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This chapter documents the automatic wind lateral static load cases that

can be generated. Automatic wind loads can be generated in any arbi-

trary horizontal direction for the following codes:

1997 UBC

1996 BOCA

BS 6399-95

1995 NBCC

2005 NBCC

ASCE 7-88

ASCE 7-95

ASCE 7-02

Automated Capabilities

2002 Chinese

The automatic wind static load cases are defined using the Define menu

> Load Cases command. This command brings up the Define Loads

form. In this form you specify a name for a load case, a type, a self-

weight multiplier and in some an Auto Lateral Load.

When you specify the type for a load as Wind, the Auto Lateral Load

box becomes active and you can choose from any of the codes mentioned

above. If you do not want the Wind load to be an automatic lateral load

then select None in the Auto Lateral Load box.

If you select a code in the Auto Lateral Load box, then when you click

the Add New Load or Modify Load buttons this load case is added to

the list with default settings for the particular code selected. If you want

to review or modify the parameters for an automatic lateral load, then

highlight the load in the list and click the Modify Lateral Load button.

Each automatic static lateral load that you define must be in a separate

load case. You cannot have two automatic static lateral loads in the same

load case. You can, however, add additional user-defined loads to a load

case that includes an automatic static lateral load. You must define a

separate automatic static load case for each direction of wind load.

Note that the actual forces associated with an automatic static lateral load

are not calculated until you run the analysis. Thus, you cannot view the

resultant automatic lateral loads until after you have run an analysis.

The forms defining the automatic wind loads are broken into four differ-

ent data sections, some of which are dependent upon the exposure se-

lected.

Chapter 3 - Automatic Wind Load Cases

The first area allows you to define the exposure, selecting loading based

on either rigid diaphragms or area objects. The second area is for defin-

ing the wind exposure parameters, while the third area defines the expo-

sure height. The fourth area is for specifying the wind coefficients. The

data in the first three sections is common to all of the codes and is de-

scribed below. The data in the wind coefficients area is code-dependent

and is described separately for each code later in this chapter.

You can also input user-defined wind loads. The format for this is de-

scribed at the end of this chapter.

Exposure

The automatically calculated wind loads may be determined by exposure

either to rigid diaphragms or to area objects (i.e., exterior cladding, walls

and/or roofs).

eral load is created for each rigid diaphragm present at a story level. The

wind loads calculated at any story level are based on the story level ele-

vation, the story height above and below that level, the assumed expo-

sure width for the rigid diaphragm(s) at the story level and various code-

dependent wind coefficients.

If you have a model where you are using area objects to model the actual

in-plane stiffness of the diaphragm and you want to create automatic

wind loads using the diaphragm option, you will need to define one or

more dummy rigid diaphragms at each story level. You can assign a

dummy rigid diaphragm to just one point object at a story level. The

point object that is assigned a dummy rigid diaphragm becomes a loca-

tion where the wind load is applied. However, a rigid diaphragm consist-

ing of a single point object will have a zero exposure width, so you will

need to input a user defined exposure width for the dummy diaphragm if

you want a non-zero wind load to be generated (use the Modify/Show

Exposure Widths button on the Wind Loading form).

each area object that has been assigned a Cp using the Assign > Area

Loads > Wind Pressure Coefficients command. The wind load case

Automated Capabilities

must be defined prior to assigning the Cp values to the area objects. The

wind loads calculated at an area object are based on the elevation of the

object, the dimensions of the object, and various code-dependent wind

coefficients.

Unlike the rigid diaphragm exposure option that generates only lateral

wind loads, the exposure from area objects option will generate wind

loads normal to any area object, regardless of its orientation. Thus, this

option may be used to generate vertical as well as lateral loads.

The wind exposure parameters are available only when calculating

lateral wind loads using the exposure from extents of rigid diaphragms

option. These input values are not available when using the exposure

from area objects method as the wind coefficients are assigned directly to

the area objects using the Assign > Area Loads > Wind Pressure Coef-

ficients command.

When specifying the wind direction you indicate the direction of the

wind by an angle measured in degrees. An angle of 0 degrees means the

wind is blowing in the positive global X-direction, that is is it blowing

from the negative global X-direction to the positive global X-direction.

An angle of 90 degrees means the wind is blowing in the positive global

Y-direction. An angle of 180 degrees means the wind is blowing in the

negative global X-direction. An angle of 270 degrees means the wind is

blowing in the negative global Y-direction.

You can input any angle for the wind direction. The angle is always

measured counterclockwise from the positive global X-axis. A positive

angle appears counterclockwise as you look down on the model in the

negative global Z-direction.

The windward coefficient, Cq, and the leeward coefficient, Cq, are used

in calculating the wind pressures on the windward and leeward sides of

the rigid diaphragms, respectively. The windward side of a rigid

diaphragm is the side exposed to the wind, while the opposite side is the

leeward side.

Chapter 3 - Automatic Wind Load Cases

modify the exposure widths calculated by the programs for each rigid

diaphragm. By default, the wind exposure width for a rigid diaphragm is

equal to calculated width of the diaphragm in a direction perpendicular to

the direction of the wind load.

tion of the wind loading is calculated using the following three-step

process.

are part of the rigid diaphragm constraint into a system

of coordinates that is parallel and perpendicular to the

specified direction of wind loading.

minimum coordinates perpendicular to the direction of

the wind load. For example, if the wind load is in the

global X direction then you want to find the point ob-

jects with the maximum and minimum global Y coordi-

nates.

maximum perpendicular coordinate to obtain the dia-

phragm width perpendicular to the wind load.

