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SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

BASIC QUESTION

BASIC QUESTIONS

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SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

BASIC QUESTION

TOPIC NAME: BASIC QUESTION

PREPARED FOR:

Mr.Farrque M Masud. Course Teacher and Department Head.

PREPARED BY:

jewel Semester: 8 th ID: 082011253. Group: B Batch: 11th

27, March, 2012 Shanto-Mariam University of Creative Technology.

BASIC QUESTIONS

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SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

BASIC QUESTION

December 8, 2011. Shanto-mariam University of creative technology.

Mr. Farruque M Masud HOD Department of Apparel Manufacturing Management

Sub: SUBMISSION ON BASIC QUESTION .

Dear Sir,

This is to inform you that, I am a student of your university in 7 th semester in your department. In this semester I have an assignment the assignment on basic question. As the partial requirement for the AMM program, I am pleased to submit my assignment. It provides me the opportunity to know the practical knowledge of whole process of apparel industry. I had tried my best to collect the information for the report in my best. I hope the report will give a fair idea on this issue.

Sincerely

(JEWEL)

BASIC QUESTIONS

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SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

TABLE OF CONTENTS

BASIC QUESTION What is your ides about cotton? What are different types of cotton? Draw a diagram by which you can explain process production and knitting of raw cotton. What are the different countries in where raw cotton produced? Draw a table in where you can explain country wise percentage of raw cotton in the world? What are the steps to import raw cotton from other countries? Explain the diagram and documentation procedure in bank? Explain communication procedure with exporter of raw cotton in others exporting countries. Write down the exporting companies and exporting raw cotton from others countries to Bangladesh. What is different types man made fiber?

What is your idea about yearns? What are the different types of yearn terms count and kind? Draw a diagram by which you can explain process of yearn procedure of cotton yearn CVC yearn polyester mélange and any others kinds of yearn What are the different types of machine required in spinning machine?

BASIC QUESTIONS

IV

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

What is the franked machine used in section of spinning mill? Make a list of countries of machine manufacturer of spinning mill. What is your idea about bay cons of spinning mill? What is your idea about weight of a full cone of yarn?(13) How many cones are include in one cartoon of yearn and total weight of one cartoon yearn? What is BTMA how many members are including in BTMA? Who is present precedent of BTMA? Write down full address of BTMA and along with phones and email address? What are the main functions BTMA? Write down top ten spinning mills in forms of member of spindle? Write down the list of yearn exporting countries of Bangladesh? What are the types of yearn and fabrics imported from other countries? Write down the present price list of cotton yarn and other types of yarn like cvc, polyester and mélange? What is your idea about different types of fabrics specially knit and woven fabrics? Draw a diagram of process of production of both knit and woven fabrics. Draw a diagram of dyeing process of knit fabric.

What are different types of machines include in dying process of knit fabrics?

BASIC QUESTIONS

V

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Draw a diagram of dying process of both knitting yearn and woven yearn. What are the different types of knit and woven fabric fabrics? Write a list of knit and woven fabrics? What are the machines required for knit and woven fabrics? Manufacturing process? Make a list on the basis of knit and woven fabrics manufacturing process? Make a list of manufacturing countries of machines required for knit and woven fabric production?

What are the different types of machine in sweater industry? Draw a diagram of process of sweater. Make a list of top ten woven fabrics manufacturer, knit fabric and sweater manufacturer. Make a list of price of woven fabrics and knit fabrics at this moment in the market. What is your idea about apparel industry? Write a small history on apparel industry in Bangladesh? Write is your idea about management merchandising and negation? Explain merchandising works as a sellers and buyers. What is your idea about difference between marketing and sales?

How do you write first mail to buyer to explain your business so that you can create an interest in the mind of new buyer?

BASIC QUESTIONS

VI

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

What are the different types of sample? Write down short note on

each sample? What are the steps handle by followed at the time of sending sample?

What is the cost factor included in c and f and fob price?

Write down consumption formula both of knit and woven garment.

Draw a diagram on flow chart of activates of merchandising.

What is your idea about PO, PI, M L/C, BB/C, and bill of lading,

consolidators’ bill of lading? Draw a diagram operational procedure in chittagong for garments

export. What is your idea about C&F?

What are the different types of containers in forms of size and kinds?

What is your idea about data bank of supply chain department?

How do you write sample?

an email to suppliers for price

and

BASIC QUESTIONS

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SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

What is your ides about cotton? What are different types of cotton?

Cotton: Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, India, and Pakistan. The fiber most often is spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile, which is the most widely used natural-fiber cloth in clothing today.

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 What is your ides about cotton? What are different types

Cotton is a natural fiber harvested from the cotton plant. Cotton is one of the oldest fibers under human cultivation, with traces of cotton over 7,000 years old recovered from archaeological sites. Cotton is also one of the most used natural fibers in existence today, with consumers from all classes and nations wearing and using cotton in a variety of applications. Thousands of acres globally are devoted to the production of cotton, whether it be new world cotton, with longer, smoother fibers, or the shorter and coarser old world varieties.

Types of Cotton: There are five types of cotton, which are cultivated on commercial basis around the world. These include the ….

Egyptian cotton.

Sea Island cotton.

BASIC QUESTIONS

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SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

American Prima cotton.

Asiatic cotton and

American Upland cotton. Each of these types has been brief about in the following description. Know more on the history of cotton.

Egyptian Cotton

As the name suggests, this fine, lustrous cotton has long and thinner fibers. This cotton fiber is light brown in color and is ideal for making strong yarns. This is the reason why it is one of the most popular types of cotton used for bed sheets, cushion covers, etc.

Sea Island Cotton

Sea Island Cotton happens to be a 'pricey affair' for its growth and processing in the world of cottons. Its long staple and silky texture make it to be used in the finest cotton counts and mixed with silk. So, whenever you notice the label of 'sea island cotton' on shirt, know that the piece might get a little heavy on your pockets. Get some tips on how to grow cotton.

Pima Cotton

The pima cotton belongs to the ELS (extra long staple) types of cotton and is popular for its long, smooth fibers. It has a quality that is comparable to that of the Egyptian cotton. The strength, softness, durability and absorbency of the Pima cotton make it one of the popular and finest types of cotton for clothing, towels and sheets.

Asiatic Cotton

India, China and the near east are the places, which are the growers of this kind of cotton.

It has coarse and harsh fibers and thus, is suitable for manufacturing products like blankets, filters, coarse clothes, padding materials and the like.

American Upland Cotton

One of the most commonly used types of cotton is the American Upland cotton. It is less

expensive and of a basic quality, and is also used to make several types of fabrics. The versatility of the cotton makes it usable for manufacturing expensive shirts and denim.

