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SOFTBALL TRAINING TO TRAIN ACCREDITATION COURSE PARTICIPANTS MANUAL LEVEL 2

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior permission of Softball Australia unless necessary to satisfy the requirements of the Level 2 Coach Accreditation Course.

Revised 01/08/2006

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

NATIONAL SOFTBALL COACHING ACCREDITATION RATIONALE


In 2006 the Softball Australia National Coaching Accreditation Scheme (N.C.A.S.) will offer a sequential development program designed around six levels for softball coaches to develop the required technical knowledge and expertise needed to meet the demands of todays ever changing game. Progression through the six levels will ensure that coaches gain increased status and improved coaching skills resulting in long term benefits for themselves, other coaches, players and the sport in general. The six (6) levels are based on the Long Term Athlete Development philosophy whereby the coach and athlete development pathways run parallel with each other. The rationale of the softball content for Levels I-5 is based on the premise that there are two major areas of skill/knowledge required by a softball coach. The first is the need to be able to teach the skills of the game during practice sessions ( Practice Coach), which is the focus of Levels 1 - 3. The second area is the requirement to organise and lead the team during games (Game Coach) and this is the focus of Levels 4 - 5. Level 6 will provide enriched coaching knowledge for those coaches wishing to work at the high performance level (National/International Coach). Course components include: Coaching Principles - fundamentals of coaching and athletic performance Sport Specific - skills, techniques, strategies and scientific approaches specific to the particular sport Practical Aspects - practical coaching and application of coaching principles. Competency Based Assessment Coaches to complete various learning tasks pertaining to the content of each course. The Assessment workbook is to be completed in conjunction with the courses. Level I - FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS - is an introduction to softball coaching providing the individual with an understanding of the fundamental skills of Softball to the beginner player. (eg. school and junior levels). The CD package, FUNdamentals to Softball, contains the information required for the participant to obtain accreditation for Level 1 by completing an on-line competency test, providing the relevant State Softball Association (refer Contact Us in the CD Menu) with a signed copy of the Softball Australia Coaches Code of Ethics, the provision of the individual registration number supplied with the FUNdamentals of Softball CD Rom package and undergo a State based Police Screening in accordance with the relevant State legislation. Level 2 - TRAINING TO TRAIN - acquaints the coach with the knowledge and expertise necessary to design, plan and implement effective training sessions catering to the specific needs of the individual players. Integrated with the Softball Specific components are components of the Beginning Coach General Principles course which focus on planning, organizing and managing training sessions.
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Level 3 - TRAINING TO COMPETE - introduces the coach to competition methods and their application to softball coaching, focusing on competition management, game organization and strategies as well as improving performance. Level 4 - TRAINING TO WIN - provides the coach with advanced softball skills, resource management skills and teaching applications relevant to softball coaching at the elite level. Components of the NCAS General Principles of Coaching are integrated with the Softball Specific components. Level 5 - ADVANCED PERFORMANCE designed to assist coaches to develop competencies necessary to work with athletes at the highest level. The coach is acquainted with advanced skill analysis and softball strategies, basic biomechanics and physiology and advanced planning and training methods. Level 6 - HIGH PERFORMANCE - designed to assist coaches to augment their proven elite coaching abilities. The course prepares coaches with the most advanced training and planning methods and tactics and sport sciences are applied specifically to softball coaching. The course aims to produce coaches who are successful at coaching the highest level of softball and who will be competent to act as leaders in the field of high performance coaching.

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CONTENTS
NATIONAL SOFTBALL COACHING ACCREDITATION RATIONALE.....................3 COURSE SYLLABUS - Level 2 - Junior Club Coach..............................................7 MODULE 1 ROLE OF THE COACH.......................................................................8
Coaching...................................................................................................................................................8 Coaching Styles........................................................................................................................................8 Coaching Philosophy...............................................................................................................................9 Communication......................................................................................................................................10 Dealing With Winning and Losing.......................................................................................................11 A Coachs Legal Responsibilities..........................................................................................................13 Risk Management (Please refer to DVD-ROM)..................................................................................14 Sport Safety - Injuries and their Care.................................................................................................16 Inclusive Strategies................................................................................................................................17 Creating opportunities and pathways for people with a disability in Softball.................................17 Drugs in Sport........................................................................................................................................21 Long Term Athlete Development for Softball.....................................................................................25 Yearly, Monthly, Weekly Session Plans...............................................................................................27 Practice Considerations.........................................................................................................................29 MODULE 3 ORGANISATION.........................................................................................................30 Practice Principles..................................................................................................................................30 Resource Management..........................................................................................................................33 MODULE 5 PLAYING THE GAME...............................................................................................50

MODULE 6 ASSESSING SKILLS - CHECKLISTS...............................................56


JUNIOR DEVELOPMENT: SKILL PROGRESSIONS CHECKLIST..........................................57

Key Points to Skills in Checklist............................................................................57 This is a brief summary of some of the key points of the fundamental skills outlined in the Fundamentals of Softball and Training to Train participants manuals and CD and DVD ROM packs. You may wish to add your own notes. Use the charts at the end of this booklet to record your ratings on the skills for each player. This way you can track players levels of improvements throughout the season as well as ensure you have covered the basic skills in your training program. .........................................................................................57 Defence.................................................................................................................... 58 Glove work.............................................................................................................. 58 Fingers in the glove to the side.............................................................................58 MODULE 7 RULES...............................................................................................63
Rule Book Structure..............................................................................................................................63 Basic Rules..............................................................................................................................................64 Rules in Pictures.....................................................................................................................................66

ASSESSMENT WORKBOOK..................................................................................86
Competencies..........................................................................................................................................88 Assessment Tasks...................................................................................................................................88 Assessment Outcome.............................................................................................................................97

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Softball Australia Coaching Accreditation Course

6 6 6 5 6 4 6 3 6 2 6 1
Level 2 Coach I I

High Performance National/International


Modules Battery 3 I Performance Analysis I Cert IV Softball RTO I Mentoring I Selector

Advanced Performance State/National


Modules Battery 2 I Performance Analysis I Mentoring I Attendance at National U16/U23 Development Program

Training to Win State/National

Modules Battery 1 I NCAS Presentations Assessors Course I Talent Identification

Training to Compete Club/Association


Modules - Inclusive Coaching

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FUNdamentals of Softball Parents and Teachers

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COURSE SYLLABUS - Level 2 - Junior Club Coach

Module Introduction

Unit Course Syllabus

Content Review Course Content and Assessment Method/workbook Ice-Breakers Coaching Styles Coaching Philosophy Communication Dealing with winning and losing Legal Responsibilities Risk Management Sport Safety Inclusive Strategies Drugs in Sport Long Term Athlete Development Yearly, Monthly, Weekly Plans Practice Considerations Practice Principles Components of a Practice Session Resource Management Example Practice Sessions Introduction to New Skills Sacrifice Bunt Sliding Bent Leg Slide Making the Force Play Tagging the runner Developing Thinking Players Why the Game Sense Approach Implications for Coaches Positional Play Skill Requirements Duties and Responsibilities Coaches Skills Checklists Applying Drills How to Use a Rulebook Rules in Pictures scenarios Rules Quiz Sign Coaches Code of Ethics Review Assessment Requirements Questions

Delivery Strategies Small Group Work

Nominal Duration 15 minutes

1. Role of the Coach

The Coach

DVD-ROM Presentation Group Discussion Worksheets

1 hours 45 minutes

2. Planning to Train 3. Organisation 4. Fundamental Skills

Planning the Program Managing Training

Presentation Group Discussion Worksheets Presentation Group Discussion Worksheets Practical DVD ROM

45 minutes 45 minutes

1 hour

Basic Skills Game Sense

5. Playing the Game

Basic Positional Play Checklists Rules and Assignment Questions Softball Australia Coachs Code of Ethics

DVD ROM Presentation Small Group Work Practical Presentation Group Discussion Worksheets Presentation Group Application Individual

45 minutes

6. Assessing Skills 7. Rules Coachs Code of Ethics Conclusion Assessment

45 minutes 45 minutes 5 minutes

10 minutes Planning Practice Sessions General Quiz - Correcting Skills Course Contact Workbook & Assessment TOTAL Training to Train Assessment Workbook Test Examples 2 hours 7 hours 2 hours 9 hours 7

Workbook

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MODULE 1 ROLE OF THE COACH


Coaching
Coaches have a very important role to play in the development of young athletes, a role that goes far beyond the teaching of game skills. A coach assumes the responsibility of doing everything possible to ensure their athletes have an enjoyable and safe sporting experience while they learn sport skills. It is also important for coaches to recognise their responsibility to contribute in some positive way to the growth of their players as individual persons. Coaches are role models and they should make sure the example they are setting is a good one. A coachs leadership, philosophy and actions should assist young athletes to develop a sense of fairness, sportsmanship and respect.

Coaching Styles
Regardless of what jobs you are expected to undertake as a coach, how you carry out those jobs (coaching style) may determine how successful you are. There are generally considered to be five coaching types: 1. Authoritarian coach: a command coach - makes all the decisions because they have the knowledge and experience strict, disciplined punishes frequently good team spirit when winning, dissension when losing Business-like coach: not people-oriented keen on seeing the job done expects 100% effort at all times Nice Guy coach: share decision making with the athletes give direction and instruction when needed taken advantage of at times due to co-operative nature Intense coach: uptight attitude Easy going coach: casual or submissive - makes as few decisions as possible gives impression of not being serious provides little instruction and minimal guidance resolves discipline problems only when absolutely necessary

2.

3.

4. 5.

The most effective coaches use a combination of these styles, adapting their natural style to the particular situation and the age and ability of their athletes. Also, effective coaches adjust their coaching style to each of their athletes, when necessary, for the optimum development of their athletes.

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Coaching Philosophy
Why you coach and what you hope to achieve (your coaching philosophy) will determine how much time you devote to performing the various roles assigned to coaching. There are many reasons why coaches coach. Some of the reasons are as follows: to gain recognition to be known as a winning coach to do something worthwhile to put something back into sport to help athletes improve to help others Coaches often list many specific goals they hope to achieve when coaching their athletes. Usually their goals fall under three broad objectives: to have a winning team. to help young people have fun and enjoyment. to help young people develop: (a) physically by learning and improving sport skills, improving physical conditioning, developing good health habits and avoiding injuries; (b) psychologically by learning to control their emotions and developing feelings of self-worth; (c) socially by learning desirable values such as co-operation, sportsmanship, respect and fairness. The priority coaches give to these objectives, particularly the significance they give to winning, is important in determining how they coach. Some coaches who say that winning is least important, dont behave that way when they coach, e.g. coaches who only play their best athletes, who play injured athletes or who scream disparagingly at athletes who have made an error, demonstrate that winning is more important to them than athletes development. Winning is important and all athletes and coaches should be striving to win within the rules of the game. However, it should not be the most important objective of sport. As the success of your coaching depends on how well you meet the needs and expectations of your athletes, it is important to consider why your athletes are participating. Often the reasons young people give for playing sport are vastly different to the reasons adults might suggest. Things that adults often assume are important, such as beating opponents and winning trophies, are low priorities for young people. The following are some of the reasons athletes take part in sport: to be with friends for enjoyment to gain recognition to have fun to learn sport skills to be actively involved Research in Australia has revealed that: young people do not admire the win-at-all-costs attitude. They preferred to receive recognition for trying their hardest, rather than just for the result. the social benefits and personal growth benefits were important positives young people gained from sport. young people want to learn and play in a supportive and encouraging environment, especially if they are not highly skilled athletes.
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Coaches, therefore, should: give recognition and support act as an adult role model: - look the part - be consistent in word and behaviour - dont ask something of them when you seem to be doing the opposite yourself - work hard to achieve mutual goals maintain discipline throughout the session. Discipline problems are mainly due to inappropriate coaching techniques. Coaches can reduce the need to discipline by ensuring their programs include: FUN, ACTIVITY and LEARNING. be patient, understanding and caring be self confident, assertive, consistent, friendly, enthusiastic, fair and competent. be willing to listen and admit mistakes be organised and plan safe, enjoyable practices show respect for athletes, umpires, other officials, administrators, parents and spectators

Communication
As communication is the basis of all coach/athlete interactions, your effectiveness as a communicator will determine your success as a coach. Communication Process 1. Communication is the sending and receiving of messages to get your point across. Coaches must be skilled at sending clear, understandable messages and also have good listening skills to understand what is being communicated in return. Authorities tell us that we selectively listen we actually hear somewhere between 10%-20% of what is actually said. Communication consists of non-verbal as well as verbal messages. Gestures, facial expressions, body language, touching and voice characteristics are all forms of non-verbal communication. It is estimated that over 70% of communication is non-verbal. People tend to demonstrate greater control over the verbal than they do the non-verbal. Athletes often learn valuable lessons by watching what their coaches do and the way they generally behave. Communication has two parts: content and emotion. Content is the substance of the message and emotion is how you feel about it. Content is usually expressed verbally and emotion, non-verbally. The emotional content is usually expressed through the use of tone, speed of speech, loudness and emphasis to reinforce the message. Coaches should ensure their non-verbal message is consistent with their verbal one.