By default, the point where the wind load is applied to a rigid diaphragm

is the calculated geometric center of the diaphragm. You can modify the

assumed wind load application point and the default exposure width on

the Wind Exposure Width Data form viewable after clicking the

Modify/Show Exposure Widths button.

The top story/maximum elevation and a bottom story/minimum elevation

input values specify the elevation range over which the structure is ex-

posed to wind.

assumed exposed to wind loading for the purposes of calculating the

Automated Capabilities

automatic wind load. In most instances the top story should be the up-

permost story level/elevation in the building and this is the default value.

model, it may be more convenient to indicate that the top story level for

automatic wind loading is the main roof level. You can then add user-

defined loads to the load case to account for the wind loads acting on the

penthouse.

The bottom story/minimum global Z indicates the lowest story level that

is exposed to wind loading. It is assumed that all stories above the bot-

tom story are loaded by the wind.

By default the bottom story is assumed to be the base level of the struc-

ture. In some cases you may want to specify that a higher level is the

bottom story for wind loading. One example of this might be if your

Exposure width for Exposure width for Exposure width for

2nd level diaphragm 2nd level diaphragm 2nd level diaphragm

parapet height

parapet height

parapet height

width for width for width for

Roof level Roof level Roof level

Specified

Specified

Specified

h2/2

h2 h2 h2

2nd 2nd h2/2 2nd

h1/2

Z h1 Z h1 Z h1

a) Building Elevation b) Wind Loading at Roof Level c) Wind Loading at 2nd Level

building has several below-grade levels that should not receive any wind

loading.

Figure 3-1 gives a representation of how loads are distributed to the rigid

diaphragms when using the exposure from extents of rigid diaphragms

method. Figure 3-1a shows an elevation of a two-story building with

rigid diaphragms at each story level. Assume wind load is to be auto-

Chapter 3 - 1997 UBC Wind Loads

matically calculated for the Y-direction. Thus, the wind load is acting on

the face of the building shown in the elevation.

The shaded area in Figure 3-1b illustrates the extent of the wind load that

is applied to the roof level diaphragm. The shaded area in Figure 3-1c il-

lustrates the extent of the wind load that is applied to the 2nd level dia-

phragm.

When using the exposure from area objects method, the exposure heights

allows the programs to determine how much of each area object is ex-

posed to wind.

Input Wind Coefficients

{ XE "codes, building:1997 UBC" }{ XE "automatic wind loads:1997

UBC" }Three wind coefficients are input for 1997 UBC wind loads.

They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph), the exposure type

and the wind importance factor, Iw.

The basic wind speed is described in 1997 UBC Sections 1616 and 1618.

A typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 70 to 130 mph.

The exposure types are described in 1997 UBC Sections 1616 and 1619.

The exposure type can be B, C or D. No other values are allowed.

The wind importance factor can be found in 1997 UBC Table 16-K. You

should input the wind importance factor, Iw, not one of the seismic im-

portance factors, I or Ip. A typical range of values for Iw is 1.00 to 1.15.

Automatic wind loads for the 1997 UBC are based on Sections 1616

through 1621 of the 1997 UBC.

Automated Capabilities

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from extents of rigid

diaphragms method are based on a modified version of the Method 2

(Projected Area Method) as described in Section 1621.3 of the 1997

UBC. Horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area as

described in Section 1621.3. The programs have two modifications to

the requirements of Section 1621.3. The first modification is that the

programs do not automatically apply vertical wind loads over the pro-

jected horizontal area. If you want to include these vertical wind loads in

the same load case then you must manually include them yourself.

The other modification is that the programs apply the method to struc-

tures of any height. It does not limit it to structures less than 200 feet

high as discussed in 1997 UBC Section 1621.3.

The shape of the vertical projected area is determined based on the story

heights and the input exposure widths for each rigid diaphragm. Equa-

tion 3-1 is used to determine the wind pressure, P, at any point on the

surface of the vertical projected area.

where,

of 33 feet as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-F.

user.

factor coefficient at the height of interest as

given in 1997 UBC Table 16-G.

user.

factor coefficient, evaluated at the specified top

story level, as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-G.

Chapter 3 - 1997 UBC Wind Loads

The Ce coefficient is determined from 1997 UBC Table 16-G using the

input exposure type and the elevation from the input bottom story. Lin-

ear interpolation is used to determine the value of the Ce coefficient at

heights above 15 feet that are not listed in 1997 UBC Table 16-G.

where,

feet, psf.

Note the units that are specified for qs and V. Also note that Equation 3-

2 is consistent with 1997 UBC Table 16-F.

projected area to each rigid diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown

in Figure 3-1.

Automatic wind loads for the 1997 UBC are based on Sections 1616

through 1621 of the 1997 UBC.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects

method are based on Method 1 (Normal Force Method) as described in

Section 1621.2 of the 1997 UBC. Wind loads are applied on the vertical

and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in

Section 1621.2.

the surface of the area objects.

P = Ce Cp qs Iw Eqn. 3-3

where,

Automated Capabilities

cient as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-G. This value

is evaluated at the height of interest for windward ex-

posures, and at the top story level for leeward objects.

the area object by the user.

feet as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-F.

The value for qs is the same as described in the previous section titled

“Exposure from Extents of Rigid Diaphragms.”

The programs distribute the pressures, P, on the surface of each area ob-

ject, which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area ob-

jects.

Input Wind Coefficients

{ XE "codes, building:1996 BOCA" }{ XE "automatic wind loads:1996

BOCA" }Four wind coefficients are input for 1996 BOCA wind loads.

They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph), the exposure

category and the wind importance factor, I, and the gust response factor,

Gh.

typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 70 to 130 mph.