Other Types of Cotton

Canton Cotton

Bamboo Cotton

Cotton Twill

French Terry Cotton

Honey Comb Cotton

Oxford Chambray Cotton

BASIC QUESTIONS

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SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Types of Cotton Fabric

Knitted Cotton Fabric - Generally, knitted cotton fabric is used for manufacturing T-shirts. Machines with needles are employed to grab the yarn and create a series of stitches. These stitches are the ones, which form this soft and stretchable fabric. Woven Cotton Fabric - Such kind of a cotton fabric is done by the use of a loom and a shuttle. Non-woven Cotton Fabric - Here, the fabric is created using heat or chemicals to hold the fibers in place. Cotton pads, bandages, diapers and filters are common examples.

Types of Cotton Threads

Mercerized Cotton Thread

Glazed Cotton Thread

Gassed Cotton Thread

Cotton-Wrapped Polyester Thread

So this was a brief discussion, which we had on the various types of cotton we can avail for out requirements. The choice of a particular type of cotton is governed by the purpose. I hope this article will help you chose the right type of cotton for your intended requirement.

BASIC QUESTIONS

X

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

What are the different countries in where raw cotton produced? Draw a table in where you can explain country wise percentage of raw cotton in the world?

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 What are the different countries in where raw cotton produced?
SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 What are the different countries in where raw cotton produced?

RAW COTTON PRODUCED

India

United state

Pakisthan

Brazil

Turkey

Syria

BASIC QUESTIONS

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SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Top ten cotton producers—2011

(480-pound bales)

33.0 million bales

  • India

27.0 million bales

18.0 million bales

  • Pakistan

10.3 million bales

  • Brazil

9.3 million bales

4.6 million bales

4.2 million bales

  • Turkey

2.8 million bales

  • Turkmenistan

1.6 million bales

  • Greece

1.4 million bales

BASIC QUESTIONS

XII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

What is different type’s man made fiber?

The following are different types of man made fabric-

Polyester

Nylon

Spandex

Acrylic

Viscose

Rayon

What is your idea about yarns? What are the different types of yarn terms count and kind?

Yarn: Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Embroidery threads are yarns specifically designed for hand or machine embroidery.

Yarn Types:

There are four types of yarn like-

100% Cotton- a) Carded b) Combed c) Rotor

Man Made- a) Polyester b) Elastane

Blend a) CVC (Cotton + Polyester) b) PC ( Polyester + Cotton)

c) Mellange (Cotton + Viscose)

Regenerated Cellulose a) Viscose b) Modal

BASIC QUESTIONS

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SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 Types of Yarn uses in this factory:  Card Yarn

Types of Yarn uses in this factory:

Card Yarn

Comb Yarn

Rotor Yarn (Open End)

P/C (Polyester 65 % + Cotton 35 %)

CVC (Cotton 60 % + Polyester 40 % )

Mellange Yarn

Organic Yarn

Modal

Viscose

Cima Cotton

Lycra Yarn

BASIC QUESTIONS

XIV

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

75 Denier Polyester

AMM-421

Draw a diagram by which you can explain process of yearn procedure of cotton yearn CVC yearn polyester mélange and any others kinds of yearn.

Diagram:

Card Yarn Flow Chart

Combed Yarn Flow Chart

(Ring Spinning)

(Ring Spinning)

Blow Room (Open, Clean, Mixing) ↓ Carding-(Parallel, Sliver Form) ↓

Blow Room ↓ Carding ↓

Drawing-1 (More Parallel, Sliver Form)

Drawing-1

↓ Drawing-2 (Better Uniform Parallel, Sliver) ↓ Speed Frame-(Roving, Low Twist) ↓

↓ Lap Former- (36 Sliver) ↓ Comber ↓

Ring Frame-(Yarn Rapping on the Bobbin)

Drawing-2

Winding-(Final Package)

Speed Frame

Packing

Ring Frame

Winding

Packing

BASIC QUESTIONS

XV

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

What are the different types of machine required in spinning machine?

Spinning is a process where textile fibers turn into yarn with twist or without twist.

Spinning System:

Ring Spinning→ Natural Fibre (12 Count-110 Count)

Rotor Spinning→ Natural Fibre (03 Count-20 Count)

Friction Spinning→ Natural Fibre

Dry Spinning→ Synthetic Fibre

Wet Spinning→ Synthetic Fibre

Melt Spinning→ Synthetic Fibre

What is the branded machine used in section of spinning mill?

Branded machine:

BASIC QUESTIONS

XVI

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Draw

a diagram of process

of production of both knit and woven

fabrics.

Diagram:

Flow Chart of Knitting Procedure

Collect approved Sample and sample parameter ↓ Analyze the work order, M/C and Yarn Selection ↓ Source the Yarn as per requirement ↓ M/C Cam design as per requirement ↓ Collect Yarn from Store ↓ Cone setting the creel ↓ Yarn feeding the tensioned guide and positive feeder ↓ Check the stitch length and GSM ↓ Inspection the fabric after making approximately ½ ↓ If fabric is OK then continuously run but not OK then find out the problem and solved it. ↓ Cut the fabric roll and marking stitch length, GSM, Count etc. (20-25 kg) ↓ Send the inspection section and inspected the fabric and grading according to the point ↓ Then send to the gray store ↓ Fabric delivery according to the dyeing batch card from gray store

BASIC QUESTIONS

XVII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 Draw a diagram of dyeing process of knit fabric. 
SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY
AMM-421
Draw a diagram of dyeing process of knit fabric.
Striping process:
60c NOF
Caustic 60c (10min run)
Hydrous
105c steam 40 min
Shade Ok
80c 5 min run
Scouring
Total dyeing process:
Pre-Treatment: -
Scouring
Bleaching
Scouring hot (H2O2)
Enzymeel Biopolish
BASIC QUESTIONS
XVIII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 CS Hot Dyeing: Labeling agent Dyes Dossing Salt Dossing Soda
 

CS Hot

Dyeing:

 

Labeling agent

Dyes Dossing

Salt Dossing

Soda Dossing

Caustic

Dyeing

After Treatment:-

 

Normal Hot

Acid Hot

Enzyme (if)

Washing agent hot

CS Hot Dyeing: Labeling agent Dyes Dossing Salt Dossing Soda Dossing Caustic Dyeing After Treatment:- Normal

Fixing (Dyes fixed)

Unload

Unload

BASIC QUESTIONS

XIX

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

Dyeing Procedure

AMM-421

M/C Filling at 60˚c ↓ Pн check (6-6.5 min) ↓ Leveling Agent ↓ Run Time 20 min ↓ Color dosing (linear) 30-50 min ↓ Salt Transfer (Inject) ↓ Run Time 20 min ↓ Soda Dosing (progressive) ↓ Run Time (10-60 min) ↓ If Shade Ok Then ↓ Bath Drop (BD) Water Drain ↓ BD Wash (60 x 20-30min) ↓ Neutralization (Acidification) ↓ Wash (60 x 10-20min) ↓ Soaping 80-100 x 10 ↓ Wash until water clean ↓ Unload ↓ Softener Procedure (If Required) ↓

BASIC QUESTIONS

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SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

P Check (5-5.5) ↓ Acetic Acid ↓ Softener Dosing at 45-60 ↓ Run Time (10-20 min) ↓ Unload Finishing

↓ Fabric unload from dyeing M/C

↓ Dewatering (Tube Form) ↓ Dryer ↓ Compacting

↓ Slitting (Open From) ↓ Stenter → Raising → Suding ↓ Compacting

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 P Check (5-5.5) ↓ Acetic Acid ↓ Softener Dosing at

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXI

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

What are different types of machines include in dying process of knit fabrics?