2.

3.

Coaches communicate using all three of the above methods all the time. For communication to be effective, not only must you state what you mean, but you must appear to state what you mean. Ineffective communication is not always the fault of the coach. The problem may lie with the athlete or with both coach and athlete.

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Communication problems can occur for many reasons, however, there are some which are common to many situations and can be resolved easily by applying a few basic ideas. For example, communication problems can arise if the: Message is spoken too quickly or too softly. Language used is inappropriate for the participants. Message is too complicated or unclear. Environment is too noisy or the athletes are too far away to hear clearly. Athlete is inattentive and not listening.

To avoid these problem areas: Take time to think through what it is you want to say and consider the best way to say it. Keep your message simple and concentrate on one idea at a time. Ensure your players are close enough to hear you properly. Get your player(s) attention before speaking to them.

Dealing With Winning and Losing


Coaches will be faced with the problem of helping the athlete deal with winning and losing. Some of the problems associated with athletes coping with losing is that undue pressure is placed upon them to win in the first place. Winning or losing a game does not always reflect the quality of the performance. Athletes can play well but still lose the game. Athletes should be deemed successful in competition if they: try to do their best throughout the game show respect to officials in charge of the game show respect to their opponents play within the rules of the game get enjoyment from participation

Athletes should be deemed unsuccessful in competition if they: dont give of their best throughout the game show disrespect to officials show disrespect to opponents try to cheat or perform outside the rules of the game

No-one expects an athlete to enjoy losing but they should enjoy taking part regardless of the outcome. Coaches will go a long way towards helping children accept defeat by accepting defeat themselves and setting a good example. By introducing competition into training sessions, coaches can help athletes appreciate that when they win they should pay tribute to: opponents efforts coachs skill team mates support

When they lose they should: pay tribute to opponents skill


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show a willingness to work harder to improve be looking forward to the next opportunity for competition.

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Coaches must make sure the athletes under their control gain the maximum enjoyment and satisfaction from their sport. If they become unduly upset over defeat and this continues to occur, they will eventually drop out of the sport because they are not enjoying it.

A Coachs Legal Responsibilities


The law is the method by which our society determines the rights of a citizen in a particular situation. It touches every aspect of life and sport is no exception. As sport becomes more professional, those involved will increasingly turn to the courts to protect their rights. SO: Anyone who accepts a coaching position, whether purely voluntary or as a professional, has a legal responsibility to provide their athletes with the utmost care. Negligence can be defined as the failure by the coach to perform a legally-owed duty as would a reasonable and prudent coach ....with the failure resulting in actual damage that is a result of the breach of duty and that should have been foreseen by the prudent coach. A breach of the required standard of care can occur through an act, an error or an omission. The standard of care is based on what is known about the prevention and care of injuries and other aspects of coaching. The coach will be judged not by what he/she knows, but what he/she should have known. Ignorance is no excuse in law. The coach must then act in accordance with that knowledge. Coaches owe it to their athletes to be competent in all aspects of coaching. They also have a duty to regularly up-date their coaching knowledge and to keep themselves informed of new developments. Law suits have been brought against coaches for not teaching skills properly, failing to adequately supervise activities and for failure to carry out correct first aid procedures.

Coaches have at least 10 important duties when carrying out their activities. If these are carried out, the chances of a successful claim of negligence will be substantially reduced. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Provide a safe environment - facilities, equipment, weather, etc. Adequately plan activities - appropriate progressions when teaching new skills, etc. Evaluate athletes for injury and incapacity - injured or incapacitated athletes should not be expected to perform any potentially harmful activity, etc. Do not mismatch athletes - age, height, weight, skill levels and maturity, etc. Ensure equipment is safe and proper - equipment should be kept in good order and adequately repaired when necessary. Warn athletes of the inherent risks of the sport - participants must accept some risks in sport but they must know, understand and appreciate those risks. Closely supervise activities - supervision ensures the environment is as safe as possible.

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8. 9. 10.

Know first aid - knowledge of basic emergency procedures and ensure nothing is done which could aggravate the injury. Develop clear, written rules for training and general conduct - these will reduce fooling around which causes injuries. Keep adequate records - relevant general and medical information, progress reports, accident reports, etc.

In some areas such as the provision of supervision and first aid or other injury management procedures, the careful parent test may be applied, i.e. the way the coach would act in the same situation with their own child. Regardless of the legal duties, carrying out the above procedures is just good coaching practice. Coaches can further protect themselves by taking out professional indemnity insurance for themselves and ensuring that all of their athletes are covered by injury insurance.

Risk Management (Please refer to DVD-ROM)


Managing the Risks of COACHING is a risk management DVD-Rom for coaches. It is a valuable interactive audiovisual learning tool for use in coach education programs. The purpose of this program is to help coaches to identify the risks within their sport and develop strategies to minimize risks to themselves and their athletes. Please note: This DVD-Rom does not cover injury management. You should refer to the Beginning Coaching or Better Coaching manuals and Sports Medicine Australia resources for information on injury management. This DVD-Rom is 20 minutes long and has been divided into the following parts: 1. 2. 3. Legal Responsibilities of the Coach Coaching Scenarios Risk Management

At the completion of this interactive program, the coach will be able to: Outline strategies to minimize the risk of injuries occurring in sport Identify the legal responsibilities of the coach Identify the coachs role in relation to ethical issues Identify the inherent risks and liabilities in coaching Develop a risk management plan in the areas of safety and legal responsibility.

Further information can be obtained from a number of risk management manuals, and from the following organisations:

Australian Sports Commission PO Box 176, Belconnen ACT 2616, tel (02) 6214 1915 fax (02) 6214 1995, www.coachingaus.org, email coaching@ausport.gov.au Sports Medicine Australia, PO Box 897, Belconnen ACT 2616, tel (02) 6230 4650, www.sma.org.au National sporting organisations
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State Departments of Sport and Recreation.

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Sport Safety - Injuries and their Care


It is essential that all Softball coaches have a basic understanding of injuries and the appropriate immediate responses to them. Softball Australia encourages all Softball coaches to undertake a Senior First Aid course delivered by an accredited provider in their State. This will ensure that softball coaches are able to give the best possible, immediate care when and where required. Injury Prevention Procedures Medical examination. Proper warm-up, stretching and cool down. Development of skills and techniques. Proper conditioning. Obeying the rules. Appropriate playing area and facilities. Adequate and proper fitting equipment. Ensuring players wear adequate protective equipment.

Revision It is important to remember the basic principles for injury (RICER) outlined in the Fundamentals of Softball course. RICER Regime R I Rest the injured part - move injured part only when pain is absent. Ice - Apply for 20 minutes every 2 - 3 hours for the first 48 hours. Conventional methods are: crushed ice in a wet toweling bag immersion in icy water cold water in tap is better than nothing Caution: Do not apply ice directly to skin as ice burns can occur Do not apply to people with circulatory problems Children have a lower tolerance to ice C E R Compression - apply a firm wide bandage over a large area covering the injured part. Elevation - raise injured area above the level of the heart at all possible times. Referral - refer to a suitably qualified professional such as a doctor or physiotherapist.

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TYPES OF INJURIES

Please note any injury designated as life-threatening or serious should be referred immediately to a suitably qualified professional. e.g. head injuries, neck injuries, abdominal injuries. e.g. head and facial injuries, broken bones, joint injuries, tendon or muscle tears. e.g. Bumps, sprains, strains, superficial bruises, cuts, blisters, cramps and stitches, winding, bleeding nose. e.g. Shin soreness, knee pain, heel pain, shoulder pain, elbow pain.

Life-threatening Serious Less Serious Overuse

Inclusive Strategies
Creating opportunities and pathways for people with a disability in Softball What is Inclusion Including a Softballer with a disability in your Club or Association is not about helping the poor disabled people it is about bringing more people to the sport of softball, as a player, coach, official or administrator. There are many real benefits for organisations in encouraging people with a disability to join them. Clubs and Associations need to realise that people with a disability are a viable market sector worth pursuing. Benefits to the organisation may include: More members = more dollars; More volunteers, from either the person with a disability or their family and friends; Social benefits; Re-invigoration of a Club with new blood; New levels of competition; and Expertise in assistance in officiating, coaching and/or administration. Association and Clubs may also find that by improving access for people with a disability they may inadvertently encourage other groups to join such as older adults, parents with small children or non-English speaking adults. For example the provision of ramps for people using a wheelchair may also assist mothers with prams or people recovering from injuries. Addressing physical access issues such as clearer signage, may make it easier for people with vision impairments to use the organisations building while an attitudinal change within the existing membership of the club may be seen as people-friendly and membership may increase as others join a welcoming Club. People with disabilities play sport for exactly the same reasons as their able bodied peers - fun, fitness, self-esteem, increased skills and social contact. Associations need to look at the needs of their Softballers with a disability before they decide whether they hold a segregated (where the players play only against other Softballers with the same disability) or integrated (where they play with able bodied Softballers) competition. Above all the choice is essential. Never assume that Softballers with a disability will favour either type of competition. Always ask them!

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Whether it is an integrated or segregated competition, it is vital that Softballers with a disability have the same access to the important social element of softball, as able bodied Softballers have. It is not acceptable to have a segregated competition and training so that the Softballers with a disability never get to meet and interact with other members of the Association. As with all other softball competitions, common sense risk management principles must be adhered to when organising competitions for people with a disability. For instance, as the Junior Softball Guideline Document states, chronological age should not be the sole reason for competition grouping. It is important to be flexible and look at the needs and skills of the individuals involved. Never assume anything, as people with disabilities skills, needs and wants can vary just as much as able bodied people! Correct terminology Do words really matter? Although disability terminology changes constantly, the way that Softballers with a disability are referred to is very important. The golden rule in terminology is to refer to the person first and the disability second. The following table is also a guideline as to the correct type of terminology. Be aware though, that the way that you may refer to a friend, that happens to have a disability, will be different to how you refer to a person that you may meet for the first time.

Not Acceptable Mental Retarded Disabled Crippled Dribbler Stroke Victim Afflicted Four eyes Wheelchair bound Spastic Handicapped Suffers from

Appropriate Term People/person with a disability Athlete with a disability Softballer with a disability Athlete with cerebral palsy Athlete with a vision impairment Wheelchair Softballer

Remember: The person comes first not the disability!

Coaching Softballers with a disability is not about giving something back to society or helping the poor disabled people, it is about exposing more people to Softball, and tapping into a virtually untapped market of new players and volunteers! Like anyone else keen to play Softball, players with a disability are motivated to play for the same reasons, including: Developing new friendships Improving skills Getting fitter and healthier Emulating their Softball hero Fulfilling their competitive urges Be part of a local club Joining friends and family who already play Simply having fun and enjoying themselves

People with a disability are a viable market sector worth pursuing, and there are numerous benefits to the Coach and their Club for successfully attracting and including players with a disability.

