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Atoms, Elements and Compounds Atomic structure Structure of the atom All substances are made from tiny

particles called atoms. An atom has a small central nucleus made up of smaller sub-atomic particles called protons and neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by even smaller sub-atomic particles called electrons. Protons and electrons have an electrical charge. Both have the same size of electrical charge, but the proton is positive and the electron negative. Neutrons are neutral. A summary of the electrical charges in sub-atomic particles Name of particle Electrical charge proton +1 neutron 0 electron -1 The number of electrons in an atom is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus. This means atoms have no overall electrical charge. Atomic number and mass number The atomic number of an atom is the number of protons it contains. All the atoms of a particular element have the same atomic number (number of protons). The atoms of different elements have different numbers of protons. For example, all oxygen atoms have 8 protons and all sodium atoms have 11 protons. The mass number of an atom is the total number of protons and neutrons it contains. The mass number of an atom is never smaller than the atomic number. It can be the same, but is usually bigger. Electronic structure diagrams You need to be able to draw the electronic structure of any of the first twenty elements (hydrogen to calcium). In these drawings: the nucleus is shown as a black spot each energy level is shown as a circle around the nucleus each electron is shown by a dot or a cross. The electronic structure of some elements Element Symbol Electronic structure (written) lithium Li 2,1

Electronic structure (drawn)

fluorine

2,7

Atoms, Elements and Compounds chlorine Cl 2,8,7

calcium

Ca

2,8,8,2

Do not worry in the exam about colouring in the electrons. Just make them clear and ensure they are in the right place. You may be asked to use a cross rather than a dot for each electron. Working out an element's electronic structure Here is how to use the periodic table to work out an electronic structure: 1. Find the element in the periodic table. Work out which period (row) it is in, and draw that number of circles around the nucleus. 2. Work out which group the element is in and draw that number of electrons in the outer circle with eight for Group 0 elements except helium. 3. Fill the other circles with as many electrons as needed. Remember two in the first circle, and eight in the second and third circles. 4. Finally, check that the number of electrons is the same as the atomic number.

The modern periodic table Note that you will never find a compound in the periodic table, because these consist of two or more different elements joined together by chemical bonds. The periodic table Elements in the same group in the periodic table have similar chemical properties. This is because their atoms have the same number of electrons in the highest occupied energy level. Group 1 elements are reactive metals called the alkali metals. Group 0 elements are unreactive non-metals called the noble gases.

Atoms, Elements and Compounds Groups A vertical column of elements in the periodic table is a group. The elements in a group have similar chemical properties to each other. For example, group 1 contains sodium and other very reactive metals, while group 7 contains chlorine and other very reactive non-metals. Group 0 (also known as group 8 or group 18) contains helium and other very unreactive nonmetals. Group 1 The group 1 elements are found on the left hand side of the periodic table. They are called the alkali metals because they form alkaline compounds. Their atoms all have one electron in their highest occupied energy level (outermost shell). This gives the group 1 elements similar chemical properties to each other. Group 1 elements Element Symbol lithium Li

Electronic structure (written) 2,1

Electronic structure (drawn)

sodium

Na

2,8,1

potassium

2,8,8,1

Reactions of group 1 elements with water Potassium reacts with a lilac flame Lithium, sodium and potassium all react vigorously with water to form a metal hydroxide and hydrogen: metal + water metal hydroxide + hydrogen The metal hydroxides are strong alkalis. The group 1 elements need to be stored under oil to prevent them reacting with oxygen and water vapour in the air. Reactions of group 1 elements with oxygen Lithium, sodium and potassium are easily cut with a blade. The freshly cut surfaces are silvery and shiny, but quickly turn dull as the metal reacts with oxygen in the air. The group 1 metals react vigorously with oxygen to form metal

Atoms, Elements and Compounds oxides. Lithium burns with a red flame, sodium with a yellow-orange flame, and potassium burns with a lilac flame.

Group 0 The group 0 elements are found on the right hand side of the periodic table. They are called the noble gases because they are very unreactive. The highest occupied energy levels (outermost shells) of their atoms are full: helium atoms have two electrons in their outer energy level atoms of the other noble gases have eight electrons in their outer energy level. This is a neon atom it has a stable arrangement of electrons, and makes the group 0 elements unreactive. Chemical reactions When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form compounds. Chemical bonds form when this happens, which involves atoms transferring or sharing electrons. Reactions and compounds New substances are formed by chemical reactions. When elements react together to form compounds their atoms join to other atoms using chemical bonds. For example, iron and sulfur react together to form a compound called iron sulfide. Compounds usually have different properties from the elements they contain. Ionic bonds Chemical bonds involve electrons from the reacting atoms. Compounds formed from metals and non-metals consist of ions. Ions are charged particles that form when atoms (or clusters of atoms) lose or gain electrons: metal atoms lose electrons to form positively charged ions non-metal atoms gain electrons to form negatively charged ions The ionic bond is the force of attraction between the oppositely charged ions. This animation shows how ions form when sodium atoms react with chlorine atoms to form sodium chloride. Covalent bonds Compounds formed from non-metals consist of molecules. The atoms in a molecule are joined together by covalent bonds. These bonds form when atoms share pairs of electrons.

