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Aircraft Surface Movement Program

Anthony Laughlin Superintendent of Operations Los Angeles International Airport (310) 646-4265 alaughlin@lawa.org

Los Angeles World Airports

Introduction To Aircraft Surface Movement Program


Any person who taxis, tows, communicates on aviation VHF frequencies, or is otherwise involved in the movement of aircraft at LAX must successfully complete the Aircraft Surface Movement Program.

Introduction To Aircraft Surface Movement Program


Class length: 3 hours

Test: 30 question multiple choice


minimum passing score is 90%

All persons who successfully complete this program will be rebadged. The replacement badge will include the Aircraft Movement Icon.

Introduction To Aircraft Surface Movement


UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE:

REQUIRED FOR ALL AIRCRAFT SURFACE MOVEMENT OPERATIONS BY NON-FLIGHT CREW PERSONNEL, INVOLVING THE CROSSING OF ANY RUNWAY AT LAX

LAWA AIRFIELD OPERATIONS ESCORT IS

Training Goals
1. 2. 3. To prevent incursions on movement areas To provide familiarization with airfield layout, signs, markings, and lighting To help standardize radio communication and Air Traffic Control procedures

Aircraft Surface Movement Program


SECTION 1: LAX Airfield Familiarization

SECTION 2:
SECTION 3:

Airfield Signs, Surface Markings, and Lighting


Air Traffic Control Procedures, Instructions, and Radio Phraseology

Runway Incursions
The FAA defines a Runway Incursion as:
Any occurrence at an airport involving an aircraft, vehicle, person, or object on the ground that creates a collision hazard or results in loss of separation with an aircraft taking off or intending to takeoff, landing or intending to land.

Section 1 LAX Airfield Familiarization


Movement Areas consist of

runways, taxiways, taxilanes and other areas of an airport which are used for taxiing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft.

LAX Airfield Familiarization Runways


Rectangular-shaped, paved surfaces on an airport, designed for the landing or takeoff of airplanes.

Runway Designations
Based on a runways magnetic heading, using the 360 degree compass system Runways may be used in two opposite directions All runways have TWO runway designations

Runway Designations
The pictured runway is oriented in the north-south direction The pictured runway would be designated Runway 18/36

Runway Designations

What is the magnetic alignment of the pictured runway? What is the runway designation?

Runway Designations

What is the magnetic alignment of the pictured runway? What is the runway designation?

LAX Runway Layout


Parallel Runway Configuration
South Complex
Runway 25R/7L Runway 25L/7R

LAX Runway Layout


North Complex
Runway 24R/6L Runway 24L/6R

Taxiways A paved surface designed for the movement of aircraft from one part of the airport to another

Taxiways
Types of Taxiways
Parallel Taxiways North-South Taxiways Connector Taxiways Taxilanes

Bi-pass Taxiways

Taxiway Designation
Letters Letters and Numbers

LAX Taxiway Configuration


Five Parallel Taxiways

C B A

LAX Taxiway Configuration


Three North-South Taxiways

Q
AA

LAX Taxiway Configuration


Connector taxiways are used To Three Review, North-South LAX has Four Taxiways Runways Five Parallel Taxiways by aircraft to taxi from one movement area to another.

Taxilanes (Alleys/Alleyways)
A paved surface used for access between taxiways and Ramp (gate) areas

Taxilanes (Alleys/Alleyways)
Methodology of Taxilane Designations

D8 D9 D10 D7 C1

C5

C3 B1

C2 C10 C9 C8 A2 C6 C7 C4

A1

Ramp/Apron Areas
Ramp/Apron Areas consist of the following: Maintenance Areas Terminal Gates Cargo/Freight Parking Gates

Ramp/Apron Areas
Ramps and Aprons are non-movement areas Ramp/Apron areas are not controlled by FAA Air Traffic Control Ramps and Aprons are aircraft parking areas designed for the purpose of loading/unloading or servicing of aircraft

Ramp/Apron Areas
Gate areas of terminal buildings are an example of a Ramp/Apron Area
Wing Clearance Lines

Section 2

Runway Surface Markings And Lighting

Runway surface markings are white

Runway Surface Markings And Lighting


The runway centerline is a broken white stripe which indicates the center of the runway and provides alignment guidance for aircraft.

Runway Surface Markings And Lighting


The runway edge-line is an unbroken white stripe indicating the edges of the runway, and the edges of the full-strength pavement.

Runway Surface Markings And Lighting


Runway threshold markings identify the beginning of the runway which is available for landing.

Runway Lighting
Runway lighting is white in color
Runway edge-lights identify the sides of the runway

Runway lighting is white in color


Elevated edge-lights identify the runway edges during adverse visibility conditions

Runway Surface Markings And Lighting


Runway lighting is white in color
In-pavement Runway Centerline Lights identify the runway centerline during adverse visibility conditions

Runway Surface Markings And Lighting


Runway lighting is white in color
Touchdown Zone Lights indicate the first 3,000 feet of the runway, beginning at the threshold

Taxiway Surface Markings


ALL taxiway surface markings are yellow. Taxiway centerline markings indicate the center of the taxiway.

