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CENTRO BOLIVIANO AMERICANO Teacher: Ernesto Correa

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Gerunds and Infinitives


A. Answer these questions with the person next to you 1. Have you ever gone skydiving? Would you like to do it? Why (not)? 2. What was the most exciting adventure you have ever had? Tell your friend about it? 3. Do you prefer to have vacation time in a place to practice extreme sports and/or enjoy nature, or would you rather travel to the city in order to enjoy its night life? Explain it. 4. Are you braver than you used to be when you were younger or are you less courageous nowadays? Why do you think so? B. Watch the movie segment and choose the best way to complete the sentences below. Carter and Edward 1. Their/ They/ Them getting ready to jump was extremely awkward. 2. One of Carter's concern was his/ he/ him/ missing the chance to see his wife again. 3. Edward disliked Kyle's / Kyle making comments about Edward's second wife. 4. Edward supported Carter's / Carter jumping off the plane. 5. Carter was really concerned about the parachute's/ parachute not opening. 6. Their/ Them/ They having a few months of life made them experiment new adventures before dying. 7. Edward's instructor was desperate with his/he/him singing while they were skydiving. 8. Edward and Carter seemed to have enjoyed their/ their/ they diving. C. Complete these sentences. Use pronouns / possessive ('s) before gerunds in your answers. 1. One interesting thing in the scene was . 2. The funniest moment of the segment was .. 3. ... was amazing. D. Individually, make a list of 10 things you would like to do before you die. Don't show it to anyone. E. Work in groups of three students now. Share your list with a friend and come up with a final one with 10 things the three of you would like to do before you die. You have to negotiate and convince your partners because only 10 activities are possible. F. Share your list with your classmates.

REVIEW OF GERUNDS Gerund Subjects


Referring to activities
Gerunds are nouns made from verbs
NOUN GERUND GERUND PHRASE

A noun is a person place of thing.

A verb is changed to a noun form by adding -ing.

A verb phrase includes a gerund followed by other words such as a noun or a prepositional phrase.

Online-classes are very convenient. Computers save a lot of time

Studying is very convenient online. Computing saves a lot of time.

Studying online is very convenient. Using a computer saves a lot of time.

CENTRO BOLIVIANO AMERICANO Teacher: Ernesto Correa


SINGULAR PLURAL

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Use singular verb agreement with a gerund activity.

Use plural verb agreement with more than one gerund activity.

Reading books is important for learning vocabulary. Texting while you are driving is dangerous.

Reading and listening the television are two ways to improve your vocabulary. Typing and texting are activities that require a keyboard.

What happens with one syllable words? These words contain "short" vowel sounds. Double the final consonant before adding -ing
short a /np/ short e /wd/ short i /swm/ short o /tp/ short u /hg/

nap napping wrap wrapping bag bagging bat batting

wed wedding step stepping set setting beg begging

swim swimming hit hitting win winning kid (joke) kidding

chop chopping jog jogging nod nodding spot spotting

run running sun sunning hug hugging shut shutting

Change the verbs into a gerund form

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

People can list items they want to sell and find items they want to buy. Users can search for item descriptions. and change their item's category. They can feature their item in the showcase

..LISTING. items they want to sell _______________ items they want to buy _______________ for item descriptions _______________ their item's category _______________ their item in the showcase

Choose the correct spelling of the gerund form

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

There are two parts to ___________ a good story. (produce) The ___________ of telling a joke is half of the art. (time) Not ___________the punchline is critical. punchline (n.) final line in a joke (destroy) ___________ is a different art which doesn't include a story. (destroy) ___________ is a kind of humor in which someone says something untrue for an effect. (kid) ___________ up the details of a joke is like weaving cloth. weave (v.) making a textile, cloth (tie) ___________ a good actor helps when telling a joke. (be) When a comedian isn't getting many laughs, this is called ___________ (die) Another expression for a comedian who isn't doing well on stage is ___________ (choke) ___________ laughs from an audience is a rewarding feeling (win)

Gerunds as Objects
Expressing attitudes about activities
Opening Day at the Giant's Ball Park Giants deny feeling any added pressure. The fans enjoyed seeing the first ball fly over the brick wall and into the bay. The fans disliked seeing a gigantic soda bottle mounted on the edge of the field. Many missed being in Candlestick Park. They came by bus, by train, by boat and by taxi. The fans didn't mind taking public transportation. Visitors enjoyed exploring the multistoried structure and found and abundant supply of food and space.
Nouns & Gerunds as Objects

OBJECT - NOUN We enjoyed the game. We didn't mind the noise.