Atoms, Elements and Compounds 1) The diagram below shows ammonium chloride crystals being heated in an evaporating dish. They change into vapour upon heating. The vapour forms back the crystals after touching the cold surface of an inverted filter funnel.

(a) Name the process when a solid substance changes into a gas directly. (b) Describe what would happen to the motion and arrangement of the particles when ammonium chloride crystals change their physical states. (c) Draw the diagram to show how the particles are arranged when the vapour touches the cold surface of the filter funnel.

2) A pure solid W is heated until it exists as a gas. The graph below shows the temperature changes with time as W is heated.

Atoms, Elements and Compounds

(a) What is the melting point of W? ... (b) Explain why the temperature remains constant at A and B? (c) Write down the physical state(s) of W (i) at 6 minutes after heating? .. (ii) at 19 minutes after heating? . 3) Atoms of beryllium and magnesium are represented respectively, by the symbols.

(a) What do the following numbers tell you about these atoms? (i) 4 (in the symbol for beryllium) (ii) 24 (in the symbol for magnesium)

Draw the electronic structures of beryllium and magnesium, showing only the outermost electrons.

(b) How do the electronic structures of beryllium and magnesium indicate that they are both in the same group of the Periodic Table? 4) (a) State two reasons why thermal decomposition of sugar is a chemical change.

Atoms, Elements and Compounds

(b) Balance the following equations. (i) KOH (ii) Fe2O3 (iii) ... Na2CO3 . CO2 . H2SO4 K2SO4 .... CO .. Fe . H2O

... CO2 . H2O

. HNO3 .. NaNO3

5) An experiment was set up as shown in the diagram below. Two gases were collected in the test tubes P and Q when electricity passed through water.

(a) Identify the two gases collected in P and Q. What is the ratio of the volume of gases collected? P: Q: . Ratio of P to Q is (b) Give the name of this process, and state the effect electricity has on the above set up. 6) A solution of silver nitrate is added into a beaker containing sodium chloride solution. A chemical reaction takes place which produces silver chloride and sodium nitrate solution. The beaker feels warm during the reaction. (a) (i) Identify the reactants and products in the reaction. Reactants: Products: (ii) Hence construct the word equation to represent the chemical reaction.

Atoms, Elements and Compounds

Does the reaction absorb heat from the solution or release heat in the beaker? Explain your answer.
7) Differentiate solids, liquids and gases in terms of motion of the particles, distance between the particles and their arrangement. solids Motion of particles liquids gases

Distance between the particles Arrangement of particles

Very close

8)

Liquid L was heated in a beaker for 20 minutes. A line graph of the changes in temperature against time was draw, as shown below.

(a) Name the process which has caused a change in the state of matter. (a) (b) What is point X called? (b) (c) Suggest why the temperature remained constant between point M and N. (c) (d) (e) . . . . .

Atoms, Elements and Compounds

(d) Label on the other two segments of the graph, the state(s) that L exists as. 9) A small copper sulphate crystal was dropped into a test-tube of distilled water. After four days, the blue colour spread through the water uniformly to form a blue solution as shown below.

distilled water copper sulphate crystal

after 4 days

blue solution

(a) Name the process that has taken place. (f) (g) (b) Explain the movement of particles in the process named in (a). (h) (i) (c) List three ways to increase the speed of the process named in (a). 1. 2. 3. Complete the following table, listing the number and type of atoms present in each molecule. Compound Ammonia gas, NH3 Lead(II) chloride, PbCl2 Copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2 Ethanol, C2H5OH Number and type of atoms . . . .

10)

Atoms, Elements and Compounds 11) The table below shows the atomic number of the elements in the second period of the Periodic Table. Element Atomic number Li 3 Be 4 B 5 C 6 N 7 O 8 F 9 Ne 10

(a) How are the elements shown above arranged in the Periodic Table? (j) (b) Some of the elements form ions as shown below. Fill in the table to show the formulae of the missing ions, and the number of electrons and protons present in each ion. Element Li Be O F O210 Ion Li+ 2 No. of electrons No. of protons .

12) The table below shows the properties of substances A to D. Substance Melting Point ( ) 950 101 3550 48 Boiling Point ( ) 1870 35 3825 370 Solubility in water good slightly no no Electrical Conductance when solid no no good no Electrical Conductance when melted good no good no

A B C D

(a) Give a possible identity for substance A. Explain with reasons using date provided. (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) . . . . .

Atoms, Elements and Compounds (p) (q) (b) Substance C is likely to be graphite. Explain why. (r) (s) (t) (u) 13) Beakers A, B and C each contained 100cm3 of water. 10 molecules of hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and ethanoic acid (CH3COOH) were dissolved in each beaker respectively. 5.0g of metal was added to each beaker and the time taken for effervescence to stop was recorded. Note: Ethanoic acid is also commonly known as vinegar Beaker Acid Experimental Observations Vigour of reaction A B C HCl H2SO4 CH3COOH Time taken to complete reaction (seconds) 5 2 16 . . . . . .

