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Subphylum Myriapoda - One pair of antennae, typically uniramous - Head+elongated trunk (numerous segments) - mandible and maxillae - gas exchangesspiracles &tracheae (a) Class: Chilopoda (centipedes) - long, segmented, dorsoventrally flattened body - 1 segment one pair of legs - lst pair of thoracic appendages poison fangs (b) Class: Diplopoda (millipede) - long ,segmented, cylindrical body - each diplosegment 2 pairs of legs 4. Subphylum Hexapoda (insects) - 1 pair of antennae - uniramous appendages - Head+thorax+abdomen - 3 pairs of legs on thorax - 1 or 2 pairs of wings on thorax - mandibles &maxillae - gas exchange spiracles & tracheae - Order: Odennata (dragonflies, damselflies) - 2 pairs of membranous wings - long narrow abdomen - large eyes, chewing mouthparts - Order: Orthoptera ( grasshooper, crickets) - Hindlegs with enlarged femur - leathery forewings, membranous hindwings - chewing mouthparts - Order: Isoptera ( termites) - soft bodied, -chewing mouthparts -abdomen broadly joined to thorax - Order: Coleoptera (beetles, weevils) - Forewings hard covers, membranous hindwings - hard bodied, heavy, chewing mouthparts - Order: Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) - soft-bodied, wings, body with scales, proboscis - Order: Hemiptera( true bugs) - forewings with leathery basal &membranous distal , membranous hindwings - piercing and sucking mouthparts - Order: Diptera ( flies, mosquitoes) - membranous forewings - hindwings knob-like balancers (halteres) - Sucking or piercing mouthparts - Order: Hymenoptera ( ants, bees, wasps) - narrow waist ( last segment thorax &1st and/or 2nd segment of abdomen) - mouthparts cutting, chewing, sucking Phylum: Onychophora ( velvet worms) - soft bodied, each trunk segment with a pair of appendages with chitinous claws, chitin cuticle

Phylum: Echinoderms ( Starfish, sea urchin) - Pentaradial symmetry - larvaebilateral symmetry, ciliated, free swimming - endoskeleton or test of calcareous ossicles often bearing spines ( covered by a thin ciliated epidermis) - No head, brain, triploblastic, coelomate, - pedicellariae, water vascular system - separate sexes, all marine 1. Class Asteroidea ( sea stars) - star shaped, with arms not sharply dermacated from central disc - mouth on lower surface, anus on upper surface - pedicellariae present - carnivores, asexual reproduction via lost arms 2. Class Crinoidea ( feather stars, sea lilies) - Arms feather like/ pinnate - Mouth & anus on the same side ( upwards) - Ambulacaral grooves run all the way into pinnules - suspension feeder 3. Class Ophiuroidea ( brittle stars/ basket stars) - long arms sharply demarcated from central disc - Ambulacaral grooves absent, tube feet without suckers, pedicellariae absent 4. Class Echinoidea ( sea urchins, sand dollars) - Body globular or discoid, flattened along oralaboral axis. Lacking arms - Rigid test, pedicellariae present - mouth on lower surface, anus on upper surface 5. Class Holothuroidea ( sea cucumber) - cylindrical body shape - lack arms, 2nd bilateral symmetry - oral tentacles, ossicles, mouth & anus on opp. end Phylum: Chordata - 4 characteristics, Endostyle,, ventral heart, segmented muscles, cartilage or bony skeleton 1. Subphylum Urochordata( Tunicata) - Tunicates- tunic or test covering body - Adults sessile filter feeder, larvae- mobile, have chordate feature (a) Class: Ascidiacea ( sea squirts) - Tunic envelope body leathery (b) Class: Larvacea - adult retains larval feature paedomorphosis - planktonic 2. Subphylum Cephalochordata - small, fish-shaped animals, lack int. skeleton, filter feeder 3. Subphylum Vertebrata - cranium pronounced cephalisation, bony or cartilaginous endoskeleton - pairs of bony or cartilaginous gills arches may become jaws or other bones (a) Class: Myxini ( hagfishes) - round, sucker mouths, no paired fins, cartilagious - has notochord, no vertebral column (b) Class: Cephalospidomorphi ( lampreys) - notochord form neural arches

