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Characteristics/Features of Globalization 1. Borderless Globalization is about an increasingly borderless world and its societal consequ ences.

The causes of globalization are technological, economic and ideological. The societal consequences are very much in terms of the diminishing capacity of governance by governments and in relation to that the rebound (the counter effec ts both in terms of attitudes and of institutions) against aspects of globalizat ion; against the dominance of the market (economization), against Americanizatio n and in reaction to the diminishment of quality of life. 2. Information Technology Changes Increase in information flows and greater transporter data flow between geograph ically remote locations. Arguably this is a technological change with the adven t of fiber optic communications, satellites, and increased availability of wirel ess telephone and Internet. 3. Mobility The characteristic of globalization given more mobility and less transport costs means per definition more competition and more dynamism. "However, that competi tion does not mean per se increased trade flows. Therefore economists defining g lobalization in their simplified approach as increased trade flows have to concl ude per definition that there is not much globalization." 4. International Cooperation The increasing of the multinational corporations, regional and global organizati ons leads to the members of the international community expanding from a single nation to the transnational corporations, international organizations, and inter national non-governmental organizations. In these three groups of actors, except for the individual international military treaty organization, only the country and country alliance have the capability of "plate movement". 5. Talents Mobility and Integration Globalization has increased the growth of the multinational corporations, and al so brought the talent mobility and integration. More and more personnel dispatch ed by the corporations to the branches in other countries, and they learn and sh are the experience or do the project with the local employees. This kind of tale nts mobility and cooperation can increase the business performance. 6. Cultural Diversity Because of the globalization and new technology, it has been found that cultural diversity reflects on the food, music, art, life style, customs and race. The w estern culture has mixed with the eastern culture. For instance, McDonalds Corpo ration has expanded to be world wide, and you can see the logo of M everywhere. Al so, the Hollywood movies are very popular in Asia. Globalization has not only pr omoted cultural blending, but also driven a lot of business opportunities. 7. Liberalization: The freedom of the industrialist/businessman to establish industry, trade or com merce either in his country or abroad; free exchange of capital, goods, service and technologies between countries; 8. Free Trade: Free trade between countries; absence of excessive governmental control over tra de; 9. Globalization of Economic Activities: Control of economic activities by domestic market and international market; coor dination of national economy and world economy;

10. Connectivity: Localities being connected with the world by breaking national boundaries; forgi ng of links between one society and another, and between one country and another through international transmission of knowledge, literature, technology, cultur e and information. 11. A Composite Process: Integration of nation-states across the world by common economic, commercial, po litical, cultural and technological ties; creation of a new world order with no national boundaries; 12. A Multi-dimensional Process: Economically, it means opening up of national market, free trade and commerce am ong nations, and integration of national economies with the world economy. Polit ically, it means limited powers and functions of state, more rights and freedoms granted to the individual and empowerment of private sector; culturally, it mea ns exchange of cultural values between societies and between nations; and ideolo gically, it means the spread of liberalism and capitalism. 13. A Top-Down process: Globalization originates from developed countries and the MNCs (multinational co rporations) based in them. Technologies, capital, products and services come fro m them to developing countries. It is for developing countries to accept these t hings, adapt themselves to them and to be influenced by them. As a result, the values and norms of developed countries are gradually rooted in developing countries. This leads to the growth of a monoculture - the culture o f the north (developed countries) being imposed on the South (developing countri es). This involves the erosion and loss of the identity and the cultures of deve loping countries. Globalization is thus a one-way traffic: it flows from the Nor th to the South. But this view of globalization has been contested. Some scholars have argued tha t globalization tends to provoke backlash at the community, local, regional and ethnic levels when the national government fails to resist or counter the invasi on of globalization. In the face of aggression of globalization, the people, in protest against the f ailure of the national government to defend them, develop or strengthen their al legiance to their community, locality, region or ethnic group. In this process, local identity, regional identity and ethnic identity take root and get strength ened. Thus globalization goes hand in hand with localization, regionalization an d multiculturalism. 14. Global State vs Global Civil Society: In protest against the harmful effects of globalization on the vast multitude of people all over the world, particularly in developing countries, protest marche s, demonstrations and meetings have been organized in different countries. These protests have taken militant forms in the last decade. Protest groups have trie d to disturb and paralyse the meetings of WTO, World Bank and IMF. They charge that these UN-based organizations have been the agents of globalizat ion and that they have been used by developed countries as their instruments to exploit and dominate developing countries. These protest groups-environmental gr oups, human rights groups, women's groups, farmers' groups and peace groups have interlocked themselves at the global level. As a result, a global civil society, though yet not fully developed, has come in to being, but a global state is a distant dream. The UN and its affiliated organ izations which could have been the foundation of a global state have been weaken ed by many forces including glo-balization.