Explain why the reaction in Beaker A takes a shorter time than the reaction in beaker C to complete. (v) (w) (x) (y) (z) . . . . .

14) Write a balanced chemical equation for each of the following reactions. (State symbol is not required.) (a) Sulphuric acid + magnesium (aa) .

Atoms, Elements and Compounds (b) Hydrochloric acid + copper(II) oxide . (c) Nitric acid + sodium hydroxide . (d) Nitric acid + calcium carbonate . (e) Calcium hydroxide + ammonium chloride . 15) (a) State a chemical property of an alkali. 16) 17) (a) .

(b) Alice wanted to know if an unknown solution is a strong alkali. Explain how the use of a suitable named indicator will help to determine its nature.

. . . .

18) D, E, F and G are four consecutive elements with proton number n, n+1, n+2, n+3 respectively. F is a chemically inert gas in period 2. Using a dot and cross diagram, draw the bonding formed between elements E and G. Hence, write the chemical formula for this compound.

Atoms, Elements and Compounds 19) State two trends in the physical properties of the elements in Group I. . . . . .

20) (a) How does the movement of the particles in a solid differ from the movement of the particles in a liquid? . . (b) The melting and boiling points of 5 substances are shown in the table below. Substance A B C D E F Melting point / -82 -189 -39 44 114 98 Boiling point / 430 -18 357 280 184 390

(i) Which substance is a gas at room temperature? . (ii) Which substance changes its physical state when heated from 0 to 50 ? . (iii) Which substance exists in the liquid state over the largest range of temperature? .

Atoms, Elements and Compounds 21) The structure of two ions, P and Q, are shown in the diagram below. Study the diagram carefully and answer the questions that follow:

(a) Write down the electronic configuration for an atom of Q.

. (b) How does an atom of Q become an ion?

. (c) Write down the formula for the ion of P. . (d) State the kind of bond that will exist between P and Q and write down the formula of the compound formed between P and Q. . 22) A student heated some substances in air and tabulated the results in the table given below. Substance Before heating Magnesium ribbon Copper wire Lead Foil Silvery grey solid Reddish brown solid Silvery grey solid Appearance During heating White ash Black solid Molten silvery grey droplets On cooling White ash Black solid Silvery grey solid

(i) State one example from the table that shows a physical change. Give reason(s) for your answer. . . (ii) What is the white ash that was seen when magnesium ribbon was heated in air? .

Atoms, Elements and Compounds 23) Balance the following equations. (a) . Na + H2O NaOH + H2 (b) .. Al + O2 .. Al2O3 (c) .. CuCO3 + .. HCl CuCl2 + . H2O + . CO2 24) (a) Study the table shown below. Atom/Ion P Q R S T Electrons 12 10 18 10 10 Protons 12 8 16 10 13 Mass number 24 16 32 20 27

(i) Which two are atoms? Explain your answer. (ii) Name a positive ion from the table. Explain how you derive your answer. (iii) The number of protons and neutrons in an atom is always equal. Is the above statement correct? Explain your answer by using the information provided in the table above? (b) Study the following models and describe what they represent.

Atoms, Elements and Compounds In diagram (a): In diagram (b): In diagram (c): In diagram (d): 25) (a) Use the following information to answer the questions below about the elements A, B, C, D and E. Element A B C D E (i) (ii) (iii) Mass number 7 40 16 24 39 Electronic structure 2.1 2.8.8 2.6 2.8.2 2.8.8.1

Which element has 22 neutrons in each atom? Which element is a noble gas? Explain your answer. Which two elements form ions with the same electronic structure as neon?

(b) Write the chemical formula for the following compounds. (i) Ammonium carbonate (ii) Iron (III) sulphate (c) A solid compound was heated steadily for a period of time. Its temperature varied as shown in the graph below.

Atoms, Elements and Compounds (i) (ii) (iii) Which part(s) of the graph corresponds to the substance existing in two states at the same time? Over which part is the substance increasing in temperature at the fastest rate? Which point of the graph corresponds to the molecules of the substance having the greatest average kinetic energy?

26) (a) What is a chemical formula? . . . (b) The molecular formula of a compound is C6H12O6. This compound can be produced naturally by plants. i) ii) Name this compound. The atoms which go in to make the compound are and iii) . . ,

Write a balanced chemical equation representing the synthesis of this compound, given the word equation below. Carbon dioxide gas + water C6H12O6 + oxygen gas .

(c) An atom of an element X may be written as i)

In the symbol what do the number 9 and 4 represent?

9 represents . 4 represents . ii) What is the number of protons, electrons and neutrons in the atom X? Protons: .. Electrons: . Neutrons:

iii) The atom X loses 2 electrons to form an ion. Draw the electronic structure of the ion formed, showing the nucleus and electron shells and indicate the charge found on the ion.

charge