Basically three type of dying machine

1.

Fiber dyeing machine

2.

Yarn dyeing machine

3.

Fabric dyeing machine

Different type of dyeing m/c

Fiber dyeing Machine:

 
  • 1. Horsing loose cotton dyeing m/c

  • 2. Simplex dyeing m/c dyeing m/c

  • 3. Conical plan loose stock dyeing m/c

  • 4. Dreze dyeing m/c

Yarn dyeing m/c:

1. Hank from

G.S.H

Hank dyeing m/c

Pulsate

Hussong

2. Package from

 
  • 1. Cop

  • 2. Chcesc

  • 3. Warp

Fabric dyeing m/c

1.

Beam dyeing m/c

2.

Paddle dyeing m/c

3.

Package dyeing m/c

4.

Sample dyeing m/c

5.

Hank dyeing m/c

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

  • 6. Jet dyeing m/c

  • 7. Jigger dyeing m/c

  • 8. Winch dyeing m/c

AMM-421

What is different types man made fiber?

Manmade fiber: Manmade Fabrics are usually made of filaments extruded as liquid and formed into various fibers. Because the fiber starts as a liquid, many of the fibers are colored before they become filament, thus they are difficult to dye after the fiber is woven into a fabric.

Acetate: Acetate is not a strong fiber but can be extruded into fibers of different diameter and woven into fabrics that have the luxurious look of silk but do not wear like silk.

Lastex: laxtex is an elastic fiber made from Latex. It is most often used with other fibers to create fabrics such as Spandex and foundation garments. Lastex will deteriorate after repeated washing and drying, losing its elasticity.

Nylon: Nylon became one of the most versatile fibers of the man-made fabrics. In addition to hosiery, nylon is used in tricot, netting for bridal veils, and in carpeting. Nylon is stronger yet weighs less than any other commonly used fiber. It is elastic and resilient and responsive to heat setting. Nylon fibers are smooth, non-absorbent and dry quickly.

Polyester: Polyester is a strong fiber that is resistant to crease and thus keeps it shape. Polyester melts at medium to high temperatures. Although many people dislike polyester, perhaps due to the double knit fad of the 1950, polyester remains a versatile and important man-made fabric. Blends of polyester give cotton a permanent press property and extend the wear of these blended garments. Polyester is manufactured in many weights including fiberfill used in pillows and upholstery. Threads spun from polyester fibers are strong, wear exceptionally well, and are used extensively in home sewing and manufactured sewing.

Rayon: Rayon, from cellulose, has many of the qualities of cotton, a natural cellulose fiber. Rayon is strong; extremely absorbent, comes in a variety of qualities and weights, and can be made to resemble natural fabrics. Rayon does not melt but burns at high temperatures.

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXIII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

What is BTMA? How many members are including in BTMA? Who is present precedent of BTMA?

BTMA: Bangladesh Textile Mills association (BTMA) is the national trade organization of Primary Textile Industry i.e. Yarn Manufacturing, Fabric Manufacturing and Dyeing- Printing-Finishing mills of the country under private sector

Members:

Currently the number of membership of BTMA is 1266 under:

Yarn Manufacturing = 361

Fabric Manufacturer = 682

Dyeing-Printing-Finishing = 223

Over 4.00 billion EURO has been invested in these mills and about 4.00 million people are currently employed. BTMA fulfills:

100 % of the domestic fabric and yarn requirement.

50% of the cotton oven fabric requirement of export oriented garments sub-sector.

Over 95% of the yarn and fabric requirement of export oriented knitwear sub- sector.

Present President of BTMA:

Jahangir Alamin

President, BTMA & Managing Director Fuad Spinning Mills Ltd. Alamin Centre, 25/A Dilkusha C/A, Dhaka. Phone: 9564507-9, 9567836-7 Fax: 880-2-9564512 E-mail: jahangiralamin@gmail.com , sagbd17@yahoo.com

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXIV

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Write down full address of BTMA and along with phones and email address?

BTMA: Bangladesh Textile Mills association (BTMA) is the national trade organization of Primary Textile Industry i.e. Yarn Manufacturing, Fabric Manufacturing.

Bangladesh Textile Mills Association Address: Unique Trade Centre (8th Floor) 8, Panthapath, Kawran Bazar, Dhaka (Bangladesh) Tel: 880-2-9563790 Fax: 880-2-9563320

Bangladesh Textile Mills Associations (BTMEA) Address: Moon Mansion (6th Floor) 12,Dilkusha C/A. City: Dhaka. Phone: Fax: +880-2-9563320, 9563749. Email: www.bdyellowbook.com

What are the main functions BTMA?

Main function of BTMA

To promote and protect the trade, commerce and manufacturers of Bangladesh in

general and of the textile related trade in particular. To collect and circulate statistics and to collect, classify and circulate information

relating to the trade, commerce and manufactures of its members. To take all steps which may be necessary for promoting, supporting or opposing

legislative and other measures affecting the trade, commerce or manufactures of its members. To make representations to the appropriate authorities on any matter connected

with the trade, commerce and manufactures of its members. To advance and promote commercial and technical education connected with the

trade and commerce of its members. To undertake special inquiries and initiate or support any action for securing the

redress of legitimate grievances connected with the trade or commerce of its members. To engage in such activities for imports, exports of raw materials, spares and

finished products for the collective benefit of the members of the Association. To organize such factories and workshops for selling or display centers centrally which may be of common benefit for sections, which might not be possible or feasible for individual members.

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXV

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

What is your idea about different types of fabrics specially knit and woven fabrics?

Knit fabric: Knitted fabrics the third major class of fabric, after woven and no woven fabrics. Compared to the other two classes, knitted fabrics are much more elastic, which accounts for their historical use in stockings and other clothing that requires changes in shape. Hence, dresses and lingerie made from knitted fabrics can be more form fitting than counterparts made from a woven fabric. Knitted fabrics can stretch, depending on their material and knitting pattern, up to 500 percent of their original size. Lace knitting generally produces the most flexible fabric, since it has large holes that can deform in shape; by contrast, cable knitting generally produces the least flexible fabric, since the stitches are crossed under tension, which inhibits deformation. Knitted fabrics that do not deform much are called stable knits. For comparison, woven fabrics typically deform only along their bias direction–i.e., at 45° to the warp and weft directions–and only by a small amount; however, a woven fabric made with a stretchable material such as Lycra may deform more than a stable knit.

The elasticity of knitted fabrics gives them an excellent drape, but this is opposed somewhat by their generally greater thickness compared to woven. Thus, the turn of the cloth (i.e., the maximum curvature of a fold of the fabric) is generally finer in woven fabrics than in knitted fabrics. For this reason, knitted fabrics resist wrinkles better than woven, but do not generally take a crease.