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Some of those benefits are: Reinvigorate coaching method and motivation: Coaching players with a disability is nothing more than best coaching practice. When coaching players with a disability it may be necessary to be a little more creative and do things a little differently. That skill or drill that you have been coaching the same way for years may need a little modification for a player with a disability this will benefit all of your other players too. Coaching players with a disability may force you to take a fresh look at the way you coach. This will enhance and extend your own coaching knowledge, and improve the Softball experience for everyone. Softballers with a disability have often overcome significant obstacles in their desire to participate. Therefore they are generally can do people who can pass on that enthusiasm to others, including the coach. Often the introduction of such new blood can re-focus other players to re-evaluate their commitment and energy. Financial: Softballers with a disability are often employed or have other sources of disposable income and are therefore able to make a financial contribution comparable to other able-bodied players. Grants are also available to assist with new programs, training of personnel and redevelopment of facilities to increase participation of players with a disability. Clubs that include Softballers of all abilities are viewed favourably by both the local and wider community. Councils, sponsors, government agencies, and peak bodies all have an interest in encouraging access for Softballers with a disability. Access to different markets Coaches may find that by including players with a disability they create a more inclusive environment, which may also encourage other non-traditional, untapped groups to join, such as older adults, non-English speaking adults, indigenous Australians etc. And there is more. Benefits to the club may include: financial benefits as extra money comes from new members and their families a new pool of volunteers to tap into social benefits expertise in assistance in officiating, coaching and/or administration Other things to consider. Moral and Legal Obligations Coaches have a moral and legal obligation to ensure they are providing access to lessons for all segments of the community, where appropriate. Anti-discrimination and equal opportunity legislation places legal obligations on organisations and individuals to provide access to people with a disability, where their skill level is appropriate to the activity. Access does not simply mean that there are accessible toilets and ramps appropriately placed. Access means that the coach and the club is welcoming and accommodating to any new players that want to play.

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Medical and safety considerations There are very few, if any, medical or safety considerations that totally preclude a person with a disability from Softball. People with a disability do not have more medical complaints or safety considerations than their able bodied counterparts. Coaches should request all new players fill out a medical form and keep the records on file for safety reasons. This information can ensure people receive the appropriate assistance in case of an emergency and that you know how to maximise their participation in your activities at other times. Be aware that coaches can only ask a person with a disability to complete a medical form if they do so with all players. If in doubt about the suitability of an activity, simply inform the person with a disability about the skills required and the potential risks and let them decide about their suitability to participate.

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Drugs in Sport
Classification of Substances
Substances used by sports people can be classified into three main groups. Ask the participants to name these groups and outline why they are banned. Answers: Performance enhancing substances Medications Recreational/Social drugs Performance enhancing substances are used by athletes in an attempt to improve their sporting performance. This group of substances includes anabolic steroids, stimulants and amino acid supplements. Not all products taken to enhance performance are banned, but athletes should always check whether any substance they are intending to use is banned. Medications - used by athletes for two main reasons: to treat injury - athletes frequently take medications to treat injuries. Sometimes they take medications like anti-inflammatories or strong painkillers to allow them to continue competing. Athletes who do this may risk further serious or permanent injury. to treat an illness or a condition - some athletes, like others in the community, require drugs daily to treat illnesses such as asthma or diabetes. Athletes may also require medication to get over or relieve the symptoms of a temporary ailment, eg. a cold or flu.

Some medications may contain banned substances. Prior to using medication, an athlete should always check the medications for banned substances. ASDA (Australian Sports Drug Agency) has a number of resources available to athletes to help them check whether medications might be banned. Recreational/Social drugs - as with the rest of the community, some athletes may use drugs recreationally or socially, e.g. marijuana, alcohol, tobacco. In some cases, the culture of some sports may even encourage the misuse of substances, most commonly alcohol. The use of some of these drugs may be detrimental to an athletes health and performance.

Doping
The use of any banned substances or methods is called doping. Inadvertent Doping occurs when an athlete uses a medication to treat an illness without realising it contains a banned substance and consequently returns a positive drug test result. Many over-the-counter or prescription medications contain banned substances. In most cases there is other medication that can be used to treat the illness/injury that does not contain a banned substance. If an athlete has to take a drug that is banned to treat an illness, it is suggested that he/she take the following steps:

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Check with the doctor to see if there is an alternative medication they can use that does not contain a banned substance. If there is no alternative medication suitable, the athlete should contact their State Softball Association and/or Softball Australia and explain the situation.

To assist athletes who are subjected to drug testing, ASADA has a number of resources available that can assist athletes to check whether their medications are permitted. These resources include the Hotline service and the Drugs in Sport Handbook.

Drug Testing for Softball


How is Drug Testing Done? In Australia the agency chartered to deal with anti-doping is known as ASADA which stands for Australian Sports Anti-Doping Agency. Presently the majority of drug testing is done by urine collection and analysis. At this stage, urine analysis has proved to be more effective than blood analysis for detecting the majority of banned substances on the IOC list. There is some evidence to suggest blood sampling is more effective in detecting some banned substances, however, ASADA has no plans to introduce blood testing until all issues regarding blood testing are resolved. Event Testing ASADA can undertake event testing at any national or international event. In some cases, testing may be done at State Championships. Any athlete who is taking part in an event where drug testing is taking place can be selected for a drug test. Athletes may be selected for a drug test by: - random selection - combination of factors ie. team placing - random selection of athletes - ASADA may also select at their discretion The methods of selection are decided before the event starts and the athlete is told by an ASDA official immediately after their event of their selection for a drug test. Substances and methods tested for in event testing are based on the IOC list.

Out-Of-Competition Testing Out-of-competition testing can take place at any time of the year and anywhere. The following athletes can be tested in out-of-competition testing: Level 2 Coach

Athletes who are in an Australian team. Athletes who are in an Australian squad. Athletes who have been identified by their national body as being likely to be selected in an Australian team in the next four years. Athletes of national standard who use Commonwealth funded sporting facilities (e.g. AIS). Athletes who have scholarships with Commonwealth or state funded
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sporting organisations (e.g. AIS, NSWIS, VIS).

Tests are allocated to sports based on the number of elite athletes in the sport and a number of other factors including: the amount of commonwealth funding the sport receives. the number of past positive tests.

(If ASADA receives information about specific athletes rumoured to be using drugs this information is considered but not necessarily acted upon). Athletes can be asked to give a sample for drug testing while in Australia and outside of Australia. Athletes are told they have been selected for a drug test by telephone, registered letter or in person. On occasions, usually at the request of the International body, no notice out-ofcompetition testing may be conducted. Out-of-competition tests screen for the IOC list of prohibited drugs with the exception of narcotic analgesics and stimulants. This allows athletes to use a wider variety of medications during out-of-competition time to treat genuine medical conditions. Athletes, however, must stop using banned substances at least five days before an event to enable the substances to clear from the body.

Sanctions ASADA does not decide on the penalties for an athlete who returns a positive drug test result or refuses a test. Sanctions or penalties are given out by Softball Australia and are included in the Softball Australia Doping Policy. Bans for a breach of the doping policy range from 2 years for a first offence to life for a second offence. Athletes Register ASADA relies on Softball Australia to provide regular and accurate information on competitors who should be subject to out-of-competition testing. The athletes nominated by Softball Australia are entered on an athlete register. ASADA advises the athlete in writing that he/she is on the athlete register and subject to out-of-competition testing in writing and forwards to the a Drugs in Sport Handbook. Athletes names are only removed from the register at the request of Softball Australia so; if an athlete retires it is their responsibility to notify Softball Australia of this fact in writing as soon as possible. Otherwise, their name will remain on the register and if selected for a drug test, they will be required to complete that test.

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Rights and Responsibilities of Athletes


The athlete must be told by an ASADA official of their rights during the sample collection and testing process. All of these rights are set out in an information sheet the ASADA official gives the athlete at the time they are asked to give a sample. In summary, the athletes have the following rights: to have a representative of their choice with them during the sample collection process. while staying in full view of the ASADA official, to attend other commitments such as closing ceremony, warm down, etc. to be told of any penalty for refusing a drug test. to watch (or have a representative of their choice watch on their behalf) the unsealing and analysis of the B (second) sample if the A (first) sample tests positive. to tell ASADA about any concerns with the drug testing procedure if test is positive. This may mean the drug test is not counted if ASADA accepts their reason. to ask the Administrative Appeals Tribunal to look at any decision of ASADAs with which the athlete disagrees.

Natural Justice Once ASADA lets Softball Australia know of a positive drug test and before any penalty or sanction is imposed on an athlete, the athlete should: be told about the charge. be given the chance to give their story about the charge against them. have the charge heard by an impartial panel of people chosen by Softball Australia. (The make-up of the panel is contained in Softball Australias Doping Policy).

If coaches need any more information they should contact Softball Australia or their State Softball Association and ask for a copy of their doping policy. For further information on Drugs in Sport coaches are encouraged to review the ASADA website www.asada.gov.au .

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MODULE 2 - PLANNING TO TRAIN

Long Term Athlete Development for Softball


The new Softball Australia Accreditation program is designed to deliver coaching education through the principles of long term athlete development with the objective of encouraging players to keep enjoying the game during their active years and then still contributing to the sport through their participation in umpiring, coaching, scoring and administration. So what is Long Term Athlete Development? It is a set of development phases originally developed by sports scientists Bayli and Hamilton originally for strength and conditioning but then adapted to general sports development. There are basically five stages to this model: The FUNdamental Phase Training to Train Phase Training to Compete Phase Training to Win Phase Retirement/Transition Phase

Some Background Information Several researchers have proposed a time frame for athletes to fully develop their skills at an international level. It is generally known as the ten year rule, where an athlete with coaching would undertake 3 hours of appropriate training every day for ten years in order to attain exceptional performance. This rule is also known as the 10,000 hour rule. If softballers wish to perform at the highest level then clearly coaches and clubs need to understand the implications of long-range planning. If players are rushed through any of the stages (particularly the fundamentals movement and softball skills) they are unlikely to reach their potential. It is important for the softball coach to take stock of where their athletes are in terms of development and apply the appropriate training strategies (remembering players mature at different rates). The long term athlete program outlined below is supported by Softball Australia and the coaching accreditation scheme. The FUNdamental Phase (Level One Coaching Accreditation) The major emphasis in this phase is on having fun, maximum participation from all players and a strong emphasis on learning the fundamental skills of softball. (As covered in the new SA Level One Course fielding, throwing, pitching, catching, base running and batting). The emphasis is also on developing general movement skills such as running, jumping and throwing as well as developing physical skills such as balance, coordination, agility and speed. Players should be encouraged to play other sports to develop their overall sporting skills including perception and decision making. Training sessions should include many of the mini games as outlined in this course. The Softball Australia Junior Pathway and Modified Games are designed to maximise participation of players as well as promoting fun! (General target ages 6 12 years of age (Tee-ball through to 3 Pitch Softball)

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Desired Coaching Characteristics: A great understanding of the Fundamental skills of softball Ability to provide a safe environment The ability to adapt and problem solve An understanding of the basics of a training session

The Training to Train Phase (Level Two Coaching Accreditation) The major emphasis in this stage is the enhancement of specific softball skills of the players (individual approach) and introducing them to general training techniques. It is a good time to start to develop the players aerobic base (endurance) as well as developing their physical skills and general motor skills. It is a major learning phase for players and the concepts of rules and ethics should also be reinforced by the coach. The coach should also introduce further skills including tagging, force plays, sliding and bunting to the basic fundamental softball skills outlined in the Level One participants manual. Some of the key areas coaches have to watch out for are differences between individuals within teams including experience, maturation rates (often pronounced in boys) and growth spurts which can affect a players coordination and confidence. It is an important time to reinforce the basic skills with young players and provide training which continues to address the basic skills (some athletes may be required to relearn the fundamentals particularly if they have had a major growth spurt). (General target ages 12 15 years of age maybe slightly later in boys) Desired Coaching Characteristics (Additional to Level One): Organisational and planning skills (and risk management) for training sessions and seasonal planning An understanding of the factors affecting development (different maturation rates etc) and the ability to include all individual players An understanding of other basic softball skills including bunting, sliding, tagging and force plays

The Train to Compete Phase (Level Three Coaching Accreditation) In this stage of learning the coach can focus on teaching the athletes the finer points of playing the game of softball. It is a good time to start to individualise the training and skills of players to positional play and the appropriate style of hitting (For example, developing outfield skills as opposed to infield skills, bunting and slapping to compliment hitting, the development of switch hitters and the progression of fast pitching to movement pitching and patterns). The development of these specific skills will enhance the players ability to carry out team strategies as they develop into mature softball players. The coach can now start to introduce specialist conditioning such as sprinting (anaerobic) power and strength and other overload activities. The coach can also start to enhance their own game management and team strategy skills for competition. (Target ages males 17 19+years of age, females 16 18 years of age) Desired Coaching Characteristics (Additional to Level Two) The ability to prepare a team for a competition Managements skills during a game (including basic strategy) Knowledge of individual skills for positional play Basic understanding of conditioning principles
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The Training to Win Phase (Levels Four to Six in the Accreditation Scheme) This stage is characterised by performance outcomes. The coach is required to continually assess and provide feedback to individual players and look to improve their performance in all areas including technical, tactical, physical and mental skills. The training loads, volume and intensity are increased particularly physical development until the athlete reaches maturity and then ongoing maintenance is maintained. This is the phase where athletes are attempting to perform at national and international level. Desired Coaching Characteristics (Additional to level Three) In depth knowledge of softball skills and coaching techniques A thorough knowledge of the application of sports science and performance enhancement principles to softball training The ability to work with other softball coaches and specialist coaches The ability to provide mentoring to athletes and other coaches To ability to strategically run a game at national and international levels

In terms of long term athlete development it is also appropriate for a coach to be a catalyst in enhancing the career of athletes by encouraging them to take up other activities including coaching, umpiring, scoring and administration. The development of these skills can provide an opportunity for individuals to continue to contribute to and enjoy the game of softball.