The exposure category can be A, B, C or D. No other values are al-

lowed.

1609.5. A typical range of values for I is 0.90 to 1.23.

Chapter 3 - 1996 BOCA Wind Loads

The gust response factor, Gh, is discussed in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.7

and in Table 1609.7(5). You can either specify that the gust response

factor is to be calculated based on the height (distance) of the specified

top story above the specified bottom story and the exposure category per

the code using Table 1609.7(5) or you can input your own value. Note

that in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.7 the following statement is made

about Gh.

have a height to least horizontal dimension ratio

greater than 5 or a fundamental frequency less

than one cycle per second (period greater than 1

second) shall be calculated by an approved ra-

tional analysis that incorporates the dynamic

properties of the main wind force-resisting sys-

tem.

When you select the Per Code option for the gust response factor, the

programs do not check the height to least horizontal dimension ratio or

the building period and it does not determine the gust factor using an ap-

proved rational analysis incorporating the dynamic properties of the main

wind force-resisting system. It is assumed that you will do this yourself,

if necessary, and provide a user-defined value for Gh. A typical range of

values for Gh is 1.00 to 2.36.

Automatic wind loads for the 1996 BOCA are based on Section 1609 of

the 1996 BOCA.

The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in 1996

BOCA Section 1609.7. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads

are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined

from the story heights and the input rigid diaphragm exposure widths.

The programs do not automatically apply vertical wind loads over the

projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. If you want to include these

Automated Capabilities

vertical wind loads in the same load case then you must manually include

them yourself.

the surface of the vertical projected area.

where,

Table 1609.7(3).

height of interest as given in 1996 BOCA Table

1609.7(4).

BOCA Table 1609.7(5) or user specified.

user.

ated at the specified top story level, as given in

1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4).

user.

where,

Note the units specified for Pv and V. Equation 3-5 is consistent with

1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(3).

Chapter 3 - 1996 BOCA Wind Loads

ing the input exposure category and the input bottom story. For use in

1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4) the input bottom story/minimum elevation

is assumed to be ground level. The programs use linear interpolation to

determine the value of the Kz coefficient at heights above 15 feet that are

not listed in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4).

For discussion of the gust response factor, Gh, refer to the previous sec-

tion titled "Input Wind Coefficients for 1996 BOCA."

ing the input exposure category and the height of the input top story

above the input bottom story. Linear interpolation is used to determine

the value of the Kh coefficient at heights above 15 feet that are not listed

in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4).

projected area to each rigid diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown

in Figure 3-1.

Automatic wind loads for the 1996 BOCA are based on Section 1609 of

the 1996 BOCA.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects

method are as described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.7. Wind loads are

applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area

objects as described in Section 1609.7.

pressure, P, at any point on the surface of the area objects.

or

where,

Automated Capabilities

Table 1609.7(3).

height of interest as given in 1996 BOCA Table

1609.7(4).

BOCA Table 1609.7(5) or user specified.

area object by the user.

ated at the specified top story level, as given in

1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4).

area object by the user.

The values for Pv, Kz, and Kh are the same as described in the previous

section titled “Exposure from Extents of Rigid Diaphragms.”

The programs distribute the pressures, P, on the surface of each area ob-

ject, which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area ob-

jects

Input Wind Coefficients

{ XE "codes, building:1996 BOCA" }{ XE "automatic wind loads:1996

BOCA" }Three wind coefficients are input for 1995 BS 6399 wind loads.

They are the effective wind speed in meters per second (m/s), the size ef-

fect factor and the dynamic augmentation factor.

2.2.3.

Chapter 3 - 1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads

The size effect factor for external pressures, Ca, is described in 1995 BS

6399 Section 2.1.3.4. A typical range of values for Ca is 0.52 to 1.00.

tion 1.6.1. A typical range of values for Cr is 0 to 0.25.

Note that in 1995 BS 6399 Section 1.6.2 the following statement is made

about Cr:

value of dynamic augmentation factor exceeds

the limits shown in figure 3. Buildings falling

outside these limits should be assessed using es-

tablished dynamic methods.

dynamic and the methodology for establishing wind loads described

herein is not applicable. However, the program allows the user to input

any value, and performs no check to ensure that Cr is less than 0.25.

Automatic wind loads for the 1995 BS 6399 are based on 1995 BS 6399

Section 2.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from extents of rigid

diaphragms method are based on a modified version of the Standard

method as described in Section 2.1 of the 1995 BS 6399. Horizontal

wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area as described in Sec-

tion 2. The programs have two modifications to the requirements of Sec-

tion 2. The first modification is that the programs do not automatically

apply vertical wind loads over the projected horizontal area. If you want

to include these vertical wind loads in the same load case then you must

manually include them yourself.

The other modification is that the programs apply the method to struc-

tures of any height. It does not limit it to structures less than 100 meters

high as discussed in 1995 BS Section 1.8.1.

Automated Capabilities

The shape of the vertical projected area is determined based on the story

heights and the input exposure widths for each rigid diaphragm. Equa-

tion 3-7 is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point on the

surface of the vertical projected area.

where,

ble 2.

side as input by the user.

as input by the user.

user.

Note that the factor 0.85 accounts for the non-simultaneous action be-

tween the front and rear faces.

where,

Note the units that are specified for qs and Ve. Also note that Equation 3-

8 is consistent with 1995 BS 6399 Table 2.

projected area to each rigid diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown

in Figure 3-1.

Chapter 3 - 1995 NBCC Wind Loads

Automatic wind loads for the 1995 BS 6399 are based on Section 2.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects

method are based on a modified version of the Standard method as de-

scribed in Section 2.1 of the 1995 BS 6399. Wind loads are applied on

the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as

described in Section 2.

the surface of the area objects.

where,

coefficient assigned to the area object by the user.

