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Highway Capacity Manual 2000

INDEX
Primary entries are in boldface type; first-level and second-level subentries are indented progressively. A subentry note to see above or see below identifies a first-level subentry in the same primary-entry group. Cross-references to see or see also point to related primary entries. Index entries defined in Chapter 5, Glossary, are marked with an asterisk. All symbols used in HCM 2000 are defined in an alphabetical list in Chapter 6, Symbols. E after a page number indicates an exhibit. A acceleration and deceleration delays 16-88, 16-91E lanes* 13-22, 13-24, 25-1 accessibility areawide analysis 28-3, 30-11, 30-13 buses 14-10, 27-10 corridor analysis 28-3, 29-9, 29-26 highways 29-9 rail transit 27-28 transit facilities 14-6, 27-45, 30-13 access-point density* multilane highways 12-6, 12-9, 21-7 two-lane highways 12-18, 20-6 accidents and freeway capacity 22-1011 adjustment factors* 16-11E bicycles 16-135139, 27-1011 buses 27-1011, 27-1718, 27-2223 directional distribution 20-10, 20-11E driver population 21-11, 23-1112 freeway segments 23-58 grades and terrain 20-7, 20-1319 heavy vehicles freeways 22-78, 23-78 highways 20-7, 20-1319 interchange density (freeways) 23-67 left turns 16-13, 16-122135 multilane highways 21-58, 21-11 pedestrians 16-135139 progression adjustment 15-67, 16-1920 right turns 16-11E, 16-12 saturation flow rates 16-913 signalized intersections 16-1013 left turns 16-13, 16-122135 progression 15-67, 16-1920 right turns 16-11E, 16-12 two-lane highways 20-7, 20-10, 20-11E, 20-1319 alignments of roadways see grades and terrain all-way stop-controlled (AWSC) intersections see intersections, AWSC analysis hour and peak-hour volume 8-69 analysis periods* bicycles 11-18 freeway segments 13-12 intersections roundabouts 10-34 signalized 10-21 1
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

analysis periods (continued) intersections unsignalized 10-33 multilane highways 12-10 ramps and ramp junctions 13-24 pedestrians 11-13 two-lane highways 12-18 analytical approaches and methodologies 9-1 see also areawide analysis; corridor analysis; design analysis; multiple facility assessment; operational analysis; planning analysis application example 3-3E areawide analysis 30-130-16 problems 30-1726 AWSC intersections 17-3240 applications 17-4045 problems 17-7798 worksheets 17-103 bicycles 19-18 applications 19-810 problems 19-1123 worksheet 19-24 buses see below transit facilities corridor analysis 29-112 problem 29-1226 economic analyses 3-56, 3-8E utility models 28-1, 28-45 elements of analysis 3-1E environmental analyses 3-6, 3-8E freeway facilities 22-13 applications 22-1922 computations 22-4264 problems 22-2341 freeway segments 23-113 applications 23-1417 problems 23-1727 worksheet 2330 freeway weaving 24-119 applications 24-1921 problems 24-22 worksheet 24-39 interchange ramp terminals 26-79 applications 26-1011 problem 26-1417 levels of analysis 3-56 light rail transit see below transit facilities limitations 9-1
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


analytical approaches and methodologies (continued) local default values 9-9, 9-1011 methodologies structure 9-45E modeling 31-13 problems 31-2531 multilane highways 21-13 applications 21-1215 problems 21-1629 worksheet 21-30 objectives of analysis 3-45 operational conditions 3-4 pedestrians 18-118-15 applications 18-1618-19 problems 18-2018-30 worksheets 18-32 performance-based planning 28-2 performance measures 4-23, 9-2, 9-8 precision and accuracy 9-28 presentation of results 4-35 procedures overview 9-12 ramps and ramp junctions 25-119 applications 25-1922 problems 22-2340 worksheet 25-40 roundabouts 17-4548 applications 17-48 problem 17-99 worksheets 17-103 service-volume tables 9-9, 9-1112 signalized intersections 16-126 applications 16-2636 problems 16-3786 quick estimation method 10-3647 worksheets 16-161 system analysis 3-24 terminology 9-1 transit facilities 27-131 applications 27-3233 problems 27-3544 TWSC intersections 17-127 applications 17-2832 problems 17-5077 worksheets 17-103 unsignalized intersections 17-1 see also above AWSC, TWSC intersections urban streets 15-112 applications 15-1215 problems 15-1524 worksheets 15-28 volume equivalencies 9-810 annual average daily traffic* (AADT) factors 9-89 directional volume (DDHV) 8-11, 23-1617 subhourly flow variations 8-9 areawide analysis 3-2, 28-1, 30-12 see also multiple facility assessment accessibility* 28-3 highways 30-11 transit 30-13 congestion carryover 30-3638 congestion duration* 28-3 highways 30-910 transit 30-13 congestion extent* 28-3 highways 30-10 transit 30-13 congestion intensity* 28-3 highways 30-89 transit 30-13 congestion variability* 28-3 highways 30-11 transit 30-13 delay 30-9, 30-3638 highway facilities 30-3 FFS 30-34 link capacity 30-46 link speed 30-68 node delay 30-6, 30-2736 performance measures 30-810 problem 30-1722 link capacity highways 30-46 transit 30-12 link speed highways 30-68 transit 30-12 links 30-2 methodology 30-23 highways 30-311 transit 30-1116 node delay estimation 30-6, 30-2736 nodes* 30-2 performance measures 30-2 congestion 30-38 highways 30-811 transit 30-1314 quantity of service* 28-3 system performance 28-24 reporting 28-4E terminology 30-2 transit facilities 30-1112 coverage area 30-1314 GIS analysis 30-1416 link capacity and speed 30-12 manual analysis 30-16 performance measures 30-1314 problems 30-2326 travel time 30-67 2
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


areawide analysis (continued) traversal time 30-78, 30-39 variability 28-3 highways 30-11 transit 30-13 arrival types* 10-23, 16-45 computation 16-1920 descriptions 16-4E platoon ratio and 15-56, 16-45 progression quality and 10-23, 16-4 speed changes 15-12E arterials* 10-1, 10-67 see also urban streets automobiles accessibility 27-45 registered (19861996) 8-14E rural interstate travel by 8-15E transit interactions travel time 14-31, 27-3 weight/power ratio 8-1E average travel speed* 7-2, 7-3 see also speed AWSC (all-way stop-controlled*) intersections see intersections, AWSC B back of queue* 10-16, 16-151 average 16-152155 determining 16-151158 percentile 16-155156 queue storage rate 16-156 worksheet 16-157E bicycles and bicycle facilities* 11-4, 19-1 access to transit facilities 27-45 adjustment factor 16-13 computation 16-138E formula 16-11E procedure 16-135139 analysis period 11-18 bicycle lanes* 11-14, 19-1, 19-45 urban streets 19-7 widths 19-4 bicycle paths* 19-1 exclusive 19-23 lengths 11-18 pedestrians 11-16 shared 19-34 widths 11-18 bus interaction 27-1011 capacity 11-14 computational steps 19-8 conflict zones 16-135, 16-136E control delay 19-67 critical gap 19-67 3
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

bicycles and bicycle facilities (continued) events and interference 19-2, 19-3 flow 2-1, 11-14 flow-speed relations 19-5 hindrance* 11-15, 19-2, 19-3 input data and values 11-1718 interrupted-flow facilities 11-17, 19-5 signalized intersections 19-56 unsignalized intersections 19-67 urban streets 19-7 left-turning vehicles 16-135139 LOS and hindrance 11-15 LOS criteria 11-16 exclusive paths 19-3E shared paths 19-4E urban streets 19-7E methodology 19-18 applications 19-89 input parameters 11-1718 problems 19-1123 worksheet 19-24 modeling application 31-16E off-street paths see below paths on-street lanes 11-14, 19-1, 19-45 peak-hour factor 11-18 pedestrian interactions 11-16 shared facilities 18-67 performance measures 11-45 planning applications 19-8 queuing 19-7 right-of-way 19-6 right-turning vehicles 19-6 service volume table 11-1820 signalized intersections 19-56 adjustment factor 16-11E, 16-13, 16-135139 turning movements 10-15 speed 11-18, 19-5 exclusive paths 19-3E urban streets 19-7E terminology 11-14 traffic characteristics 8-2 transit interactions 14-6, 14-27 accessibility 27-45 uninterrupted-flow facilities 11-17, 19-15 unsignalized intersections 19-67 urban streets 10-25, 19-1, 19-7 worksheets 16-161, 19-24 bike paths see above bicycle paths bottlenecks* (freeways) analysis 22-14, 22-21 problem 31-2829 breakdowns and freeway capacity 22-1011 buses* and bus facilities 14-2, 27-9 see also transit facilities
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


buses and bus facilities (continued) accessibility 14-10, 27-10 adjacent lane use 27-13 urban buses 27-19E, 27-20 adjustments bicycles 27-10-11 blockage 16-10, 16-11E right turns 27-1718 areawide analysis 30-1116 problems 30-2326 berths* see below loading areas bicycle adjustment 27-1011 blockage adjustment 16-10, 16-11E boarding islands* 14-10, 14-18, 14-19E boarding times 27-10 bus-bus interference 27-2324, 27-26 bus lanes* 14-3, 14-11 exclusive 14-1415, 14-16E, 14-19E mixed traffic 14-15, 14-16E, 27-25 reserved 14-18 vehicle capacity 14-12E bus malls 8-28 bus signals 14-17 bus stops* 14-911 capacity 14-13, 27-1314, 29-12, 30-12 loading areas 14-1011 location factors 27-18 relocation 14-18, 14-19E vehicle capacity 14-12E waiting area size 27-26 bus terminals 14-9 loading areas 8-29 busways* (CBD) 14-1314 capacity 27-1416 reserved 14-18 volumes 8-28 capacity bus stops 14-13, 27-1314, 29-12, 30-12 busways 27-1416 loading areas 14-13, 27-13 mixed-traffic 27-2526 person capacity 14-35, 27-20 vehicle capacity 14-35, 14-1215, 27-1719 clearance time 14-9, 27-11 corridor analysis 29-1012 problem 29-1226 crush loads 27-12 curb extensions 14-18, 14-19E delays 14-18, 27-11 see also below dwell time dwell time 14-3, 14-56 calculating 27-911 problem 27-3637 variability 14-8, 27-11
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

buses and bus facilities (continued) exclusive urban facilities 27-1624 fare payment 14-6 freeway segments 23-78 freeways 13-12 HOV lanes 14-18 capacity 27-1416 intersection preferences 14-1519 loading areas* 14-78, 14-9E bus stops 14-1011 capacity 14-13, 27-13 productivity 8-29 vehicle capacity 14-12E volume 14-10 methodology 27-226 applications 27-3233 problems 27-3643 mixed-traffic facilities 27-2426 problems 27-3841 parameters 27-926 parking restrictions 14-18, 14-19E passenger loads 27-5, 27-12 peak-hour factor 14-11 person capacity 14-3, 14-4E busways 14-14E calculating 14-6 influences 14-5E mixed-traffic 27-2526 problem 27-42 urban bus lanes 27-20 person delay 14-18 platooning 14-11 priority treatments 14-1519 comparisons 14-9E corridors 29-12 queue bypass/jump 14-17, 14-18, 14-19E queue failure rate 27-1112 queue formation 14-10 reentry delay 27-11 registered buses (19861996) 8-14E right-turn adjustments 27-1718 rural interstate travel 8-15E service types 14-7 signalized intersections 16-10, 16-11E priorities 14-17, 14-19E skip-stop operation 14-11, 27-13 example 14-15, 14-16E problems 27-41, 27-43 speed adjustment 27-2223 urban bus lanes 27-1819 speeds 27-8 busways 27-14, 27-16 HOV lanes 27-15E, 27-16 mixed-traffic 27-26 4
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


