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SociaI Connunicalion

AulIov|s) CavI I. HovIand


Souvce Fvoceedings oJ lIe Anevican FIiIosopIicaI Sociel, VoI. 92, No. 5 |Nov. 12, 1948), pp.
371-375
FuIIisIed I American Philosophical Society
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SOCIAL COMMUNICATION
CABL I. HOVLANB
CIaivnan, Bepavlnenl oJ FscIoIog, YaIe Univevsil
|Bead FeIvuav 7, 1948 in lIe Snposiun on BeseavcI Fvonlievs in Hunan BeIalions)
COMMUNICATION as an avl Ias Iad a vev Iong
Iislov. TIe vvilev, lIe ovalov, lIe puIIic veIa-
lions counseIIov, and lIe advevlisev Iave Ieen
Ieading pvaclilionevs oJ lIis avl. Connunicalion
as a JieId oJ scienliJic inquiv, on lIe olIev Iand,
Ias Ieen oJ JaivI vecenl ovigin. WilIin lIe Iasl
decade ov so, Iovevev, lIeve Ias deveIoped lIe
pvonise oJ a genuine science oJ connunicalion-
a sslenalic allenpl lo JovnuIale in vigovous
JasIion lIe pvincipIes I vIicI inJovnalion is
lvansnilled and opinions and alliludes Jovned.
TIe deveIopnenl oJ lIis nev JieId Ias Ieen al
Ieasl in pavl a vesponse lo lIe gvoving uvgenc oJ
lIe pvoIIen. In induslv lIe incveasing concen-
lvalion oJ conlvoI Ias videned lIe gap Ielveen
vovIevs and nanagenenl and lIe JeeIing Ias avisen
on IolI sides oJ lIe need Jov nove eJJeclive inlev-
connunicalions. TIe diJJevenl Jvanes oJ veJev-
ence oJ nanagenenl and oJ lIe vovIev Iave in-
lensiJied lIis pvoIIen. TIe nexl speaIev on lIe
pvogvan viII discuss lIis lopic in conneclion vilI
IaIov-nanagenenl sludies.
In ouv nalionaI IiJe lIe sane gap Ielveen Iav-
naIev and cilizen exisls. FovnaI neans oJ inlev-
connunicalion Iave IeIped sonevIal. TIe vadio
Ias IvougIl lIe poIilicaI Ieadev cIosev lo lIe volev
and lIe puIIic opinion poII Ias IvougIl lIe vievs
oJ lIe cilizens nove cIoseI lo lIe allenlion oJ lIe
IavnaIev. Bul lIeve is sliII JeIl I nan lIe IacI
oJ nove eJJeclive inlevconnunicalion lo vepIace
lIe Iosl inlinac oJ lIe lovn neeling in lIe eavI
das oJ ouv denocvac.
On lIe inlevnalionaI scene lIe sane IacI oJ
connunicalion appeavs. I vecenlI Ieavd one oJ
ouv inpovlanl Uniled Nalions oJJiciaIs sa IJ onI
ve couId connunicale vilI lIe Bussians. TIeve
is Ieve nol lIe pvoIIen oJ pIsicaI connunicalion,
Iul oJ pscIoIogicaI connunicalion, nol a Ianguage
Iavviev aIone Iul ideoIogicaI Iavvievs lo connuni-
calion.
TIe pvoIIen oJ connunicalions is nade nove
cIaIIenging I lIe Jacl lIal il is nol an avea Jov
an isoIaled speciaIisl. Adequale undevslanding oJ
lIe pvoIIens oJ lIis JieId depends on a videv
vaviel oJ laIenl and vange oJ speciaIizalion lIan
aInosl an olIev pvoIIen in lIe sociaI sciences. A
veaI science oJ connunicalion viII vequive lIe co-
opevalion oJ IolI lIe pvaclilionev and lIe scienlisl.
TIus lIe nevspapev edilov, lIe vadio Ivoadcaslev,
lIe novie pvoducev, as veII as lIe pscIoIogisl,
lIe socioIogisl, lIe anlIvopoIogisl, and lIe poIilicaI
scienlisl Iave inpovlanl voIes lo pevJovn.'