Taxiway Surface Markings


ALL taxiway surface markings are yellow.
Double yellow taxiway edge-lines indicate the edges of the taxiway as well as the edge of fullstrength pavement

Taxiway Surface Markings


ALL taxiway surface markings are yellow.
Taxiway Shoulder Markings consist of transverse stripes extending from the taxiway edge markings into paved areas which are not intended for aircraft use

Note: At LAX, paved areas which are unsuitable for aircraft may be painted green.

Taxiway Surface Markings


Hold Lines are located on taxiways which intersect runways

All aircraft and vehicles must hold short of the runway at the hold line.

Taxiway Surface Markings


Hold Lines are located at the intersection of a taxiway and a runway.

Aircraft/vehicles must hold on the solid side of the hold line.

Taxiway Lighting
Taxiway edge-lights are blue in color Taxiway edge lighting identifies the edge of a taxiway during periods of darkness or reduced visibility.

Taxiway Lighting

In-pavement Taxiway centerline lights are green in color

Taxiway Lighting
In-pavement taxiway centerline lights identify the taxiway centerline during periods of darkness or reduced visibility

Taxiway Lighting
Runway Guard Lights Two Types: Elevated and In-Pavement

Elevated Runway Guard Lights consist of two alternating, flashing yellow lights

Taxiway Lighting
Runway Guard Lights

In-pavement Runway Guard Lights consist of flashing yellow lights, which extend across the taxiway, parallel to the hold line

Taxiway Lighting
In-pavement Runway Guard Lights
Extend across hold line

Taxilane Surface Markings


Taxilanes have either solid white or yellow lead-in lines

Ramp/Apron Area Surface Markings


Wing-clearance lines are white or red.

Taxilane Surface Markings


Miscellaneous Taxiway markings

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings


Five types of airfield signage:
25L-7R A B

Mandatory Instruction Sign


Location Sign Direction Sign Checkpoint 3 MIL Information Sign Destination Sign

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings


Surface painted signs correspond to mounted signs

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings


It Is MANDATORY You Mandatory Instruction That Signs are Receive INSTRUCTIONS From usually co-located with Taxiway FAA Air Traffic Control, Location Signs Before

Passing ANY Mandatory Instruction Sign

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings


Mandatory Instruction Signs

Runway 7R-25L

Review of Runway 7R/25L Mandatory Signs

East End of West Midfield End Locations of Runway Runway

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings


Mandatory Instruction Signs Runway 7L-25R

Review of Runway 25R/7L Mandatory Signs

East End of West Midfield End Locations of Runway Runway

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings


Mandatory Instruction Signs Runway 6R-24L

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings


Instrument Landing System (ILS) Critical Area Mandatory Instruction Signs

LAWA Airfield Operations is Confronted with a escort is currently Sign Mandatory Instruction required ALL Aircraft MUSTfor conduct any operation in strict Surface Movement accordance with by Operations, conducted instructions from FAA Air non flight-crew personnel, Traffic Control which involve the crossing of runways at LAX

Any aircraft operator who

Failure to comply with these procedures may result in a Runway Incursion, aircraft collision and/or loss of airfield driving privileges

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings


Taxiway Location Signs have a black background with yellow inscriptions

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings


Taxiway Direction Signs have a yellow background with black inscriptions and arrows.

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings


Taxiway Location Signs are often co-located with Taxiway Direction Signs.

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings


Information signs have a yellow background with black inscriptions. This type of sign displays advisory information.

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings


Destination Signs have a yellow background with black inscriptions and arrows pointing in the general direction of a specific location on the airfield.

Airfield Signs and Surface Markings


Taxiway hold markings are located where two taxiways intersect.

Restricted/Closed Areas
Certain types of operations or aircraft may not use a Restricted Area. No aircraft operations may be conducted in a Closed Area.

Restricted/Closed Areas
Restricted/Closed Areas are marked with orange cones, delineators, and/or standing red lights placed along the perimeter of the area.

Restricted/Closed Areas
Aircraft inadvertently proceeding into a closed or restricted area may result in loss of life and substantial property damage.

Review of Taxiway/Runway Intersection Markings, Signs and Lighting

Air Traffic Control Procedures, Instructions, and Phraseology Transmitting on Aviation VHF Radio
1. Verify correct frequency
2. Briefly monitor to make sure frequency is clear 3. Check position of transmitter selector

Section 3

Section 3

Air Traffic Control Procedures, Instructions, and Phraseology

4. Communicate clearly and concisely:

Who you are


Aircraft type wing span Where you are on the airport What you are requesting, or intending to do How youre going to do it

Phraseology
Use correct aviation phraseology to transmit messages which are clear and concise Acknowledge
- Let me know that you have received my message
- Tell me what you plan to do

Advise Intentions Affirmative


- Yes

Phraseology
Confirm
- My version is is that correct?

Correction Go Ahead

- An error has been made in the transmission and the correct version follows

- Proceed with your message. Not to be used for any other purpose.