buses and bus facilities (continued) speeds problem 27-43 skip-stop 27-2223 urban bus lanes 27-2024 traffic characteristics 8-2 traffic condition impacts 2-45 traffic signals bus priorities 14-17 timing 14-11 turn restrictions 14-18 two-lane highways 12-7, 12-19 directional segments 20-1314, 20-1720 two-way segments 20-79 urban bus facilities 27-16 adjacent lanes 27-19E, 27-20 busways 14-1314, 27-1416 person capacity 27-20 speed 27-2024 vehicle capacity 27-1719 vehicle capacity 14-3, 14-4E, 14-5 bus stops 14-13 busways 14-14E dwell time 14-1415 influences 14-12E loading areas 14-711 mixed-traffic 27-2526 urban bus lanes 27-1719 volumes 8-2829 loading areas 14-10 waiting area size 27-26 wheelchair accessibility 27-10 C capacity* 2-12, 8-16 see also volume-to-capacity (v/c) ratios bicycle facilities 11-14 bus transit bus stops 14-13, 27-1314 busways 27-1416 loading areas 14-13, 27-13 mixed-traffic 27-2526 person capacity 14-35, 27-20 vehicle capacity 14-35, 14-1215, 27-1719 freeway weaving segments 24-919 freeways 8-17, 13-2, 13-28 estimating 22-4748 reductions 22-612 highways (multilane) 12-2 intersections AWSC 17-3444 roundabouts 17-4648 signalized 10-25 TWSC 10-29, 17-721 5
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

capacity (continued) intersections unsignalized 10-29 movement capacity 17-821 passenger capacity pedestrians 11-45 person capacity 14-35, 27-20 potential (TWSC) 17-78, 17-9E rail transit 14-2014-22, 27-3132 ramp-freeway terminals ramps and ramp junctions 22-8 diverge 13-22, 25-14 merge 13-22, 25-78 reasonable expectancy 2-2 roundabouts 17-4648 shared lane 7-1213 urban streets 15-9, 10-3647 vehicle capacity 14-35, 14-1215 calculations 27-1719 capacity analysis 2-1, 2-2 freeways 13-2 signalized intersections 16-1, 16-30, 16-3133 change interval* lost time 8-26 see also lost time Class I/II highways 12-1213, 12-17 clearance lost time 10-1213 see also lost time climbing lanes* (highways) 20-2829 cloverleaf interchanges 26-23 see also interchange ramp terminals turning movements 26-4E collector-distributor roadways (freeways) 24-19 collector streets* 10-1 see also urban streets comfort and convenience freedom to maneuver 2-2, 12-2 LOS measure 2-2 multilane highways 12-12 transit facilities 14-24E, 14-26, 14-31 perceptions 14-29 measures 27-68 traveler satisfaction 28-45 commuters freeways 13-7 multilane highways 12-7 conflicting flows AWSC intersections 17-3639 bicycles and pedestrians 11-7, 18-5 conflict zones 16-135, 16-136E TWSC intersections 10-28, 17-45, 17-6E computations 17-1819 congestion 29-1 duration* 28-3 areawide 30-910, 30-13
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


congestion (continued) duration corridor 29-89 extent* 28-3 areawide 30-10, 3-13 corridor 29-9 intensity* 28-3 areawide 30-89, 30-13 corridor 29-78 multiperiod carryover 30-3638 status (freeways) 13-29 variability* 28-3 highways 29-9, 30-11 transit 30-13 construction activities (freeways) 22-78 control conditions* 2-56 see also control delay; intersections, signalized; traffic signals control delay* 7-910, 10-1517, 15-2 see also delay; dwell time acceleration-deceleration 16-88, 16-91E aggregated estimates 16-2223 bicycles 19-67 buses 14-18, 27-11 computation 10-4647 deceleration-acceleration 16-88, 16-91E determination 15-38, 16-1923 field measurement 16-8892 incremental delay* 15-4, 15-5, 15-78 adjustment 10-24 calibration factor 16-22E, 16-33 computation 16-2123, 16-33 initial queue* 16-22, 16-33, 16-142150 interchange ramp terminals 26-89 intersection (node) delay 30-27 adaptive control 30-2729 all-way stop 30-3536 signal delay 30-2934 two-way stop 30-3435 LOS 16-2324 minimizing 16-99 person delay* 14-18 reentry delay (buses) 27-11 sensitivities 16-2425 uniform delay* 15-5, 16-1921, 16-23 determining 16-3335 exclusive lanes 16-140141 worksheet 16-34E urban streets 10-1516, 15-2, 15-38 worksheet 16-89 convenience see comfort and convenience corridor analysis 3-2, 29-12 see also multiple facility assessment corridor analysis (continued) accessibility* 28-3, 29-26 highways 29-9 congestion duration* 28-3 highways 29-89 congestion extent* 28-3 highways 29-9 congestion intensity* 28-3 congestion variability* 28-3 highways 29-9 corridors (defined) 28-2 delay highways 29-6, 29-89 transit 29-1112 gates* 29-2 highway corridors 29-3 excess demand 29-56 input data 29-3 performance measures 29-710 queue delay 29-67 segment capacity 29-4 subperiods 29-7 traversal times 29-6 methodology 29-12 highway corridors 29-310 transit corridors 29-1012 O-D matrix estimation 29-2633 performance measures 29-79, 29-20 points* 29-2 problem 29-1226 quantity of service* 28-3 segments* 29-2 system performance 28-24 reporting 28-4E, 29-24E terminology 29-2 transit corridors 29-10 bus-stop capacity 29-10 input data 29-10 priority treatment 29-12 segment capacity 29-1011 speeds 29-11 travel time and delay 29-1011 trip table estimates 29-2632 variability* 28-3, 29-9 vehicle-trip estimate 29-2633 zones 29-2 critical gap* 7-9, 10-28 bicycles 19-67 roundabouts 17-46 TWSC 17-5, 17-7, 17-30 critical lane groups* 16-1418 cross-flow* traffic 11-7, 18-5 crosswalks* delays in 18-7 6
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


crosswalks (continued) evaluating 11-4 lengths 11-13 street corners 18-8, 18-10E time-space 18-1213 zebra-striped 18-13 D D-factor see directional distribution DDHV see directional design-hour volume deceleration and acceleration delays 16-88, 16-91E lanes* 25-1, 13-22, 13-24 delay* 7-910 see also control delay; queues and queuing acceleration-deceleration 16-88, 16-91E areawide analysis 30-9, 30-3638 control delay see control delay corridor analysis 29-6, 29-89, 29-1112 deceleration-acceleration 16-88, 16-91E incremental delay 15-4, 15-5, 15-78 intersection (node) delay 30-2736 lost time 7-1011 queue delay 15-5 turning delays 20-47E TWSC intersections 17-1517 estimates 17-2526 uniform delay 15-4, 15-5 value conventions 9-7 demand* average values 9-8 freeways 13-2729, 22-56, 22-4647 highways (two-lane) 20-69, 20-1322 management strategies 13-28 peak demand 8-8 signalized intersections 16-36 vehicles registered, 8-1314 volume and 2-2, 8-2 demand-to-capacity ratio* (freeways) 22-1214 computation 22-4849 density* 7-4 density-flow 7-56 freeways 13-34 multilane highways 12-3, 12-4E pedestrians 11-23 density-speed pedestrians 11-2 design analysis 3-5, 3-6E, 4-12 freeway segments (problem) 23-17 freeway weaving segments 24-20 problem 24-22 multilane highways 21-13 problems 21-24 design analysis (continued) signalized intersections 16-26, 16-27E problems 16-37, 16-85 ramps and ramp junctions 25-20 diamond interchanges* 26-12 see also interchange ramp terminals signalized 26-47, 26-1114 directional design-hour volume (DDHV)* 8-11, 23-1617 directional distribution and split* 8-11 analytical factor 9-89 D-factors 8-11, 8-12E multilane highways 12-13 traffic condition impacts 2-5 two-lane highways 8-11, 12-13, 12-18 adjustments 20-10, 20-11E diverge* influence areas see ramps and ramp junctions downgrades see also grades and terrain freeways 23-11 multilane highways 21-9, 21-11E two-lane highways 20-14, 20-20E drivers commuter vs. noncommuter 12-7, 13-7 driver populations* freeway segments 13-12, 23-1112 freeways 13-7 multilane highways 12-7, 12-10 ramp-freeway junctions 13-22, 13-25 tasks and characteristics 8-12 dwell time* buses 14-3, 14-56 calculating 27-911 problem 27-3637 variability 14-8, 27-11 light rail 27-2628 transit systems 14-3, 14-56 variability 14-8 E economic analysis 3-56, 3-8E utility models 28-1, 28-45 effective green * 10-1113 see also traffic signals ratios 10-19, 10-23 effective red* 10-11, 10-12E see also traffic signals entrance ramps see on- and off-ramps environmental analysis 3-6 , 3-8E events* and occurrences bicycles 19-2, 19-3 value conventions for 9-7 exclusive turn lanes* 10-1719 lane grouping 16-6, 16-7E 7
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary. Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


exclusive turn lanes (continued) left turns 10-18, 16-27, 16-28E number of lanes 10-17 protected-plus-permitted 16-140142 right turns 10-18 signal control 16-95E, 16-9 uniform delay 16-33, 16-34E exit ramps see on- and off-ramps expressways see highways, multilane F FFS see free-flow speed flow 2-1 see also flow rates parameters for interrupted 7-613 parameters for uninterrupted 7-16 flow rates* 8-16 see also saturation flow rates bicycles 11-14, 19-5 demand flow rate directional segments 20-1322 two-way segments 20-69 flow-density relations 7-56 pedestrians 11-23 freeways 13-34 multilane highways 12-3 freeways 13-23 segments 23-712 weaving segments 24-3 interrupted flow 7-67 signalized control 7-67 unsignalized control 7-89 multilane highways 12-7, 21-711 pedestrians 11-1, 11-10E, 11-17, 10-26 signalized intersections 16-34, 16-78 speed-flow functions 7-56 multilane highways 12-3, 12-4E two-lane highways 12-14, 12-15E traffic characteristics demand and volume 8-23 values 8-1329 vehicle and human factors 8-12 two-lane highways 12-1315, 20-1322 adjustments 20-69 uninterrupted flow 7-12 volumes and flow rates 8-16 freedom to maneuver 2-2, 12-2 free-flow speed* (FFS) 7-3 areawide analysis 30-34 freeway segments 23-47, 13-12 freeways 13-2, 13-56 values 13-12 multilane highways 12-27 calculating 21-37
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

free-flow speed (FFS) (continued) multilane highways values 12-10 ramp and ramp junctions 13-22 values 13-23 two-lane highways 12-14, 12-18 base 20-5 directional segments 20-13 two-way segments 20-46 urban streets 10-3 speed-flow 15-912 values 10-78, 15-3E freeway facilities * 13-1, 13-26, 22-1 see also freeway segments; freeway weaving segments; interchange ramp terminals; ramps and ramp junctions accidents and breakdowns 22-1011 areawide analysis 30-130-16 problem 30-1722 bottleneck analysis 22-14, 22-21 problems 31-2831 capacity adjustments 22-614 see also below capacity reductions capacity analysis 8-17, 13-2 capacity estimation 22-4748 capacity management 13-28 capacity reductions 22-67, 22-1112 accidents and breakdowns 22-1011 construction 22-78 environmental 22-910 permanent 22-7 problem 22-23 speed-flow 22-48 weather 22-89, 22-1112 computational modules 22-4264 variables 22-4345 construction and capacity 22-78 corridor analysis 29-210 problem 29-1226 daylight and capacity 22-10E demand 22-56 adjustment 22-47 bottlenecks 22-14 entrance and exit 22-56 estimation 22-4647 management 13-2729 demand-capacity ratio 22-1214 computation 22-4849 directional facilities 22-6364 diversion (problem) 31-3031 entrance and exit demand 22-56 entrance ramps 22-8 flow characteristics 13-23

