
0.412
0.508
0.s98
0.6470
0.6670

0.916
0.916
0.916

3.068

It,

reclion
rnodu.

0.310
0.391
0.483
0.568
0.6140
0.6340

0.873
0.853
0.803
0.759
0.687
0.502
0.537
0-471

2.900

0,916
0.916
0.916
0.s16

0,421
0.393
0.350
0.288
0.223
0.157

weight momolll
weight oI wcte!
oI
perIt.
per

5.845

r033

1.082

Lll

8.560
10,79

1.002

14.98

r8.96

31.613

4.98
1.45
4.160
4.02
3.38
2.464

16.6610

353r8

2.3S1

17.7130

9.73
9.53

6,95

9.294
r0.384

t.t78

0.949
0.915
0.900
0.825
0.759
0.694

r.868

1.456

1.399

1.456

1.386

20.01

2.255
4.30

6.35
7.?7

l.{56

1.321

t4.62

I8.19

6.ll

1.456

1,260

16.35

1.456

l.l9s

20.18
27.04

14.6t

7.95
9.70

1.456

1.129

t2.91

11.34

ll.4t3

12.880

1.456
1.456

9.966

14.328

1.455

9.621

9.28
7.80
6.602

5.5I3
22.14
22.02

6.283
6.62

1.178

8.10

1.178
1.178

t.r78

r.064
0.998
0.933

6.40
6.17
5.800

21.360
22.51

27.54

32.95
38.55
43.810
47,134

1.2100

9.61

4.21

11,55

5.18

t.477
r.445

12.71t0
t3-27

5.6760

r.4250

15.29

6.79
7.4050
7.8720

8.43

2,498
3.03

15.17

7.89
7.09

1.307

20.68
z5-71

1.416
1.374

r.$80
1.3060

r.920
r.878

7.43
9.25

1.839

30.0

10.80

l.?60

33.6
36.64s0

t2.r0

1.722

4.951

r3.1750

4.232

39.lll0

14,0610

5.62

1.799

1.5520

ITT CiIiINNIII,I, PIPINCI DESI(I\ AND ]iJNGIN]'I'ITIN('


PROPERTIES OF PIPE (Continued)
pipe siz

wdll

gchedule

thick-

inside
didm-

inside

rbet(rl

sq. rn.

sq. llr.

40

st;

40s

80

xs

80s

t20
160

xxs

sudcrc

pe!

Il

2_304

4.35

30.100

1.620

rs.020

22.6600

6.065

28.89

5.58

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1.s88

18.97

r3.100
12.5r

6.8400
8.s0

2.255
2.2700
2.245

5.761

26.0'7

r-734

I.508

28.57

11.29

2.195

1.440

36.39

21,I5

r3.33

1.358

45.30

17.81

2.153
2,104

18.83

15.64

1.734

1.282

53.r6

r0.30
9.16
8.17

14.98

66.3

16.792

t7.662

t.734

l.2ll

60.076

72.1190

20.03
21.7720

2.0200

1.125

5.189
4.897
4.625
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t.734
t.?34

40.5
49.6
59.0

12.23

23.',|',|

8.40
10.70

15.025

19.429

t.734

1.t45

66.084

76.5970

23.t244

r.98s0

0.I0s

8.48',7

2.201
2.180

24.07

26.45

6.13

3.01

13.40

23.59

35.4

8.21

0.219

8.r87

2.Is0

rs.640

3.00
2.S700

2.t27

22.38

22.900
22.48

51.3200

6.58

2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258
2.258

9.91

8.329

55.5
54.5
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2.916

0.14s

2.u3

24.70

22.t8

2.089

28.55
35.64

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2.045

20.79

s7.7
63.4
72.5
88.8

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43.39

I9.80

1.948

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23.942
26.494

2.258
2.255
2.258
2.258
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0.219

0.280
0.432
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5.501

0.718

3.94
5.800

51.2

0-322

7.981

0.406
0.500

7.813
7.625

50.0
47.9

100

0.593

7.439

I20

0.718

7.I89

140

0,812

7.001

8.625

160

0.906

6.8I3

1.000

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6.625
6.375

0.r34

10.482

86.3

4.52

2.8rs

r0.420

85.3

2.815

0.219
0.250
0.307

10.312

83.52

10.250
10.136

4;;