Note that the factor 0.85 accounts for the non-simultaneous action be-

tween the front and rear faces.

The value for qs is the same as described in the previous section titled

“Exposure from Extents of Rigid Diaphragms.”

The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of each area ob-

ject, which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area ob-

jects.

Input Wind Coefficients

{ XE "codes, building:1995 NBCC (Canada)" }{ XE "automatic wind

loads:1995 NBCC (Canadian)" }Two wind coefficients are input for

Automated Capabilities

1995 NBCC wind loads. They are the velocity pressure, q, in kPa and

the gust effect factor, Cg.

A typical range of values for the velocity pressure is 0.20 to 0.90 kPa.

Any positive value or zero is allowed.

4.1.8.1(6). The default value is 2.0. Any positive value is allowed.

Automatic wind loads for the 1995 NBCC are based on Section 4.1.8.1

of the 1995 NBCC.

Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical

projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and

the input rigid diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not auto-

matically apply vertical wind loads over the projected horizontal area of

roof surfaces. If you want to include these vertical wind loads in the load

case then you must manually include them yourself.

the surface of the vertical projected area.

where,

wall as input by the user.

wall as input by the user.

Chapter 3 - 1995 NBCC Wind Loads

15

⎛h⎞

C e− windward = ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0.9 Eqn. 3-11

⎝ 10 ⎠

where,

to the elevation considered, meters.

15

⎛h ⎞

C e−leeward = ⎜ middle ⎟ ≥ 0.9 Eqn. 3-12

⎝ 10 ⎠

where,

story/minimum level to the input top

story/maximum level, meters.

area to each rigid diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure

3-1.

Automatic wind loads for the 1995 NBCC are based on Section 4.1.8.1

of the 1995 NBCC.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects

method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user se-

lected area objects as described in 1995 NBCC Section 4.1.8.1.

the surface of the area objects.

p = q Ce Cg Cp Eqn. 3-13

where,

Automated Capabilities

Ce = Exposure factor.

cient assigned to the area object by the user.

15

⎛h⎞

C e− windward = ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0.9 Eqn. 3-14

⎝ 10 ⎠

where,

to the elevation considered, meters.

15

⎛h ⎞

C e−leeward = ⎜ middle ⎟ ≥ 0.9 Eqn. 3-15

⎝ 10 ⎠

where,

story/minimum level to the input top

story/maximum level, meters.

The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of each area ob-

ject, which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area ob-

jects.

Input Wind Coefficients

{ XE "codes, building:1995 NBCC (Canada)" }{ XE "automatic wind

loads:1995 NBCC (Canadian)" }Three wind coefficients are input for

Chapter 3 - 2005 NBCC Wind Loads

2005 NBCC wind loads. They are the velocity pressure, q, in kPa, the

gust effect factor, Cg, and the importance factor, I.

A typical range of values for the velocity pressure is 0.27 to 1.23 kPa.

Any positive value or zero is allowed.

4.1.7.1(6). The default value is 2.0. Any positive value is allowed.

typical range of values for I is 0.8 to 1.25.

Automatic wind loads for the 2005 NBCC are based on Section 4.1.7.1

of the 2005 NBCC.

Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical

projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and

the input rigid diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not auto-

matically apply vertical wind loads over the projected horizontal area of

roof surfaces. If you want to include these vertical wind loads in the load

case then you must manually include them yourself.

the surface of the vertical projected area.

where,

wall as input by the user.

Automated Capabilities

wall as input by the user.

0.2

⎛h⎞

C e − windward = ⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0.9 Eqn. 3-17

⎝ 10 ⎠

where,

to the elevation considered, meters.

0.2

⎛h ⎞

C e −leeward = ⎜ middle ⎟ ≥ 0.9 Eqn. 3-18

⎝ 10 ⎠

where,

story/minimum level to the input top

story/maximum level, meters.

area to each rigid diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure

3-1.

Automatic wind loads for the 2005 NBCC are based on Section 4.1.7.1

of the 2005 NBCC.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects

method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user se-

lected area objects as described in 2005 NBCC Section 4.1.7.1.

Chapter 3 - 2005 NBCC Wind Loads

the surface of the area objects.

p = I q Ce Cg Cp Eqn. 3-19

where,

Ce = Exposure factor.

cient assigned to the area object by the user.

0.2

⎛h⎞

C e − windward =⎜ ⎟ ≥ 0.9 Eqn. 3-20

⎝ 10 ⎠

where,

to the elevation considered, meters.

0.2

⎛h ⎞

C e −leeward = ⎜ middle ⎟ ≥ 0.9 Eqn. 3-21

⎝ 10 ⎠

where,

story/minimum level to the input top

story/maximum level, meters.

The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of each area ob-

ject, which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area ob-

jects.

Automated Capabilities

Input Wind Coefficients

{ XE "codes, building:ASCE 7-95" }{ XE "automatic wind loads:ASCE

7-95" }Five wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-95 wind loads. They

are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph), the exposure category,

the wind importance factor, I, the topographic factor, Kzt, and the gust

factor G.

The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.5.2. A typi-

cal range of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph.

The exposure categories are described in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.5.3. The

exposure category can be A, B, C or D. No other values are allowed.

Note that the building and structure classification categories in are de-

fined in ASCE 7-95 Table 1-1. A typical range of values for I is 0.87 to

1.15.

The topographic factor Kzt is discussed in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.5.5. The

default value for Kzt is 1.0. Kzt can not be less than 1.0.

typical range of values for G is 0.80 to 0.85.

Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-95 are based on Sections 6.4

through 6.6 of ASCE 7-95.

ASCE 7-95 Sections 6.4 through 6.6. Windward and leeward horizontal

wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as

determined from the story heights and the input rigid diaphragm expo-

sure widths. The programs do not automatically apply vertical wind

Chapter 3 - ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads

loads over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. If you want to

include these vertical wind loads in the same load case then you must

manually include them yourself.

Equation 3-22 (ASCE 7-95 Equation 6-1) is used to determine the veloc-

ity pressure, qz, at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected

area in pounds per square foot (psf).

where,

Equations 3-23a and 3-23b.

by the user.

tions 3-23a and 3-23b (Equations C3a and C3b in ASCE 7-95 Commen-

tary Section 6.5.1).

2α

⎛ z ⎞

K z = 2.01 ⎜ ⎟ for 15 feet ≤ z ≤ zg Eqn. 3-23a

⎜ zg ⎟

⎝ ⎠

2α

⎛ 15 ⎞

K z = 2.01 ⎜ ⎟ for z < 15 feet Eqn. 3-23b

⎜ zg ⎟

⎝ ⎠

where,

height to point considered.

ASCE 7-95 Commentary Section 6.5.1).

ASCE 7-95 Commentary Section 6.5.1).

Automated Capabilities

α and zg factors for

use in Equations 3- A 5.0 1500

23a and 3-23b B 7.0 1200

C 9.5 900

D 11.5 700

the surface of the vertical projected area. Equation 3-24 is based on

ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1. In particular it is based on the row titled "Main

wind force-resisting systems" under the heading titled "Buildings of all

heights."

where,

face of the horizontal projected area calculated

using Equation 3-22.

by the user.

surface of the vertical projected area calculated

using Equation 3-22.

by the user.

area to each rigid diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure

3-1.

Chapter 3 - ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads

Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-95 are based on Sections 6.4

through 6.6 of ASCE 7-95.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects

method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user se-

lected area objects as described in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.4.2.

Equation 3-25 (ASCE 7-95 Equation 6-1) is used to determine the veloc-

ity pressure, qz, at any height z on the surface of the user selected area

objects in pounds per square feet (psf).

where,

tions 3-23a and 3-23b.

by the user.

The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section titled

“Exposure from Extents of Rigid Diaphragms.”

the surface of the area objects. Equation 3-26 is based on ASCE 7-95

Table 6-1. In particular it is based on the row titled "Main wind force-

resisting systems" under the heading titled "Buildings of all heights."

p = q G Cp Eqn. 3-26

where,

face of the area object calculated using Equa-

tion 3-25. For leeward facing area objects, q =

qh, the velocity pressure at the top

story/maximum height.

Automated Capabilities

cient assigned to the area object by the user.

ject, which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area ob-

jects.

Input Exposure

In addition to the items discussed in the section titled “Exposure” earlier

in this chapter, the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-02 also offers the

capability to generate wind loads on line (frame) objects for use on open

or lattice structures. If the option to include frame objects is checked,

wind loads will be generated on each line object that has been assigned

wind parameters using the Assign > Frame Loads > Open Structure

Wind Parameters command. The wind load case must be defined prior

to assigning wind parameters to frame objects.

Selecting the Assign > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parame-

ters command will display the Auto Wind Load Overwrites for Line Ob-

jects form. On this form are three input items. They are whether or not

the frame object is loaded by wind (the default=Yes), the ice thickness,

and the net force coefficient, Cf.

The ice thickness for wind load affects the area of the line object to be

loaded, and has a default value of “Program Determined”. The net force

coefficient for wind, Cf, also has a default value of “Program Deter-

mined”. The wind loads calculated at a line object are based on the ele-

vation of the object, the dimensions of the object, and various code-

dependent wind coefficients.

In addition to the items discussed in the section titled “Wind Exposure

Parameters” earlier in this chapter, the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-

Chapter 3 - ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads

from extents of rigid diaphragms is selected. They are the case type, and

the eccentricity factors, e1 and e2.

The case types are described in ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-9. The case type

can be 1, 2, 3, or 4.

The eccentricity factors are described in ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-9. A typi-

cal value for e1 and e2 is 0.15.

{ XE "codes, building:ASCE 7-95" }{ XE "automatic wind loads:ASCE

7-95" }Seven or eight wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-02 wind

loads depending upon the type of exposure. They are the basic wind

speed in miles per hour (mph), the exposure category, the wind impor-

tance factor, I, the topographic factor, Kzt, the gust factor, G, the direc-

tionality factor, kd, the roughness length parameter, z0, and the

solid/gross area ratio if frame objects are exposed to wind loads

The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5.4. A typi-

cal range of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph.

The exposure category can be A, B, C or D. No other values are al-

lowed.

Note that the building and structure classification categories in are de-

fined in ASCE 7-02 Table 1-1. A typical range of values for I is 0.77 to

1.15.

The default value for Kzt is 1.0. Kzt cannot be less than 1.0.

typical value for G is 0.85.

A typical range of values for Kd is 0.85 to 0.95.

Automated Capabilities

mentary C6.5.6. A typical range of values for z0 is 0.016 to 6.6.

The ratio of solid area to gross area, ∈, is used in the determination of the

net force coefficient, Cf, as discussed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5.13. This

ratio applies only to open structures, and thus is only available for user

input if exposure to frame objects has been selected.

Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-02 are based on Section 6.5 of

ASCE 7-02.

ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5 (Method 2 – Analytical Procedure). Windward

and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected

area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input

rigid diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not automatically

apply vertical wind loads over the projected horizontal area of roof sur-

faces. If you want to include these vertical wind loads in the same load

case then you must manually include them yourself.

Equation 3-27 (ASCE 7-02 Equation 6-15) is used to determine the ve-

locity pressure, qz, at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected

area in pounds per square foot (psf).

where,

Equations 3-28a and 3-28b.

by the user.

Chapter 3 - ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads

tions 3-28a and 3-28b (Equations C6-3a and C6-3b in ASCE 7-02 Com-

mentary Section 6.5.6.4).

2α

⎛ z ⎞

K z = 2.01 ⎜ ⎟ for 15 feet ≤ z ≤ zg Eqn. 3-28a

⎜ zg ⎟

⎝ ⎠

2α

⎛ 15 ⎞

K z = 2.01 ⎜ ⎟ for z < 15 feet Eqn. 3-28b

⎜ zg ⎟

⎝ ⎠

where,

height to point considered.

The gradient height, zg, is obtained using Equation 3-29 (Equation C6-5

in ASCE 7-02 Commentary Section 6.5.6.4).

z g = 1273 z 0.125

0

Eqn. 3-29

4 in ASCE 7-02 Commentary Section 6.5.6.4).

α = 6.19 z -0.157

0

Eqn. 3-30

where,

the surface of the vertical projected area. Equation 3-31 is based on

ASCE 7-02 Equation 6-17.

Automated Capabilities

where,

face of the horizontal projected area calculated

using Equation 3-27.

by the user.

surface of the vertical projected area calculated

using Equation 3-27.

by the user.

area to each rigid diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure

3-1. The application of these pressures determines a resultant lateral

force in both the x and y directions of the building, Px and Py, at each

diaphragm level. Note that one or the other of these forces may be zero

if the wind direction is perfectly aligned with the x- or y-axis. The pro-

gram then combines the loads for each of the four wind load cases de-

scribed in ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-9 resulting in the permutations shown in

Table 3-2.

Wind Load

Cases 1 Px -

1 Py -

2 0.75 Px ±0.75 e1 Bx Px

2 0.75 Py ±0.75 e2 By Py

3 0.75(Px + Py) -

4 0.563(Px + Py) ±0.563(e1BxPx ± e2ByPy)

where,

Chapter 3 - ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads

by the user.

by the user.

Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-02 are based on Section 6.5 of

ASCE 7-02.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects

method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user se-

lected area objects as described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5.12.

Equation 3-32 (ASCE 7-02 Equation 6-15) is used to determine the ve-

locity pressure, qz, at any height z on the surface of the user selected area

objects in pounds per square feet (psf).

where,

Equations 3-28a and 3-28b.

by the user.

The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section titled

“Exposure from Extents of Rigid Diaphragms.”

Automated Capabilities

the surface of the area objects. Equation 3-33 is based on ASCE 7-02

Equation 6-17.

p = q G Cp Eqn. 3-33

where,

face of the area object calculated using Equa-

tion 3-32. For leeward facing area objects, q =

qh, the velocity pressure at the top

story/maximum height.

cient assigned to the area object by the user.

ject, which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area ob-

jects.

Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-02 are based on Section 6.5 of

ASCE 7-02.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from frame objects

method are applied on the exposed surfaces of the user selected frame

objects as described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5.13.

Equation 3-34 (ASCE 7-02 Equation 6-15) is used to determine the ve-

locity pressure, qz, at any height z on the projected area of the user se-

lected frame objects in pounds per square feet (psf).

where,

Equations 3-28a and 3-28b.

Chapter 3 - 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads

by the user.

The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section titled

“Exposure from Extents of Rigid Diaphragms.”

Equation 3-35 is used to determine the design wind force, F, on the sur-

face of the frame objects. Equation 3-35 is based on ASCE 7-02 Equa-

tion 6-25.

F = qz G Cf Af Eqn. 3-35

where,

the centroid of area Af using Equation 3-34.

(ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-21).

Cf

Cf factor for use in ∈

Equation 3-35

< 0.1 2.0

0.1 to 0.29 1.8

0.3 to 0.7 1.6

Section 1609.1.1 of the 2006 IBC states that wind loads shall be deter-

mined in accordance with ASCE Standard 7-05. For the sake of clarity,

Automated Capabilities

in the remainder of this section all references will be made only to the

ASCE 7-05 document, with the understanding that this information is di-

rectly applicable to those using the 2006 IBC as well.

Input Exposure

In addition to the items discussed in the section titled “Exposure” earlier

in this chapter, the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-05 also offers the

capability to generate wind loads on line (frame) objects for use on open

or lattice structures. If the option to include frame objects is checked,

wind loads will be generated on each line object that has been assigned

wind parameters using the Assign > Frame Loads > Open Structure

Wind Parameters command. The wind load case must be defined prior

to assigning wind parameters to frame objects.

Selecting the Assign > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parame-

ters command will display the Auto Wind Load Overwrites for Line Ob-

jects form. On this form are three input items. They are whether or not

the frame object is loaded by wind (the default=Yes), the ice thickness,

and the net force coefficient, Cf.

The ice thickness for wind load affects the area of the line object to be

loaded, and has a default value of “Program Determined”. The net force

coefficient for wind, Cf, also has a default value of “Program Deter-

mined”. The wind loads calculated at a line object are based on the ele-

vation of the object, the dimensions of the object, and various code-

dependent wind coefficients.

In addition to the items discussed in the section titled “Wind Exposure

Parameters” earlier in this chapter, the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-

05 also offers three additional coefficients to input when the exposure

from extents of rigid diaphragms is selected. They are the case type, and

the eccentricity factors, e1 and e2.