Yearly, Monthly, Weekly Session Plans


(Please refer to the planning resource on your CD-ROM or planning handout) The main function of a coach is to teach the game of Softball and provide learning opportunities for all players. Practising is the main vehicle through which this teaching occurs. For team sports, sufficient time must be set aside during the year to develop team skills as well as individual skills. This requires good planning, both long and short-term. Therefore, one of the key elements of effective coaching is effective planning. YEARLY PLAN A yearly plan allows the coach to allocate a specific time frame to each area that needs to be addressed for short and long-term goals to be achieved. It also allows the coach to check that each game specific skill or strategic component is covered and introduced at the appropriate time of the season. A yearly plan also allows the coach to factor in public holidays, school holiday periods, special events and occasions and other important happenings that might affect the teams training and playing schedule. This type of plan can be as simple as using a yearly calendar (marked with holidays etc).

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Many factors affect the composition of yearly plans: Length of season: For a club team, a season may last 8 or 9 months, including the pre-season and the competitive season. For representative teams, a season may be 8 weeks of preparation culminating in a championship series or a series of games. For some state and national teams, there may be a series of camps spread throughout the year, culminating with a championship or international tour. Resources: Availability of time, facilities and human resources determines the nature of a yearly plan. Attitudes: The attitudes of the athletes must be considered in planning, eg. athletes who are competing for social reasons compared to those more interested in developing sports skills and winning, as well as the age and abilities of athletes. When determining priorities for the season, assess the capabilities and learning powers of the athletes, then set goals for yourself and your athletes that are consistent with those priorities. Plan how you and your players can best attain those goals. Review your goals frequently to be sure that you are staying on track. MONTHLY PLAN A monthly plan allows the coach to be a little more specific in planning for training and competitive situations. It allows the coach to: Provide a general overview of where the team is heading in a defined timeframe. Plan a series of sessions developing the one theme or skill. Closely monitor and evaluate the success of the sessions to provide modification and change. Have a tool to link the yearly plan together. WEEKLY SESSION PLAN The weekly or session plan is a much more detailed account of training sessions and competitive situations. It defines the scope of each session and provides for the coach and the players a clear vision of developmental opportunities on a weekly basis. It allows the coach to define specific requirements of the program and each player and evaluate delivery to ensure that those defined outcomes are being met. The planning resource on your CD-ROM has examples of these types of plans and can be printed out to assist with your own planning and organisation.

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Practice Considerations
Because of the nature of softball, every team faces a number of factors that must be taken into consideration when planning a practice session. Following are some of the factors that should be considered: Practice Objectives Defining goals is essential to the planning of effective practice sessions. These goals should take into account the athletes skill levels and what you hope to achieve in the session. Some goals may be achievable in one session or may need several sessions to realise. Athletes should understand the objectives set for each session as well as long term goals. Coaches must be flexible and prepared to adjust short-term goals if they are determined to be too difficult or too easy. The prime objective of a practice session is to develop softball skills and improve team play but there are a number of secondary objectives to be considered when planning a practice session. Here are a few examples: Increase knowledge of the rules. Improve team spirit. Develop a positive self-image in players. Have fun. Time available for practice. Number of players available. Type and amount of equipment required. Age and ability of players. Physical condition of players. Condition of the playing field.

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MODULE 3 ORGANISATION

Practice Principles
The following are some basic principles which will improve the quality and effectiveness of your practice sessions.
1.

Maximum Use of Resources: Resources are the people (including coaches and players), facilities, equipment and time. Plan to use these resources effectively and efficiently. Some points to consider: Plan use of total space. Use all equipment fully. Take advantage of people skills available. Involve players in planning. Supervise all activities. Maximum Activity: Keep players busy throughout the practice to maintain their interest. Organise groups efficiently, get activities started quickly and keep unnecessary stoppages to a minimum. Organise your drills to minimise waiting times by decreasing the number of players in each group to ensure optimal learning time. Plan: each activity. the group formation. the size of the groups. the equipment needed. marker placement (if used). use of training grids to develop fitness and/or skills.

2.

3. An Instruction Plan includes: instructions and demonstrations. appropriate progressions and drills. competition-like practices. feedback.

4. Use of Variety This is especially important for younger children, whose attention span is limited to very short periods. It is also helpful for older athletes to help maintain interest and challenge.

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Add variety by: Changing activities often. Using variation on drills.

5. Individuality Every player is different from other players in some way. They learn at different speeds and develop and apply skills in different ways. Do not stereo-type skill execution. The more options you have in teaching the skills, the better you will be able to meet the individual needs of your players. 6. Making it Fun This is a very important principle for young players because as soon as the fun goes out of the game, so do they. Avoid repetitious and boring practice sessions. You can make practices fun by using a variety of drills and gimmicks, adding repetition to the drills to make them challenging, which will stimulate interest and increase the fun level. Changing your practice schedule occasionally, being enthusiastic and letting the team help plan practices and "playing" Softball during practice sessions will increase the fun and enjoyment for you and the players. REMEMBER: The coach must enjoy the experience of coaching as much as the players enjoy playing.

Components of a Practice Session


The practice session plan should be organised and written BEFORE the actual practice session. Planning each practice: assures maximum use of time available. assures efficient coverage of all phases of the game. maintains better player interest by ensuring variety of drills, less time wasting, etc. allows evaluation at the end of each session, month and season and aids in planning for future seasons.

A practice session plan has six phases. Some of these are necessary for every practice while others may be excluded depending on the needs of the team. These needs are based on: the skill level of players. the time of playing season. the time and space available. the objectives of the session.

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The phases of a practice session are: The duration of each phase varies with respect to the age of the players and the stage during the season (For example pre-season versus halfway through the playing season). 1. Warm Up (5 - 10 minutes) Duration depends on the age of the athletes. It is a vital part of any competition or strenuous exercise session. The warm-up serves two basic purposes: reduces the chance of injury by increasing flexibility and preparing the body for participation in vigorous activity. prepare players mentally for the game in order to improve overall effectiveness through concentration.

A proper warm-up includes: A general body aerobic component to increase body temperature through increasing the blood circulation - a good indication is a light sweat. Flexibility exercises to stretch major muscle groups and mobilise major joints. Simple sport specific exercises to rehearse game skills.

2. Skill Instruction (20-60 minutes) This phase has two components: Revision and maintenance of previously acquired skills and/or strategies. Introduction of new skills and/or strategies. Not every session will have both components, eg. facilities or time may be insufficient; it may be too late in the season to introduce new skills etc.

When compiling this part of the plan: list the skills in detail. list the teaching points to cover. list the practice progression, ie. simple to more difficult.

3. Game Application After a new skill has been learned you must show the players how it applies to the game situation. Set up drills which simulate the part of the game to which the new skill applies. Follow these basic steps: identify the game situation(s) where you will apply the skills. list the drills you will use and their progressions. increase the competitive aspect of the drill in gradual steps.

The ultimate goal is to have the players perform the new skill(s) in situations that simulate as closely as possible an actual game, so they are prepared to make choices and responses in the rapidly changing conditions of a game.
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This principle of specificity of practice is most important at the intermediate and later stages of learning as players will play and react in a game situation directly relative to what they have been practising. The more closely we simulate game conditions in practice sessions, the better the players performance in the game. Also, as the level of arousal increases (competition stress) the more important the principle of specificity becomes. This is because, under stress, the response that has been practised (dominant response) will be even more likely to occur, ie. the performer will revert to automatic reactions. Thus, be sure that the automatic reactions that you instil in your players through practice are the reactions that are required in the game situation. 4. Conditioning/ Recreation (5-20 minutes) If conditioning is included, it should occur after skill practice and there should be some progression from practice to practice. If recreation is the goal, use games or competitions to stimulate interest. For younger children the emphasis at practice should be on learning the basic skills. Promoting fitness through the enjoyment of learning skills will establish a platform on which conditioning can take place in the future. Conditioning can be promoted by a vigorous, skill oriented session that builds the fitness base of the athlete. Intensive skill practices will in themselves ensure that an adequate level of fitness is achieved without emphasising any one physical element. As the athlete matures and progresses, the coach can develop a conditioning program to match the capacity of performance. 5. Cool Down (5-10 minutes) The cool down is just as important as the warm-up as it prevents pooling of blood in the limbs which could lead to fainting or dizziness and improves the recovery of heart, muscles and other tissues after exercise. It occurs immediately after conditioning. An effective cool down consists of a gradual reduction in activity levels for 5-10 minutes followed by a comprehensive stretching program. 6. Evaluation After practice you must review several things: 1. 2. 3. The activities done with your athletes and the results of those activities. Your program timing, appropriateness, success, enjoyment etc. Your performance communication strategies, delivery, discipline etc.

This allows you to check how well the objectives were achieved and to reinforce points or ask questions to ensure players understand what was covered. This evaluation should occur either during or immediately after the cool down and should last about 5 minutes. The information gained contributes to the planning of future practice sessions.

Resource Management
Your coaching program will be the most effective when maximum use is made of the resources that are available to you. These are: 1. TIME Be early. Make sure that you are at the practice facility at least 30 minutes prior to the designated start time of your session. This will allow you to complete a safety
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check of the facility, set up the equipment that you will be using during the session allowing for smooth transitions between activities and be on hand for the first arrivals. Its always a good idea to have some activities set out for the first arrivals that will allow them to do some Softball related work until the session begins. Finish on time. If you have nominated that your session will run from 4.30pm until 6.00pm, then make sure that you are finished, packed and ready to let the players leave at the 6.00pm finish time. This will allow the players and parents to organise their day accordingly and will make them appreciative of your professionalism. Wait until the last player has left the facility. Your responsibility doesnt end at the end of the session and you should ensure that all of your players (and others if they are left alone) are picked up safely before you leave the facility.

2. SPACE Is there enough room for you to have three or four small groups? Can you run a base running activity while a fielding activity is taking place at the same time? Sharing. Are you sharing the space with another team/sport and what impact does this sharing have on the safety of all involved?

3. EQUIPMENT Ensure that you have adequate equipment to run the activities that you plan. Itemize the equipment needed for each activity in your session plan so that you know exactly what to take to each session, how to set it up prior to each activity and how much equipment you need to count back into your equipment bag at the end of each session. Provide equipment that is in good repair and does not have hidden risks. Make sure that the equipment that you provide is used correctly by the players and that they are always sufficiently aware of the inherent dangers in using the equipment you supply.

4. HUMAN RESOURCES Helpers. How many other adults do you have available to you who can help with supervision, recording, grouping, specific coaching, umpiring etc? Do you have elite/higher grade players available to work in your program? Even if the parents of the players are new to the sport, they will still be able to help you run activities and supervise drills so that you are free to monitor the progress of the players and activities and provide individual feedback and assistance when needed. This also enables the parents of the players the chance to see and hear what you are teaching and be on the same page as their children if they practice individually outside sessions times. Risks. Advise the helpers at your sessions of the safety risks involved in the activity whether for them or the players involved.