8
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


freeway facilities (continued) geometric adjustments 13-28 heavy vehicles 22-7 HOV facilities 13-26, 13-28, 22-3 ice and capacity 22-9 incident management 13-28 capacity reduction 22-1011 problem 22-23 input data 22-20E lane control signals 13-28 lengths of sections 22-5 LOS inapplicable 22-3 mainline factors 22-1617 calculation 22-5659 management strategies 13-2729, 22-2122 methodology 22-13 applications 22-1922 computational modules 22-4264 computational steps 22-1920 input data 22-20E problems 22-2341 modeling application 31-16E night and capacity 22-10E nodes 22-15, 22-44 on-ramps and off-ramps 13-2122 capacity 22-6, 22-48 example 22-5 flow (oversaturated) 22-15E, 22-17 variables 22-4445 oversaturated conditions 13-3, 22-15 analytical procedure 22-5255 flows 22-1516, 22-501 mainline factors 22-1617, 22-5659 MOE computation 22-5063 problems 22-23 ramp flows 22-17, 22-5961 segment factors 22-18, 22-6162 performance measures 13-29, 22-3 determining 22-18 queue backup 22-14 queues on ramps 22-18 rain and capacity 22-9 ramp capacity 22-8 ramp closure 13-28 ramp-freeway junctions 13-2026, 25-1 ramp metering 13-28, 22-3, 22-6 problem 22-23 ramp roadways 25-45 rubbernecking 22-11 sections 22-5 segments 13-26, 22-45 variables 22-4344 shock wave analysis 22-14, 22-5759 snow and capacity 22-9 9
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

freeway facilities (continued) speed 22-15 time interval scale factor 22-6 tollroads compared 13-1 traffic management strategies 13-2729, 22-2122 traffic signals 13-28 traffic volumes 8-3, 8-17, 8-1820 undersaturated conditions 13-3, 22-1415 MOE computation 22-4950 problem 22-23 weather and capacity 22-810, 22-1112 freeway segments 13-12, 13-26, 22-45, 23-1 see also freeway facilities; ramps and ramp junctions analysis period 13-12 base conditions 13-2, 23-1 base FFS (BFFS) 23-5 capacity 13-2 composite grade 23-2830 density-flow curves 13-4 design analysis (problem) 23-17 downgrades 23-11 driver population 13-7, 13-12 adjustment 23-1112 extended segments 23-89 flow 13-23 saturation 13-3, 13-5 flow rate calculation 23-712 free-flow speed (FFS) 13-2, 13-56 base (BFFS) 23-5 determining 23-47 values 13-12 freeway facilities 13-2629 grade and terrain 13-12 composite grade 232830 downgrades 23-11 specific grades 23-911 upgrades 23-911 heavy vehicles 13-12 adjustment 23-78 input data and values 13-1113 results sensitivity 23-1213 interchange density 13-11 adjustment 23-67 lane width 13-5, 13-11 adjustment 23-5 lanes (numbers) 13-6 adjustment 23-6 lateral clearance 13-11, 13-12 adjustment 23-56 levels of service (LOS) 13-811 criteria 23-24 determining 23-12 methodology 23-113 applications 23-1417
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


freeway segments (continued) flowchart 23-2E input parameters 13-1113 problems 23-1727 worksheet 2330 modeling application 31-16E operational analysis (problems) 23-17 passenger-car equivalents 13-7 peak-hour factor (PHF) 13-12, 23-7 planning analysis 23-1617 queue discharge 13-5 ramps and ramp junctions 13-2026 saturation flows 13-3, 13-5 sections and segments 22-5 service volume tables 13-13 speed 13-6 see also above free-flow speed speed-flow curves 13-34 LOS and 23-4E terrain and grade 13-12 upgrades 23-911 worksheet 2330 freeway weaving segments* 13-1314, 24-1 see also freeway facilities capacity 24-9, 24-1819 Type A 24-1011 Type B 24-1215 Type C 24-1617 collector-distributor roadways 24-19 configurations 13-14, 24-5 capacity 24-9 effects 13-17 operation type and 13-1820 Type A 13-1415, 13-1819, 24-1011 Type B 13-1516, 13-19, 24-1215 Type C 13-1617, 13-19, 24-1617 constrained operation 13-1920, 24-78 design analysis 24-20 problem 24-22 diagram 24-3, 24-4E flow rates 24-3 intensity 13-17, 24-7 factors 24-6E, 24-7 lane changing 13-13, 13-14 see also above configurations lane use characteristics 13-1820 configuration and 13-17 level of service (LOS) 24-23 lengths 13-1718 methodology 24-119 applications 24-1921 flowchart 24-2E input parameters 24-3, 24-4E problems 24-22
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

freeway weaving segments (continued) worksheet 24-39 modeling application 31-16E multiple segments 24-19 nonweaving flow 13-13 intensity 24-7 lane use 13-18 operation type 24-78 speed 24-57 operation type 13-2820 determining 24-78 operational analysis 24-20 problems 24-22 planning analysis 24-20 problem 24-22 ramp-freeway junctions 13-2026 ramp-weave 13-14, 13-15E service volume tables 13-20 speeds 24-57, 24-8 two-sided weave 13-16, 13-17E unconstrained operation 13-1920, 24-78 widths 13-18 worksheet 24-39 G gaps * 7-89 critical gap 7-9, 10-28 bicycles 19-67 roundabouts 17-46 TWSC 17-5, 17-7, 17-30 departure headway 17-42 gap acceptance* (TWSC) 10-2829 model example 31-710 roundabouts 7-9, 17-45 two-stage 17-1920, 17-31 headway compared 16-105 headway distribution 8-24, 8-26 time gap 16-105 grades and terrain climbing lanes 20-2829 composite grade* 21-9, 23-810 downgrades freeways 23-11 multilane 21-9, 21-11E two-lane 20-14, 20-20E freeway segments 23-811 general terrain* 12-910 heavy vehicles 20-8, 21-1012 level terrain 21-8 heavy vehicles 20-8 mountainous terrain* 21-9 multilane highways 12-910, 12-11 adjustments 21-811 heavy vehicles 21-1012 10
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


grades and terrain (continued) rolling terrain* 21-9 heavy vehicles 20-8 specific grade 12-910 equivalents 21-9 speeds and 20-7 signalized intersections 10-25 adjustments 16-10, 16-11E two-lane highways 12-13, 12-17 adjustment factor 20-7 adjustments 20-1320 upgrades climbing lanes 20-2829 freeways 23-911 multilane 21-9, 21-10E two-lane 20-14 g/C ratio see green time green time* see also traffic signals allocation 16-98 estimation 10-4546 computation 16-108 model 16-106107 signal timing 16-100 ratio (g/C) 10-19, 10-23, 16-25 H HCM see Highway Capacity Manual 2000 headways* 7-45 adherence (transit) 27-3, 27-7, 27-8 departure headways 17-4243 determining 7-78 distribution 8-2426 gaps 8-24, 8-26 time gap 16-105 queue discharge headway 8-27 rail transit 27-2831 random flow 8-2426 saturation headways 8-26 AWSC 17-4244 sign-controlled intersections 7-89 heavy vehicles* see also buses; recreational vehicles; trucks construction 22-7 freeway segments 23-78 freeways 13-12, 22-7 multilane highways 12-7, 12-10 adjustments 21-78 grades 21-1012 two-lane highways 12-7, 12-19 adjustments 20-78, 20-1321 ramps and ramp junctions 13-22, 13-25 signalized intersections 10-25, 16-4 adjustment factor 16-10, 16-11E 11
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

heavy vehicles (continued) traffic condition impacts 2-45 high-occupancy vehicle* (HOV) lanes alternatives 13-28 buses 14-18, 27-1416 capacity freeway facilities 13-26, 13-28, 22-3 high-speed merging see ramps and ramp junctions high-speed street design 10-6E, 10-7 Highway Capacity Manual 2000 1-16 see also analytical approaches and methodologies; simulation and modeling analysis and applications 3-17 example 3-3E decision making and 4-16 methodologies and models 31-1 methodologies structure 9-45E precision and accuracy 9-2, 9-38 procedures overview 9-12 research basis 1-7E scope of facilities 3-1E highway facilities see also areawide analysis; corridor analysis; highways, multilane; highways, two-lane; ramps and ramp terminals areawide analysis 30-311 corridor analysis 29-310 multilane 12-111 two-lane 12-1119 highways, multilane* 12-13 access-points density 12-6 FFS adjustment 21-7 values 12-9 analysis period 12-10 areawide analysis 30-311 base conditions 21-1 composite grade 21-9 corridor analysis 29-310 design analysis 21-13 problems 21-2429 directional distribution 12-13 downgrades 21-9, 21-11E driver population 12-7, 12-9 adjustment 21-11 extended general segments 21-89 flow characteristics 2-1 flow rate 12-7 determining 21-711 flow-density functions 7-56, 12-3, 12-4E free-flow speed (FFS) 12-23 access points 12-6 adjustments 21-57 base 21-5 data and values 12-10
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


highways, multilane (continued) free-flow speed (FFS) determining 21-35 estimating 21-7 lane width/lateral clearance 12-45 speed limits 12-67 grade and terrain 12-910, 12-11E equivalents 21-89 heavy vehicles 21-9, 21-1011 specific grades 21-9 heavy vehicles 12-7, 12-10 adjustments 21-78 grades 21-1012 input data and values 12-810 sensitivity of results 21-11 lane width/lateral clearance 12-45 FFS adjustments 21-57 values 12-10 level of service (LOS) 12-78 criteria 21-24 determining 21-11 median types 12-5 FFS adjustment 21-6 values 12-9 methodology 21-13 applications 21-1215 computational steps 21-13 flowchart 21-2E problems 21-1629 worksheet 21-30 modeling application 31-16E operational analysis 21-13 problems 21-1623 peak-hour factor (PHF) 12-10, 21-7 planning applications 21-1314 service volume table 12-10, 12-11E speed 21-23, 21-12 FFS 12-27, 21-57 speed-density functions 7-56, 12-3, 12-4E speed flow curves 21-4E speed limits 12-67 terrain see above grade and terrain trucks see above heavy vehicles upgrades 21-9, 21-10E v/c ratio 21-12 volume variations 8-17, 8-20E worksheet 21-30 highways, two-lane* 12-1112, 20-12 access-points density 12-18, 20-6 analysis periods 12-18 areawide analysis 30-311 average travel speed* 12-12 base conditions 12-13 buses see below heavy vehicles
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

