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The information signal can be transmitted if we suitably vary one or more parameter characteristics of another signal acting as a carrier.

Ec = Vc sin(2fct)


What is MODULATION? The procedure of transforming the information signal from its original form to a form suitable for the transmission.

Carrier signal (Ec, fc ) Modulating signal (Em, fm )

Why do we need modulation?

w/o modulation: - Transmission difficulties of baseband signal - Noise and interference at low frequencies
w/ modulation: - Can choose convenient radio frequency - Propagation effects - Bandwidth considerations - Antennas and components are easier to design

Modulation Types

ANALOG MODULATION Amplitude (AM) Angular (FM & PM) DIGITAL MODULATION Digitally Modulated Analog Carrier ASK, FSK, PSK & other variations Pulse Modulation PAM, PWM, PPM, & PCM


What is Amplitude Modulation?

It is the process of changing the amplitude of a relatively high frequency carrier signal in proportion to the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.

Features of AM
Relatively simple and inexpensive. Fairly efficient system of modulation. Used in broadcasting of both audio and video signals. But susceptible to noise.

How to produce AM?

Two ways to produce AM: 1. Multiplying the carrier by a gain or attenuation factor which varies with the modulating signal. 2. Linearly joining or algebraically summing the carrier and the modulating signal and so apply the compound signal to a non linear device or circuit.

Basic AM Circuit

Continuous AM techniques

Information contained in the envelope shape.

Simple AM technique

Carrier is just turned on or off.

Modulation Index

Coefficient of modulation; m It describe the amount of amplitude change present in an AM waveform.

m = Vm / Vc

Percent modulation; M M = ( Vm / Vc ) x 100% M = m x 100%

AM Wave Equation
Carrier signal; Ec = Vcsin(2fct) Modulating signal; Em = Vmsin(2fmt) AM Output: EAM = [ Vc + Vmsin(2fmt)] sin(2fct)

Note: Vm = mVc

EAM = [ Vc + mVcsin(2fmt)] sin(2fct) Then: sinAsinB = [cos(A-B) cos(A+B)]

Varying modulation index

m = Vm / Vc

Sample Problem:
A carrier wave with an RMS voltage of 2V and a frequency of 1.5MHz is amplitude modulated by a sine wave with a frequency of 500Hz and amplitude of 1 V RMS. Write the equation for the resulting AM signal. EAM = [ Vc + mVcsin(2fmt)] sin(2fct)

Measuring modulation index

Vm Vc

Sample Problem:

For the AM waveform shown, determine a. ) M b. ) Vm c.) Vc d.) VSB


a.) m = (18 2) / (18 + 2) = 0.8 M = 80 % b.) Vm = (18 2)/ 2 = 8 Vp c.) Vc = (18 + 2)/ 2 = 10 Vp d.) VUSB = VLSB = (18 2)/ 4 = 4 Vp

AM Classification

AM Components: 1. Carrier 2. Lower Sideband 3. Upper Sideband Classifications: 1. Double Sideband Full Carrier 2. Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier 3. Single Sideband Full Carrier 4. Single Sideband Suppressed Carrier

Voltage & Frequency content

Vc mVc 2 mVc 2

fc fm


fc + fm

AM Spectrum

Sample Problem
One input to a conventional AM modulator is a 500 KHz carrier with an amplitude of 20Vp. The second input is a 10 KHz modulating signal that is of sufficient amplitude to cause a change in the output wave of 7.5Vp. Determine a. fUSB & fLSB b. m & M c.Vmax, Vmin, & VSB of the AM wave


= 500 KHz + 10 KHz = 510 KHz fLSB = 500 KHz 10 KHz = 490 KHz

m = 7.5/20 = 0.375 M = 37.5 %

Vmax = 20 + 7.5 = 27.5 Vp Vmin = 20 7.5 = 12.5 Vp VUSB = VLSB = (0.375 x 20)/2 = 3.75 Vp

AM Power Distribution

Sample Problem:

For an AM DSBFC wave with a peak amplitude carrier voltage of 10Vp, a load resistance of 10, and a modulation coefficient of one. Determine the PC, PUSB, PLSB , & PT.