5. FACILITIES What type of facility are you using for your training session? Does it have stairs, a childrens playground, trees or a hilly area nearby? Is it adjacent to something that you can use as part of your session? These can all be used to add creative variety to your sessions and provide your players with additional opportunities to learn. Is the surface area adequate for your practice session? Is the ground hard, wet, have holes or any obstructions in the way? Always check and make adjustments to your program where necessary. Is the facility well lit, if you are training at night time or are there areas of shadow and obscurity (whether day or night) either on the playing field or adjacent areas? If there are areas which are shadowy or blocked from clear view, they can be a
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source of possible danger whether fielding a fly ball or for a player waiting for a parent to arrive. Be diligent.

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Example Practice Session (Senior Team)


ACTIVITY 1. Warm Up 2. Skill Training 3. Specialist Training DESCRIPTION All players in a group or individually Simple game All players together work on basic skills Grid work Infielders Outfielders Pitchers and Catchers Game and team skills Hitting off tee outside pitch Side toss Simulate game situations All players as a group or individually Dynamic cool down activities Total Time TIME 10 mins

20 mins

20 mins

4. Hitting

25 mins

5. Scrimmage 6. Cool Down

40 mins 5 mins

120 mins

NOTE: Time allocations can be adjusted to meet your own requirements according to the skill level of the team. The duration for the activities should be adjusted to reflect the age of the team. For example, a training session for a group of ten year old players shouldnt take around 60 minutes; therefore you could halve the times set out above to provide an appropriate session. Definitions of Activities Warm Up This is a must for all players at every practice. It should include large movement patterns and running and stretching activities that include dynamic or static stretches. Teach, practice, review a skill of Softball with concentration on form and execution. Provide a variety of activities accentuating the same skill so that development progression is accomplished. Work units separately at first, then combine them for teamwork. Concentrate on basic plays with emphasis on throwing accuracy and technique. Use a variety of drills to add interest. Use small groups and multiple stations if possible. Have coaches on hand to check technique including stride, swing and timing.
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Skill Training

Specialist Training

Hitting

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Use a variety of drills, materials and situations/challenges to add interest.

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Scrimmage

Spend at least one-third of your time here. Structure here can be varied each session depending on the outcome required. Set up game situations and practice specific plays with clear goals in mind, or allow the players to play with minimal interruption from you and take notes about your observations or situations that occur and include drills to correct in future training sessions. This is a must for all players at each practice session. It should include stretching to improve flexibility and to reduce muscle soreness and can include dynamic or static activities. A recovery session (swim in a pool or cool shower) can also be scheduled for this time.

Cool Down

Please refer to the planning resource in your CD-ROM for a training session planner which can be printed and used as required. There is also a set of lesson plans in the resources section for each type of modified softball game as part of the Softball Australia Junior Games Pathway. These lesson plans can be used in their current format or modified to suit your own teams needs.

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MODULE 4 FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS

Introduction
In the Fundamentals of Softball Level One course the following basic skills were covered in the Participants Manual and through the CD and DVD Rom pack: Fielding a ball Throwing Baserunning Batting Pitching Catching

In this course we will expand the level of fundamental skills to include the following components: Bunting Sliding Force Play Tagging

These skill components are progressive and come in to playing the game of softball (as opposed to the modified games in the Junior Games Pathway). An overview of these game skills is provided. It is strongly recommended that these skills are not introduced into the training sessions until all players have mastered the fundamental skills of fielding, overhand throwing, base running, batting and where applicable pitching and catching.

Bunting
Bunting offers many advantages and creates many opportunities for a team to advance runners and put runners on base. It can also provide a less confident or beginning hitter with a greater chance of making contact with the ball during games. Bunting: Can instill confidence in a player who is having difficulty hitting the ball.

At the competitive level bunting: Can surprise the defence. Challenge and force the opposition to make defensive plays. Minimises the chance for a double play. Minimises the opportunity for the defence to play the lead runner. There are several bunt techniques used in Fast Pitch Softball. These are the sacrifice bunt, running bunt, push bunt and slap bunt. In this course (Training to Train), we will focus on the most basic and most used, the SACRIFICE BUNT. The technique of this
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bunt forms the foundation of the more advanced bunts used in fastpitch softball and consequently is an excellent starting point for the developing player. Why sacrifice bunt? Sometimes in games where the score is close, this bunt is used to get the ball into play and advance any runners who are already on base. If executed properly it will move the runners around and break the force play meaning that the defending team will have to make a tag play to get any further runners out. The important thing to remember is that this is a sacrifice play. The hitter must be prepared to get out in order to advance the runner. If a batter is struggling to make contact with a pitcher then this bunt can increase their chances of putting the ball into play and making first base.

Sliding
There are two basic reasons why players should slide into a base. These are: To stop at a base quickly without having to slow down while running To avoid a tag

There are various types of slides that can be executed: The bent leg (feet first) slide The pop-up slide The head first slide The fade away slide

In this course (training to train) we will deal with the basic BENT LEG SLIDE only. Why the bent leg slide? This slide is appropriate for beginner players as it is simple, safe and quick when it is properly executed. Once learned, this slide can form the basics for developing other more advanced sliding techniques. The bent leg slide should be used at 2 nd and 3rd bases and whilst sliding into home. Players should be discouraged from ever sliding into 1st base.

Force Plays
In softball there are a number of ways of getting a player out apart from making a catch. One method is through a force play. A force play is defined as a situation where a baserunner loses the right to the base which he/she is occupying and is forced to proceed to the next base because the batter becomes a batter-runner. Please refer to the rules in pictures component of the CD-Rom. A force out of the baserunner can be achieved by a fielder, whilst in possession of the ball, by stepping on the base to which the baserunner is immediately progressing. In other words if a player can receive and control the ball (either thrown by another player or fielded) and then touch the base before the runner then the out is made. To ensure safety (and avoid collisions with the baserunner) it is important that the fielder learns the correct footwork for receiving a thrown ball in a force play. This defensive play can also be termed getting the lead out or getting the lead runner which means taking away the closest baserunner to home plate and therefore the closest to the possibility of scoring.
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In advanced softball getting the lead runner is always the number one priority of the defensive team. With beginning players it is important that they make an out. Therefore in most cases it is a good strategy to throw to first base as it takes the batter more time to get to the base than an advancing runner who is already on another base.

Tagging
Apart from the force play another method of putting a baserunner out is to tag the runner. This technique involves a fielder tagging the runner with the ball, whether it be in the bare hand or held securely in the glove, whilst the runner is between bases and therefore liable to be put out. It is important for developing players to learn the correct and safe technique for tagging runners between the bases and at the base.

A great example of a bent leg slide and the catcher making a tag during a game

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Basic Bunting Technique


In order to get into the proper sacrifice bunt position, players must know how to move efficiently from the basic hitting position into the bunt position. This movement is termed squaring around or squaring for the bunt. Squaring around should be done early, before the pitcher starts the wind-up, or the hitter will not be set to bunt the pitch and will have to hurry the motion, which usually results in the ball being popped up. 1. READY POSITION (Squaring Around) a. Body positioning using Pivot Stance Assume a hitting position in the front part of the batters box. Pivot early (as the pitcher commences wind up). Pivot on both feet: Front foot is closed slightly (approx. 45angle). Back foot pivots on ball of foot (squash the bug). Knees are slightly bent. Body is bent at the waist. Eyes are looking over the bat for the ball at the release point of the pitcher. Weight is on the inside part of the balls of the feet.

b. Hands and Bat Positioning As feet are pivoting - slide the top hand up the barrel of the bat (about one half of the way). Form a V with the index finger and the thumb of the top hand, with the remaining fingers underneath and closed in a fist. Rest the bat in the V. Arms are extended in front of the body with the elbows relaxed. Hold the bat loosely yet comfortably. Hold the barrel of the bat over the front part of home plate at the top of the strike zone and away from the body. The barrel of the bat should be slightly higher than the knob of the bat.

Keys to success: Turn into the pivot stance as soon as possible (as the pitcher commences windup). Bat at the top of the strike zone and away from the body. Select a good pitch. Bend the knees to take the body and bat to a ball - bat remains in the same position regardless of the position of the ball in the strike zone. As the ball hits the bat, draw both hands slightly back toward the body to soften the impact.
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Try to contact the top of the ball. Put the ball on the ground in fair territory.

NB Bunting a ball in the lower part of the strike zone: The bat stays at the top of the strike zone i.e. the arms keep the bat in line rather than letting the barrel drop The player bends their knees and therefore lowering their stance in order to align the bat with the ball.

Note how well the batter pictured above bends her knees to get down and bunt the low pitch.

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Executing the Bent Leg Slide


1. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS Coaches must address the safety considerations and be clear about the correct execution of the highly technical aspects of sliding before beginning coaching. Make sure that all players have long pants or knickerbockers on before starting any sliding drills. Players should practice in bare feet or socks until the technique is mastered. A grassed area is preferable to use when working with beginners. Model the finishing position, and then WALK through the sequence of the slide first with players. Practice in this way until players feel comfortable with the technique. The more relaxed players are the easier it will be to slide and the risk of injury is reduced. By using the proper sequence of activities, players will develop confidence in sliding. Teach the skill in graduated steps, starting with the simple and moving towards the more complex. 2. SLIDING LEG Have players sit down from a standing position. They will naturally tuck one leg underneath the other this is their natural sliding leg. Emphasize to players that sliding is a natural motion. 3. BODY POSITION The sliding leg is bent at about 90and tucked under the other leg, which is extended over the top. Weight is well back and on the side of the sliding leg. Chin is tucked to the chest. Hands and arms are raised above the head to prevent the head hitting the ground (hands should stay clean). The extended leg is slightly bent and foot is kept off the ground approximately 10 -15cm with toe pointed up (although not vertical). Base is contacted with the extended leg.

4.

FINISH POSITION As the base is contacted with the extended leg, the upper body lays back. The back and side of the players uniform should get dirty. Players should stay alert for the outcome of play.

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Executing the Bent Leg Slide Teaching Sequence


The following sequence of activities follows the above principles of teaching beginners how to slide. Coaches must always address the safety considerations and be clear about the correct execution of the highly technical aspects of sliding before beginning to coach sliding. Practice sliding without a base - (bare feet or socks): Show the players the correct bent leg slide, noting the position of the legs, body and arms. Have players sit in the completed sliding position. Check position of each player individually. Repeat several times until players achieve the desired position. Form a circle and have players walk slowly in the same direction. Have players assume the slide position from the slow walk. Allocate the following numbers and cues so that players become more familiar with the progression of the slide as they walk through them. Repeat several times. Leg tuck Sit down and weight on side Arms up and chin tucked Lay back

Gradually increase the walking speed and have players assume the slide position. Check positions if each player and correct as required. Repeat same procedure while jogging. Check position of each player and correct as required.

NB: A gentle, grassy slope provides a great tool to use in getting players into the correct sliding position. Have players move through stages 4 & 5 as above while facing downwards on the slope. The sloping ground makes it easier to fall into the sliding position.

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Practice Sliding into a base (bare feet, socks and/or shoes): 1. Set up a base on some soft grass. Have at least one helper available. 2. Have the players approach the base at a slow jog. Gradually increase running speed as players become more confident. 3. For players that are struggling at this point, you and your assistant can provide support by hooking arms with the slider and causing the fall. 4. Once the players are confident with the sliding action - hold a bat or a broom handle across the sliding path (one player on each end) about one and on-half body lengths from the base. 5. Players run 7-10 metres and slide under the bar. Players take hold of the bar with both hands as they slide under. This encourages getting the hands up and keeping the weight back. 6. Gradually increase the speed and the distance. 7. Players slide without assistance. Continuing to practice until full speed is established. Players should recover quickly from the slide and stay alert for the outcome of play.

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Force Plays
Setting up to receive the throw The player needs to get to the base as quickly as possible if not involved in fielding the ball The player turns and faces the ball, looking directly at the thrower The player stands close to the base with both heels 20 to 30 centimetres away from it with feet shoulder width apart The player then provides a target for the thrower by holding the glove out in front of their body at shoulder height.