highways, two-lane (continued) classification (Class I, II) 12-1213, 12-17 climbing lanes 20-2829 corridor analysis 29-310 demand flow rate two-way segments 20-69 design and operational treatments 20-4448 directional distribution/split 12-13, 12-18 adjustments 20-10, 20-11E directional segments 12-14, 20-12 climbing lanes 20-2829 demand flow rate 20-1322 free-flow speed 20-13 grades 20-1320 LOS 20-22 passing lanes 20-22, 20-2428 problems 20-3338 time-spent-following 20-22, 20-2324 travel speed 20-2021 directional segments 20-1322 downgrades 20-14, 20-20E flow characteristics 2-1 flow rate 12-1315 adjustments 20-69 demand 20-69, 20-1322 free-flow speed (FFS) 12-14, 12-18 base 20-5 directional segments 20-13 two-way segments 20-46 grade and terrain 12-13, 12-17 adjustment factors 20-1519 computations 20-20 directional segments 20-13, 20-1519 downgrades 20-14, 20-20E two-way segments 20-7 upgrades 20-14 heavy vehicles 12-7, 12-19 directional segments 20-1314, 20-1720 two-way segments 20-79 input data and values 12-1719 intersection turn lanes 20-4647 lane widening 20-4546 lane widths 12-13 adjustment 20-56 input data 12-18 left-turn lanes 20-46 two-way (TWLTL) 20-4748 level of service (LOS) 12-1517, 20-2 directional segments 20-22 passing lanes 20-27 problems 20-3043 two-way segments 20-3, 20-4E, 20-1011 uninterrupted-flow facilities 20-2930 methodology 20-230 12
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


highways, two-lane (continued) methodology applications 20-3032 flowchart 20-2 input parameters 12-1719 problems 20-3248 worksheets 20-49 modeling application 31-16E no-passing zones 12-13, 12-1718 speed effects 20-9, 20-10E time-spent-following 20-23E passing lanes 12-15 alternatives 20-4446 analysis 20-2528 climbing lanes 20-2829 directional segments 20-22, 20-2428 lengths 12-18, 20-24E LOS 20-2728 opposing traffic 20-28 time-spent-following 20-24, 20-2627 travel speed 20-27, 20-28E turnouts 20-45 peak-hour factor (PHF) 12-18, 20-7, 20-13 recreational vehicles see above heavy vehicles service volume table 12-19 shoulder use 20-45 turnouts 20-4445 shoulder widths 12-13, 12-18 adjustment 20-56 speeds see above free-flow speed see below travel speed terrain and grade see above grade and terrain time-spent-following 12-13, 12-14E, 12-15E determining 20-910 directional distribution 20-9, 20-11E directional segments 20-22, 20-2324 two-way segments 20-910 total travel 20-12 travel speed 12-12, 20-9, 20-10E directional segments 20-2021 two-way segments 20-5 trucks see above heavy vehicles turning delays 20-47E turnouts 20-4445 two-way left-turn lanes (TWLTL) 20-4748 two-way segments 12-1415, 20-3 demand flow rate 20-69 free-flow speed 20-46 LOS 20-1011 problems 20-3943 time-spent-following 20-910 travel speed 20-9, 20-10E upgrades 20-14, 20-1519 13
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

highways, two-lane (continued) upgrades climbing lanes 20-2829 v/c ratio 20-1112 volumes 8-2021 wider cross sections 20-4546 worksheets 20-49 hindrance* (bicycles) 11-15, 19-2, 19-3 horizontal alignments of roadways see grades and terrain HOV see high-occupancy vehicle lanes human factors 8-12 I incremental delay* see control delay influence areas* see ramps and ramp junctions initial queue delay* 16-22, 16-33, 16-142 method 16-142150 multiple time periods 16-146 numerical examples 16-145148 worksheet 16-150E intelligent transportation systems* (ITS) 2-6 interchange ramp terminals* 3-1E, 26-14 alternative configurations 26-1417 cloverleaf interchanges 26-23, 26-4E control delay 26-89 diamond interchanges 26-12 signalized 26-47, 26-1114 interchange density 13-6, 13-11 FFS adjustment 23-67 level of service (LOS) 26-89 criteria 26-9 methodology 26-79 applications 26-1011 problem 26-1417 modeling application 31-16E parclos 26-23, 26-4E saturation flow rates 26-9 signalized interchanges 26-1, 26-45 demand starvation 26-7 lane change and use 26-6 off-sets 26-1314 phasing and timing 26-7, 26-1214 platoon behavior 26-67 queuing 26-56 turning movements 26-34 interchanges see interchange ramp terminals intermediate street design 10-6E, 10-7 interrupted-flow facilities 2-1, 3-1E see also interchange ramp terminals; intersections; traffic signals access control points 2-5 base conditions 2-34 bicycles 11-17, 19-57 control delay 7-910
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


interrupted-flow facilities (continued) intersections control delay 7-910 sign-controlled 7-89 signalized 7-78 lost time 7-1011 modeling application 31-16E parameters 7-613 pedestrians 18-718-15 queuing 7-1113 saturation flow rate 7-1011 signal control 7-78 speed 7-9 intersection turn lanes 20-4647 intersection turning movements 10-1 estimation method 10-1920, 10-33 interchanges 26-1, 26-34 intersections, AWSC (all-way stop-controlled) 10-3031, 17-32 analysis period 10-33 approaches 17-37 capacity model 17-3444 multilane sites 17-3639 single-lane sites 17-3536 computations 17-4144 conflict (degree of) 17-3639 control delay 10-31 computation 17-40 estimation 30-3536 gaps and headway 7-9 geometry 10-33, 17-4142 headways 17-9, 17-33 saturation 17-4244 input data and values 10-33 level of service (LOS) 17-32, 17-44 methodology 17-3241 applications 17-4043 flowchart 17-41E input parameters 10-33 problems 17-8099 worksheets 17-103 modeling application 31-16E multilane sites 17-3639 peak-hour factors (PHF) 10-33 planning and design 17-4445 saturation headway 17-44 service volume table 10-35 single-lane sites 17-3536 study period 10-33 traffic signs 2-5, 7-9 turning movements 10-33 volumes 10-33 worksheets 17-103 intersections, signalized 10-9, 10-11E, 16-12 acceleration-deceleration delays 16-88, 16-91E actuated signal controls 10-14, 16-9495 k-values 15-8E, 16-22E adjustment factors 16-1012 formulas 16-11E signal progression 15-67, 16-1920 analysis period 10-21 analysis types 16-26, 16-27E area type 10-26 adjustment factor 16-11E, 16-12 arrival types 10-23, 15-56, 16-45 computation 16-1920 descriptions 16-4E progression quality 10-23 speed-flow 15-12E back of queue 10-16, 16-151 average 16-152155 determining 16-151158 percentile 16-155156 queue storage rate 16-156 worksheet 16-157E bicycle blockage 16-13, 16-135139 computation outline 16-138E formula 16-11E bicycles 19-56 protected turns 10-15 bus blockage 16-10, 16-11E buses 10-25, 16-10, 16-11E priorities 14-17, 14-18, 14-19E capacity 10-15, 16-1314 capacity analysis 16-30, 16-3133 computational steps 16-2735 results 16-3536 control delay 10-1516, 15-2 acceleration-deceleration 16-88, 16-91E aggregated estimates 16-2223 computation 10-4647 determination 15-38, 16-1923 field measurement 16-8892 initial queue 16-22, 16-33, 16-142150 LOS 16-2324 minimizing 16-99 node delay 30-2736 sensitivities 16-2425 worksheet 16-89 critical lane groups 16-1418 cycle failure 10-16 cycle length 10-19, 10-2122 delay and 16-25 estimation 10-45 data and values 10-1726 delay see above control delay

Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

14
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


intersections, signalized (continued) delay-to-demand ratio 16-24 demand volumes 16-36 dual-ring phases 16-96E, 16-97, 16-103104 effective green time 10-1113 effective red time 10-11, 10-12E estimation method 10-3647 data needs 10-37 worksheet 10-47 exclusive turn lanes 10-1719 lane grouping 16-6, 16-7E signal control 16-95E, 16-9 uniform delay 16-33, 16-34E flow characteristics 10-9, 10-1114 flow rates 16-34 determining 16-78 fully actuated controls 10-14, 16-94 gap 16-105 geometry 16-3 grade adjustments 10-25 factor 16-10, 16-11E green extension time 16-108 green phasing 16-95E, 16-9697 green time allocation 16-98 green time estimation 10-4546 computation 16-108 model, 16-106107 signal timing 16-100 green time ratio (g/C) 10-19, 10-23, 16-14, 16-25 heavy vehicle factors 10-25, 16-4 adjustment 16-10, 16-11E incremental delay 15-4, 15-5, 15-78 computation 16-2123, 16-33 initial queue delay 16-22, 16-33 method 16-142150 worksheet 16-150E input data and values 10-1727 input parameters 16-36 interchanges 26-1, 26-47 timing 26-1114 intersection control type 10-21 k-values for controllers 15-8E, 16-22E lagging green phasing 16-95E, 16-9697, 16-128131 lane additions 10-17 lane grouping 16-6, 16-7E analytic parameters 16-3E capacity 10-15 equalizing 16-98 lane utilization 10-26 adjustment factor 16-11E, 16-12 lane volume 10-4143 worksheet 10-47 lane widths 10-2425 adjustment factor 16-10, 16-11E 15
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

intersections, signalized (continued) leading green phasing 16-95E, 16-9697, 16-128131 left-turns 10-3738 see also left lanes and turns adjustment factors 16-13, 16-122135 exclusive lanes 10-18 permitted turn phases 16-23, 16-128131 signal phasing 10-2223 worksheets 10-47, 16-132E, 16-133E level of service (LOS) 10-1517, 16-2 control delay 10-1516, 16-2324 methodology 16-224 worksheet 16-32E lost time 7-10, 10-1214 estimation 10-45 signal timing 16-101 values 10-2223 methodology (capacity/LOS) 16-124 applications 16-2636 flowchart 16-2E input parameters 10-1727 inputs 16-36 problems 16-3786 sensitivities 16-2425 worksheets 16-161 methodology (estimation) 10-3647 modeling application 31-16E multiphase signals 16-9698, 16-112120 critical lanes 16-18E node delay estimation 30-27 adaptive control 30-2729 all-way stop 30-3536 signal delay 30-2934 two-way stop 30-3435 operational analysis 16-124 flowchart 16-28E parking maneuvers 10-25 peak-hour factor (PHF) 10-21 peak-hour volumes 10-19 pedestrian adjustments 16-135139 blockage 16-11E, 16-13 computation 16-138E flow values 10-25 protected turns 10-15 pedestrian facilities 11-13, 18-713 permitted phasing 16-23 left-turns 16-122134 permitted turning 10-15 phase control plans 10-4344, 16-95 dual ring 16-96E, 16-97, 16-103104 multiphase 16-9698, 16-112120 two-phase 16-96E, 16-100, 16-109110 phasing see below signal phasing platoon ratio 15-6, 16-20
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