Knitted fabrics are generally warmer and more comfortable than woven fabrics, which is why they are worn closer to the body. Moreover, knitted fabrics are often made from wool, which stays warm even when wet; wool is preferred since it is more elastic than most fibers and produces more even, beautiful knits. In general, elasticity and warmth are opposing qualities in a knitted fabric, since the most elastic knitted fabrics, such as lace, have the largest holes and are thus less insulating.

Structure of knitted fabrics: Knitted fabrics are divided into two basic types: warp-knit fabrics such as tricot and weft-knit fabrics such as a hand-knit sweater. Weft-knit items have the drawback that they run when cut. Warp-knit fabrics are often used in lingerie. Knits shrink Knits have nap Ribs/wales versus courses Generally more elasticity along the course than along the wale

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXVI

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Woven fabric: A woven is a cloth formed by weaving. It only stretches in the bias directions (between the warp and weft directions), unless the threads are elastic. Woven cloth usually frays at the edges, unless measures are taken to counter this, such as the use of pinking shears or hemming.

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 Woven fabric: A woven is a cloth formed by weaving.

Draw a diagram of process of production of both knit and woven fabrics

Diagram process of production of both knit and woven:

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXVII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 What are the different types of machine in sweater industry?

What are the different types of machine in sweater industry?

Machine types of sweater:

Winding machine

Knitting machine

Linking machine

Washing machine

Hydro extractor machine

Dryer machine

Boiler machine

Steam room

Over lock machine

Label sewing machine

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXVIII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Draw a diagram of process of sweater.

Winding section

Winding section

Yarn distribution section Knitting section

Yarn distribution section Knitting section

First inspection

Linking section

Trimming section

Trimming section

Second inspection section

Second inspection section

Washing section

Washing section
Winding section Yarn distribution section Knitting section First inspection Linking section Trimming section Second inspection section

Hydro extractor section

Drying section

Iron section

Hydro extractor section Drying section Iron section
Hydro extractor section Drying section Iron section
Winding section Yarn distribution section Knitting section First inspection Linking section Trimming section Second inspection section

Labeling sewing section

Third inspection section

Labeling sewing section Third inspection section
Labeling sewing section Third inspection section

Polly pack section

Polly pack section

Carton section

Carton section

Inspection by buyer

Inspection by buyer

Shipment

Make a list of top ten woven fabrics manufacturer, knit fabric and sweater manufacturer.

Top ten manufacturers

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXIX

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Winner International

Nabaa International

IQSS Associate

Asia Style House Ltd.

International Clothing House

Alize Fashion House

Global Attire

The Apparel Source

S. B. Sourcing Pvt. Ltd

Northfolk Textile

Make a list of price of woven fabrics and knit fabrics at this moment in the market.

Woven Fabric price list

Style #

Description

Width

Content

Sq. Weight

Price

  • 8456 Waffle

   

55/56”

100%

3.6

ozs/sq.

$5.95

Cactus

Open

Organic

yd

Cotton

 
  • 8450 Rush Green

60" Open

100%

4.7ozs/sq.

$5.95

Organic

yd

Cotton

 
  • 8465 Herringbone

59/60" Open

100%

7.2

oz/sq.

$6.50

Pecan

Organic

yd

Cotton

 
  • 8469 Mist Natural

60” open

100%

4.2

oz/sq.

$4.95

Organic

yd

Cotton

 
  • 8470 Mist Brown

60" Open

100%

4.2

oz/sq.

$4.95

Organic

yd

Cotton

 
  • 8471 Mist Green

 

60”

100%

4.2

oz/sq.

$4.95

open

Organic

yd

Cotton

  • 8472 Sleet

60” open

100%

4.2

oz/sq.

$5.95

 

Natural

Organic

yd

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXX

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

 

Cotton

 
  • 8473 60" Open

Sleet Brown

 

100%

4.2

oz/sq.

$5.95

Organic

yd

Cotton

 
  • 8474 60" Open

Sleet Green

 

100%

4.2

oz/sq.

$5.95

Organic

yd

Cotton

 
  • 8454 60" Open

Sport

 

100%

7.9

oz/sq.

$5.95

Canvas

Organic

yd

Cactus

Cotton

 
  • 8444 56/57" Open

Crepe Pecan

 

100%

4.5

oz/sq.

$5.25

Organic

yd

Cotton

 
  • 8483 60" Open

Light Twill

 

100%

3.1

oz/sq.

$4.95

Pecan

Organic

yd

Cotton

 
  • 9805 54" Open

Willow

 

100%

4.9

oz/sq.

$4.25

Natural

Organic

yd

Cotton

Knit fabric price list

 

Style #

Description

Width

Content

Sq. Weight

Price

20790

Flyweight

36" Tubular

100%

Cotton 3.6

$3.75

Jersey

Organic

ozs/sq. yd

20780

Lightweight

55" Open

100%

4.7ozs/sq. yd

$4.05

Jersey

Organic

Cotton

2072-60S

Med. Wt.

60" Open

100%

5.6

oz/sq. yd

$4.65

Jersey

Organic

 

Cotton

20390

1 x 1

30" Tubular

100%

6 oz/sq. yd

$4.75

Baby Rib

Organic

Cotton

20450

2 x 1 Rib

45" Open

100%

6.5

oz/sq. yd

$4.40

 

Organic

 

Cotton

10130ST

1 X 1 Med.

30" Tubular

100%

7.5oz/sq. yd

$5.25

Wt. Rib

Organic

Cotton

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXXI

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

  • 2055 Lt. Wt.

 

58" Open

100%

8.25 oz/sq.

$6.00

Fleece

Organic

yd

Cotton

 
  • 2080 Heavy

 

60" Open

100%

  • 7.5 $6.25

oz/sq. yd

 

Thermal

Organic

Cotton

73109

Mesh

58" Open

100%

  • 5.4 $5.50

oz/sq. yd

 

Thermal

Organic

Cotton

What is your idea about apparel industry?

Apparel industry: The transfer of production controls Garment industry. The globalization of garment production started earlier and has expanded more than that of any other factory. The companies have transferred their blue-collar production activities from high-wage areas to low-cost manufacturing regions in industrializing countries. The enhancement of communication system and networking has played a key role in this development. Export-oriented manufacturing has brought some good returns to the industrializing nations of Asia and Latin America since the 1960s. The first relocation of garment manufacturing took place from North America and Western Europe to Japan in the 1950s and the early 1960s. But during 1965 and 1983, Japan changed its attention to more lucrative products like cars, stereos and computers and therefore, 400,000 workers were dismissed by Japanese textile and clothing industry. In impact, the second stock transfer of garment manufacturing was from Japan to the Asian Tigers - South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore in 1970s. But the tendency of transfer of manufacturing did not remain there. The rise in labour charge and activeness of trade unions were in proportion to the enhancement in economies of the Asian Tigers. The industry witnessed a third transfer of manufacturing from 1980s to 1990s; from the Asian Tigers to other developing countries - Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and China in particular. The final group of exporters including Bangladesh, Srilanka, Pakistan and Vietnam has led the 1990s. But China was leader in the current of the relocation as in less than ten years (after 1980s) China emerged from nowhere to become the world's major manufacturer and exporter of clothing.