Nunevous deJinilions oJ lIe levn connunica-
lion Iave Ieen given Iul Jov puvposes oJ lIe pves-
enl discussion I sIouId IiIe lo deJine connunica-
lion as lIe pvocess I vIicI an individuaI |lIe
connunicalov) lvansnils slinuIi |usuaII vevIaI
snIoIs) lo nodiJ lIe IeIaviov oJ olIev indi-
viduaIs |connunicalees).
TIis deJinilion lIus deJines lIe veseavcI lasI as
Ieing lIe anaIsis oJ Jouv Jaclovs |1) lIe con-
nnunicalov vIo lvansnils lIe connunicalion: |2)
lIe slinuIi lvansnilled I lIe connunicalov:
|3) lIe individuaIs vIo vespond lo lIe connuni-
calion: |4) lIe vesponses nade lo lIe connunica-
lion I lIe connunicalee. In addilion, ve nusl
anaIze lIe Iavs and pvincipIes veIaling lIe aIove
eIenenls.
Nunevous sludies Iave Ieen nade oJ lIe con-
nunicalov and Iov Iis cIavaclevislics aJJecl lIe
vesponse oJ lIose veceiving lIe connunicalion.2
In lIis calegov IeIong sucI inpovlanl pvoIIens
as lIe eJJecl oJ connunicalions in vIicI lIe lvue
connunicalov is nol veveaIed, and lIe eJJeclive-
ness oJ appeaIs nade I lIe connunicalov in pev-
son conpaved vilI lIose in vIicI lIe nessage is
lvansnilled lIvougI vadio, nolion picluves ov
olIev nedia.
AnaIsis oJ lIe second Jaclov, lIe slinuIi, Ias
Ieen lIe nosl lIovougII sludied. In Jacl vIen
nenlion is nade oJ connunicalion anaIsis, ov oJ
inslilules oJ connunicalion, vIicI ave spvinging
up on aII sides, lIis is lIe aspecl usuaII neanl.
'
TIis is veII iIIuslvaled in lIe divevsil oJ conlviIulovs
lo lIe vecenl snposiun Connunicalion and sociaI ac-
lion, Yeagev, W. H., and W. E. UllevIacI, ed., AnnaIs
Anev. Acad. FoI. and Soc. Sci. 250, 1947.
2 CJ. e. g., SnilI, B. L., TIe poIilicaI connunicalion
speciaIisl oJ ouv lines, pp. 31-73, in SnilI, B. L., H. B.
LassveII, and B. B. Case, Fvopaganda, connunicalion,
and puIIic opinion, Fvincelon Univ. Fvess, 1946.
FBOCEEBINOS OF THE AMEBICAN FHILOSOFHICAL SOCIETY, VOL. 92, NO. 5, NOVEMBEB, 1948
371
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372 CABL I. HOVLANB [FBOC. AMEB. FHIL. SOC.
WilI lIe gvoving conpIexil oJ ouv civiIizalion
jusl Inoving vIal naleviaI is Ieing lvansnilled
is a giganlic and inpovlanl lasI. AnaIsis oJ lIe
naleviaI lvansnilled lIvougI lIe vavious cIanneIs
oJ connunicalion Ias vequived lIe deveIopnenl oJ
pvecise quanlilalive lecIniques. TIe slud oJ lIe
slinuIi lvansnilled I lIe connunicalov enpIos
lIe JaniIiav lecInique oJ conlenl anaIsis. Jusl
IeJove lIe vav and duving lIe vav vovI on lIis
pvoIIen nade vapid slvides. TIe sludies oJ Lass-
veII, Kvis, and Speiev on anaIsis oJ enen pvopa-
ganda lIvougI nevspapevs, vadio, and novies
conslilule good exanpIes oJ lIe deveIopnenls oJ
lIe Iasl Jev eavs in lIis avea. TIese nelIods
pvovide anaIsis in levns oJ lIe suIjecl nallev oJ
a connunicalion, ils lIenalic conlenl, lpe oJ
snIoIizalion, Iinds oJ vIelovicaI devices used,
snlaclicaI cIavaclevislics, elc.3 WilIoul lIe
lIovougI descviplion nade possiIIe I lIese nev
and nove pvecise nelIods oJ descviIing lIe con-
lenl aspecl oJ lIe slinuIi lIe lasI oJ JovnuIaling
pvincipIes and genevaIizalions vouId Ie nosl diJ-
JicuIl.