Receiving the thrown ball Once the throw is released the player lines up their glove with the incoming ball and places their right foot (if a right handed thrower) or left foot (if left handed) on the corner of the base Now the player can step forward stretching out their fielding glove towards the ball in order to make the catch With experience the player will learn to make both actions simultaneously; stepping towards the throw with one foot whilst placing the other on the corner of the base

NB It is important that the player receiving the ball has sighted the throw before committing to anchoring to the base. This will ensure if the throw is off target that they can still field the ball and prevent an overthrow

With the correct footwork the base player can still catch inaccurate throws whilst maintaining contact with the corner of the base thus making the out.

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Making the Tag Play


In most cases a tag should be made with two hands in order to keep the ball secure in the pocket, the glove closed tightly and the throwing hand placed over the top of the glove. If the play is going to be close then the player can take the throwing hand off the glove and tag one handed as this is a quicker motion (although the ball may be less secure).

Tagging At the Base: If the tag is to be applied to a runner coming into a base, the fielder should: 1. Go directly to the base in enough time as to wait for the throw. 2. Assume a position slightly off the base (whether to the infield or outfield side of the base) so as to not obstruct the play, with knees bent, glove ready and eyes on the incoming throw. 3. Catch the thrown ball in the glove; assist with the free hand coming over the top of the glove. 4. Bend the knees deeply and sweep both hands downward in the direction of the base. 5. Tag the part of the runners body most advanced toward the base. The glove and ball should be brought up immediately after the tag so the ball will not be knocked loose and the fielder can look for another play if needed.

In this tag the player has used a sweeping motion in order to demonstrate the tagging action and make a subsequent play

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Tagging between bases The process of tagging a baserunner between bases Is as follows: 1. In all but extreme cases, the ball should be securely held in the glove by both hands. (One hand may be used only when the fielder is unable to get close to the baserunner and needs to reach out in order to tag the baserunner).

2. The fielder whilst holding the ball should stand slightly to the side of the base path and the oncoming runner. As the runner approaches, the fielder should assume a position that will enable them to tag the runner with both hands, knees flexed and hands together over the ball slightly away from the body.

3. The fielder should apply the tag, with both hands, to the body of the baserunner. The glove and ball should be brought up immediately after the tag so the ball will not be knocked loose and the fielder can look for another play if needed.

4. If the fielder is still some distance from the baserunner they should tag with one hand as this method is quicker although less secure.

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MODULE 5 PLAYING THE GAME Game Sense


Developing Thinking Players (Please refer to the DVD ROM Game Sense Module) Whilst it is important for the Softball Coach to be able to demonstrate and teach junior players the fundamental skills of softball it is also important to incorporate games and mini strategies through the provision of drills and modified games into the training program. The Australian Sports Commission has produced an excellent resource on the game centred approach to teaching sport and the details are outlined below and in the DVD ROM provided with this course. The Game Sense approach places the game centrally in the coaching session, rather than at the end. Skill development is not forgotten but is incorporated into the game situation. If a player is not experiencing success, the coach can point out other ways the player might try. Traditionally, if a child was seen to be performing a skill incorrectly, the whole group stopped and the player was singled out and used as an example of what not to do. With the Game Sense approach, the player receives individual instruction which does not single him/her out as all the other groups continue with the game. This approach develops skills by capitalising on opportunities which arise in a minor game environment. By doing this, players are not only learning sport skills used in the game but are learning many other important game sense concepts such as: Decision making Where is the open space? Risk taking Should I throw or hold the ball? Problem solving How can I slide to evade my opponent? Thoughts about time and space properties Can I score now? Perception Where am I in relation to others? Tactics and strategies - "Will I fake a throw?."

These concepts are central to making sense of games, and developing the relevant skills of where and when to move. These skills are essential when playing any sport but are frequently over-looked in preference to emphasising doing an isolated skill rather than thinking about all skills. Why the Game Sense approach? Coaches tend to teach to the average player leaving the experienced players unchallenged and bored, and the less skilled players with low self-esteem and little confidence in their own ability. People wanted to play the game but they were unable to do this well until they had acquired all the skills of the game. Game Sense uses minor games as a stepping stone in the exploration and development of a strategic approach to the game. Everyone can participate and succeed in Game Sense because individual needs are met by modifying games to suit varied skill levels. For example, with a modified softball game, the participants can be offered choices about how to play the game. Groups of more experienced players may choose to use a bat to hit the ball, the average players could elect to use their hand to hit the ball, while
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the less skilled may choose to throw the ball. Each player is challenged but at the same time achieves success.

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It is possible to play a "good game" (in a tactical and strategic sense) with poor technique, so the less skilled are still able to achieve. For example, if a person uses incorrect technique but places the ball in a good position in the field, it is a good tactical decision and should be rewarded. Boredom and Repetition If a coach emphasises the same skills year after year, players become bored and possibly drop out of the sport. Game Sense is a way of improving technique, introducing strategy and keeping young people interested and involved in the sport. Lack of Knowledge Many skilful young athletes are not exposed to game strategies. These athletes make poor decisions, have inflexible techniques and know little about the game. The coach makes all the decisions and the athlete performs the skills without having the opportunity to link them to the real game. Game Sense challenges people to become "thinkers", who make decisions, solve problems and develop sound strategies. Implications for Coaches In the Game Sense approach the emphasis is on how people learn rather than on how coaches coach. Coaching should enhance not inhibit the natural learning process. Coaches need to step back and help athletes think about what they are doing so they can change their own performance. A coach needs to ask two questions before criticising an athlete's performance: 1.If I intervene, will I make a difference? 2. If I give the person some time and direction, will they find the answers for themselves? The minor game used in the Game Sense session is selected because the format will provoke players into thinking about their actions and the situations which arise in games. Let people play the game, keeping the rules as simple as possible. More often than not, they will come up with ideas of how to play the game and will make the game work for them. If the coach stands back more, the player may ask for help. If an element of the game is not working, certain key questions can be asked to set the participants thinking about the game, eg. The opposition is scoring too many runs, what can you do to stop this? Rather than a verbal answer, have participants demonstrate strategies through the playing of the game. Participants can make better sense of what they are playing if they can identify similarities in games. The coach should draw on players previous knowledge of other games to help with playing particular games. The coach should ask "How can I help my players know and enjoy the game?" rather than emphasising technique as the only way to "better" the game.

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Producing Confident Players


The Junior Games Pathway was produced to provide young players and coaches with a tool to develop the skills of Softball. The major emphasis of the Pathway is on the development of players as confident contributors to the team. The rules and lesson plans for these competitions can be found under Resources in the CD ROM pack. Players advance through the games pathway as the progressively develop the skills and competencies to enjoy the game. This confidence can be further developed through the encouragement of the coach by ensuring their language and training program promotes the positive development of players that try. Encouragement should be given to the players to always hit the ball, throw the ball, challenge the runner etc. as this will develop thinking players who will be capable of making the right split second decisions when the time comes. Coaches dont field or hit the ball for the players; they cant tell the player how their arm strength will match up with the speed of the baserunner or how their running speed will correspond to the outfielders throw from centrefield. These things can only be learned by the players in real time in real situations, so its the coachs job to allow this learning to take place in training situations and during game-time without interference. Many of the training drills and mini-games provided in the CD ROM pack will help to foster the decision making process for players as well as increase the level of enjoyment particularly at practice sessions. Our language as coaches should reflect the positive, desired outcome that we want our players to achieve. Replace all phrases like wait for a strike; dont chase the runner or wait until I tell you to run with more appropriate phrases like if you can reach it, you can hit it; go ahead, throw the ball or you make the decision when you need to run. This positive reflection of effort will empower the player to move into a confident mindset that encourages them to try at all times. Sometimes they will succeed, sometimes they will fail, but throughout, they will be learning from doing, as opposed to trying to learn from not attempting. Most people/players operate from a fear of failure platform which discourages the chance to try, assess the outcome and make adjustments. Fearing failure will always limit learning capacity and produce timid players. On the other hand, a coach encouraging players to try, assess the outcome and make adjustments, will lead the players through intrinsic learning to become confident and assured team members. This method of instruction will provide for your athletes, a sound developmental pathway that will in turn, ensure for you as their coach, a much smarter team of players who will push the envelope and produce a standard of play over and above their agegroup.

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Introduction to Basic Positional Play

How you assign your players to the defensive positions depends on the stage of development of your players and the team goals. For example, if the coaching emphasis for your team is on enjoyment and development (as it should be for a junior club team) then you should give your players experience by rotating them through all the positions. If your team is experienced and contains players with well developed fundamental skills you may wish to maximize your teams potential particularly in defence. To do this you could assign fielding positions for your players according to their skills and abilities. To enhance team performance you need to know the basic skill requirements, responsibilities and coverage area for each position. A brief outline is presented below: Skill requirements Pitcher pitching ability; quick reflexes; accurate arm Catcher good ball handling skills; agile; strong; accurate arm 1st base good ball handling skills; agile; quick reflexes 2nd base agile; mobile; accurate arm 3rd base quick reflexes; strong, accurate arm Short stop agile; mobile; strong accurate arm Left fielder mobile; strong accurate arm; good judge of fly balls Centre fielder fastest outfielder; strong, accurate arm, good judge of fly balls Right fielder mobile; strong accurate arm; good judge of fly balls Duties and Responsibilities of the Fielding Team A softball diamond is divided into two areas with the area enclosed by the bases known as the infield and past the bases known as the outfield. Generally in softball there are three outfielders and six infielders (includes the pitcher and catcher) making up the defensive team. Duties of Infielders:
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Fielding ground balls in the infield area Catching fly balls in the infield area Throwing to bases Receiving throws at a base Tagging runners Covering bases

Duties of Outfielders: Catching fly balls in the outfield area Fielding ground balls in the outfield area Throwing to bases Backing up infielders/outfielders Covering bases (when required)

All players have a role to play on every batted ball or running situation. If they are not fielding the ball or accepting a throw from another defensive player, they should be backing up a play in case of an error, or otherwise supporting a team mate.

Diagram showing defensive field positions: Infield includes pitcher, catcher, first base, second base, third base and shortstop. Outfield includes left field, centre field and right field.

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MODULE 6 ASSESSING SKILLS - CHECKLISTS


During this course and the previous Fundamentals of Softball there as been a focus on the development of individual skills as well as providing young players to develop their thinking and enjoyment of the game through mini-games, competition itself and the coach employing the principles of game-sense. Throughout the season it is useful to be able to measure the progress of players within your team. The use of checklists is an effective way to achieve this as well as providing you with a planning tool to solidify present and future development. The checklist provided in this section is an example of a method that you can use to clearly identify the components of a skill and to easily and accurately assess each of those components. The depth to which you explore your players skills will depend on their age and ability and the time of the season that you assess them. There will be great differences in the development of your players when you assess them at the beginning of the season as compared to your assessment at the end of the season. However, your assessment procedures should be consistent throughout the season and the assessment process, so as to provide you with accurate results and data. Your checklist assessment will provide you with information about: Individual Players: What are their strengths and weaknesses? Remember, strengths should be developed as much as the weaknesses otherwise they too will become weaknesses. Does this player have a disability that I need to consider?

The Team: What are the teams strengths and what are its weaknesses? How do I prepare for the team to compete with the skills and knowledge that they have now? Are there common strengths and weaknesses amongst the group of players within your team which could be addressed in a group practice session? Do some individuals require individual work? Can you get an Assistant Coach or parent to help out? How do I develop team skills for the future? How do I prepare for the team to compete in the future? What timeframes and resources do I have to work with, in developing the skills and knowledge that is needed?

Myself: What do the results show me about my planning and coaching skills? In what areas do I need to improve and how can I do that? For example, I need to do some more work on my batting coaching so I should seek advice from a more experienced coach or player.

The following few pages gives an example of the type of skills checklist you could use with a developing team. A complete copy of this checklist can also be found in the Training to Train CD ROM under the Coaching menu.