1. Borderless

Globalization is about an increasingly borderless world and its societal consequ ences. The causes of globalization are technological, economic and ideological. The societal consequences are very much in terms of the diminishing capacity of governance by governments and in relation to that the rebound (the counter effec ts both in terms of attitudes and of institutions) against aspects of globalizat ion; against the dominance of the market (economization), against Americanizatio n and in reaction to the diminishment of quality of life. 2. Information Technology Changes Increase in information flows and greater transporter data flow between geograph ically remote locations. Arguably this is a technological change with the adven t of fiber optic communications, satellites, and increased availability of wirel ess telephone and Internet. 3. Mobility The characteristic of globalization given more mobility and less transport costs means per definition more competition and more dynamism. "However, that competi tion does not mean per se increased trade flows. Therefore economists defining g lobalization in their simplified approach as increased trade flows have to concl ude per definition that there is not much globalization." 4. International Cooperation The increasing of the multinational corporations, regional and global organizati ons leads to the members of the international community expanding from a single nation to the transnational corporations, international organizations, and inter national non-governmental organizations. In these three groups of actors, except for the individual international military treaty organization, only the country and country alliance have the capability of "plate movement". 5. Talents Mobility and Integration Globalization has increased the growth of the multinational corporations, and al so brought the talent mobility and integration. More and more personnel dispatch ed by the corporations to the branches in other countries, and they learn and sh are the experience or do the project with the local employees. This kind of tale nts mobility and cooperation can increase the business performance. 6. Cultural Diversity Because of the globalization and new technology, it has been found that cultural diversity reflects on the food, music, art, life style, customs and race. The w estern culture has mixed with the eastern culture. For instance, McDonalds Corpo ration has expanded to be world wide, and you can see the logo of M everywhere. Al so, the Hollywood movies are very popular in Asia. Globalization has not only pr omoted cultural blending, but also driven a lot of business opportunities. 7. Liberalization: The freedom of the industrialist/businessman to establish industry, trade or com merce either in his country or abroad; free exchange of capital, goods, service and technologies between countries; 8. Free Trade: Free trade between countries; absence of excessive governmental control over tra de; 9. Globalization of Economic Activities: Control of economic activities by domestic market and international market; coor dination of national economy and world economy; 10. Connectivity: Localities being connected with the world by breaking national boundaries; forgi ng of links between one society and another, and between one country and another

through international transmission of knowledge, literature, technology, cultur e and information. 11. A Composite Process: Integration of nation-states across the world by common economic, commercial, po litical, cultural and technological ties; creation of a new world order with no national boundaries; 12. A Multi-dimensional Process: Economically, it means opening up of national market, free trade and commerce am ong nations, and integration of national economies with the world economy. Polit ically, it means limited powers and functions of state, more rights and freedoms granted to the individual and empowerment of private sector; culturally, it mea ns exchange of cultural values between societies and between nations; and ideolo gically, it means the spread of liberalism and capitalism. 13. A Top-Down process: Globalization originates from developed countries and the MNCs (multinational co rporations) based in them. Technologies, capital, products and services come fro m them to developing countries. It is for developing countries to accept these t hings, adapt themselves to them and to be influenced by them. As a result, the values and norms of developed countries are gradually rooted in developing countries. This leads to the growth of a monoculture - the culture o f the north (developed countries) being imposed on the South (developing countri es). This involves the erosion and loss of the identity and the cultures of deve loping countries. Globalization is thus a one-way traffic: it flows from the Nor th to the South. But this view of globalization has been contested. Some scholars have argued tha t globalization tends to provoke backlash at the community, local, regional and ethnic levels when the national government fails to resist or counter the invasi on of globalization. In the face of aggression of globalization, the people, in protest against the f ailure of the national government to defend them, develop or strengthen their al legiance to their community, locality, region or ethnic group. In this process, local identity, regional identity and ethnic identity take root and get strength ened. Thus globalization goes hand in hand with localization, regionalization an d multiculturalism. 14. Global State vs Global Civil Society: In protest against the harmful effects of globalization on the vast multitude of people all over the world, particularly in developing countries, protest marche s, demonstrations and meetings have been organized in different countries. These protests have taken militant forms in the last decade. Protest groups have trie d to disturb and paralyse the meetings of WTO, World Bank and IMF. They charge that these UN-based organizations have been the agents of globalizat ion and that they have been used by developed countries as their instruments to exploit and dominate developing countries. These protest groups-environmental gr oups, human rights groups, women's groups, farmers' groups and peace groups have interlocked themselves at the global level. As a result, a global civil society, though yet not fully developed, has come in to being, but a global state is a distant dream. The UN and its affiliated organ izations which could have been the foundation of a global state have been weaken ed by many forces including glo-balization.