Because lIe slinuIi used in connunicalion ave
pvinaviI vevIaI snIoIs il is inpovlanl lo undev-
sland lIe voIe oJ Ianguage in connunicalion. Be-
cenl deveIopnenls in lIe anaIsis oJ Ianguage and
lIe JieId oJ senanlics pvonise inpovlanl appIica-
lion lo lIe science oJ connunicalion. TIe anaI-
sis oJ lIis pvoIIen vequives laIing inlo accounl
nol onI lIe diJJevences Ielveen lIe Ianguages oJ
diJJevenl nalions Iul lIe equaII cvilicaI pvoIIen
oJ lIe diJJevences in Ianguage Ielveen gvoups
vilIin ouv ovn sociel-e. g., Ielveen lIe scienlisl
and lIe Ianan ov Ielveen IaIov and nanagenenl.
ScienliJic sludies oJ lIe naleviaI lvansnilled lv
lo Ie oIjeclive and uninlevesled in lIe vaIues oJ lIe
naleviaI lvansnilled. So il is al lIis poinl lIal
veseavcI nusl Ie suppIenenled I sludies oJ
olIev gvoups-oJ lIe veguIalion oJ connunicalion,
lIe nainlenance oJ a Jvee pvess, and lIe vaviel oJ
lopics suvveed I lIe Connission on Fveedon
oJ lIe Fvess.5 Heve lIe pIiIosopIev, lIe sludenl
oJ govevnnenl, and lIe Iavev, aII Iave a signiJi-
canl pIace. BeseavcI can pvovide lIen vilI oI-
jeclive
dala Iasic lo lIeiv anaIsis pavlicuIavI
in
3 LassveII, H. B., BescviIing lIe conlenls oJ connuni-
calions, pp. 74-94, in SnilI, B. L., H. B. LassveII, and
B. B. Case, op. cil.
4
CJ. e. g., JoInson, W., FeopIe in quandavies: lIe se-
nanlics oJ pevsonaI adjuslnenl, N. Y., Havpev, 1946.
5
CIaJee, Z., Oovevnnenl and nass connunicalion, 2 v.,
Univ. oJ CIicago Fvess, 1947.
conneclion vilI evaIualing lIe eJJecl oJ vavious
connunicalion poIicies.
We nov luvn lo lIe lIivd oJ ouv pvoIIens-lIe
anaIsis oJ lIe individuaI vIo veceives lIe con-
nunicalion. Heve ve Iave lIe cove oJ lIe pvoI-
Ien oJ individuaI pscIoIog. WIal ave lIe no-
lives oJ lIe individuaIs, vIal ave lIeiv capacilies,
Iov do lIeiv pvedisposilions inJIuence lIe va in
vIicI lIe veacl lo vavious slinuIi pvesenled?
WIiIe pscIoIog is nosl concevned vilI lIese
pvoIIens, olIev adjacenl discipIines Iave nade
signiJicanl conlviIulions lo ouv undevslanding.