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TRAINING TO TRAIN

JUNIOR DEVELOPMENT: SKILL PROGRESSIONS CHECKLIST

Key Points to Skills in Checklist

This is a brief summary of some of the key points of the fundamental skills outlined in the Fundamentals of Softball and Training to Train participants manuals and CD and DVD ROM packs. You may wish to add your own notes. Use the charts at the end of this booklet to record your ratings on the skills for each player. This way you can track players levels of improvements throughout the season as well as ensure you have covered the basic skills in your training program. Procedure At the start of the pre-season print off this document with enough checklist forms to cover all players within your team. Within the first two or three practice sessions evaluate the fundamental skills for each player in your team and complete each form. This should help you to prioritise those skills that need attention at both the team and individual levels during future practice sessions. As you cover each skill component in training record the date in the first column of the checklist this will help you to document your coverage of all of the skill areas during the season. At the midpoint of the competition you can then re-assess each player and record on the checklist. This will then allow you to compare with the pre-season ratings and highlight areas of improvement and those that still need attention. By sharing this information with each player you are also providing them with positive feedback in terms of their development. Remember, they can also practice on their own (in their own backyard) to further their development. Finally at the end of the season a final rating should prove valuable to the coach and the players.
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Defence

Fielding Ready position (particularly infield) Starting position Feet shoulder width apart or more Backside down, eyes facing the batter Glove and throwing hands close to the ground

Footwork Use small steps (sideways and/or forwards) Move to the ball if in front Use crossover step if ball to the side

Glove work Fingers in the glove to the side Hinge action (like a crab) index finger and thumb Catching a ball in the pocket instead of the fingers

Fly ball Get to the ball first Eye on the ball, glove fingers up Use two hands and catch above head

Line Drive Glove hand works like a clock with fingers pointing like a hand on the clock

Grounder Get behind the ball Fingers down, pocket facing ball Hands well out in front of body Sweeping the glove, two hands close together

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Throwing

Preparing to throw Give with the ball and use both hands Take both glove and throwing hand up to above throwing shoulder Rotate glove into throwing hand and grip ball in fingers At the same time bring the body into the set position for throwing by using a crossover step or crow hop

Overhand throw Pull fingers back and cock wrist High action with elbow leading at first Shoulders, elbows and hips in line with target Ball released in the high five position Follow through with throwing shoulder at target and hand past the opposite knee

Tagging Track ball into glove Secure ball with two hands Drop the knee and sweep the ball at runner Away from base, fielder places themselves to one side of the base runners path Tag can be made one handed or two handed

Receiving Force Outs Get to base as quick as possible if not fielding the ball Place feet in front of base and present target do not set until throw is made Step towards throw and catch ball (chest and hips facing thrower) If close play step out further and elongate glove arm Get off base and get ready to make next play

Offence
Base running

Getting out of the box Back/pivot leg first Body leaning forward
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Short wide steps (accelerate)

Running basics Run on balls of feet Good knee lift Use pumping action with arms

Running through first base Hit the front of the safety base Dont slow down until after base Use shorter steps and lower center of weight Turn head, not body towards second base

Leading off a base Lead off base when pitcher has released ball Rocking motion begins with pitchers arm at the top of the circle Maintain eyes on the ball to see what happens After two strides get side on into lead off position Keep backside down Throw arms in direction runner is going, next base or back to base

Sliding Start slide a few meters from base (varies with each runner, conditions etc) Bend knees and lower body onto side of thigh and throw arms up Weight back on the side of the sliding leg Extended leg is slightly bent chin tucked to the chest Do not Jump into slide will hit the ground too hard

Batting

Bat Selection Grip Natural grip with bat held in fingers Basically, first set of knuckles are lined up with finger joints of other hand Hands together with dominant hand closer to bat barrel Make sure bat isnt too heavy

Stance

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Stride Hips Swing

Balanced with weight distributed on the inside balls of the feet Feet approximately shoulders width apart Hips and shoulders in line with batters box Head turned towards the pitcher bat held at top of the strike zone Arms form an inverted vee in front of chest

Soft step or glide with front foot towards pitcher (foot remains closed) Shoulder and hips remain in line with batters box Head remains over the belly button

Commences after stride Pivot on rear foot (squashing the bug) Knees remain flexed back leg forms an L shape

Throw hands at ball Bat is extended so that arms are out in front Wrists snap the bat through the ball Continue drive through the back leg by transferring weight to front Head remains over the belly button

Follow through Bat remains on one plain through the ball and entire swing Knees, hips and shoulders remain in line Hips and shoulders open to complete swing Head remains over belly button with eyes still focused on the contact point

Sacrifice Bunt Pivot early so chest faces pitcher Bat at the top of strike zone Dominant hand on balance point of bat (start of the barrel) Use pinch and thumb grip on barrel and handle Catch and contact the top half of the ball Bend knees not arms to get to the ball below the bat (above the bat is not a strike)

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Progressive Skills Development List


Players name_______________________________________________________ Ratings
1 Novice 2 Competent 3 Good 4 Excellent

Covered in Training (date)

Pre-Season

Mid Season

End of Season

Fielding
Ready Position Footwork Glove work Fly ball Line Drive Grounder

Throwing & Plays


Preparing to throw Overhand throw Tagging Receiving force outs

Base running
Out of the box Running basics Through first base Leading off Sliding

Hitting
Stance Stride Hips Swing Follow through

Sacrifice Bunt
Stance Contact

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MODULE 7 RULES
The aim of this unit is to acquaint you with the basic structure and organisation of the rule book. An understanding of the rules is necessary to be an effective coach as it: raises a coach's level of confidence in his/her ability to participate in a game. increases the players and umpires level of respect for a coach. enables the coach to develop game situations to his/her team's advantage. will clarify situations that arise during a game and enable the coach to explain these to his/her players.

Rule 1, Section 16 states that a coach is only permitted to have a score book, pen or pencil and an indicator in the coachs box, which means that a rule book is not allowed. This adds to the importance of every coach learning and understanding the rules of the game. Note: The rule book covers the rules for International play and Australian Softball Federation tournaments/competitions. The Association in which you participate may conduct their local competition according to ground, or competition, rules which are different to some of the rules in the rule book. Please refer to these rules for your local competition.

Rule Book Structure


The rule book consists of twelve rules, each one covering a separate part of the game. Each rule is further divided into a number of sections and subsections which provide the detailed coverage of the rule and its interpretations, where applicable. The twelve rules are: Rule 1: Rule 2: Rule 3: Rule 4: Rule 5: Rule 6: Rule 7: Rule 8: Rule 9: Rule 10: Rule 11: Rule 12: Index
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Definitions The Playing Field Equipment Players and Substitutes The Game Pitching Regulations - including Fast Pitch (FP), Modified Fast Pitch (MP), and Slow Pitch (SP) Batting Baserunning Dead Ball - Ball in Play Umpires Protests Scoring

The rule book contains an index to help the reader locate particular problems or situations. Learning to use the index efficiently will save you time and help you understand how the rule book is structured. Rule 1: Definitions This is in alphabetical order for case of reference. Sequencing The rules tend to be organised in chronological order in terms of how they occur in a game, eg. Pitching is covered before batting, and batting before baserunning. Game Variations The rules for Tee Ball, Mod Ball, any of the Junior Games and Recreational Slow Pitch, do not appear in the rule book. These rules are contained in separate Softball Australia brochures.

Basic Rules
Following are some of the basic concepts of the game of Fast Pitch Softball that often lead to controversy through misunderstanding. Ball/Strike The strike zone is that space over any part of home plate between the batter's arm pits and the top of his/her knees when the batter assumes his/her natural batting stance. A "strike" is called by the umpire: (a) when any part of a legally pitched ball passes through any part of the strike zone before touching the ground. (b) for each legally pitched ball that does not pass through this strike zone but is swung at and missed by the batter. (c) for each foul ball not legally caught on the fly when the batter has less than two strikes. (d) for each pitched ball struck at and missed which touches any part of the batter. (e) when any part of the batter's person or clothing is hit with his/her own batted ball when the batter is in the batting box and has less than two strikes. (f) when a pitched ball hits the batter when he/she is in the strike zone (g) when the batter fails to enter the batter's box within ten seconds after the umpire calls "Play Ball". A "ball" is called by the umpire: (a) for each legally pitched ball that does not pass through any part of the strike zone and is not swung at by the batter. (b) for each legally pitched ball that touches the ground before reaching home plate and is not swung at by the batter. (c) for each legally pitched ball that touches home plate and is not swung at by the batter. (d) for each illegally pitched ball. (e) when a legally pitched ball hits the batter outside of the strike zone. (f) when the pitcher fails to pitch the ball within 20 seconds. (g) for each excessive warm up pitch. (h) when the catcher fails to return the ball directly to the pitcher when there are no runners on base except after a strike out or put out by the catcher or when the batter becomes a baserunner.

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Fair/Foul A fair ball is a legally batted ball which: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) settles on fair territory between home and first base or between home and third base. bounds past first or third base on or over fair territory. touches first, second or third base. while on or over fair territory touches the person or clothing of an umpire or player. first falls on fair territory beyond first or third base. while over fair territory, passes out of the playing field beyond the outfield fence. hits a foul line pole on the fly. If the ball hits the pole above the fence level, it shall be a home run.

A foul ball is a legally batted ball which: (a) settles on foul territory between home and first base or home and third base. (b) bounds past first or third base on or over foul territory. (c) first falls on foul territory beyond first or third base. (d) while on or over foul territory touches the person or clothing of an umpire or player or any object foreign to the natural ground. (e) touches the batter whilst in the batter's box. (f) immediately rebounds up from the ground and touches the bat a second time while the batter is in the batter's box. Forced/Free Runners A forced runner is a runner who must run to the next base because the batter has hit a fair ball, so that not more than one runner is on a base. For example: when there is a runner at 1st base when the batter hits a fair hit, the runner at 1st is a forced runner. when there are runners at Ist and 2nd bases when the batter hits a fair hit, both runners are forced runners. when bases are loaded (runners at Ist, 2nd and 3rd bases) when the batter hits a fair hit, all runners are forced runners. A forced runner may be played out at the base to which he/she is advancing or legally tagged off base. Note: A batter is always a forced runner after he/she hits a fair hit. A free runner is a runner who does not have to run to the next base when the batter hits a fair hit. A free runner may run to the next base if he/she wishes. For example: when there is only a runner at 2nd base when the batter bits a fair hit, the runner is a free runner as 1st base is not occupied. when there are runners on 2nd and 3rd bases when the batter hits a fair hit, both runners are free runners as Ist base is not occupied. when there is a runner at 3rd bases when the batter hits a fair hit, the runner at 3rd base is a free runner as 2nd base is not occupied. A free runner must be legally tagged off base to be put out.

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Rules in Pictures
In

the Training to Train CD ROM click on The Game in the main menu (Home Page) and you will see Softball Rules in Pictures in the menu. Click on this and you will open the document for this resource. This resource is designed for the Softball player, coach, umpire and spectator of any age. The booklet provides basic illustrations with captions and is a quick introduction to learning the rules of Softball. For a complete set of interpretations, please refer to Softball Australias Official Rules and Casebook as this provides a comprehensive account of the official rules of Softball. You can also purchase the Softball Rules in Pictures from Softball Australia or your State Softball Association.