intersections, signalized (continued) pretimed signal controls 10-14, 16-94, 31-1012 k-values 16-22E timing plan 16-98101 progression adjustment 16-1920 progression quality 10-23, 16-4 protected phasing 10-15, 10-22, 16-16E protected-plus-permitted phasing 16-2324, 16-128 procedure 16-140143 red time 10-11, 10-12E right lanes 10-18, 16-11E, 16-12 RTOR 16-9, 16-12 queue accumulation polygons (QAPs) 16-23 application 16-106107, 16-112114 uniform delay 16-140141 queue calculations see above back of queue queue delay (initial) 16-22, 16-33 method 16-142150 queue service time 16-107108 queue size 16-112114, 16-140141 queue storage rate 16-156 queuing diagram 7-12E right turns adjustment factor 16-11E, 16-12 right turn on red 16-9, 16-12 volumes 10-42, 16-9 saturation conditions 7-1112 saturation flow rates 7-1011, 10-15 adjustment factors 16-1012 determining 16-913, 16-30, 16-31E measurement 16-158160 signal timing 16-99 values 10-24 semiactuated controls 10-14, 16-9495, 16-115116 service volume table 10-2627 signal characteristics 10-1415 signal controllers 16-9495 k-values 15-8E, 16-22E settings 16-105106 signal controls 16-9495 flow rate and 7-78 fully actuated 10-14 semiactuated 10-14 traffic-actuated 16-101120 signal coordination 15-9 signal cycle failure 10-16 signal cycle length 10-19, 10-2122 delay and 16-25 estimation 10-45 signal delay see above control delay signal density 10-8 speed and 15-912 signal phasing 10-1415, 10-22 signal progression 15-67, 16-1920
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

intersections, signalized (continued) signal timing design method 16-93121 estimation 10-4346, 16-99101 estimation limits 16-120121 example 16-116120 left-turn flows 10-37, 10-42 lost time 16-101 phase plans 16-9598 pretimed 16-98101 semiactuated 16-115116 signal controllers 16-9495 timing plans 16-98112 traffic actuated 16-101115 signalization conditions 16-3E, 16-56 speed-flow curves 15-912 terminology 10-12E time gap 16-105 timing plans minimum phase time 16-111 pretimed 16-98100 traffic-actuated 16-101115 traffic-actuated signal controls 16-9495 control settings 16-105106 estimation limits 16-120121 model 16-101104 multiphase example 16-116120 timing computations 16-115E timing plan 16-101115 worksheet 16-103 traffic conditions 16-35 turning movements 10-15, 10-1920 values 10-1920, 10-33 two-phase signals 16-96, 16-100, 16-109110 uniform delay 15-5, 16-1921, 16-23 determining 16-3335 exclusive lanes 16-140141 worksheet 16-34E variables 10-12E v/c ratios 10-16, 16-14 application 15-912 computation 10-46 critical lanes 16-1415 equalizing 16-98 volume adjustment 16-30, 16-31E volumes 10-33, 16-35 worksheets 16-161 intersections, TWSC (two-way stop-controlled) 10-2729, 17-1 analysis period 10-33 blockage 17-1517 delay estimates 17-2526 capacity 10-29 computations 17-28 16
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


intersections, TWSC (two-way stop-controlled) (continued) capacity movement 17-821 potential 17-78, 17-9E shared lane 17-1213 computational steps 17-2831 conflicting flows 10-28, 17-4, 17-6E computations 17-1819 control delay 10-31 computation 17-2324 estimation procedure 30-3435 control determination 17-27 criteria 17-27 critical gap 17-5, 17-7 computing 17-30 delay estimates 17-2526 flared approaches 17-2122 computing 17-31 flow conflicts 10-28, 17-4, 17-6E computations 17-1819 follow-up time 10-28 computing 17-30 gap acceptance models 10-2829 two-stage 17-1920, 17-31 gap, critical 17-5, 17-7 computing 17-30 gaps and right-of-ways, 7-89 geometry 10-32 impedance effects 17-912 computing 17-30 input data and values 10-32 requirements 17-3 LOS criteria 17-1, 17-2 LOS F 17-26 major-street approaches 10-2728 conflicts 17-45, 17-6E shared-lane capacity 17-13 stream priorities 17-34 medians 10-29, 17-3 methodology 17-128 applications 17-2831 flowchart 17-29E input parameters 10-32 problems 17-4580 worksheets 17-103 minor-street approaches 10-2728 conflicts 17-45, 17-6E flared 17-2122, 17-31 shared-lane capacity 17-12 stream priorities 17-34 modeling application 31-16E movement capacity 17-8 impedance effects 17-912 17
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

intersections, TWSC (two-way stop-controlled) (continued) movement capacity shared-lane capacity 17-1213 upstream signals 17-1321 peak-hour factor 10-33 pedestrians 17-4, 17-5 impedance 17-10, 17-1112 performance measures 10-31 planning and design 17-3132 platoon analysis 17-1418 queue clearance 17-1415 queue lengths 10-31 estimation 17-2223 right-of-way ranking 10-2728 stream priority 17-34 service volume tables 10-3435 shared-lane capacity 17-1213, 17-26 computing 17-31 traffic conflicts 17-45, 17-6E traffic signals 17-1319 computing effects 17-30 traffic signs 2-5, 7-89 turning movements 10-33 two-way left-turn lanes 10-29 upstream signal effects 17-1319 computing 17-30 v/c ratio 10-31 vehicle impedance 17-911 volumes 10-33 worksheets 17-103 intersections, unsignalized 10-2735, 17-1 see also intersections, AWSC; intersections, TWSC; roundabouts AWSC intersections 10-3031, 17-3244 bicycles 19-67 modeling application 31-16E pedestrians 11-13, 18-1315 problems 17-29101 roundabouts 10-31, 10-34, 17-4548 service volume tables 10-3435 TWSC intersections 10-2729, 7-131 interstate highways see highways, multilane ITS see intelligent transportation systems K K-factors 9-89 directional distribution 8-11 peak volume 8-910 values (typical) 8-9 L lagging green phasing 16-95E, 16-9697, 16-128131

Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


lanes see also exclusive turn lanes; left lanes and turns; right lanes and turns acceleration lanes* 13-22, 13-24, 25-1 bicycle lanes* 11-14, 19-1, 19-45, 19-7 bus lanes* 14-3, 14-11 exclusive 14-1415, 14-16E, 14-19E mixed-traffic 14-15, 14-16E, 27-25 reserved 14-18 vehicle capacity 14-12E deceleration lanes* 13-22, 13-24, 25-1 exclusive turn lanes* 10-1718, 16-67 freeway segments 13-5, 13-11 FFS adjustments 23-56 freeway weaving 13-1320 freeways 13-56 HOV* lanes 13-26 alternatives 13-28 intersection turn lanes 20-4647 lane changing 13-13, 13-14 see also freeway weaving segments lane control signals 13-28 lane distribution* 2-5, 8-1213 ramp areas 13-22 lane grouping* 16-6, 16-7E analytic parameters 16-3E capacity 10-15 equalizing 16-98 lane utilization* 10-26 adjustment factor 16-11E, 16-12 freeway weaving 13-17, 13-1820 interchanges 26-6 lane volume 10-4143 worksheet 10-47 lane widening 20-4546 left-turn lanes (two-way*; TWLTL) multilane highways 12-1 signalized intersections 10-29 two-lane highways 20-4748 multilane highways 12-45, 12-10, 21-57 numbering conventions 13-21 passing lanes* see passing lanes signalized intersections 10-2425, 16-10, 16-11E two-lane highways 12-13, 12-18 adjustment 20-56 weaving configurations 13-1418 weaving lanes 13-1820 lateral clearance * freeway segments 13-5, 13-11 FFS adjustment 23-56 multilane highways 12-45 FFS adjustments 21-57 values 12-10 ramps and ramp junctions 13-22
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

leading green phasing 16-95E, 16-9697, 16-128131 left lanes and turns adjustment factors 16-11E, 16-13, 16-122E method 16-122135 bicycles and vehicles 16-135139 complex phasing 16-23, 16-128131 critical lane groups 16-1517 dual-ring phases 16-97 exclusive lanes 10-18, 10-42, 16-67 green time 16-128131 lane grouping 16-6, 16-7E lane volume 10-40E, 10-42 estimating 10-43E left-lane equivalence 10-4243 multilane approaches 6-124126 permitted turn phasing 16-23 procedure 16-122134 phasing types 16-13 protected phasing 10-22, 16-16E protected-plus-permitted phasing 16-2324 critical lane groups 16-17E lane volumes 10-4243 procedure 16-140142 signal phasing 10-22 single lane approaches 16-126128 sneakers 10-42, 16-102, 16-124 turning movements 10-15 two-lane highways 20-46 two-way left-turn lanes (TWLTL) 10-29, 12-1 two-lane highways 20-4748 uniform delay 16-140142 worksheets 10-47, 16-132E, 16-133E level of service* see LOS light rail transit* (LRT) 8-2, 14-1, 14-3, 14-19, 27-26 capacity 14-2022 calculating 27-3132 door availability 27-27 dwell time 27-2628 minimum headways 27-2831 on-street operation 27-2930 operating margins 27-28 passenger flows 27-27E, 27-28 person capacities 14-22E, 27-3132 priority treatments 14-22 problem 27-4445 signal priorities 14-22 speed 27-3132 signals and 27-30 single track sections 27-3031 travel times 14-20, 14-22E volumes 8-29 peak 27-27 wheelchair accessibility 27-28 links and link analysis see areawide analysis 18
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


loading areas* (buses) 14-78, 14-9E bus stops 14-1011 capacity 14-13, 27-13 productivity 8-29 vehicle capacity 14-12E volume 14-10 loading areas (transit) 14-3 local streets 10-1 see also urban streets LOS (level of service)* 2-24, 4-3, 28-1 see also performance measures; quality of service analysis hour and 8-8 AWSC intersections 17-32, 17-44 bicycles (criteria) 11-6 exclusive paths 19-3E shared paths 19-4E urban streets 19-7E Class I/II highways 12-13 control delays urban 10-1516 factors affecting 2-36 freeway segments 23-24, 23-12 freeway weaving segments 24-23 freeways 13-811 HCM methods 4-14 interchanges 26-89 levels 2-3 measurements 4-25 MOE and 4-3 multilane highways 12-78 criteria 21-24 determining 21-11 pedestrians 18-1 criteria 11-7 cross flows 18-5E queuing areas 11-10E, 18-6E shared paths 18-7E signalized intersections 18-8E stairways 18-5E unsignalized intersections 18-15E urban streets 18-16E walkways 11-9E, 18-4E ramp areas 13-2324, 25-45 diverge 25-1415 merge 25-8 service flow rates 2-3 service measures and 4-3 signalized intersections 10-1517, 16-2 control delay 10-1516, 16-2324 methodology 16-224 worksheet 16-32E transit facilities 14-23 hours-of-service 27-6E LOS (level of service) (continued) transit facilities intercity transit 27-4E paratransit 27-4E passenger load 27-6E reliability 27-8E service frequency 27-2 two-lane highways 12-12, 12-1517, 20-2, 20-29 directional segments 20-22 passing lanes 20-27 two-way segments 20-3, 20-4E, 20-1011 uninterrupted-flow facilities 20-2930 urban streets 10-45 determining 15-23, 15-2728 weaving segments 24-23 lost time* 7-1011, 10-1214 change interval* lost time 8-26 clearance lost time* 10-1213 estimation 10-45 example 7-8 signal timing 16-101 signalized intersections 8-2628 start-up lost time* 8-26, 8-28, 10-1213 total lost time 10-14 unsignalized intersections 8-28 values 10-2223 LRT see light rail transit M mainlines* (freeways) 22-1617 calculation 22-5659 major-street* approaches (TWSC) 10-2728 conflicts 17-45, 17-6E shared-lane capacity 17-13 stream priorities 17-34 measures of effectiveness* (MOE) 2-3, 3-2 see also service measures computation 22-5063 LOS and 4-3 procedures 22-4963 oversaturated 22-5063 undersaturated 22-4950 uses 4-2 medians multilane highways 12-1, 12-5, 12-9, 21-6 TWSC intersections 10-29, 17-3 merge* influence areas see ramps and ramp junctions minor arterials* 10-6, 10-7 minor-street* approaches (TWSC) 10-2728 conflicts 17-45, 17-6E flared 17-2122, 17-31 shared-lane capacity 17-12 stream priorities 17-34

