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Faraday's law[edit source | editbeta]

In a geomagnetic storm, a surge in the flux of charged particles temporarily alters Earth's magnetic field, which induces electric fields in Earth's atmosphere, thus causing surges in electrical power grids. Artist's rendition; sizes are not to scale.

Faraday's law describes how a time varying magnetic field creates ("induces") an electric field.[3] This dynamically induced electric field has closed field lines just as the magnetic field, if not superposed by a static (charge induced) electric field. This aspect of electromagnetic induction is the operating principle behind many electric generators: for example, a rotating bar magnet creates a changing magnetic field, which in turn generates an electric field in a nearby wire. (Note: there are two closely related equations which are called Faraday's law. The form used in Maxwell's equations is always valid but more restrictive than that originally formulated by Michael Faraday.)

Ampre's law with Maxwell's correction[edit source | editbeta]

An Wang's magnetic core memory(1954) is an application of Ampre's law. Each core stores one bit of data.

Ampre's law with Maxwell's correction states that magnetic fields can be generated in two ways: byelectrical current (this was the original "Ampre's law") and by changing electric fields (this was "Maxwell's correction"). Maxwell's correction to Ampre's law is particularly important: it shows that not only does a changing magnetic field induce an electric field, but also a changing electric field induces a

magnetic field.[3][4] Therefore, these equations allow self-sustaining "electromagnetic waves" to travel through empty space (see electromagnetic wave equation). The speed calculated for electromagnetic waves, which could be predicted from experiments on charges and currents,[note 2] exactly matches the speed of light; indeed, light is one form of electromagnetic radiation (as are X-rays, radio waves, and others). Maxwell understood the connection between electromagnetic waves and light in 1861, thereby unifying the theories of electromagnetism and optics.

a phase vector, or phasor, is a representation of a sinusoidal function whose amplitude (A), frequency (), and phase () are time-invariant. It is a subset of a more general concept called analytic representation. Phasors separate the dependencies on A, , and into three independent factors. This can be particularly useful because the frequency factor (which includes the time-dependence of the sinusoid) is often common to all the components of a linear combination of sinusoids. In those situations, phasors allow this common feature to be factored out, leaving just the A and features. The result is that trigonometry reduces to algebra, and linear differential equations become algebraic ones. The term phasor therefore often refers to just those two factors. In older texts, aphasor is also referred to as a sinor.