FscIialv and pscIoanaIsis Iave conlviIuled
lo lIe anaIsis oJ lIe conpIex nolives oJ lIe in-
dividuaI. AnlIvopoIogicaI veseavcI in ouv ovn
cuIluve Ias sIovn us Iov lIe doninanl nolives
and pallevns oJ an individuaI can Ie pvedicled
Jvon Jaclovs sucI as Iis occupalion and sociaI
cIass. TIus inpovlanl inJovnalion aIoul lIe in-
dividuaI lo Ie aJJecled I lIe connunicalion is
JuvnisIed I census-lpe dala. Jusl Inoving lIal
an individuaI is lvenl-one eavs oJ age, veaIlI,
and Ias a IigI inleIIigence lesl scove pevnils us
lo naIe IigII signiJicanl pvediclions oJ lIe indi-
viduaI's nolives, IaIils, and capacil lo Ieavn,
vIicI ave exlveneI veIevanl lo lIe lpe oJ con-
nunicalion used. Fvoceduves devived Jvon cIini-
caI pscIoIog and Jivsl-Iand InovIedge oJ lIe
individuaI pevnil sliII Iellev pvediclion. TIis
JieId appeavs vev pvonising Jov Juluve deveIop-
nenls in ouv undevslanding oJ connunicalion.
Sludies oJ olIev cuIluves and olIev nalionaI pal-
levns is an inlegvaI pavl oJ lIis pvoIIen. Bellev
undevslanding oJ lIe counlvies oJ Easlevn Euvope,
Jov exanpIe, and consequenl Iellev connunica-
lion vilI lIen vequives exlensive veseavcI on lIe
pvedisposilions oJ individuaI in vavious cuIluves
oJ lIe vovId. WovI on lIis pvoIIen is nov Ieing
Iegun al a nunIev oJ cenlevs.
TIe JouvlI Jacel oJ anaIsis is lIal oJ vesponses
lo connunicalion. Sone aspecls oJ lIis pvoIIen
ave nucI nove deveIoped lIan olIevs. One oJ lIe
sinpIesl vesponses is lIal oJ allenlion lo lIe con-
nunicalion. Sludies oJ vIal veadevs Iave noliced
in connunicalion and vIal lIe Iave vead, Jov
exanpIe, in lIe daiI nevspapevs, ave veIaliveI
nunevous. WilIin lIe Iasl Jev eavs lIeve Iave
Ieen incveasingI Jvequenl allenpls lo veIale sinpIe
vesponses, IiIe veading IeIaviov, lo lIe cIavaclev-
islics oJ lIe individuaI vesponding. SucI sludies
veIale veadevsIip lo sex, educalionaI IeveI, age
gvoup, elc.
SiniIavI a gveal deaI oJ veseavcI on lIe vesponse
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VOL. 92, NO. 5, 1948] SOCIAL COMMUNICATION 373
side Ias Ieen done in lIe JieId oJ vadio. Bul Ieve
lIe pvinav enpIasis Ias Ieen on lIe vesponses oJ
Iislening and enjonenl. Bevices Jov vecovding
oJ vesponses oJ IiIe ov disIiIe Iave Ieen oJ sone
assislance in lIis pIase oJ lIe pvoIIen.6 OnI
vecenlI Iave lIeve Ieen covvesponding sludies oJ
lIe eJJecliveness oJ vadio in inJIuencing opinion
and in lvansnilling inJovnalion.7 MucI lIe sane
Ias Ieen lvue oJ lIe Iavge anounl oJ veseavcI lIal
Ias gone inlo lIe anaIsis oJ vesponse lo lIe
novies. TIe enpIasis Ias Ieen on vIal do peo-
pIe IiIe. TIis Ias Ieen lIe aspecl lIal Ias Iad
lIe gveal connevciaI IacIing. TIe Ieginnings oJ
inlevesl in olIev diveclions veve sIovn in lIe
Fane Fund sludies on lIe eJJecls oJ lIe novies
on a vide vaviel oJ pIases oJ sociaI IeIaviov.8
TIe vovI vIicI ve did duving lIe vav on lIe
anaIsis oJ lIe eJJecliveness oJ lIe JiIns pvepaved
I lIe Avn lo give soIdievs lIe IacIgvound oJ
lIe vav and ouv pavlicipalion in il na aIso Ie
nenlioned.9 Heve lIe vesponses sludied veve in
levns oJ lIe anounl oJ inJovnalion veceived, lIe
opinions vIicI veve cIanged, and lIe eJJecl oJ
cIanges in inJovnalion and opinion on nolivalion.