Write a small history on apparel industry in Bangladesh?

Bangladesh is a developing country. Every year we earn lot foreign exchange though the garments sector. It has great effect on our country lots of people were found an

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXXII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

opportunity to improve their life style by involving in garment sector. Lots of women worker get employed in garments sector & earn money and able to change their fate. So, it has a great impact in our country. To make this sector more profitable it also need appropriate guideline.

The first ready-made garment factories in Bangladesh aimed at the export market were opened in the late 1970s by investors from other Asian countries whose exports had been restrained by quotas imposed by importing nations. By the mid-1980s, the ready-made garment industry had become a strong export earner. Garment exports brought receipts of only US$3 million in FY 1981, but by 1984 exports had risen to US$32 million, and the following year revenue soared to US$116 million. For FY 1985 and FY 1986, ready- made garments were the second biggest foreign exchange earner for Bangladesh after jute. The surge in Bangladeshi exports eventually caused a reaction among some industrial nations. Canada, the European Economic Community, and the United States expressed concern that inexpensive Bangladeshi garments were flooding their markets. In 1985, after a series of notices as called for by multilateral agreements, the United States-- which was the destination of about 25 percent of Bangladesh's garment exports--began imposing quotas on Bangladeshi garments, one category at a time.

Bangladeshi manufacturers, working with the government, organized with remarkable speed and efficiency to adapt to changing conditions. They policed themselves to stay within quotas, allocating production quotas according to equitable criteria, and began diversifying their production into categories where there were not yet quotas: for example, cotton trousers, knitwear, dresses, and gloves. After a period of adjustment, during which some of the least well-established firms closed and workers were laid off, the industry began stabilizing, and growth continued at a more moderate pace. Exports in FY 1986 rose another 14 percent, to US$131 million, and prospects were good for continued growth at about that rate.

Write down Industrial Garments Manufacturing Sequence Industrial Garments Manufacturing Sequence.

Garments manufacturing sequence:

Design Sketch

Pattern Design

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXXIII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

 

Sample Making

Production Pattern

Grading

 

Marker Making/Lay Planning

 
 

Fabric Inspection

Fabric Inspection Fabric Spreading Cutting Inspection

Fabric Spreading

Fabric Spreading

Cutting

Fabric Inspection Fabric Spreading Cutting Inspection

Inspection

 

Binding

Sewing

Sewing

Inspection

 

Iron

Finishing

Finishing
 

Final Inspection

Packing

Buyer

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXXIV

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Write is your idea about management merchandising and negotiation?

Merchandising Management: An industrial unit purchases a variety of items. Some of the items are required for manufacturing of the main product, whereas others are required for maintaining the plant and machinery and various support services and activities. The list of items purchased by the industrial unit is so large that a very large number of merchandisers are required to meet the requirements of the organization. The pertinent question at this stage is how to identify the right source for materials required. Right source for materials is one of the most important aspects in efficient purchasing. This is the first step to ensure procurement of the items on time. The latest concept “procurement just in time” largely depends on correct and reliable selection of merchandisers, who can be depended on for supply of right material at competitive prices, at the right time and at the right place.

Sources of Merchandiser information

The potential sources of survey for merchandisers are:

Trade directories

Regional directories issued by the chamber of commerce

Classified sections of telephone directories

Visit of representatives of various merchandisers

Exhibitions and trade fairs

Issues concerning Merchandiser identification

Some of the issues for consideration at this stage are:

Whether the merchandisers be selected each time of inviting offers or once a

year? How many merchandisers to be selected?

Who would decide on the selection of the merchandisers?

Whether to purchase from local/foreign merchandiser?

Whether to purchase from manufacturer or trade organization?

Whether to purchase form agents?

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXXV

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Whether to appoint regional agents?

Negotiation: Negotiation is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes, to produce an agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for individual or collective advantage, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is the primary method of alternative dispute resolution. Negotiation Style: Negotiation styles vary with the person, their beliefs and skills, as well as the general context in which they occur. Here are a number of different styles considered from different viewpoints.

Belief-based styles

There is a common spectrum of negotiation that ranges from collaborative to competitive. The approach taken is generally based on beliefs about people and how selfish or generous they are.

The Spectrum of Negotiation Styles: From concession to competition.

Collaborative Negotiation: Negotiating for win-win.

Competitive Negotiation: Negotiating for win-lose.

Balanced Negotiation: Walking between collaborative and competitive negotiation.

Professional styles

Professional styles are those uses by people who have a significant element of negotiation in their roles. Here is a selection of different contexts in which such negotiation takes place.

Industrial relations: Confrontational bargaining. Managing Board: Together and competing. International: Diplomatic dancing. Political: Scheming horse-trading.

Selling and Buying: Professional sellers and buyers. Hostage: Emotional big-stakes exchanges. Contextual styles

Negotiation often happens within non-professional contexts, where the people either do not know that they are negotiating or they are not skilled at it.

Domestic: Discussions and arguments at home.

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXXVI

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Everyday: Everybody, every day, negotiates.

Hierarchical: Parent-child, boss-subordinate, etc.

Remote Negotiation: Negotiating at a distance.

What is your idea about difference between marketing and sales?

Marketing and sales:

Marketing is everything that you do to reach and persuade prospects. The sales process is everything that you do to close the sale and get a signed agreement or contract. Both are

necessities to the success of a business. You cannot do without either process. By strategically combining both efforts you will experience a successful amount of business growth. However, by the same token if the efforts are unbalanced it can detour your growth.

Your marketing will consists of the measures you use to reach and persuade your prospects that you are the company for them. It's the message that prepares the prospect for the sales. It consists of advertising, public relations, brand marketing, viral marketing, and direct mail.

The sales process consists of interpersonal interaction. A one-on-one meeting, cold calls, and networking often do it. It's anything that engages you with the prospect or customer on a personal level rather than at a distance. Your marketing efforts begin the process of the eight contacts that studies show it takes to move a prospect or potential client to the close of the sale. If marketing is done effectively you can begin to move that prospect from a cold to a warm lead. When the prospect hitsthe"warm" level it's much easier for the sales professional to close the sale.

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXXVII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

How do you write first mail to buyer to explain your business so that you can create an interest in the mind of new buyer?

First email to buyer for business development:

December 8, 2011.

Manager Marketing Prime Company Ltd. USA.

Sub: BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT .

Dear Sir, We are one of the requested garments exporter. We are exporting many types’ ready made garments. We are in the position to have business from buyer in USA, Europe. We are pleased attach brief company profile and list of product along with photograph.

It will be highly appreciated if you look into our profile and product. If we get the business then you also get the business for a long time.

So we are anxiously by writing feed back.