Hold

- Stop where you are

Hold Short Of - Proceed to, but stop


before reaching a specific point

Phraseology
Negative
- No, or Permission not granted, or That is not correct You are authorized to begin or continue moving Repeat my message back to me

Proceed -

Read Back -

Roger -

I have received all of your last transmission. (It should not be used to answer a question requiring a yes or no answer)

Phraseology
Say Again Used to request a repeat of the last transmission. Usually specifies transmission or portion

thereof not understood or received

Stand By -

Means the controller or pilot must pause for a few seconds, usually to attend to other duties of a higher priority. If the delay is lengthy, the caller should reestablish contact.

Phraseology
Taxi To Taxi to an airport location. This instruction is not a clearance to taxi on or across the referenced airport location.

Unable Verify -

Indicates inability to comply with a specific instruction, request or clearance Request confirmation of information, for example, Verify cleared to cross runway two five right.

Wilco -

I have received your message, understand it,and will comply with it

Phonetic Alphabet
A standardized aviation phonetic alphabet has been adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and is used by Air Traffic Controllers worldwide.

Phonetic Alphabet
A B C D E F G H I J K L M Alfa Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliett Kilo Lima Mike (AL-fah) (Brah-vo) (Char-lee) (Dell-tah) (Eck-oh) (Foks-trot) (Golf) (Hoh-tell) (In-dee-ah) (Jew-lee-ett) (Key-loh) (Lee-mah) (Mike) N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whiskey X-ray Yankee Zulu (No-vem-ber) (Oss-cah) (Pah-pah) (Keh-beck) (Row-me-oh) (See-air-ah) (Tang-oh) (You-nee-form) (Vik-tah) (Wiss-key) (Ecks-ray) (Yang-key) (Zoo-loo)

Crossing Runways
1. Initial call to Ground Control 2. When holding at specified taxi position, ground control instructs aircraft to contact Tower 3. Tower Control Instructions Hold short Cross both runways

Cross one, hold short of the other

LAX VHF Radio Frequencies


LAX Air Traffic Control VHF Radio Frequencies
Automatic Terminal Information Service Ground Control- North Complex Ground Control- South Complex Tower- North Complex Tower- South Complex Metering 133.80 121.65 121.75 133.90 120.95 120.35

LAX Airline Operated Ramp Tower VHF Radio Frequencies


Alaska Ramp Tower (Taxilane D-10) American Ramp Tower (Taxilane C-10) Delta Ramp Tower (Taxilanes C-8 and C-9) United Ramp Tower (Taxilane C-7) United Ramp Tower (Taxilane C-6) 130.85 129.32 131.45 129.40 129.50

LAX Standard Taxi Routes


North Route Route Ident NORTH Routing via Taxi via Charlie (C) towards taxiway Quebec (Q), taxi northbound on taxiway Quebec (Q), and at Check-point-1 contact Ground Control on frequency 121.65, hold short of taxiway Delta (D). When advised by the north Ground Control, the North Route continues on taxiway Echo (E) to Runway 24L or the gate, whichever applies.

South Route Route Ident SOUTH

Routing via If the aircraft is west of taxiway Sierra (S), taxi eastbound on taxiway Echo (E) and turn right on taxiway Sierra (S), if the aircraft is east of taxiway Sierra (S), taxi westbound on taxiway Delta (D) and turn left on taxiway Sierra (S). And at Check-point-2, contact Ground Control on frequency 121.75, hold short of taxiway Charlie (C). When advised by south Ground Control, the South Route continues on taxiway Bravo (B) to Runway 25R or the gate whichever applies.

West Route Route Ident WEST

Routing via Taxi via taxiway Charlie (C) westbound, hold short of taxiway Alpha Alpha (AA), contact Ground on frequency 121.65 when number one approaching taxiway Alpha Alpha (AA).

Bridge Route Route Ident BRIDGE

Routing via Taxi via taxiway Echo (E) then south on taxiway Alpha Alpha (A), hold short of taxiway Charlie (C) contact Ground on frequency 121.75 when number one approaching Charlie (C).

Proper Radio Procedures


Push back
1. Name of facility being contacted 2. Aircraft call sign 3. Aircraft position 4. Requested operation

Taxi
1. Advise ramp tower, if applicable, when ready to move forward 2. Contact ground control when ready to tow or taxi 3. Read back all hold short instructions

Preventing Runway Incursions


1. Review all pertinent information prior to conducting an aircraft surface movement operation 2. Use correct communication techniques 3. Maintain a sterile cockpit 4. If you are unsure of your position on the airfield, stop and ask for assistance 5. Continuously monitor the appropriate VHF frequency 6. If you are unsure of any issued instructions, ask for clarification 7. Report any deteriorating/confusing airfield signs, surface markings or lighting to LAX Airfield Operations, or FAA at an appropriate time.

Conclusion
Use Safe, Accepted Procedures

Follow Standard Guidelines


Forethought, Proper Planning And Application Of Established Procedures Lead To Safety

Review/Questions
Please forward questions, comments or other input to: Anthony Laughlin Superintendent of Operations Los Angeles International Airport (310) 646-4265 alaughlin@lawa.org