OBJECT - GERUND ( also a noun) We enjoyed watching. We didn't mind listening.

OBJECT - GERUND PHRASE We enjoyed watching the game. We didn't mind hearing the cheers.

CENTRO BOLIVIANO AMERICANO Teacher: Ernesto Correa


Gerunds as Objects

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VERB BEFORE GERUND Particular verbs expressing attitude or opinion are followed by the gerund verb form of the activity. I hate practicing my guitar. I enjoy being a disk jockey. I can't bear seeing bad results. I can't help rushing all the time. I postponed hiring an assistant.
Verbs commonly followed by a gerund object
admit He admitted smoking marijuana. advise He advised going to college. allow They allowed smoking outside. anticipate I anticipate having fun. appreciate She appreciates having help. avoid We avoid asking for help. begin *I begin working tomorrow. can't bear I can't bear hearing lies. can't help I can't help sneezing. can't stand I can't stand waiting. celebrate He celebrated getting a job. complete He completed reading it. consider He won't consider helping. delay They delayed leaving. deny He denied stealing it. deserve He deserves being in jail. detest She detests exercising. discuss We discussed going out. dislike He dislikes dressing up. enjoy She enjoys dressing up. escape He escaped getting married. finish We finished watching TV. forget **I forgot turning the light off. imagine He imagined being free. hate *She hates being alone. keep We keep trusting him.

SYNONYMS (verbs with same meaning) Vers with similar meaning also tend to be followed by the gerund verb form of the activity. I detest / dislike practicing my guitar. (Hate, detest, dislike have the same meaning.) I love / like being a disk jockey. I can't stand / hate seeing bad results. I can't avoid rushing all the time. I delayed / put off hiring an assistant.

like *I like learning languages. love *We love going on vacation. mention He mentioned having dogs. mind Do you mind smoking there? miss I miss being home. neglect *I neglected doing my work. postpone I postponed having kids. practice I practice playing the piano. prefer *We prefer eating early. prohibit They prohibit parking here. quit I quit smoking. recall She recalls being young.

reccommend I recommend staying. regret *I regret not being there. remember **I remember hearing it. resent I resent being left alone. resist I resist eating too much. risk He risked losing everything. start *We started taking walks. stop **He stopped smoking. suggest He suggested chewing gum. tolerate We don't tolerate cheating. try We tried eating snails. understand I understand getting mad.

prevent Vaccinations prevent getting ill. support He supported going to war.

May be followed by a gerund or an infinitive: * without a change in meaning. / ** with a change in meaning. May be followed by an object: and an infinitive. (He advised us to go to college.) / and a gerund. (She appreciates you for helping.) May be followed by a that-clause. Subjunctifve Verbs

Means the Same Verbs followed by a gerund or infinitive


Verbs Followed by a Gerund or Infinitive

VERB BEFORE GERUND Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive without a change in meaning. I love traveling. I prefer dunking my doughnuts.

VERB BEFORE INFINITIVE (same meaning) Using a gerund or infinitive after these verbs does not change the meaning. I love to travel. (But not I would love to travel. which expresses a wish.) I prefer to dunk my doughnuts.

CENTRO BOLIVIANO AMERICANO Teacher: Ernesto Correa He deserves being in jail. I continue working out everyday.

Saturday Classes ernestokorrea@gmail.com He deserves to be in jail. I continue to work out everyday.