0.365

80s

0.500
0.s93
0.718
0.843
0.875

r0.020
9.750
9.564

82.5
80.7
78.9
74.7

5.49
1.24
8.26

l0s

IO
10.750

60

s0
100

120

8.40

r0.48
12.78

43.5
40.6
38.5
36.5
34.454
31.903

I4.96
17.84

I9.93
2r,97

I.882
I.833

11.9000

I3.39
14.69

t6.8I

2.060

2.962
2.953
2.938

20.58

2.909

105.7

24.52

2.874

18.84

tzt,4

25.t4

2.847

17.60

140.6

32.6

2.807

I6.69

Is3.8

35,7
38.5

2.777
2.748

4r-0740
44.2020

2.7r90
2.68t0

1.784

74.69

15.80

t.734

81.431

14.945

177.t320

1.66S

90.114

13.s38

190.8210

15.15

3',7.4

3.75

36.9

14,30

3.74

24.63

36.2

63.7
76.9
r00.46

I I.85

I8.70

18.69

3.72

28.O4

35.8
35.0

113.7

21.16

3,7r

137.S

2s.57
29.90

3.59

34.I

10.07

2.8I5
2.8I5
2.8I5

I.9l

2.815

2-744
2.728
2.10
2.683
2.654
2.623

I6.10

7.284

2A.V

34.24
40.48
s4.74

32.3

I60.8
2t2,0

64.33

31.1

244-S

45.6

246.2

53.2

89.20
92.28

324

60.3

2.36

29.5
28.0
27.6

333.46

62.04

3.60
3.56
3.52
3.50

71.8

18,S2

2.8r5
2.8r5

2.553
2.504

9.314

68.1

22,63

2.815

9.064

26,24

2.8r5

9.000

64.5
63.62

2.438
2.313

27.t4

2.815

39.4

140

1.000

8.750

60.r

30.6

2.815

2.391

104.r3

26.1

68.4

3.47

160

r.125
r.250

8.500
8.250
7;150

56.7
53.45
47.15

34.0

2.81S

u5.65

74.3

2.81S

3.43
3.39

2.03

r48.I9

42A.r7
478.59

79.66

2.8I5

24-6
23.2
20.5

399

37.31
43-51

2.225
2.18

89.04

3.31

I9.20
22.V3
30.1

4.45
4.44
4.42

1.500
0.156

12.438

tzt.4

6.17

3.34

12.390
12-250

120.6

1.tl

1r7.9

9.S4

I2.090

1I4.8

I2.88

r2.000

113.1

14.58

11.938

ul.9

ts.74

1r.750

I08.4

l9-24

3.34
3.34
3.34
3.34
3.34
3.34

io

0.180
0.250
0.330
0.375
0.406
0.500
0.562

11.626

106.2

2r.52

3.34

3.08
3.04

80

0.687

r1.376

t0I.6

26-O4

3.34

2.9'18

I1.250

99.40

28.27

3.34

2.94

100

0.750
0.843
0.875

11.064

96.1

3r.5

3.34

11.000

32.64

t.000

10.750

95.00
90.8

36.9

3.34
3.34
3.34

10s

;i
30

;;

40

-s
t2,750

lion,

in.3
3.58

51.8

iixs

Ius,

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14.40

8.071

30

inertio,

tb

u.85

8.12s

40

per Ii,

13.74

0,27',|

20

qYra-

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0.250

5S

lbt

modu-

9.29

20

80s

pr It,

ol

5.37

30

80

lt

radiua

weigrht

1.664

;;; 4;;

per

weisht

t.677

32.2

8.625

40

It

inside

1.734
1.734

3t.'1

1.000

60

sq

t.734

6.407
6.357
6.187

0.134

0.864

10s

It

outside

2.231
2.733
4.410

0.109
IOS

sq

r20
t40
160

80s

126.82

3.26
3.24

20.99

52.7

122.2

24.20

52.2

140.5

3.21

33.38

sl.l

191.9

3.17

43.71

45.7

248.3

39.0

4.39

3.14

49.56
s3.53

49.0
48.5

279-3

43.8

300

47.1

65.42

47.0

362

s6.7

4.38
4.37
4.33

73.I6
88.5I

46.0

401

62.8

4.31

43.1