19
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


mixed-traffic bus facilities* 27-2426 problems 27-3841 modeling see simulation and modeling MOE see measures of effectiveness motorcycles 8-14E motor vehicles see also buses; passenger cars; recreational vehicles; vans driver characteristics 8-1 numbers registered 8-1314 operating characteristics 8-2 multilane highways see highways, multilane multiple facility assessment 28-1 see also areawide analysis; corridor analysis areawide analysis 30-12 corridor analysis 29-12 system LOS 28-56 system performance 28-13 traveler satisfaction 28-1, 28-46 utility models 28-1, 28-45 N node delay estimation 30-27 adaptive control 30-2729 all-way stop 30-3536 two-way stop 30-3435 signal delay 30-2934 nodes* 22-15, 30-27 variables 22-44 no-passing zones* (two-lane highways) 12-13, 12-1718 see also passing lanes speed effects 20-9, 20-10E time-spent-following 20-23E values 12-17-12-18 O occurrences see events and occurrences on- and off-ramps (freeways) 13-2122 capacity 22-6, 22-48 example 22-5 flow (oversaturated) 22-15E, 22-17 influence areas 13-23 interchanges 26-1 off-ramps capacity 25-4 left-hand 25-17 other 25-17 two-lane 25-4, 25-1516 weaving 13-13 on-ramps 13-2122 capacity 25-4 left-hand 25-11 other 25-1011 two-lane 25-4, 25-89
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

on- and off-ramps (freeways) (continued) variables 22-4445 weaving 13-13 operational analysis 3-5, 3-6E, 4-1 bicycles (problems) 19-11 corridor analysis 29-1 freeway segments (problems) 23-17 freeway weaving segments 24-20 problems 24-22 models 31-1 multilane highways 21-13 problems 21-15 pedestrians (problems) 18-19 ramps and ramp junctions 25-20 problems 25-23 signalized intersections 16-124, 16-27 problems 16-37 two-lane highways (problems) 20-32 oversaturation* conditions (freeways) 13-3, 22-15 analytical procedure 22-5255 flows 22-1516, 22-501 mainline factors 22-1617, 22-5659 MOE computation 22-5063 problems 22-23 queue discharge 13-5 ramp flows 22-17, 22-5961 segment factors 22-18, 22-6162 P paratransit* 27-34 parclos (partial cloverleaf interchanges*) 26-23 turning movements 26-4E parking maneuvers (urban) 10-25 park-and-ride lots 14-24E, 14-27 transit flow restrictions 14-18, 14-19E passenger cars see automobiles passenger demand, loads, perceptions, etc. see transit facilities passing lanes* (two-lane highways) 12-15 alternatives 20-4446 analysis 20-2528 climbing lanes 20-2829 directional segments 20-22, 20-2428 lengths 12-18, 20-24E LOS 20-2728 opposing traffic 20-28 time-spent-following 20-24, 20-2627 travel speed 20-27, 20-28E turnouts 20-45 peak-hour factors* (PHF) 9-89 bicycles 11-18 buses 14-11 freeway segments 13-12, 23-7 20
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


peak-hour factors (PHF) (continued) multilane highways 12-10, 21-7 ramp-freeway junctions 13-25 roundabouts 10-34 signalized intersections 10-33 subhourly flow variations 8-9 transit facilities 14-4 two-lane highways 12-18, 20-7, 20-13 unsignalized intersections 10-19, 10-33 urban streets 10-8 peak-hour volume 8-69 AADT and DDHV 8-11, 23-1617 K-factors 8-9E, 8-1112 transit trips 14-2E pedestrians* 11-1, 18-1 adjustment factor 16-11E, 16-13 computation 16-138E formula 16-11E procedure 16-135139 bicycle interactions 11-16 shared facilities 18-67 body ellipse 11-4, 11-5E capacity 11-45 circulation time 18-8, 18-1112 clear walkway width 11-6 conflicts 11-7, 18-5 zones 6-135, 6-136E cross-flows 11-7 determining 18-5 crosswalks evaluating 11-4 lengths 11-13 street corners 18-8, 18-10E time-space 18-1213 zebra-striped 18-13 delays 11-13, 18-7 density 11-1 flow-density 11-23 speed-density 11-2 effective green time 18-13 effective walkway width 11-6, 11-12 determining 18-23 environmental factors 11-1 facility types 18-1 flow 2-1 flow-density relationships 11-2 flow rate 11-1, 11-10E cross-flows 11-17 flow-speed relations 11-3 flow values (urban) 10-26 holding areas 18-8, 18-1011 impedance 17-10, 17-1112 input data and values 11-1213 pedestrians (continued) interrupted-flow facilities 18-7 signalized 18-718-13 unsignalized 18-1315 levels of service (LOS) 18-1 criteria 11-7 cross flows 18-5E queuing areas 11-10E, 18-6E shared paths 18-7E signalized intersections 18-8E stairways 18-5E unsignalized intersections 18-15E urban streets 18-16E walkways 11-9E, 18-4E major-street crossing 18-810 methodology 18-115 applications 18-16 computations 18-16, 18-1718 problems 18-1931 worksheets 16-161, 18-32 minor-street crossing 18-8, 18-9 modeling application 31-16E off-street paths 18-1 pedestrian space* 11-1 calculating 18-1112 display convention 9-7 requirements 11-4, 11-5E performance measures 11-78 platoons 11-1, 11-8, 11-11 calculation 11-13, 18-14 effects 18-45 numbers in 11-13 queuing areas 18-1 determining 18-56 LOS 11-10E service volume table 11-14E shared-use facilities 18-1, 18-67 sidewalks and walkways 18-1 analysis 18-34 lengths 11-12 LOS criteria 18-4 urban 18-15 widths 11-6, 11-12 signalized intersections adjustment factor 16-11E, 16-13, 16-135139 facilities 18-718-13 platoon size 11-13 turning movements 10-15 speed see below walking speed speed-density relations 11-2 speed-flow relations 11-3 speed-space relations 11-4 stairways 18-5

21
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


pedestrians (continued) standing areas 11-4, 11-5E start-up time 11-4, 11-13 street corners areas 18-8, 18-910 radius 11-12 time-space 11-1013 terminology 11-1 traffic characteristics 8-2 traffic control 11-1 pedestrian delay 11-13 trip purpose 11-6 TWSC intersections 17-4, 17-5 impedance 17-10, 17-1112 types 11-6 uninterrupted-flow facilities 18-37 unsignalized intersections 1-13 facilities 18-1315 urban street facilities 18-1 default flows 10-26 v/c ratios 18-4 vehicle-pedestrian interactions 17-1112 waiting times 18-1011 walking space see above pedestrian space walking speed 11-1, 11-2, 11-45, 11-6E determining 18-1 speed-density 11-2 speed-space 11-4 values 11-13 walkways see above sidewalks and walkways worksheets 16-161, 18-32 performance measures * 2-3, 28-1 accuracy and precision 9-2, 9-3 areawide analysis 30-2 congestion 30-38 highways 30-811 transit 30-1314 average values 9-8 bicycle facilities 11-45 corridor analysis 29-79, 29-20 economic analyses and 3-7, 3-8E environmental analyses and 3-6, 3-8E freeways 13-29, 22-3, 22-18 models and 31-18 multiple facilities 28-13 pedestrian facilities 11-78 presentation of 4-34 roles and uses of 4-13 selection 4-3 transit facilities 14-23, 14-24E person capacity* buses 14-3, 14-4E busways 14-14E person capacity (continued) buses calculating 14-6 influences 14-5E mixed-traffic 27-25 problem 27-42 urban bus lanes 27-20 rail transit 14-22E, 27-3132 transit facilities 14-3, 14-45 calculating 14-6E person delay (transit facilities) 14-18 person flow 2-2 see also pedestrian flow PHF see peak-hour factor planning analysis 3-6, 4-2 freeway segments (problems) 23-17 freeway weaving segments 24-20 problems 24-22 models 31-1 pedestrians (problem) 18-30 performance-based planning 28-2 ramps and ramp junctions signalized intersections 16-26, 16-27E problems 16-37, 16-79 platoons * and platoon analysis arrival types 15-56, 16-45 buses 14-11 gap distribution 7-9 interchanges 26-67 pedestrian 11-1, 11-8, 11-11 calculation 11-13 effects 18-45 platoon ratio* 15-6, 16-20 TWSC intersections 17-1418 progression adjustment factor* (PF) 15-67, 16-1920 Q quality of service* 2-2, 28-1 see also LOS (levels of service); performance measures multiple facilities 28-46 transit facilities 14-23, 14-24E availability 14-3031 comfort and convenience 14-31 factors 14-2629 framework 14-2931 measures 27-2 traveler perceptions 28-46 quantity of service* 28-3 queue accumulation polygons (QAPs) 16-23 application 16-106107, 16-112114 uniform delay 16-140141 queues and queuing * 7-11 see also headway 22
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


queues and queuing (continued) back of queue* 10-16, 16-151 average 16-152155 determining 16-151158 percentile 16-155156 queue storage rate* 16-156 worksheet 16-157E bicycles 19-7 buses bypass/jump 14-17, 14-18, 14-19E formation 14-10 queue failure 27-1112 initial queue delay* 15-5, 16-22, 16-33 examples 16-145148 method 16-142150 multiple time periods 16-146 worksheet 16-150E interchange characteristics 26-56 lengths 7-12 TWSC 10-31, 17-2223 pedestrians 18-1, 18-56 LOS 11-10E queue carryover* 16-7 queue clearance* (TWSC) 17-1415 queue discharge flows* freeways 13-3, 13-5 headways 8-27 queue size 16-112114, 16-140141 queue storage ratio* 16-156 saturation conditions 13-5, 7-1112 service time 16-107108 R rail transit see light rail transit ramp-freeway junctions 13-2122, 25-1 see also ramps and ramp junctions ramps and ramp junctions* 13-20, 25-1 see also interchange ramp terminals acceleration and deceleration lanes capacity 25-1 length 13-22, 13-24 analysis period 13-24 capacity 22-8 diverge 13-22, 25-14 merge 13-22, 25-78 components 13-2021 corridor analysis 29-39 design analysis 25-20 diverge influence areas 13-2123 analysis 25-1117 capacity 13-22, 25-14 flow prediction 25-1213 lane drops 25-16 ramps and ramp junctions (continued) diverge influence areas LOS 13-2324, 25-45, 25-1415 major diverges 25-16 off-ramp cases 25-1517 weaving 13-13, 13-26 driver population factor 13-22, 13-25 entrance ramps see below on-ramps exit ramps see below off-ramps free-flow speed (FFS) 13-22 values 13-24 freeway-to-freeway ramps 13-21 heavy vehicles 13-22, 13-25 input data and values 13-2425 lane distribution 13-22 lane numbering 13-21 lateral clearances 13-22 levels of service (LOS) 13-2324, 25-45 diverge areas 25-1415 merge areas 25-8 merge influence areas 13-2123 analysis 25-511 capacity 13-22, 25-78 flow prediction 25-57 lane additions 25-9 LOS 13-2324, 25-45, 25-8 major merges 25-910 on-ramp cases 25-811 ramp control/meters 25-11 weaving 13-13, 13-26 methodology 25-119 applications 25-1922 computational steps 25-20 flowchart 25-3E problems 22-2340 worksheet 25-40 modeling application 31-16E off-ramps 13-2122 capacity 25-4 left-hand 25-17 other 25-17 two-lane 25-4, 25-1516 weaving 13-13 on-ramps 13-2122 capacity 25-4 left-hand 25-11 other 25-1011 two-lane 25-4, 25-89 weaving 13-13 operational analysis 25-20 problems 25-23 operational characteristics 13-2122 parameters 13-22 peak-hour factor (PHF) 13-25 23
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary. Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