Verbs that do not change meaning when followed by a gerund or infinitive object
attempt I attempted to build / building a house. begin We began to work / working. can't bear I can't bear to leave / leaving you. can't stand I can't stand to see / seeing waste. continue We continued to work / working all day. deserve He deserves to be / being in jail. hate I hate to miss / missing my bus. like I like to smim / swimming. love I love to travel / traveling prefer I prefer to walk / walking. start She started to cry / crying

Means Something Different Verbs followed by a gerund or infinitve


Verbs that change meaning before a gerund or infinitive

VERB BEFORE GERUND Sometimes a verb has one meaning when followed by a gerund I forgot locking the door. (I can't remember the action.) I remember locking the door. (I remember the action.) I regret telling you the news. (I wish I hadn't told you anything.) That failed, so I tried fixing it with a wrench. (I employed a new or different approach.) We stopped eating hamburgers. (We no longer eat hamburgers.)

VERB BEFORE INFINITIVE (different meaning) and has another meaning when followed by an infinitive. I forgot to lock the door. (I didn't lock it.) I remembered to lock the door. (I locked it.) I regret to tell you the news. (I am sorry about what I need to tell you.) I tried to fix your sink with a hammer. (I put in effort, I made an attempt.) We stopped to eat hamburgers. (We stopped our car in order to eat hamburgers.)

Write the gerund or infinitive that best completes the sentences 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I finished _____________ at 5:00 last night and went home. (work) I remember _____________ the office door. I have a mental picture of the action. (close) I didn't forget _____________ the door. I locked it. (lock) I missed _____________ the ferry and had to wait 30 minutes. (catch) I stopped _____________ after I missed ferry. (rush) The ferry was late because it stopped _____________. (refuel) Sometimes, it can't help _____________ late. (be) Commuters expect _____________ on time. (leave)

CENTRO BOLIVIANO AMERICANO Teacher: Ernesto Correa


9. I especially dislike _____________ home late at night. (get) 10. I recall _____________ two hours late once! (be)

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11. Most people don't mind _____________ delayed if there is a good reason. (be) 12. However, we suggest _____________ before the commute hour begins. (refuel)

REVIEW OF INFINITIVES Infinitives Subjects


Referring to activities, quotes and definitions
An infinitive, similar to a gerund, is:

a noun formed from a verb (an activity) a singular noun used mostly for intended (future) activities used as a subject or object often used in bulleted lists

Gerund Subject vs. Infinitive Subject


SUBJECT - GERUND PHRASE SUBJECT - INFINITIVE PHRASE

Starting a sentence with an infinitive is not as common as using a gerund. (noun phrase)

To start a sentence with an infinitive sounds awkward as if one is giving a formal speech.

Infinitive Use
QUOTES DEFINITIONS

Infinitives are frequently used in quotes.

Infinitives are commonly used in dictionary definitions:

To believe is very dull. To doubt is intensely engrossing. To be on the alert is to live. To be lulled into security is to die. -Oscar Wilde

KNOW 1. To perceive directly; grasp in the mind with clarity or certainty. 2. To regardas true beyond doubt: "I know she won't fail." 3. To have a practical understanding of, as through experience; be skilled in: "knows how to cook." 4. To have fixed in the mind: "knows her Latin verbs." 5. To have experience of: "a black stubble that had known no razor"-- ;William Faulkner 6. To be acquainted with: "He doesn't know his neighbors." 7. To be able to distinguish; recognize as distinct: "knows right from wrong." 8. To discern the character or nature of: "knew him for a liar." 9. Archaic To have sexual intercourse with .

Change the 'infinitive' phrase to a 'gerund' phrase To know is nothing at all; to imagine is everything. 1. To live is to learn. 2. To know is to care. Knowing is nothing at all; imagining is everything. __________ is __________ __________ is __________

3. To know what we know and to know what we do not know -- that is understanding. __________ what we know and __________ what we do not know that is understanding

CENTRO BOLIVIANO AMERICANO Teacher: Ernesto Correa 4. To see is to believe.

Saturday Classes ernestokorrea@gmail.com __________ is __________

5. To think something does not cause as much trouble as to say something. __________ something does not cause as much trouble as __________ something 6. To be successful in love, one must know how to begin and when to stop. __________ successful in love, one must know how to begin and when to stop. 7. To give lip service to someone requires little effort. 8. To know all is to forgive all. 9. To forgive is heavenly, to forget is divine. __________ lip service to someone requires little effort. __________ all is __________ all __________ is heavenly, __________ is divine

Infinitives as Objects
Expressing intent and wishes
An infinitive:

is a noun created from a verb form. can take the place of a noun. comes after a specific group of verbs that express intent or possibility about a future event.