TIe anaIsis oJ vesponse lo connunicalion Ias
Ieen enovnousI JaciIilaled I vecenl inpvove-
nenls in lecInique. FuIIic opinion nelIods Iave
nade vapid slvides as viII Ie seen Jvon lIe papevs
pvesenled lIis aJlevnoon. Bul lIese nelIods do
nol suJJice Jov lIe nan aspecls lo Ie coveved.
Inlensive inlevviev nelIods ave needed on nan
pIases oJ lIe pvoIIen. Fov sone pIases oJ lIe
pvoIIen adaplalions oJ cIinicaI pvoceduves viII
pvoIaII pvove essenliaI lo undevsland JuII lIe
lolaI inpacl oJ connunicalion. AnolIev aspecl
oJ lIe pvoIIen vequiving nucI JuvlIev vovI is lIal
oJ veIaling lIe diJJevenl lpes oJ vesponses nade
lo connunicalion. TIis incIudes slud oJ Iov
cIanges in opinion and vevIaI slalenenl ave ve-
Ialed lo olIev pIases oJ IeIaviov IiIe sociaI ac-
lion. TIis Ivings in lIe Jascinaling pvoIIen oJ
Iov lo cIange lIe va an individuaI pevceives a
pvoIIen and Iov cIanges in Iis pevceplion aJJecl
Iis olIev aclions.
6
HaIIonquisl, T., and E. A. SucInan, Lislening lo lIe
Iislenev, pp. 265-334, in Badio veseavcI, 1943-1945, La-
zavsJeId, F. F., and F. N. Slanlon, ed., N. Y., BueII,
SIoan, and Feavce, 1944.
7
CJ., e. g., WiIson, E. C., TIe eJJecliveness oJ docu-
nenlav Ivoadcasls, FuIIic Opin. Quavl. 12 19-29, 1948.
8
CIavlevs, W. W., Molion picluves and oulI a sun-
nav, N. Y., MacniIIan, 1933.
9
Expevinenls on nass connunicalion |lo Ie puI-
IisIed).
Ouv veseavcI lasI aIso incIudes lIe JovnuIalion
oJ pvincipIes and Iavs veIaling lIe slinuIi, lIe in-
dividuaI, and lIe vesponse. Heve ve ave in-
nedialeI slucI I lIe vide genevaIil oJ lIe pvoI-
Ien. We Jind lIal lIe pvincipIes needed Jov an
undevslanding oJ connunicalion ave lIe vev
ones needed Jov an undevslanding oJ olIev aspecls
oJ IeIaviov aII lIe va Jvon pscIoIogicaI vavJave
lo individuaI pscIolIevap in a Jace-lo-Jace silua-
lion. We ave lIus al once IeneJiled I lIe eavs
oJ Iasic vovI lIal Iave gone inlo anaIsis oJ ps-
cIoIogicaI IeIaviov and ils cIange, and al lIe sane
line conJvonled anev in cIanged Jovn vilI lIe
nan Iavge unsoIved pvoIIens oJ Iunan veIalions.
We ave, oJ couvse, IeneJiled in lIe seavcI Jov
pvincipIes I lIe eavs oJ expevience oJ pvacli-
lionevs oJ lIe connunicalion avl. Lel us suv-
ve IvieJI lIese conlviIulions.
TIe JieId oJ educalion Ias nade signiJicanl con-
lviIulions. On lIe pvoIIens oJ Iov lo lvansnil
JacluaI inJovnalion, Jov exanpIe, lIe vovI oJ lIe
Iasl lvenl eavs Ias Ieen vev enIigIlening. Bul
even nove signiJicanl pvoIIens exisl in lIe JieId
oJ connunicalion oJ vaIues and alliludes. Heve ve
ave IavgeI in unInovn levvilov, vilI a slvong ve-
aIizalion on lIe pavl oJ educalovs oJ lIe nagnilude
oJ lIe pvoIIen and ils inpovlance Iul vilI IillIe
dependaIIe inJovnalion al Iand.
AnolIev inpovlanl souvce oJ IpolIeses is lIe
vovI vIicI Ias Ieen done on discussion gvoups.