Sincerely,

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXXVIII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

Signature

----------------------------

(Bindu Paul) Marketing Manager. ………garments ltd.

AMM-421

What are the different types of sample? Write down short note on each sample?

Sample is a specimen or we can say a part which shows what the whole is look like. In apparel industry – sample is the physical form of the buyer’s style.

Different types of sample:

Proto Sample

Approval Sample

Fit Sample

Size set Sample

Reference Sample

Offer Sample

Salesman Sample

Photo Sample

Pre Production Sample

Production sample

Shipment Sample

Proto Sample: Proto sample is the initial sample made by the manufacturer as per as the details of the export order, and send to the buyer, to check weather the styling of the garment is ok as per the requirement of the buyer. Proto Sample can be made in alternative fabric & accessories, which is not with the original fabric and accessories. That is as per the sketch & space in the production order (P.O) sheet).

Approval sample: The manufacturing must produce sample prior to communication of the mass scale production of a particular style. The number of samples required, vary from buyer to buyer. Most of the time buyers ask for 3-5 samples from the manufacturer. When constructing these samples the manufacture’s instruction should be followed.

The original patterns, original sample & the specification are required to produce these samples. After constructing these samples manufacturer should send them to the buyer or to the agents to get the approval for the mass production. There are two main types of approval samples and they are known as:

BASIC QUESTIONS

XXXIX

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Fit approval samples

Size series samples.

When an order is placed and confirmed, the manufacturer has to produce samples for the buyer. The buyer generally gives the required size of the samples. If the size of samples is not given the middle size of the order range is taken as the appropriate size. That is if an order is given for a range of sizes, then the sample garment is made from the middle size. The samples produce for the given size or the middle sizes of the order are known as fit approval samples. The buyers approve once fit approval samples, request for samples in all the sizes of the order before the mass production starts. Then they are in a position to see the quality of the samples of all size of the order. These samples are known as size series samples. Even if there is no such request from the buyer, it is batter to produce to size series samples for use within the factory. Then they can identify the problem that might occur, when they produce different size in the mass production. Fit Sample: Fit Sample is made by the manufacture (exporter) and sends to the buyer, to check if the fittings of the garments are ok or not as per the requirement of the Buyer. Unusually the Fit sample is made in alternative Fabric & accessories & it is made, which ever comes at the middle of the export order sizes. For example: If the export order sizes are, S, M&L, and the Fit Sample will be in M size.

Size Set Sample: Size set sample contains all the size of the export order contains sizes small, medium, large size. Then the size set is sample will contain all the size, the sample S are made by grading the M size sample. Alternative fabric & accessories can make this Sample.

PP Sample (Pre Production sample): original fabric & Accessories make PP Sample, and this sample is made just before the Bulk production. This sample represents the original garment to be made in Bulk production. The buyer checks the PP samples & after the Buyer gives approval on PP sample, and then only the manufacture goes for bulk production of the export order. PP sample should include all the colors of the style.

Production Sample: Production Sample is taken from production unit, by the bulk production is continuing, production sample represents the original production pieces to be exported to Buyer. Usually the exporter send production sample to Buyer once only, during the Bulk production, But in some cases where the export order quantity is large enough for single style for example incase of Buyer – Wal-Mart, The production samples were sent three times during the Bulk production. First Sample sent during 20% to 30% of Bulk production. Second fit sample during 50% to 60% of Bulk production Third production sample during 70% to 80% of Bulk Production.

BASIC QUESTIONS

XL

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Reference Sample: Reference purpose when produce the extra sample is called reference sample. When we produce the approval sample then we have to produce an extra sample for reference purposes in the factory, Reference sample is also called keep sample. After getting the approval from buyer, the reference sample can be released for mass production. When releasing the reference sample for mass production all this comment made by agents and or by the buyer must be attached clearly to the reference samples. The sample kept in the sample department until getting the approval from the buyers after inspecting the approval samples.

Offer Samples: If the factory wants to attract new buyers, they have to be won by showing samples of garments that the manufacturer can offer. For this purpose they produce on their own, samples of new designs. These samples are known as offer samples. The ultimate objective of producing these offer samples are to attract new buyers to find new markets.

Shipment Sample: This Sample the manufacture keeps with them, covering all sizes & colors of the style of garments they exported. It is for the reference pieces, just to keep record for future reference.

What are the steps handle by followed at the time of sending sample?

Step:

At first make proto sample/development sample

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 Reference Sample: Reference purpose when produce the extra sample is

Buyer comments

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 Reference Sample: Reference purpose when produce the extra sample is

Fit sample

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 Reference Sample: Reference purpose when produce the extra sample is

Buyer comments

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 Reference Sample: Reference purpose when produce the extra sample is

Salesman sample (SMS)

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 Reference Sample: Reference purpose when produce the extra sample is

Buyer comments

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 Reference Sample: Reference purpose when produce the extra sample is

If sales man sample ok then order quantity confirm

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 Reference Sample: Reference purpose when produce the extra sample is

BASIC QUESTIONS

XLI

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Then price negotiation

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY AMM-421 Then price negotiation If price negotiation ok then starting production

If price negotiation ok then starting production

So we can understand that …………………………………………………

Sales man sample: If any order confirm then buyer want to sales man sample. At first development stages then buyer comments (if any one change buyer tell). Mainly salesman sample depend on buyer. We know that two types of seller;

Home seller: home seller does not want to salesman sample.

Seal seller: seal seller want to sales man sample.

Mainly salesman sample depend on bulk quantity. So first stage six pies salesman sample give the buyer. Then buyers those sample show their shopping mall. If this sample attraction to customer then buyer confirm the order quantity, that is called salesman sample.

What is the cost factor included in cnf and fob price?

FOB - Freight on Board (named port of shipment):

Means the seller completes his obligation to deliver when the goods pass over the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. The critical points worth noting are:

Carriage to be arranged by the buyer

Risk transfer from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship’s rail

Cost transfer from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship’s rail

CNF - Cost & Freight (named port of destination):

The seller must pay the cost and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination. The critical points worth noting are:

Carriage to be arranged by the seller

Risk transfer from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship’s rail

BASIC QUESTIONS

XLII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Cost transfer at the port of destination, buyer paying such costs as are not for the seller’s account under the contract of carriage

Write down consumption formula both of knit and woven garment?