The case types are described in ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-9. The case type

can be 1, 2, 3, or 4.

Chapter 3 - 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads

The eccentricity factors are described in ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-9. A typi-

cal value for e1 and e2 is 0.15.

{ XE "codes, building:ASCE 7-95" }{ XE "automatic wind loads:ASCE

7-95" }Seven or eight wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-05 wind

loads depending upon the type of exposure. They are the basic wind

speed in miles per hour (mph), the exposure category, the wind impor-

tance factor, I, the topographic factor, Kzt, the gust factor, G, the direc-

tionality factor, kd, the roughness length parameter, z0, and the

solid/gross area ratio if frame objects are exposed to wind loads

The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5.4. A typi-

cal range of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph.

The exposure category can be B, C or D. No other values, including ex-

posure A, are allowed.

Note that the building and structure classification categories in are de-

fined in ASCE 7-05 Table 1-1. A typical range of values for I is 0.77 to

1.15.

The default value for Kzt is 1.0. Kzt cannot be less than 1.0.

typical value for G is 0.85.

A typical range of values for Kd is 0.85 to 0.95.

mentary C6.5.6. A typical range of values for z0 is 0.016 to 1.0.

The ratio of solid area to gross area, ∈, is used in the determination of the

net force coefficient, Cf, as discussed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5.15. This

Automated Capabilities

ratio applies only to open structures, and thus is only available for user

input if exposure to frame objects has been selected.

Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-05 are based on Section 6.5 of

ASCE 7-05.

ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5 (Method 2 – Analytical Procedure). Windward

and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected

area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input

rigid diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not automatically

apply vertical wind loads over the projected horizontal area of roof sur-

faces. If you want to include these vertical wind loads in the same load

case then you must manually include them yourself.

Equation 3-36 (ASCE 7-05 Equation 6-15) is used to determine the ve-

locity pressure, qz, at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected

area in pounds per square foot (psf).

where,

Equations 3-37a and 3-37b.

by the user.

tions 3-37a and 3-37b (Equations C6-4a and C6-4b in ASCE 7-05 Com-

mentary Section 6.5.6.6).

Chapter 3 - 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads

2α

⎛ z ⎞

K z = 2.01 ⎜ ⎟ for 15 feet ≤ z ≤ zg Eqn. 3-37a

⎜ zg ⎟

⎝ ⎠

2α

⎛ 15 ⎞

K z = 2.01 ⎜ ⎟ for z < 15 feet Eqn. 3-37b

⎜ zg ⎟

⎝ ⎠

where,

height to point considered.

The gradient height, zg, is obtained using Equation 3-38 (Equation C6-6

in ASCE 7-05 Commentary Section 6.5.6.6).

z g = 1273 z 0.125

0

Eqn. 3-38

5 in ASCE 7-05 Commentary Section 6.5.6.6).

α = 6.19 z -0.157

0

Eqn. 3-39

where,

the surface of the vertical projected area. Equation 3-40 is based on

ASCE 7-05 Equation 6-17.

where,

face of the vertical projected area calculated us-

ing Equation 3-36.

Automated Capabilities

by the user.

surface of the vertical projected area calculated

using Equation 3-36.

by the user.

area to each rigid diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure

3-1. The application of these pressures determines a resultant lateral

force in both the x and y directions of the building, Px and Py, at each

diaphragm level. Note that one or the other of these forces may be zero

if the wind direction is perfectly aligned with the x- or y-axis. The pro-

gram then combines the loads for each of the four wind load cases de-

scribed in ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-9 resulting in the permutations shown in

Table 3-4.

Wind Load

Cases 1 Px -

1 Py -

2 0.75 Px ±0.75 e1 Bx Px

2 0.75 Py ±0.75 e2 By Py

3 0.75(Px + Py) -

4 0.563(Px + Py) ±0.563(e1BxPx ± e2ByPy)

where,

by the user.

Chapter 3 - 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads

by the user.

Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-05 are based on Section 6.5 of

ASCE 7-05.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects

method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user se-

lected area objects as described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5.12.

Equation 3-41 (ASCE 7-05 Equation 6-15) is used to determine the ve-

locity pressure, qz, at any height z on the surface of the user selected area

objects in pounds per square feet (psf).

where,

Equations 3-37a and 3-37b.

by the user.

“Exposure from Extents of Rigid Diaphragms.”

the surface of the area objects. Equation 3-42 is based on ASCE 7-05

Equation 6-17.

p = q G Cp Eqn. 3-42

Automated Capabilities

where,

face of the area object calculated using Equa-

tion 3-41. For leeward facing area objects, q =

qh, the velocity pressure at the top

story/maximum height.

cient assigned to the area object by the user.

ject, which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area ob-

jects.

Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-05 are based on Section 6.5 of

ASCE 7-05.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from frame objects

method are applied on the exposed surfaces of the user selected frame

objects as described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5.15.

Equation 3-43 (ASCE 7-05 Equation 6-15) is used to determine the ve-

locity pressure, qz, at any height z on the projected area of the user se-

lected frame objects in pounds per square feet (psf).

where,

Equations 3-37a and 3-37b.

by the user.

Chapter 3 - 1987 RCDF Wind Loads

“Exposure from Extents of Rigid Diaphragms.”

Equation 3-44 is used to determine the design wind force, F, on the sur-

face of the frame objects. Equation 3-44 is based on ASCE 7-05 Equa-

tion 6-28.

F = qz G Cf Af Eqn. 3-44

where,

the centroid of area Af using Equation 3-43.

(ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-22).