Object Infinitive Phrase


A NOUN AS THE OBJECT AN INFINITIVE VERB PHRASE AS THE OBJECT

Ed needs some help. Ed hopes for some peace and quiet. Ed likes attention from others.

Ed needs to get some help. Ed hopes to find some peace and quiet. Ed intends to receive attention from others.

Verbs Followed by Infinitives


VERB + INFINITIVE VERB + INFINITIVE VERB + INFINITIVE VERB + INFINITIVE

afford I can afford to buy it. continue* I continue to work there. like* I like to swim. regret I regret to tell you this. agree I agreed to help her. decide I can afford to buy it. would like I'd like to go with you. remember** I remembered to lock it. appear You appear to be lost. demand He demanded to know. love* I love to dance. seem He seems to be relaxed. arrange I arranged to meet them. deserve* You deserve to win. manage I'll manage to survive. start* It started to snow. ask I asked to go along. desire She desires to see you. mean I didn't mean to hurt you. struggle I struggle to do well. attempt* I attempted to explain. expect I expect to be a little late. need I need to ask them. swear I swear to be true. beg I begged to go too. fail I failed to get an A. neglect* I neglected to do my work. tend I tend to be on time. begin* I began to take classes. forget I forgot to call you. offer I offered to pay for it. threaten I hope to see you soon. can't bear I can't bear to leave. hate I hate to miss your show. plan I plan to leave soon. try* I try to help often. can't stand* I can't stand to wait. hesitate* I hesitate to say anything. prefer* I prefer to pay less. volunteer I volunteered to cook. care I don't care to see them. hope I hope to leave soon. pretend I pretend to be confident. wait I wanted to see the show. choose I choose to live here. intend* I intend to win the game. prepare I will prepare to leave. want I want to leave now. claim He claims to be smart. learn I learned to speak Swahili. promise I promise to be on time. wish I hope to go to Italy. consent She consented to marry hope I hope to see you soon. refuse I refuse to believe lies. him. * This verb can be used before an infinitive or a gerund with similar meaning. (e.g. I began to plan my trip last week. / I began planning my trip last week.) ** This verb changes its meaning when placed before a gerund. More explanation: Gerunds vs. Infinitives (means something different) Also see indirect objects and infinitives

CENTRO BOLIVIANO AMERICANO Teacher: Ernesto Correa


Negatives
NEGATIVE MAIN VERB

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NEGATIVE INFINITIVE

Use a negative verb if the speaker has no particular intention to do something.

Use a negative infinitive if the speak has a clear intention to avoid something.

I don't plan to shop downtown.


(Either I have no plans or shopping downtown is not included in my plans.)

I plan not to shop downtown.


(Shopping downtown is not included in my plans.)

Exceptions
OPTIONAL to OMIT to

Use to optionally after dare and help.

Do not use to after would rather.

I didn't dare (to) go on vacation without asking first. They helped (to) get the project done.

I would rather [to] go on vacation than work.

Common Mistakes
ERROR FIX

I hope you to have a good trip.

I hope to have a good trip. (Remove the indirect object - you.) I hope (that) you will have a good trip. (Use a that-clause
with an indirect object.)

I promise you to be careful.

I promise to be careful. (I promise that I will be careful.) I promise you (that) I will be careful. (Use a that-clause with
an indirect object.)

Write the gerund or infinitive that best completes the sentences

1. Al Gore intends (bring) ___________ world-wide awareness to the issue of Global Warming. 2. Polar ice seems (be) ___________ melting faster than ever before 3. Polar bears continue (lose) ___________ their habitat. (area where they live) 4. People are trying (use) ___________ alternative energy sources to heat homes. 5. People want (explore) ___________ cleaner energy sources 6. People are promising (buy) ___________ more fuel-efficient cars 7. People are refusing (buy) ___________ huge "gas guzzling" (fuel inefficient) cars. 8. People are demanding (have) ___________ higher standards set for acceptable air pollution levels. 9. People want (keep) ___________ water supplies clean. 10. Everyone would like (enjoy) ___________ a clean environment.