Knit garments consumption:

For, T-shirt {(S/J) 30/1 combed yarn}

Measurement: -

Length = 70 cm ½ chest = 60 cm / dia Sleeve length = 25 cm Arm hole width = 40 cm GSM = 145 Consumption / Dz in Kg

Formula: -

(Back length + sleeve length) × ½ chest × 2 × GSM ×12

10000000

= {(70 +5) + (25 +5)} × 60 × 2 ×145 ×12

{B.L + S.L × chest × GSM

×12}

  • 10000000 100

100

1000

= 2.28 kg + 7%

= 2.28 kg +0.159

= 2.439 kg

[neck and sleeve are made rib so add 0.10] All time collar in rib = (350-400)

Consumption Calculation for a Long Sleeve Shirt (Woven):

For a long sleeve shirt:

BASIC QUESTIONS

XLIII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Spec. Sheet: Collar = 16" Chest = 48" Center back length = 31" Sleeve length =
Spec. Sheet:
Collar = 16"
Chest = 48"
Center back length = 31"
Sleeve length = 34.5"
Drop shoulder = 21"(yoke)
Arm hole depth (1/2) = 10.5"
Cuff = 9"
Pocket = 6" × 5.5"
Yoke is all time = 4"
[Area means- L× W]
Back part:
Formula:
(Center back length + allowance) × (½ chest + allowance) / 36
{L}
{W}
44
= (31" + 2") × (24" + 2”) /36
44
= 0.541yds
Yoke:
Formula:

(Yoke length + allowance) × (yoke width + allowance) / 36

44

= (21" + 4") × (4"+ 1") / 36

44

= 0.079 yds

Front part:

Formula:

(Body length + allowance) × (¼ chest + allowance) × 2 /36

44

= [{31"- 1 ¼" + 1"} ×{ 12" + 2 ½" }] 2" /36

44

= 0.562 yds

BASIC QUESTIONS

XLIV

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

Sleeve:

Formula:

AMM-421

(Sleeve length + allowance) × (arm hole depth full + allowance) ×2 / 36

 

44

= {sleeve length – (½ drop shoulder + ½") × (arm hole depth + allowance)} ×2 /36

 

44

= [{34 ½" - 11"} +1"] × {21" +1"} × 2 /36

 

44

= 0.68yds

Cuff:

Formula:

(Cuff length + allowance) × (cuff width + allowance) ×2 / 36

 

44

= (9" + 3") × (2 ½" + ½" ) ×2 /36

 

44

= 0.05yds

Collar:

Formula:

(Collar length + allowance)× (collar width + allowance) × 2 /36

 

44

= (collar length + allowance) × (collar width + allowance) ×4 / 36

 

44

= (16" + 5") × (2" +1") × 4/36

 

44

= 0.159yds

Pocket:

Formula:

(Pocket length + allowance) × (pocket width +allowance) / 36

 

44

= (6" +2") (5½" +1") /36

44

= 0.032yds

Total consumption for one garment = 0.541+0.079+0.562+0.68+0.05+0.159+0.032 = 2.100 yds/ per garment

BASIC QUESTIONS

XLV

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Per dz = 2.100 ×12 = 25.20/dz (ypd) + 5% = {25.20 ×5 / 100} + 25.20 = 1.26 + 25.20 = 26.46yds

Write down consumption of cartoon & sewing thread?

Consumption of cartoon:

Cartoon is different type’s like- 3 ply, 5 ply, 7 ply, 9 ply. Consumption of Cartoon:

Length = 38 cm Width = 29 cm Height = 12 cm (Length + Width + 5) x (Width + Height + 5) x 2 ÷ 10,000 = (38 +29 + 5) x (29 + 12 +5) x 2 ÷ 10,000 = 0.67 Mitre.

Sewing Thread Consumption:

Sewing thread consumption depend on bellow things- Stitch Type SPI Fabrics Type/Gsm Needle Gap/Distance

SL

NAME OF MACHINE

CONSUMPTION OF

NO:

THREAD

  • 1. Plain Machine

2.5˝

  • 2. Two Niddle Machine

  • 3. Over Lock (3 thread)

13.5˝

  • 4. Over Lock (4 thread)

16.75˝

  • 5. Over Lock (5 thread)

18.5˝

  • 6. Flat Lock (3 thread)

16.75˝

  • 7. Flat Lock (5 thread)

22.5˝

  • 8. 7˝

Bar tack

 

9

Feed of the Arm

7˝(For 1 Niddle) 14˝(For 2

 

Niddle)

10.

Kansai

7˝ (For 1 Niddle)

BASIC QUESTIONS

XLVI

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

  • 11. Button Attach

3˝ (For 2 Eye)

  • 12. Button Attach

6˝ (For 4 Eye)

  • 13. Button Hole

Draw a diagram on flow chart of activates of merchandising.

Diagram of activities of merchandising

OF PRODUCTION, CUTTING BULK BULK REQUIREMENTS. REQUIREMENTS. TO BUYER AS PER TO BUYER AS PER SAMPLES
OF PRODUCTION,
CUTTING
BULK
BULK
REQUIREMENTS.
REQUIREMENTS.
TO BUYER AS PER
TO BUYER AS PER
SAMPLES SENT
SAMPLES SENT
TOP/PRS
TOP/PRS
CUTTING
OF PRODUCTION,
VARIOUS STAGES
VARIOUS STAGES
AUDITS DONE AT
AUDITS DONE AT
PILOT RUN APPROVAL
PILOT RUN APPROVAL
PRE-PRODUCTION MEETING
PRE-PRODUCTION MEETING
BASIC QUESTIONS
FIT
APPROVAL
APPROVAL
SEALER SAMPLE
SEALER SAMPLE
SIZE SET &
SIZE SET &
APPROVAL
APPROVAL
FIT
FIT
FIT
DETAILED T&A
CYCLE
CYCLE
FINAL AUDIT
FINAL AUDIT
PACKING
PACKING
FINISHING
FINISHING
SEWING
SEWING
INSPECTION
XLVII
PREPARE
PREPARE
PI, LC
PI, LC
TRIM PO,
TRIM PO,
FABRIC PO,
FABRIC PO,
INSPECTION
INSPECTION
TRIM ORDERING
INSPECTION
INSPECTION
TEST REPORTS
TEST REPORTS
TEST REPORTS
TEST REPORTS
SHRINKAGE TEST
SHRINKAGE TEST
INSPECTION
PI
HOUSE
DETAILED T&A
T&A
T&A
SHIPMENT OF GOODS
SHIPMENT OF GOODS
ADVISED OF THE
BULK IN-HOUSE
BULK IN-HOUSE
BULK IN-HOUSE
BULK IN-HOUSE
HOUSE
PI
ALL DEPARTMENTS
ALL DEPARTMENTS
ADVISED OF THE
RECEIPT OF ORDER
RECEIPT OF ORDER
PILOT YARDAGE IN-
PILOT YARDAGE IN-
FABRIC ORDERING
FABRIC ORDERING
TRIM ORDERING

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

What is your idea about PO, PI, M L/C, BB/C, and bill of lading, consolidators’ bill of lading?

PO (purchase order): This is a legal document stating the quantity, delivery, price, style no, buyer, vendor details. On receipt of a PO it is very important that the merchandiser checks all details and confirms that they are correct like – quantity, delivery date, and price, style no, style description, color no & reference if mentioned, shipment mode, shipment port, vendor address, buyer address.