ramps and ramp junctions (continued) planning analysis 25-20 ramp closure 13-28 ramp-freeway junctions 13-2021, 25-1 ramp influence areas 25-13 capacity 13-23 diverge 13-2123, 25-1117 merge 13-2123, 25-511 overlapping 25-17 speed 25-1819 ramp lanes 13-2122 values 13-24 ramp metering* 13-28, 22-3, 22-6 ramp roadways* 25-34 ramp-street junctions 13-20, 13-21 ramp terminals 25-3 ramp-weave 13-14, 13-15E service-volume table 13-2526 signalized intersections 25-2 speed 25-1819 variables 25-2E, 25-3 worksheet 25-40 recreational facilities and routes 8-6, 8-7, 8-8 recreational vehicles* (RVs) freeway segments 23-78 freeways 13-12 multilane highways 12-7, 12-10 adjustments 21-78 grades 21-1012 traffic condition impacts 2-45 two-lane highways 12-7, 12-19 directional segments 20-1314, 20-1819 two-way segments 20-79 red time* 10-11, 10-12E see also traffic signals right lanes and turns adjustment factor 16-11E, 16-12 bicycles 19-6 buses 27-1718 exclusive lanes 10-18 right turn on red (RTOR) 16-9, 16-12 right-of-ways bicycles 19-6 TWSC intersections gaps 7-89 ranking 10-2728 stream priority 17-34 roadway conditions 2-4 see also exclusive turn lanes; lanes; lateral clearance; shoulders roundabouts* 10-31, 17-45 applications 17-48 approach capacity 17-47E capacity model 17-4648
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

roundabouts (continued) critical gap 17-46 gap acceptance 7-9, 17-45 geometry 10-32E headways 17-45 input data and values 10-34 methodology 17-4548 multilane limits 17-48 volumes 10-33 worksheets 17-103 RTOR (right turn on red) 16-9, 16-12 running speed* 7-3, 10-3 RVs see recreational vehicles S saturation* conditions (freeways) oversaturated conditions 13-3, 22-15 analytical procedure 22-5255 flows 22-1516, 22-501 mainline factors 22-1617, 22-5659 MOE computation 22-5063 problems 22-23 ramp flows 22-17, 22-5961 segment factors 22-18, 22-6162 undersaturated conditions 13-3, 22-1415 MOE computation 22-4950 problem 22-23 saturation flow rate* adjustment factors 16-1013 gaps and headway 7-9 interchanges 26-9 lost time and 7-8, 7-1011 signalized intersections 8-2628, 10-15, 10-24 determining 16-913, 16-30, 16-31E measurement 16-158160 signal timing 16-99 values 10-24 unsignalized intersections 8-28 service flow rates* 2-3 service measures * 2-3, 28-1 see also LOS (levels of service); quality of service LOS and 4-3 uses 4-23 service volume* tables bicycle facilities 11-1820 freeway ramps 13-2526 freeway segments 13-13 freeway weaving 13-20 multilane highways 12-10, 12-11E pedestrian facilities 11-14E ramps and ramp junctions 13-2526 signalized intersections 10-2627 table preparation 9-7, 9-9, 9-1112 two-lane highways 12-19 24
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


service-volume tables (continued) TWSC intersections 17-1213, 17-26, 17-31 unsignalized intersections 10-3435 urban streets 10-9, 10-10 shoulders* bicycle lanes 19-4 two-lane highway use 20-45 turnouts 20-4445 widths on highways multilane two-lane 12-13, 12-18, 20-56 side streets see minor-street approaches sidewalks and walkways pedestrians 18-1 analysis 18-34 lengths 11-12 LOS criteria 11-9E, 18-4E urban 18-15 walkways 11-6, 11-12 transit facilities 14-24E, 14-26, 14-27 signals see traffic signals signs 2-5, 7-89 see also intersections, AWSC; intersections, TWSC simulation* and modeling 31-13 alternatives analysis 31-24 examples 31-27, 31-29, 31-31 applications 31-1624 calibration* and validation* 31-22 examples 31-27, 31-29, 31-31 data assembly and input 31-22, 31-23 examples 31-27, 31-29, 31-31 data availability 31-2021 descriptive models* 31-56 descriptors 31-3 deterministic models* 31-4 exercises 31-1014 ease of use 31-21 event-based models* 31-4 exercise 31-7 events 31-3 HCM assessment 31-9 examples 31-26, 31-28, 31-30 input parameters 31-3E logic types 31-34 normative models* 31-56 numerical exercises 31-616 car following 31-1416 gap acceptance 31-710 pretimed signal 31-1012 toll booth 31-1214 off-line models* 31-6 output analysis 31-2324 examples 31-27, 31-29, 31-31 output parameters 31-3E 25
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

simulation and modeling (continued) performance measures in 31-18 problems 31-1531 project scope 31-18 examples 31-26, 31-28, 31-30 randomness elements 31-4 real-time models* 31-6 resource requirements 31-2122 selection of model 31-1922 examples 31-26, 31-28, 31-30 state variables 31-3 stochastic models* 31-4 exercises 31-710, 31-1216 time-based models* 31-4 exercise 31-1416 traffic inputs to models 31-5 traffic simulation models 31-23 types of models 31-45 utility models 28-4 vehicle simulation models 31-3 exercise 31-1416 skip-stop bus service* 14-11, 27-13 example 14-15, 14-16E problems 27-41, 27-43 speed adjustment 27-2223 urban bus lanes 27-1819 space mean speed* 7-3 spacing between vehicles see gaps; headway speed* 7-24, 7-9, 8-2123 bicycles 11-18, 19-3E, 19-5, 19-7E buses 27-8 busways 27-14, 27-16 HOV lanes 27-15E, 27-16 mixed-traffic 27-26 problem 27-43 skip-stop 27-2223 urban bus lanes 27-2024 density-speed relations 7-56 freeway segments 13-34 multilane highways 12-3, 12-4E flow-speed relations 7-56 bicycles 19-5 freeway segments 13-34, 23-4E multilane highways 12-3, 12-4E signalized intersections 15-912 two-lane highways 12-14 urban streets 15-912 free-flow speed (FFS) 7-3 freeway segments 23-47 freeways 13-2, 13-56, 13-12 multilane highways 12-27, 12-10 ramps and ramp junctions 13-22, 13-23 two-lane highways 12-14, 12-18 urban streets 10-3, 10-78
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


speed (continued) freeway weaving segments 24-58 freeways 13-6, 22-15 interrupted flow 7-9 as LOS measure 2-2 multilane highways 12-3, 12-67 parameters 7-3 pedestrians 11-1, 11-2, 11-6E determining 18-1 factors 11-45 ramps and ramp junctions 25-1819 running speed* 10-3 space-speed relations 11-4 speed limits (highways) 12-67 travel speed* 7-2, 7-3 urban 10-4 trends 8-2123 two-lane highways 12-12, 20-910 directional 20-2021 grade adjustment 20-7 no-passing 20-9, 20-10E two-way 20-5, 20-10E types 7-3 uninterrupted flow 7-24 urban streets 10-34 FFS 10-78 sensitivities 15-912 value conventions for 9-7 variations per volume 8-21, 8-23, 8-24E, 8-25E speed limits multilane highways 12-67 urban streets 10-6 start-up lost time* 8-26, 8-28, 10-1213 see also lost time stop signs 2-5, 7-89 see also intersections, AWSC; intersections, TWSC streetcars* 14-1920, 27-26 capacities 27-3132 dwell time 27-2628 minimum headways 27-2830 travel times 14-20, 14-22E volumes 8-29 peak 27-27 streets see sidewalks and walkways; urban streets suburban streets* 10-6E, 10-7 symbols see Chapter 6 system analysis 3-24 T terrain see grades and terrain time mean speed* 7-3 time-spent-following 12-13, 12-14E, 12-15E determining 20-910 directional distribution 20-9, 20-11E
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

time-spent-following (continued) directional segments 20-22, 20-2324 two-way segments 20-910 toll booth (modeling example) 31-1214 toll roads 13-1 topography see grades and terrain traffic-actuated signal controls see traffic signals traffic characteristics demand and volume 8-213 values (measured and observed) 8-1329 vehicle and human factors 8-12 traffic conditions* 2-45 see also directional distribution and split signalized intersections 16-35 traffic control systems see traffic signal phasing; traffic signals traffic signal phasing 10-1415, 10-22 see also traffic signals critical lanes 16-16E, 16-7E interchanges 26-7, 26-1214 leading/lagging 16-95E, 16-9697, 16-128131 multiphase 16-18E, 16-9698, 16-112120 overlapping phases 16-15 parameters 6-104105 permitted 16-23, 16-122134 phase plans 10-4344, 16-95 pretimed signal controls 10-14, 16-94 k-values 16-22E timing plan 16-98100 protected 10-22, 16-16E protected-plus-permitted 16-2324, 16-128 procedure 16-140143 two-phase 16-96E, 16-100, 16-109110 types 16-13 traffic signals see also traffic signal phasing actuated signal controls 10-14, 16-9495 control delay see control delay controllers 16-9495 settings 16-105106 cycle failure 10-16 cycle length 10-12E, 10-19, 10-2122 estimation 10-45 effective green 10-1113 ratios 10-19, 10-23 effective red 10-11, 10-12E freeways 13-28 fully actuated 10-14 green extension time 16-108 green phasing 16-95E, 16-9697 green time 10-1113 allocation 16-98 estimation 10-4546 computation 16-108 26
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


traffic signals (continued) green time model 16-106107 signal timing 16-100 ratio (g/C) 10-12E, 10-19, 10-23, 16-25 interrupted-flow facilities 2-5 lagging/leading green phasing 16-95E, 16-9697, 16-128131 light-rail trains 14-22 multilane highways 12-1 multiphase control 16-9698, 16-112120 critical lanes 16-18E pedestrians 11-1 delay 11-13 permitted phasing 16-23 left turns 16-122134 phase control plans 10-4344, 16-9598 dual-ring 16-96E, 16-97, 16-103104 multiphase 16-9698, 16-112120 two-phase 16-96E, 16-100, 16-109110 pretimed signal controls 10-14, 16-94 k-values 16-22E modeling example 31-1012 timing plan 16-98100 protected phasing 10-15, 10-22, 16-16E protected-plus-permitted phasing 16-2324, 16-128 procedure 16-140143 rail transit priorities 14-22 red time 10-11, 10-12E semiactuated signals 10-14 signal controls 16-9495 flow rate and 7-78 fully actuated 10-14 semiactuated 10-14 traffic-actuated 16-101120 signal controllers 16-9495 k-values 15-8E, 16-22E settings 16-105106 signal coordination 15-9 signal delay see control delay signal density (urban) 10-8 speed and 15-912 signal phasing 10-1415 signal progression 15-67, 16-1920 signal timing design method 16-93120 estimation 10-4346, 16-99101 estimation limits 16-120121 example 16-116120 interchanges 26-7 left-turn flows 10-37, 10-42 lost time 16-101 phase plans 16-9598 pretimed 16-98101 27
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