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SOFTBALL AUSTRALIA LEVEL TWO COACHING APPENDIX


PLANNING TEMPLATES AND EXAMPLES ASSESSMENT WORKBOOK

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SOFTBALL TRAINING TO TRAIN ACCREDITATION COURSE PLANNING TEMPLATES LEVEL 2

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Softball Training Plan Format


Date 9 November 2006 Main Objectives of the Week Assess skill levels of players Have some fun with a team dinner Venue Smith Park

EXAMPLE
Attendance All 12 players Main Objectives of the Session Run through skills checklist Involve some parents to assist Set new drills

Activity outline skills, drills, conditioning


6 pm Start warm up activity with light jog and go through partner stretches Incorporate some skipping bring 12 ropes 6.15 pm Set up three fielding stations and get Mike to organise a parent for each group to roll grounders to fielders once players have gone through throwing work as follows and record results (with Mike and Mary) on checklists: Throwing (overhand and receiving the ball) in pairs Fielding grounders and fly balls in groups of 4 Baserunning digging out and running through base & lead offs 7 pm Batting Mike pitching and tees (2 groups of 6) 5 hits and 3 bunts per player 7.20 pm Warm down and remind everybody including parents about team dinner on Friday

Dont Forgets Talk to athletes, phone, special equipment:

Injuries/other comments Treatment to organise:

Session Evaluation

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Softball Training Plan Format


Date _________________ Main Objectives of the Week Venue ________________ Attendance ____________ Main Objectives of the Session

Activity outline skills, drills, conditioning

Dont Forgets Talk to athletes, phone, special equipment:

Injuries/other comments Treatment to organise:

Session Evaluation

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

70

Monday

Tuesday 2

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday 5

Saturday

Sunday

Training 6 7.30 pm Batting & Bunting 9 Training 6 7.30 pm Skills Checklist Assessment of fielding 16 Training 6 7.30 pm Team skills defence & mini games 23 No Training Show Holiday 30 Training 6 7.30 pm Batting & Infield Practice 17 Club Monthly meeting @ clubhouse 7.30 pm 25 Team batting Indoor Cricket Centre 11 Team dinner 5 pm

Game 12.30 pm Pirates 12 Game 11.00 am Rebels 19 Game 9.30 am Whitesox Game 12.30 pm Waratahs 26 Game 11.00 am Tigers

27 Metropolitan Trials for Under 14 teams 9.00 am

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

71

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

72

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

73

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

74

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

75

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

76

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

77

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

78

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

79

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

80

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

81

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

82

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Level 2 Coach

Training to Train

83

EXAMPLE ANNUAL SOFTBALL COACHING PLAN


Jan Club Competition Level 2 Coach Representative Events Camps
Review all individual skills Offence & Defence Team Skills Throwing Fielding Batting and baserunning Pitching Catching Bunting Sliding Tagging & Force plays Christmas Break National Champshps Review Individual Skills Skills Checklist Finals Club Trophy Night

Feb

Mar

April

May

June

July
Sign on Teach Basic skills:

Aug
Introduce more skills: Mini Games

Sept
More Skills: Team skills & work on positions Mini Games

Oct
Season Starts Regional Trials

Nov
Play Games Skills Checklist

Dec
Play Games Team Dinner Christmas break

Pitching Clinic Oct 14th at 9 am Smith Park Team Skills Review all individual skills Offence & Defence Team skills

Skills Other

Level 3 Coaching Course

Level 1 Coaching Course for parents

Training to Train

84

ANNUAL SOFTBALL COACHING PLAN


Jan Club Competition Level 2 Coach Representative Events Camps Skills Other Training to Train 85 Feb Mar April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

SOFTBALL AUSTRALIA LEVEL TWO COACHING

ASSESSMENT WORKBOOK
CANDIDATE DETAILS
Name: ______________________________________________________________ Address: ______________________________________________________________ Suburb: __________________________________ Post Code:

_________________ Phone: _________________________________ Mobile:

_____________________ Email: _______________________________________________________________

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 86

CD ROM Reference Number: ______________________________________________

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 87

Competencies
The following competencies will be assessed for the Level Two Softball course: The ability to locate information within the supplied softball resources The ability to transfer this knowledge and understanding to a new situation The ability to analyse a situation and provide an appropriate solution

Assessment Tasks
Module 1 Role of the Coach/Risk Management
1. In consideration of the following statement, Effective coaches adjust their coaching style to each of their athletes, when necessary, for the optimum development of their athletes. Provide three examples of adjustments that you could make in your coaching style to suit the following situation. Delivering a ground ball drill to an experienced, advanced U16 player, as opposed to an U16 player new to the sport.

___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________


2. Provide the solutions for the communication problems listed below. Problem 1. Players are unable to understand the terms that you are using in your explanations. 2. Your message seems to be unclear as the players are unable to follow a list of instructions. 3. There is a construction site next to your training area causing distracting noise. 4. Several players are turning around and watching other teams train during your explanations. Solution

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 88

3. Complete the following Risk Management Plan for: a. the risk already identified and b. one other risk of your choice. NB: You can use this template to help you develop a risk management strategy for your future coaching. Risk Identification
ENVIRONMENT

Timeline for Strategies to implementatio minimize risk n

Review process (evaluation)

Responsibility

1. A shower of rain crosses the field 1 hour before practice time. 2.

EQUIPMENT

1. The catching gear is quite large and you have several different sized players who need to use it throughout the practice. 2.

PEOPLE

1. A player is hit hard in the head with a pitch during the game and wants to continue playing. 2.

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 89

4. Javed is a new arrival from Bangladesh who recently joined his local softball club. The club was very accommodating to new members but some teammates wondered why he didnt come into the clubrooms for a drink at the bar at the end of training or after games. He was also constantly late to training or did not show up on some nights and some in the team began to isolate him because they thought he was not fitting in. The Club President has contacted you for advice on what to do, he says that players who dont attend all training sessions are not supposed to be selected in the team, but hes not sure if it would be right for Javed to miss out on selection because of his work commitments. What can you do to help support the Club in this instance? List some of the considerations to be taken into account. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _______________ 5. Sally has been a popular member of her softball club for 20 years. However, she was diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis 3 years ago, which means that Sally now uses a wheelchair to get around. The MS has progressed much more quickly than anticipated and se may have to use an electric wheelchair very soon. List the ways in which Sally can still be involved. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _______________

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 90

Module 2 Planning to Train Planning the Program


6. There are three main objectives in the design of any practice session. List these three objectives and provide one Softball specific example for each. (a) ___________________________________________________________________ (b) ___________________________________________________________________ (c) ___________________________________________________________________ 7. Complete the practice session template (Attachment A) for a one hour, mid season session for a team of U12 players.

Module 3 Organisation Managing Training


8. Identify 2 characteristics of each of the following plans. Yearly - ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Monthly - ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Weekly - ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 9. You have a group of 11 players. You have planned an activity that requires three groups of four players. What can you do to ensure that the activity can still run smoothly? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

Module 4 Fundamental Skills Basic Skills


10. List three key instruction points for each of the following skills. Skill Sacrifice Bunt Instructional Points 1. 2. 3. Bent Leg Slide 1. 2. 3. Tagging at a base 1. 2. 3.

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 91

Module 5 Playing the Game


11. What is the difference between the Games-based approach to skill development and the Technique-based approach? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 12. List the 5 ways in which you can change the complexity of a mini game or activity? a. ___________________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________________ d. ___________________________________________________________________ e. ___________________________________________________________________

Module 6 Assessing Skills


13. Practical Assessment Task #1 (a) Identify a major fault in the following demonstration? (b) Explain what you would do to address the fault. (a)_______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ (b)_______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 14. Practical Assessment Task #2 (a) Identify a major fault in the following demonstration? (b) Explain what you would do to address the fault. (a)_______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ (b)_______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 92

15. Practical Assessment Task #3 (a) Identify a major fault in the following demonstration? (b) Explain what you would do to address the fault. (a)_______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ (b)_______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 16. Practical Assessment Task #4 (a) Identify a major fault in the following demonstration? (b) Explain what you would do to address the fault. (a)_______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ (b)_______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

Module 7 Basic Rules


The following quiz will help you understand the basic rules. To answer the questions, check the relevant section of the rule book, apply the rule and write your answer in the space provided. QUESTIONS Are the following pitches a ball or a strike? 17. A legally pitched ball bounces on the ground and then passes through the strike zone and (a) the batter does not swing at the pitch? B____ S _____ b) the batter swings at the pitch? B____ S _____

18. A legally pitched ball passes through the front of the strike zone then curves and hits the batter who is standing at the back of the batter's box. B____ S _____ Are the following batted balls fair or foul? 19. The batted ball hits the third base player on the foot and rebounds into the third base bench. Fair____ Foul_____ The batted ball drops straight to the ground and stops on home plate. Fair____ Foul_____ The batted ball bounces over the corner of 1st base. Fair____ Foul_____

20. 21.

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 93

22.

The batted fly ball passes over fair territory and then is earned by the wind and lands in foul territory beyond third base. Fair____ Foul_____

23.

The batted ball first lands in foul territory and is touched by the first base player in fair territory before the ball passes first base. Fair____ Foul_____

24.

The batted ball first lands in fair territory and is touched by the catcher in foul territory before the ball passes third base. Fair____ Foul_____

Are the following runners forced or free runners? 25. Runners at first and third bases when the batter hits a fair hit. (a) Runner at first base? b) Runner at third base? 26. Force ____ FR _____ Force ____ FR ____

Runners at first and second bases when the batter hits a fair hit, (a) Runner at first base? (b) Runner at second base? Force ____ FR ____ Force ____ FR ____

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 94

Course: _____________________ Assessment Checklist


Module

Date:

_____________________

Name
Component Q Yes No All Performance Criteria Achieved Yes No Resubmit Yes No

1 - Role of the Coach / Risk Management

2. Planning to Train

3. Organisation Managing Training 4. Fundamental Skills Basic Skills 5. Playing the Game Positional Play

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6a. 6b. 6c. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11 12a. 12b. 12c. 12d. 12e. 13a 13b 14a 14b 15a 15b 16a 16b 17a 17b 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25a 25b 26a 26b

6. Assessing Skills

7. Basic Rules Quiz

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 95

Additional Accreditation Requirements Sign the Softball Australia Code of Ethics Police Screening: Are you required by law in your state (or your State Association Child Protection Policy) to undergo a Police Screening (Commission for Children Suitability Card) If yes, please provide the card details. Yes Yes No No

Card Number

Expiry Date

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 96

Assessment Outcome The candidate has met all requirements for NCAS / Softball Australia Level 1 Coach Accreditation Yes (date) No (date)

Assessor Name:_______________________________________________________________ Assessor Signature ____________________________ Date______________________

Contact Details_______________________________________________________________

Assessment Task 1. Role of the Coach/Safety 2. Planning to Train 3. Organisation 4. Fundamental Skills 5. Playing the Game 6. Assessing Skills 7. Basic Rules Quiz Additional Accreditation Requirements Task Sign the Softball Australia Code of Ethics Undergone state based police screening (Commission for Children Suitability Card) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

All Performance Criteria Achieved No No No No No No No

All Performance Criteria Achieved No No

Card #: _______________________ Expiry Date: ___________________

Assessment Outcome
The candidate has met all requirements for NCAS / SOFTBALL AUSTRALIA Level 2 Coaching Course Accreditation:
Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 97

YES
Signed:

NO
____________________________ Date: _________________

Softball Assessor: __________________________________________________ Contact Details: ___________________________________________________

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 98

COACHS CODE OF ETHICS AGREEMENT FORM


(Must be completed for registration or re-registration to the NCAS)

NAME: ___________________________________________________
ADDRESS: ________________________________________________________

STATE: _________________________

POST CODE: _________

I, the person named above, am seeking registration / re-registration


(please circle)

for the following Australian Coaching Council (ACC) coaching qualification:

SOFTBALL
DECLARATION:

(Level) __________

I have read the Australian Softball Federation (ASF) Coachs Code of Ethics and agree to abide by this code. I acknowledge that ASF/State may take disciplinary action against me if I breach the Coachs Code of Ethics. I understand that ASF/State is required to implement a complaints handling procedure in accordance with the principles of natural justice, in the event of an allegation against me.

(Please refer to the Harassment-free Sport Guidelines available from the Australian Sports Commission or contact your State Softball Association or ASF, if you require more information on harassment issues.) _______________________________
(Signature) (If U18, Parent/Guardian Signature)

_______________________
(Date)

RETURN COMPLETED FORM TO YOUR STATE SOFTBALL ASSOCIATION

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 99

EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE
Please answer questions by circling a response and by offering comments if you wish. 1. To what extent did the course meet your expectations? Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 Completely

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Was the balance between practical and theoretical material adequate? Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 Completely

3.

Were the sessions well organised? What improvements are needed? Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 Completely

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Was each session of adequate length for the material to be covered? Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 Completely

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Was the course too long/short? Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 Completely

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. Was the venue suitable for the needs of the course? Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 Completely

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 100

7. the

Comment on the general abilities of the lecturers/presenters by circling appropriate number: Poor Fair 2 2 2 2 2 Average 3 3 3 3 3 Good 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5

Excellent Knowledge of subject Teaching Skills Planning/Preparation Enthusiasm Time for Questions 1 1 1 1 1

Help for Specific Lecturers/Presenters: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 8. As a club or school coach was the course useful and relevant? Not at all 1 2 3 4 5 Completely

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 9. What aspect of the course was most helpful and why?

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 10. Do you understand all the procedures involved to complete your accreditation? YES NO

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Thank you for your assistance.

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 101

NOTES
_________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________
Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 102

_________________________________________

NOTES
_________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________
Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 103

_________________________________________

Softball Australia Level Two Participants Manual 104