PI: the exporting company usually issues the proforma invoice before the actual transaction takes place. This is especially prevalent in Third World countries that have demonstrated previous balance of payment problems and where there is a need to obtain import and foreign exchange permits from the local government. To be effective there are several very important things that the proforma invoice must cover. Of course the most important issue is a very accurate description of the particular item to be exported. It is not OK to send an invoice that says 10 tons of beans; the customers’ wants to know what kind of beans they are and are they Imperial tons or metric tons. By the same token you could send someone an invoice that states flash frozen cod, packed in clear plastic bags, not labeled for resale and be just fine. As long as the customer knew in advance of the lack of labeling if there were any issues the problems would be his. The proforma invoice must also state the type of currency that is acceptable as a form of payment and how it is to be paid. An example of this might be payment for the flash frozen fish is to be made in Rupees and the balance owed must be paid within 30 days from the date the receipt for delivery is signed. In other words it is up to the exporter to make his payment desires known up front to make sure there is no confusion.

Bill Of Lading (BIL):

It is a major document if the goods are dispatched by sea.

The document represents:

  • 1. A formal receipt for the goods

  • 2. The evidence of the contract of carriage of the goods between the shipper of the goods and the shipping company

A bill of lading may include the following details:

A description of the goods in general terms not inconsistent with that in the letter of credit

BASIC QUESTIONS

XLVIII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Identifying marks and numbers, if any

The name of the carrying vessel

Evidence that the goods have been loaded on board

The ports of shipment and discharge

The names of shipper, consignee (if not made out "to order"), and name and

address of the "notifies" party if any Whether freight has been paid in advance or is payable at destination

The number of original bills of lading issued

The date of issue

The departure date of carrying vessel or aircraft

Letter of Credit (L/C): A letter of credit (also known as documentary credit) is a document issued by a bank on behalf of an applicant (the buyer) undertaking to make payment to a beneficiary (the seller) up to a stated amount of money, within a prescribed time limit and against stipulated documents. There are usually two banks involved in a letter of credit operation. The issuing bank is the bank of the buyer and issues the credit; the advising bank, usually located in the seller's country, is the bank through which the advising bank sends the credit to the beneficiary.

Commercial Invoice: A commercial invoice is a business document which records the sale of goods or services between two parties, and by which the seller informs the buyer of the amount to be paid for the goods. Usually, the original and four copies are stipulated in the L/C.

A commercial invoice normally includes the following information:

Date and authorized signature

The correct name and address of both buyer and seller (or the name of the consignee if the goods are not consigned to buyer)

A detailed description of the merchandise purchased strictly corresponding with the description given in the letter of credit, along with quantity, unit price, and total price, all deductions and additional charges included in the price Weight of the goods, number of packages, any identifying shipping marks, any import license number, contract number or any other details requested and stipulated in the L/C Terms of delivery and payment (FOB, CIF, C&F) The name of the issuing bank and the letter of credit number The port of entry for which the merchandise is destined

BASIC QUESTIONS

XLIX

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

The type of currency and rate of exchange

Draw a diagram operational procedure in chittagong for garments export.

  • 1. Preparation for Shipment:

As a first step towards fulfillment of his obligation to deliver the goods no time, the exporter should check the terminal date of the shipment stipulation in the order and the expiry date of the L/C if any, if it is found that the time allowed is insufficient to make the shipment, the exporter should immediately request the buyer for an extension of the expiry date. In a C & F or C.I.F contract, the exporter assumes the entire responsibility of arranging shipment to the importer’s country and he can conveniently use the services to a forwarding agent to arrange the shipment and also to attend to other ancillary work should he so wish.

  • 2. Export by Sea:

In most cases exports from Bangladesh take place by sea and the steps involved in

shipping goods by sea are usually following:

Booking of shipping space. Packing. Shipping Instruction. Customs Formalities.

Storage of export Cargo. Payment of port charge. Freight Payment. Loading of Export Cargo. Containerization.

Bill of Lading.

  • 3. Air Freight

  • 4. Cargo Insurance: Where the exporter has contracted to exported the goods on a C.I.F

basis he will be responsible for insurance of the goods against marine losses, losses incident to marine adventure, insuring goods against marine losses is important because it protects the exporter from possible loss or damage to the goods arising during the seller or the buyer has taken a marine insurance policy.

BASIC QUESTIONS

L

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

5. Forwarding Agent: Irrespective of whether the exporter needs to ship the goods by sea, air or by any other mode of transport the following steps are commonly followed in pacing the goods on board the carrier.

Booking the space.

Packing the goods.

Making the shipping marks.

Shipping instructions to the carriers.

Customs clearance.

Payment of the port charges

What is your idea about C&F?

C&F (cost and freight): The seller/supplier agrees to contract the freight and pay "cost and freight" for loading the goods, cleared for export, on board a vessel and the charges to ship the goods to destination. The buyer bears the risk of the goods from the time they pass the ship's rail at the port of shipment and pay for the insurance coverage, and for the unloading costs at the port of destination

What are the different types of containers in forms of size and kinds?

Chittagong port is a principal seaport of Bangladesh. Handling about 92% of import export of tread of the country.

CCT-handing capacit6y 6.488 tucks. Quay length 450m

CFS- 12700 sq m

Container storage yard- 15000 sq m

ICD- An land container depart

Dhaka is in operation since 1987 with arrival handling capacity 80000 tucks

NCT- New moorning container terminal.

NCT- is the port adjacent to existing container terminal CCT.

Present handled volume is over 30 million. Metric tons inclusive more than 100 million tucks per year.

BASIC QUESTIONS

LI

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Container handling both import & export per year 2009-2009, 557891 TUE tons export.

8169677

APL provided Global container transportation services

TUE – twenty foot equivalent unit

Container size -20”. 40”. 54”. 48”. 53”.

High wbe 80” Length=20, width=8 weinght=8.5 Area-16 miles

Types of container: -

  • 1. Refrigerated container

  • 2. Insulated shipping container

  • 3. Tank container for bulk goods.

  • 4. High cube pallet wide container.

  • 5. Ventilated container for organic product.

Basically imports export goods from Colombia sreelonka, Singapore, cew Malaysia port by feeder vessel. Chittagong port only for feeder vassal. Last year 2088 feeder vessel sailing.

BASIC QUESTIONS

LII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

What is your idea about data bank of supply chain department?

CS: Those following items are required of comparative statement (CS) related with different suppliers for fabric and accessories;

 

Quality.

Shipment.

Price.

Negotiation

Timely

Communication.

Service

Previous activities.

Data bank;

 

PI – after order conform.

Commercial

- L/C to export.

Invoice.

BASIC QUESTIONS

LIII

SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

AMM-421

Work order given.

Just payment by L/C.

Date and time.

Payment terms and condition.

How do you write an email to suppliers for price and sample?

Letter of request for price and sample:

December 8, 2011.

Manager (Marketing) Prime Company Ltd. 71 New York, USA.

Sub: REQUIEST FOR PRICE AND FABBRIC SAMPLE.

Dear Sir, We need fabric sample and also price of S/J as we have already received a high order from one of our requited buyer. It is important to have quality fabric, because buyer is looking for quality to ensure reputation of its brand name.

I will be highly appreciated if you sent sample immediately.

Sincerely,

BASIC QUESTIONS

LIV