traffic signals (continued) signal timing semiactuated 16-115116 timing plans 16-98112 traffic-actuated 16-101115 signalization conditions 16-3E, 16-56 timing plans minimum phase time 16-111 pretimed 16-98100 problem 31-2627 traffic-actuated 16-102115 traffic-actuated controls 16-9495 control settings 16-105106 estimation limits 16-120121 model 16-101104 multiphase example 16-116120 timing computations 16-115E timing plan 16-101115 worksheet 16-103 two-phase control 16-96, 16-100, 16-109110 types 10-14 upstream signal effects (TWSC) 17-1319 computing 17-30 traffic signs 2-5, 7-89 see also intersections, AWSC; intersections, TWSC transit facilities 14-13, 27-12 see also areawide analysis; buses and bus facilities; corridor analysis; light rail transit; street cars accessibility* to stops 14-10, 27-45 amenities 14-27, 27-67 areawide analysis 30-1116 problems 30-2326 availability see below transit availability automobiles accessibility 27-45 travel time 14-31, 27-3 bicycles 14-6, 14-27 accessibility 27-45 bus facilities 14-3, 14-718 bus priorities 14-1519 parameters 27-926 signal timing 14-11 capacity 14-36 estimation 27-1 comfort and convenience 14-24E, 14-26, 14-31 measures 27-68 perceptions 14-29 corridor analysis 29-1012 problem 29-1226 costs to passengers 14-28 delays see below dwell time dwell time 14-3, 14-56 variability 14-8 fare payment 14-6
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


transit facilities (continued) GIS analysis 30-1416 headway adherence 27-3, 27-7, 27-8 hours of service 14-24E determining 27-56 intercity scheduled service 27-3, 27-4 level of service (LOS) 14-23 hours of service 27-6E intercity transit 27-4E paratransit 27-4E passenger load 27-6E reliability 27-8E service frequency 27-2 light rail 14-3, 14-1922 parameters 27-2631 priority treatments 14-22 loading areas 14-3 modeling application 31-16E operator point of view 14-23, 14-24E paratransit 27-34 park-and-ride lots 14-24E, 14-27 passenger demand 14-4 dwell time 14-6 passenger loads 14-24E, 14-29, 14-31 determining 27-5 passenger perceptions appearance and comfort 14-29 point of view 14-23, 14-24E safety and security 14-28 peak-hour factor (PHF) 14-4 peak-hour trips 14-2E pedestrians 14-26, 14-27 accessibility 27-45 performance measures 14-23, 14-24E areawide 30-1314 corridor 29-1012 person capacity 14-3, 14-45 calculating 14-6E priority treatments buses 14-1519 rail 14-22 quality of service 14-23, 14-24E availability 14-3031 comfort and convenience 14-31 factors 14-2629 framework 14-2931 measures 27-2 trip decision making 14-23, 14-25 rail transit 14-3, 14-1922 parameters 27-2631 priority treatments 14-22 reliability see below transit reliability routes and route segments availability 14-30
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

transit facilities (continued) routes and route segments comfort and convenience 14-31 hours of service 27-5 reliability 27-78 safety and security 14-28 scheduling 14-27 seating availability 14-29 service coverage 14-25E, 14-2627 areawide analysis 30-1316 availability 14-3031 service frequency 14-24E, 14-30 determining 27-24 LOS 27-3E service information 14-25E, 14-28 service measures 14-23 quality-of-service 14-30E threshold levels 14-31 sidewalk conditions 14-24E, 14-26, 14-27 speed 14-24E, 27-8 areawide 30-12 corridor 29-11 streetcars 14-3, 14-20, 14-22E parameters 27-2631 transit availability* 14-25E, 14-26 measures 27-25 transit reliability* 14-24E, 14-29, 14-31 determining 27-78 transit stations 14-3 amenities 14-27 spacing 14-6 transit stops* 14-3 accessibility 27-4 amenities 14-6, 27-67 availability 14-30 comfort and convenience 14-31 passenger loads 27-6 service frequency 27-2 spacing 14-6 travel time 14-31, 29-1112 trip decision making 14-2324, 14-25E, 14-26E trip times 14-28 trolleybuses 14-2 unscheduled service 27-34 urban scheduled service 27-3 vehicle capacity 14-3, 14-24E calculating 14-5E vehicle operation 14-23, 14-24E waiting areas see above transit stations; transit stops wheelchair accessibility 14-6

28
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


transportation facilities 3-1E, 3-3E, 9-12 see also bicycles; freeways; highways; interruptedflow facilities; intersections; multiple facility assessment; pedestrians; transit facilities; uninterrupted-flow facilities; urban streets travel speed* 7-2, 7-3, 10-4 see also speed traveler satisfaction* and utility 28-1, 28-45 trolleybuses* 14-2 trucks* freeways 13-12 freeway segments 23-78 multilane highways 12-7 adjustments 21-78 grades 21-1012 registered (19861996) 8-14E values 12-10 rural interstate travel by 8-15E traffic condition impacts 2-45 two-lane highways 12-7, 12-19 directional segments 20-1314, 20-1720 two-way segments 20-79 volume variations (daily) 8-5E weight/power ratios 8-1E turning movements 10-1, 10-15 estimation 10-1920 values 10-19, 10-33 interchanges 26-1, 26-34 turnouts* 20-4445 two-lane highways see highways, two-lane two-way left-turn lanes* (TWLTL) 12-1 gap acceptance 10-29 two-lane highways 20-4748 TWSC (two-way stop-controlled) intersections see intersections, TWSC U undersaturated conditions (freeways) 13-3, 22-1415 MOE computation 22-4950 problem 22-23 uninterrupted-flow facilities 2-1, see also freeways; highways density 7-4 flow rate 7-12 headway and spacing 7-45 parameter relationships 7-56 parameters for 7-16 spacing and headway 7-45 speed 7-24 upgrades see also grades and terrain climbing lanes 20-2829 freeway segments 23-911 multilane highways 21-9, 21-10E 29
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

upgrades (continued) two-lane highways 20-14, 20-1519 urban streets 10-12, 15-1 see also interchange ramp terminals; intersections; pedestrians; urban bus facilities analysis period 10-89 analytical example 3-3E, 3-4E arrival types 10-23, 15-56 arterials 10-1, 10-67 AWSC intersections 10-3031 back of queue 10-16 bicycles 10-25, 19-1, 19-7 buses (local) 10-25 bus facilities 27-16 adjacent lanes 27-19E, 27-20 lane speed 27-2024 person capacity 27-20 vehicle capacity 27-1719 busways (CBD) 14-1314 capacity 27-1416 reserved 14-18 volumes 8-28 capacity 15-9 estimation 10-3647 classification system 10-57, 10-8E classifications 10-13 collector streets 10-1 control delay 10-1516, 15-2 computation 10-4647 determination 15-38 corridor analysis 29-39 cycle length 10-19, 10-2122, 15-9 estimation 10-45 design categories 10-6E, 10-7 effective green 10-1113 ratios 10-19, 10-23 exclusive turn lanes 10-1718 free-flow speeds (FFS) 10-3 speed-flow curves 15-912 values 10-78, 15-3E functional classes 10-1 green time estimation 10-4546 green time ratio (g/C) 10-19, 10-23 heavy vehicle factors 10-25 highways compared 10-11 incremental delay 15-4, 15-5, 15-78 input data and values 10-79 signalized intersections 10-1727 unsignalized intersections 10-3234 lengths 10-7, 15-13 level of service (LOS) 10-45 applications 15-5 computations 15-13 control delay 10-1516
Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


urban streets (continued) level of service (LOS) determining 15-23, 15-9, 15-2728 methodology 15-13 pedestrians 18-16E problems 15-1524 local streets 10-1 methodology 15-112 applications 15-1215 flow chart 15-2E input parameters 10-79 problems 15-1524 worksheets 10-47, 15-28 peak-hour factor (PHF) 10-8 pedestrians 11-1, 18-1 default flows 10-26 street corners 11-1013, 18-8, 18-910 planning applications 15-15 computations 15-2526 platoon ratio 15-6 progression adjustment factor (PF) 15-67 queue delay (initial) 15-5 determining 16-22, 16-142148 roundabouts 10-31 running time 10-3 determining 15-3, 15-4E segments 15-13 service volume table 10-9, 10-10 signal coordination 15-9 signal density 10-8 speed and 15-912 signal progression 15-67 signalized intersections 10-927 estimation method 10-3646 flow 10-9, 10-11 LOS 10-1517 values 10-1727 variables 10-12E speed-flow curves 15-912 speed profiles 10-4 speeds 10-34 street classes 10-57, 10-8E determining 15-3, 15-4E speed and 15-912 street corners areas 18-8, 18-910 radius 11-12 time-space 11-1013 transit facilities busways 14-1314, 27-1416 scheduled service 27-3 travel speed 10-4 sensitivities 15-912 urban streets (continued) travel time 15-2728 TWSC intersections 10-2729 uniform delay 15-4, 15-5 unsignalized intersections 10-2735 values 10-3235 upstream signals 15-8 variables 10-12E volumes 8-21, 8-22E weaving 13-14 worksheets 10-47, 15-28 utility* and traveler perception 28-1, 28-45 V variability* of congestion 28-3 highway facilities 29-9, 30-11 transit facilities 30-13 v/c see volume-to-capacity ratios vehicle capacity* buses 14-3, 14-4E, 14-5 bus stops 14-13 busways 14-14E dwell time 14-1415 influences 14-12E loading areas 14-711 mixed-traffic 27-25 urban bus lanes 27-1719 transit facilities 14-3, 14-24E calculating 14-5E vehicle types 8-1 see also automobiles; buses; recreational vehicles; trucks lane distribution by 8-13E rural interstate travel by 8-15E vertical alignments of roadways see grades and terrain volume* 8-1316, 8-17E see also service-volume tables analysis hour and peak hour 8-7 average values 9-8 buses 8-2829, 14-10 dailyhourly equivalencies 9-89 demand and volume 2-2, 8-2 directional distribution 8-11, 8-12E equivalency factors 9-89 flow rate and volume 7-12, 8-16 forecasts 8-9 freeways 8-3, 8-17, 8-1820 lane distribution 8-1213 multilane highways 8-17, 8-20E peak-hour volume 8-69 rail transit 8-29, 27-7 signalized intersections 10-33, 16-35 adjustment 16-30, 16-31E spatial distributions 8-1013 30
* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.

Highway Capacity Manual 2000


volume (continued) speed relationships 8-21, 8-23, 8-24E, 8-25E temporal distributions 8-910 two-lane highways 8-2021 variations daily 8-4, 8-5E hourly 8-4, 8-6, 8-7E seasonal and monthly 8-34 subhourly 8-9, 8-10E volume-to-capacity (v/c) ratios* freeways 13-29 pedestrians 18-4 signalized intersections 10-16, 16-14 application 15-912 computation 10-46 critical lanes 16-1415 equalizing 16-98 two-lane highways 20-1112 value conventions for 9-7 W walkways see pedestrians; sidewalks weaving* and weaving segments* see freeway weaving wheelchair accessibility buses 27-10 rail transit 27-28 transit facilities 14-6 Y yield signs 2-5, 7-89 see also intersections, AWSC; intersections, TWSC

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* Defined in Chapter 5, Glossary.

Index E after a page number indicates an exhibit.