CENTRO BOLIVIANO AMERICANO Saturday Classes Teacher: Ernesto Correa ernestokorrea@gmail.com Watch the video segment and circle the best verb for each sentence, according to the information presented in the segment. Then decide which form (gerund / infinitive / obj + gerunds or infinitive) of the words in parentheses is best.

1) The attorney refused/ wanted/ planned _____________ (accept) being replaced from the case by a Law student. 2) The defendant decided/ imagined/ claimed __________ (fire) her attorney on trial day. 3) Elle hates/loves/ avoids ___________ (wear) extravagnat clothes . 4) The judge finally refused/ denied/ resolved ___________ (proceed) with the trial. 5) Elle's friends couldn't help / pretended / finished __________ (talk) about the court room in front of everyone. 6) The judge told/ asked/ begged ___________ (the ladies - take) a seat. 7) The witness explained/ urged / swore ______________ (tell ) the truth. 8) The witness claimed / showed / intended _________ (be) in the shower during the murder. 9) The witness denied / insisted/ warned __________ (hear) the gunshot. 10) The judge forbid/ prohibited/ let ______________ (Elle - make ) her final point. 11) The witness admitted / proved/ avoided ___________ (kill) her father by mistake. 12) Finally, the judge prohibited / allowed / pretended _________ (the witness - go) free.

CENTRO BOLIVIANO AMERICANO Teacher: Ernesto Correa

Saturday Classes ernestokorrea@gmail.com

Double Comparatives
A. Answer these questions with the person next to you 1. Do you have a boyfriend or girlfriend? 2. Do you really know him or her? 3. If you have one, what have you learned in your relationship so far? B. Listen to the song and complete the missing words All I know Is everything is not as it's ________ but the ________ I ________ the ________ I ________ And I have lived so many ________ Though I'm not ________ And the ________ I see, the ________ I ________ The ________ the ________ the ________ I ________ C. Match the words on the right with the words on the left Then I see you standing there Wanting more from me And all I can do is try a. And all I can do is try b. Wanting more from me c. Then I see you standing there

I wish I hadn't seen all of the realness And all the real people are really not real at all The more I learn the more I cry As I say goodbye to the way of life I thought I had designed for me D. Continue listening the song and complete the missing words Then I see you ___________ there Wanting ___________ from me And all I can do is ___________ Then I see you standing there I'm all I'll ever ___________ But all I can do is ___________ ___________ All of the ___________ that already ___________ We'll try to go back and make them last All of the things we ___________ each other to be We never ___________ be And that's ___________, and that's life And that's you, baby This is me, baby And we are, we are, we are, we are Free In our love We are free in our love

CENTRO BOLIVIANO AMERICANO Teacher: Ernesto Correa

Saturday Classes ernestokorrea@gmail.com

E. Answer the following questions 1. What message do you receive from the song? (Use double comparative if possible, ask for help to the teacher) EXERCISE 1: Complete the sentences using Double Comparatives 1. Its becoming .. to find a job (hard) 2. The hole in your pullover is getting .. (big) 3. My bags seemed to get . As I carried them (heavy) 4. As I waited for my interview, I became .. (nervous) 5. As the day went on the weather got . (bad) 6. Travelling is becoming .. (expensive) 7. As the conversation went on, he became (talkative) 8. Since she has been in England, her English has got ..(good)

EXERCISE 2: Finish these sentences using a comparative structure 1. I like warm weather. The warmer the weather, .. (good/ feel) 2. Its hard to concentrate when you are tired. The more tired you are . (hard/concentrate) 3. She had to wait a very long time. The longer she waited,.. (impatient/become)

EXERCISE 3: Match the two halves containing the structure the the the earlier we leave the longer he waited the more I got to know him the more you practise your English the longer the phone call the more goods you sell the faster youll learn the more you have to pay the sooner well arrive the more profit youll make the more impatient he became the more I liked him

1. ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________________________

CENTRO BOLIVIANO AMERICANO Saturday Classes Teacher: Ernesto Correa ernestokorrea@gmail.com 5. ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________

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