(c) Class: Chondrichthyes ( cartilaginous fishes) - cartilage skeleton, heterocecal tails, rough plecoid scales, no operculum, lack swim bladder - Subclass: Elasmobranchii ( Sharks, rays, dogfish): no operculum - Sub-class: Holocephali ( chimaera or rat fish): operculum & placoid scales on claspers only (d) Class: Actinistia & Dipnoi ( lungfish & coelacanth- fleshy fins) - bone skeleton, operculum present, dermal scales (e) Class: Actinopterygii - ray fins, lack central bony support (f) Class: Amphibia ( double life) - Thin, moist highly vascularized skin gas exchange - 2 pairs of pentadatyl limbs from limbs - Order: Anura ( frogs & toads): tails absent in adults, larva with gills covered by skin flap. Larva adult due to metamorphosis - Order: Urodela ( Newts & Salamanders): tails in adults, larva with visible gills, adult=larvae - Order: Apoda (caecilians): no legs, larvae with ext. gills, many have scales on skin (g) Class: Reptilia ( crawlers) - skin thickened by keratinepidermal scales - heart almost 4 chambered, lungs - Order: Testidines ( tortoise, terrapins, turtle) subclass: Diapsida - Order: Squamata sub-order: lactertilia (lizards), ophidian (snakes) superclass: lepidosauria - Order: Crocodilia ( Crocodiles, alligators) (h) Class: Aves ( birds): feathers, legs have scales, hollow, reduced, loss of bones, pentadactyl limbs, 4 chambered heart ( + crocodilia = Archosauria) (j) Class: Mammalia - (fossils): ear ossicles- 3 bones, lower jaws- 1 bone - Pentadactyl limbs, heterodont dentition, mammary galnds, 4 chambered heart Sub-Class: Protheria Order: monotremata (Monotremes) - spiny anteaters, duck-billed platypus - limbs in lateral position, Common clocera Sub-Class: Metatheria Order: marsupialia (Marsupials) - females have marsupium - Add. Bones in pelvic girdle t osupport marsupium - single set of teeth & more teeth Sub-Class: Eutheria - Marsupium &epipubic bones absent - young nourish by placenta, cloaca absent - Order : Chiroptera ( Bats) & Dermoptera ( Colugos) - Order: Monotremata, Dasyuromorphla, Pilosa, Cingulata, Pholidota, Tubulidentata ( ant eater anteater) : long ,slender snort, long sticky tongue, teeth reduced or absent

- Order: Primates: large brain, eyes & ears well developed, snort reduced, shortening of face & tooth row, Brain case larger & rounded -Sub-order: Strepsirrhini ( curly-nosed) - Sub-order: Haplorrhini ( dry-nosed) - Order: Carnivora ( Dogs, Cats, Bears, Weasels): carnassials, large brain, tendency for shortened tooth row, snort, olfactory sense& nose well developed, large and powerful jaws - Order: Perissodactyla ( odd-toed ungulates) - Odd digits, - Families Equidae ( horses, asses, zebras), Tapiridae ( tapirs), Rhinocerotidae ( rhino) - Order: Artiodactyla ( even- toed ungulates) - Even digits - Familiessuidae ( pigs),cervidae (deer), Hippopotamide, camelidae, Tragulidae ( mousedeer), Giraffidae, Antilocapridae (prongbucks), Bovidae ( antelope, cattle, sheep, goat) - Order: Cetacea ( dolphins, whales) - Suborder: Odontoceti ( Toothed whales) - Homodont dentition - single blowhole dorso-anteriorly ( 1 nostril dominant; baleen whales have 2) - asymmetric skulls - Suborder: Mysteceti ( Baleen whales) - thick layer of blubber - tails and dorsal fins without skeletal support. - Only the fore flippers have skeletal support - smooth body surface without hair