PC = (102)/2(10) = 5 W PUSB = PLSB = (12)5 / 4 =

1.25 W PT = 5 + 1.25 + 1.25 = 7.5 W

AM Current Calculations

AM by a complex signal

If a modulating signal contains two frequencies fm1 and fm2 then; the AM wave will contain the carrier and two sets of sidebands.

AM by a complex signal
Total Coefficient of Modulation:

Total Sideband Power:

Total AM Power:

Sample Problem:
For an AM DSBFC transmitter with an unmodulated carrier power of 100 W that is modulated simultaneously by three signals with coefficient modulation of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.5. Determine the mT , PSB , & PT. mT = (0.22 + 0.42 + 0.52) = 0.67 PLSB = PUSB = (0.67)2(100)/4 = 11.22 W PT = 100 (1 + 0.672) = 122.445 W 2

Basic AM Transmitter

Types of AM Transmitter: 1. Low Level AM Transmitter 2. High Level AM Transmitter

Question no.1

What type of output filter is use in the basic AM transmitter?

Answer: Bandpass filter

Low Level AM Transmitter

RF Carrier Oscillator Buffer Amplifier & Driver


Linear Power Amplifier

Bandpass Filter

Modulating Signal

Bandpass Filter & Pre-amplifier

High Level AM Transmitter

RF Carrier Oscillator Power Amplifier & Driver


Power Amplifier

Bandpass Filter

Modulating Signal

Bandpass Filter & Power Amplifier

Question no.2
It is a pattern used for observing the modulation characteristics of an AM transmitter? Answer: Trapezoidal Pattern

V Vc m

Question no.3
What form of amplitude distortion is introduced when the positive and negative alternations in the AM signal are not equal? Answer: Carrier Shift

Question no.4

It is a form of AM where signals from two separate information sources modulate the same carrier frequency at the same time without interfering with each other. Answer: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation



Receiver Parameters
Selectivity Bandwidth Improvement Sensitivity Dynamic Range Fidelity Insertion Loss Equivalent Noise Temperature

Question no.5

It is a Rx parameter defined as the measure of the ability of a communications system to produce an exact replica of the original source information. Answer: Fidelity

Fidelity of a receiver

Three forms of distortion that can affect fidelity of a Rx: 1. Amplitude distortion 2. Frequency distortion 3. Phase distortion

Question no.6

It is a Rx parameter defined as the measure of the minimum RF signal level that can be detected at the input to the receiver and still produce a usable demodulated information signal. Answer: Sensitivity

Sensitivity of a receiver
Also known as the receiver threshold and stated in volts. It depends on the ff. factors: 1. Noise power at the Rx 2. Noise figure 3. BW improvement

Question no.7

It is a Rx parameter defined as the difference in decibels between the minimum input level necessary to discern a signal and the input level that will overdrive the receiver and produce distortion.

Answer: Dynamic Range

Dynamic Range of a receiver

It is the input power range over which the receiver is useful. Pmin level is a function of: 1. Noise figure 2. Desired signal quality Pmax level is a function of: 1. Net Gain of the receiver 100dB DR is considered about the highest possible.

Question no.8

It is a Rx parameter defined as the ability of the receiver to accept a given band of frequencies and reject all others.

Answer: Selectivity

Selectivity of a receiver
Ways to describe selectivity: 1. BW at the -3dB point 2. BW at two levels of attenuation Shape Factor: Ratio of two BW Ex: SF at -3dB and -60dB points

-3dB -60dB

Question no.9

It is a Rx parameter defined as the noise reduction ratio achieved by reducing the bandwidth.