Cf

Cf factor for use in ∈

Equation 3-44

< 0.1 2.0

0.1 to 0.29 1.8

0.3 to 0.7 1.6

Input Wind Coefficients

{ XE "codes, building:1994 UBC" }{ XE "automatic wind loads:1994

UBC" }A single wind coefficient, the wind velocity, VD, is input for

1987 Reglamento de Construcciones para el Distrito Federal (RCDF)

wind loads.

Automated Capabilities

Automatic wind loads for the 1987 RCDF are based on Section 3 of the

Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from extents of rigid

diaphragms method are based on a modified version of the Metodos

Simplificado (Simplified Method) as described in Section 3 of the 1987

RCDF. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the

vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story

heights and the input rigid diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do

not automatically apply vertical wind loads over the projected horizontal

area of roof surfaces. If you want to include these vertical wind loads in

the same load case then you must manually include them yourself.

Equation 3-45 is used to determine the wind pressure, pz, at any point on

the surface of the vertical projected area in pascals (Pa). Equation 3-45

is based on 1987 RCDF Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno

por Viento Equation 3.3.

(

p z = 0.47 VD2 C p − windward + C p −leeward ) Eqn. 3-45

where,

user.

user.

The programs distribute the pressures, pz, on the surface of the vertical

projected area to each rigid diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown

in Figure 3-1.

Chapter 3 - 2002 Chinese Wind Loads

Automatic wind loads for the 1987 RCDF are based on Section 3 of the

Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects

method are based on Metodos Simplificado (Simplified Method) as de-

scribed in Section 3 of the 1987 RCDF. Wind loads are applied on the

vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as de-

scribed in Section 3.

Equation 3-46 is used to determine the wind pressure, pz, at any point on

the surface of the area objects in pascals (Pa). Equation 3-46 is based on

1987 RCDF Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento

Equation 3.3.

where,

cient assigned to the area object by the user.

The programs distribute the pressures, pz, on the surface of each area ob-

ject, which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area ob-

jects.

Input Wind Exposure Parameters

In addition to the wind direction angle discussed in the section titled

“Wind Exposure Parameters” earlier in this chapter, two additional coef-

ficients are input for the automatic wind loads for 2002 Chinese when the

exposure from extents of rigid diaphragms is selected. They are the

building width, B, and the shape coefficient, µs. The building width, B,

is also input when the exposure from area objects is selected.

Automated Capabilities

influencing coefficient, ν, from the Table 3.3.6-2 of JGJ 3-2002.

The shape coefficient for wind load, µs, replaces the windward and lee-

ward coefficients previously discussed in this chapter. This coefficient is

described in section 3.2 of JGJ 3-2002.

{ XE "codes, building:1997 UBC" }{ XE "automatic wind loads:1997

UBC" }Two wind coefficients are input for 2002 Chinese wind loads.

They are the basic wind pressure, w0, in kN per meter2 (kN/m2), and the

ground roughness type, RT.

The ground roughness types are described in JGJ 3-2002 Section 3.2.

The roughness type can be A, B, C or D. No other values are allowed.

Two choices are offered for determining how the mode coefficient, ϕz,

shall be calculated by the program. The first mode of vibration coeffi-

cient can either be obtained from a modal analysis or by using the Z/H

ratio.

Input T1 Source

The fundamental period, T1, may either be determined by the program

from a modal analysis, or input directly by the user.

The damping ratio, ζ, is input for the 2002 Chinese wind loads for use in

calculating the pulsation increasing coefficient, ξ.

Chapter 3 - 2002 Chinese Wind Loads

Automatic wind loads for the 2002 Chinese are based on Section 3.2 of

the JGJ 3-2002 and Section 7 of GB 50009-2001.

Horizontal wind loads, when using the exposure from extents of rigid

diaphragms method, are applied on the vertical projected area as deter-

mined based on the story heights and the input exposure widths for each

rigid diaphragm. Equation 3-47 is used to determine the wind vibration

coefficient, βz, at height z.

ϕ z ξν

βz = 1 + Eqn. 3-47

µz

where,

GB 50009-2001).

3-2002).

(Equation 7.2.1 GB 50009-2001)

Equation 3-48 is used to determine the wind pressure, wk, at any point on

the surface of the vertical projected area in kN/m2.

wk = βz µs µz w0 Eqn. 3-48

where,

3-47.

(Equation 7.2.1 GB 50009-2001)

Automated Capabilities

The programs distribute the pressures, wk, on the surface of the vertical

projected area to each rigid diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown

in Figure 3-1.

Automatic wind loads for the 2002 Chinese are based on Section 3.2 of

the JGJ 3-2002 and Section 7 of GB 50009-2001.

The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects

method are as described in Section 3.2 of the JGJ 3-2002 and Section 7

of GB 50009-2001. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizon-

tal surfaces of the user selected area objects.

Equation 3-49 is used to determine the wind pressure, wk, at any point on

the surface of the area objects.

wk = βz µs µz w0 Eqn. 3-49

where,

3-47.

(Equation 7.2.1 GB 50009-2001)

The value for βz is the same as described in the previous section titled

“Exposure from Extents of Rigid Diaphragms.”

The programs distribute the pressures, wk, on the surface of each area ob-

ject, which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area ob-

jects. As a general rule, only area objects exposed on the windward side

of the building should be loaded using the exposure from area objects

method when using the 2002 Chinese automatic wind load option.

Chapter 3 - User-Defined Wind Loads

{ XE "automatic wind loads:user defined" }For user-defined loads you

define the magnitude of the wind load force in the X and Y directions,

the torsional moment, and the location of the wind load force to each

rigid diaphragm at each story level. Based on this information, a point

object is automatically created at the location of the applied load.

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