1) Worm - sea cucumber -worms - snakelarvae??? 1.1) If worm, - segmentation - parapodia,seta - clitellum -appendage 2) Shells - Bivalves - Gastopoda - Barnacles - hermit crabs 3) Slug-like -Flatworms - Gastropoda 4) Tentacles-like - Echinoderms - Cnidarians - sea cucumber - Cephalopoda 4.1) If star - dermacation - no of arms - ampu. groove 5) Bones -temporal fossa - ear ossicles - jaw - teeth 5) Fish -Cephalochordata - or just fish 5) Coral-Like - Porifera
- Cnidarians - Urodota

Phylum: Porifera ( Sponges) - asymmetrical, multicellular - choanocytes- create current, trap, phagocyte food By - Freshwater and marine - no true tissue: cells are loosely associated - 3 canal systems > simple ascoid > syncoid > leucoid - Skeletal system > calcerous > siliaceous spicules ( or combi of cal and sili) > sponging fibres - Filter feeding - Asexual (budding) and sexual (hermaphrodites) - Motile flagellate larvae and mostly sessile adults - Able to repair and regenerate Phylum: Cnidarian (jellyfish, corals, anaemones ) - Cnidocytes ( cells with nematocysts) - Radial symmetry - one opening for ingestion and excretion - rings of tentacles around mouth with cnidocytes - medusa and polyp stage - hydrostatic skeleton - Diploblastic (epi/gastrodermis) 1. Class Hydrozoa (Portuguese Man-of-war) - Polyp stage dominant and medusa present - small medusa lacking oral arms - Freshwater and marine - Stinging cells on epidermis only - Acellular mesoglea - able to bud and grow hydra - No pharnyx 2. Class Scyphozoa ( jellyfish) - Medusa stage present, polyp stage lost - Large medusa with oral arms - Freshwater and Marine - Mesoglea contains cells migrated from epidermis 3. Class Anthozoa ( Sea anemons and corals) - Polyp stage dominant and medusa stage lost - Mainly marine - Stinging cells on gastrodermis and epidermis - mesoglea with cells migrated from epidermis - Has pharynx and mesentries (a) Sub-class: Alcyonaria ( sea pens, sea fans, soft corals) - 8 pinnate tentacles + 8 mensentries ( x8) - octocorallia (b) Sub-class: Zoantheria ( sea anemones &stony corals) - < 8 pinnate tentacles + < 8 mensentries ( x6) - hexacorallia 4. Class Cubozoa ( box jellyfish) - Medusa prominent form - Square shape in dorsal view - Tropical subtropical water - Venomous

Phylum: Ctenophora (comb jellies) - has 8 rows of cilia on body outer surface - biradially symmetrical - similar to cnidarian ( difference below) - no stinging nematocysts ( have adhesive cells) - a mouth and 2 anal pores Phylum: Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) - Dorsoventrally flattened - Bilateral symmetry - Triploblastic, Acoelamate - Cephalisation, one opening, no anus - Protonephridial system 1. Class Tubellaria ( Free living flatworms) - ciliated epidermis - Marine, freshwater, terrestrial - carnivorous with pharynx, non-parasitic - Hermaphrodite, reproduces sexually and asexually 2. Class Trematoda +Monegenea (flukes) - Has suckers and hookers - Thick, non-cilliated outer layer (= teguments) - Endoparasites ( Trematoda) & ectoparasites ( Monogeneas) - Diseases like lung fluke diseases, Schistosomasis 3. Class Cestoda (tapeworm) - scolex ( head with hooks) and proglottid ( chains of segments) - lack of mouth and gut absorb nutrients across body wall - endoparasites in vertebrate guts Phylum: Annelida ( segmented worms) - Cylindrical, tubular, segmented body - Metamerism - Bilateral symmetry - Triploblastic, coelomate hydrostatic skeleton - 2 openings - ventral nerve cord 1. Class Polychaeta ( Marine worms) - Parapodia with several setae - lack clitellum - pronounced cephalization - Marine worms - separate sexes 2. Class Oligochaeta ( Earthworms) - Lack parapodia - clitellum - Few short setae per segment - Lack well-developed head - Hermaphrodites - Divide body into > 100 segments by septae 3. Class Hirudinea (leeches) - Lack parapodia, setae - Possess clitellum - Hirudin anti- coagulant - Have suckers on both ends - 34 segments