Answer: Bandwidth Improvement

Bandwidth Improvement

Thermal Noise is directly proportional to BW BI = BWRF / BWIF NFimprovement = 10 log BI in dB

Question no.10

It is a Rx parameter defined as the ratio of the power transferred to a load with a filter in the circuit to the power transferred to a load without the filter. Answer: Insertion Loss

Insertion Loss of a receiver

It is associated with the frequencies that fall within the passband of a filter. It is typically from a few tenths of a dB to several dB. It is simply the ratio of the output power of a filter to the input power for frequencies that fall within the filters passband. IL = 10 log (Pout/Pin)

Equivalent Noise Temperature

Noise Temperature: Thermal Noise is directly proportional to temperature. N = KTB; T = N/KB Equivalent Noise Temperature: Te = T(F-1) Te is a parameter used in low-noise sophisticated radio receivers rather than noise figure.


What is Demodulation?

The demodulation implies the separation of the carrying wave from the information (audio signal) and the amplification of the original signal until a suitable level. A demodulator has to separate the modulated signal from the carrier and pass it to a load such as a loudspeaker or a screen.

What is AM Demodulation?

The AM demodulation is the procedure through which we extract the information from the AM wave. We have to obtain a proportional voltage, in each instant, to the amplitude of the AM wave.

Types of Radio Receivers

Basic types of radio receivers: Coherent or Synchronous the frequencies generated in the receiver and used for demodulation are synchronized to oscillator frequencies generated in the transmitter. Non-Coherent or Asynchronous the frequencies used for demodulation are completely independent to the transmitters carrier frequency.

Basic AM Receiver
Tuned Radio Frequency Receiver Superheterodyne Receiver

Question no.11

In AM reception, what is the simplest and most used demodulator circuit? Answer: Detector

Diode Detector

Superheterodyne AM Receiver

Question no.12

It is the ability of the local oscillator in a receiver to oscillate either above or below the selected RF carrier by an amount equal to the IF throughout the entire RF band. GKATCIRNS TRACKING

Question no.13

The IF section consists of a series of IF amplifiers and bandpass filters and is often called as IF ______. PRINTS STRIP

Question no.14

High-side _______ is a method of producing LO frequency such that the LO frequency is tuned above the RF carrier. NETROJINIC INJECTION

Gang Tuned

The preselector and LO are mechanically tied together so that a single adjustment will change the center frequency of the preselector and the LO.

High-side Injection: fLO = fRF + fIF Low-side Injection: fLO = fRF fIF

Question no.15

The primary purpose of the preselector in the RF section is to provide enough initial bandlimiting to prevent a specific unwanted radio frequency called the ______ frequency. GAMIES IMAGE

Image Frequency
Image frequency is any frequency other than the selected RF that, if allowed to enter and mix with the local oscillator, will produce a frequency that is equal to the IF. fimage = fLO + fIF For High-side injection: fLO = fRF + fIF Then, fimage = fRF + 2fIF

Image Frequency




Question no.16

What is the image frequency if the RF carrier is 600 KHz? 251015 KHz 1510 KHz

Question no.17

What is the LO frequency if the RF carrier is 600 KHz? 251015 KHz 1055 KHz

Image Frequency Rejection Ratio

IFRR is a numerical measure of the ability of a preselector to reject the image frequency.

IFRR = (1 + Q2p2)
p = (fimage/fRF) (fRF/fimage) IFRR(dB) = 10 log(IFRR)

Question no.18

For an AM receiver using high-side injection with RF carrier of 27 MHz and IF of 455 KHz, if the Q-factor is 100, find the IFRR in dB. 1287.5 dB 8.27 dB

Question no.19

During the heterodyne process, the RF upper side frequency is translated to an IF lower side frequency. This translation is called Sideband _______. INERVISION INVERSION

IF sidebands

The IF is a result of mixing the RF carrier and LO frequency. fIF = fLO fRF fIFus = fLO fRFls fIFls = fLO fRFus


SSB Modulation

The single side band modulation consists in the suppression of the carrier and of one of the two side bands.

SSB Transmitter

Balanced Modulator

DSB Waveforms













Independent SB

A: fLSB fC


Vestigial Sideband