Phylum: Mollusca ( soft body) - soft bodied with dorsal visceral mass containing internal organs - Muscular ventral foot for locomotion - Mantle, Mantle cavity, Calcareous shell, Radula - Bilateral, triploblastic , open circulatory system - ciliated trochophore larvae, veliger larvae 1. Class polyplacophora ( chiton) - shell has 8 large, overlapping dorsal plates - broad flat foot, reduced cephalization - Herbivorous marine animals 2. Class Gastropoda (snails) - Increased cephalization - spiraling of shell - Torsion: twisting of mantle cavity & visceral mass (a) Opisthobranch - 1 or 2 gills, operculum present (b) Pulmonate - 1 gill, detorsion, loss or reduction of shell and mantle cavity, (c) Prosoobranch - lung, operculum absent, , loss or reduction of shell and mantle cavity 3. Class Bivalvia ( clams, mussels) - laterally compressed body with 2 lateral valves hinged dorsally - lack cephalization - large expanded mantle cavity and gills - no radula siphon - burrow in mud or attached to substratum by byssus thread - Mainly filter feeder mucus on the gills 4. Class Cephalopoda( octopus, cuttlefish, squids) - Head with tentacles with suckers - shell lost or reduced - large, well developed eyes - Elongation of body along dorsal ventral axis in squids/ cuttlefish - predator, closed circulatory system - siphon for jet propulsion; ink, camouflage for defense Phylum: Nematoda ( roundworms) - Cylindrical, unsegmented - Body with thick, flexible cuticle - tapered ends - All moist habitats - Bilateral symmetry - Triploblastic, pseudocoelomate - Body wall with longitudinal muscles only - 2 openings Phylum: Tardigrada ( water bears) - Unsegmented, elongate body - 4 pairs of legs - Non-chitinous cuticle, molt~4 times - mostly terrestrial, on water films - separate sexes. Gaseous exchange by diffusion

Phylum: Arthropoda - Paired, joined appendages - chitinous exoskeleton - segmentation- tagmatisation - Antennae, compound eyes - Metamorphosisholo- and hemi-metabolous - Bilateral symmetry, triploblastic, coelmate - open circulatory system - Haemocoelhydrostatic skeleton - Tracheae, gills, book lungs - antennae, compound eyes 1. Subphylum Chelicerata - lack antennae & mandible - 4 to 5 pairs of walking legs - cephalothorax+ abdomen - Has cheliceraepincer-like form & pedipalps (a) Class: Merostoma ( horsecrabs) - exoskeleton covering cephalothorax - 5 pairs of walking legs, 1st pair=pedipalps - spine-like telsion - Gnathobases- chewing small invertebrates - Book gills (b) Class: Arachnida ( spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites) - 4 pairs of walking legs +chelicerae+pedipalps ( 6) - Trachae or book lungs - Malpighian tubules - Mostly terrestrial - Order: Aranae ( spider): chelicerae modified into fangs (injects venom)+ spinnerets - Order: Scorpiones ( scorpions): Greatly enlarged pedipalps to form pincers+ segmented abdomen with terminal sting - Order: Acari ( Mites & ticks): Fusion of abdomen with cephalothorax 2. Subphylum Crustacea - 2 pairs of antennae - Appendages biramous - head+thorax+abdomen (mostly) - Mandibles and maxillae (a) Class: Malacostrata ( crabs, prawn, lobsters, woodlice) - head (5 )+thorax (8)+abdomen (6) or cephalothorax - Order: Stomatopoda ( Mantis & smaller shrimps): large, broad abdomen +2nd pair of thoracic appendages for spearing prey - Order: Decapoda ( crabs, prawns, lobsters): 1st 3 pairs appendages: maxillipeds + 5 pairs: locomotion (b) Class:Cirripedia (barnacles) - sessile, carapace covered with calcareous plates - thoracic legs modified to suspension feeding cirri - filter feeder