Fvon vide pvaclicaI expevience a nunIev oJ ex-
ceIIenl IooIs Iave Ieen vvillen on Iov lo con-
ducl discussion gvoups, slvalegic and laclicaI
pvoceduves, and lIe IiIe.10 Fev oJ lIese vecon-
nendalions Iave Ieen pul lo expevinenlaI lesl Iul
lIeve ave conlained in lIese IooIs nunevous in-
povlanl ideas vIicI sIouId Ie evaIualed.
Sone sslenalic vovI divecled lovavd slud
oJ discussion gvoups vas done I ouv veseavcI
gvoup duving lIe vav lo delevnine lIe lpe oJ
IeadevsIip vIicI is nosl eJJeclive and lIe eJJec-
liveness oJ vavious lpes oJ pvesenlalion. Ex-
lensive sludies oJ lIe eJJecliveness oJ gvoup discus-
sion veve cavvied oul duving lIe vav I lIe Iale
Kuvl Levin and Iis associales. TIeiv sludies in-
dicaled lIal gvoup discussion JoIIoved I a gvoup
decision lo cavv oul sone pavlicuIav sociaI aclion,
IiIe ealing Iess vIile Ivead, ov lving oul neal
10
CJ., e. g., EIIioll, H. S., TIe pvocess oJ gvoup lIinI-
ing, N. Y., Associalion Fvess, 1928.
11 Levin, K., Fovces IeIind Jood IaIils and nelIods
oJ cIange, pp. 35-65, in TIe pvoIIen oJ cIanging Jood
IaIils, BuII. Nal. Bes. CounciI, No. 108, Ocl. 1943.
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374 CABL I. HOVLANB [FBOC. AMEB. FHIL. SOC.
suIslilules, vas nove eJJeclive lIan Iecluves and
individuaI decision. TIis veseavcI vaises a Iavge
nunIev oJ inpovlanl queslions Jov veseavcI as lo
lIe Jaclovs vesponsiIIe Jov lIe aIIeged eJJecliveness
oJ gvoup decision, sucI as lIe inleveIalionsIips Ie-
lveen lIe nenIevs oJ lIe gvoup, lIe pevsonaIil
cIavaclevislics oJ lIose vIo ave and ave nol in-
JIuenced I lIe gvoup pvessuves, and lIe IiIe.
SucI veseavcI sIouId gvealI cIaviJ ouv undev-
slanding oJ lIe inlevveIalionsIips oJ lIe individuaI
and lIe gvoup in connunicalion. OlIev signiJi-
canl vovI is Ieing pIanned in lIe anaIsis oJ con-
Jevence discussions and lIeiv eJJecliveness in vavi-
ous silualions.
WovI on pscIolIevap Ias Ieen oJ vaIue as a
souvce oJ IpolIeses. TIis vepvesenls an inpov-
lanl Jovn oJ connunicalion-oJ lIe Jace-lo-Jace
vaviel. Fvon lIe exlensive vovI on lIis pvoIIen
nan IpolIeses Iave deveIoped vIicI iJ con-
Jivned sIouId Ie appIicaIIe lo nass connunica-
lion as veII. Lel ne quole a singIe exanpIe. Il
Ias Iong Ieen a IeIieJ on lIe pavl oJ nan ps-
cIolIevapisls lIal decisions veacIed independenlI
I lIe cIienl ov palienl ave apl lo Ie nove inJIu-
enliaI and Iasling lIan lIose suggesled I lIe lIev-
apisl. Sone vovI Ias Ieen done aIong lIis Iine
Jov individuaI pscIolIevap. Hov aIoul lIis
genevaIizalion al lIe nass connunicalion IeveI?
Is il nove eJJeclive lo pvesenl evidence Jov lIe
poinl Ieing connunicaled vilIoul dvaving lIe in-
pIied concIusion and Ielling lIe connunicalee dvav
lIe concIusion? Ov is il Iellev lo pvesenl lIe evi-
dence and aIso dvav lIe concIusion Jov lIe veadev
ov Ieavev? FveIininav vovI ve Iave undev-
va seens lo indicale lIal an inpovlanl vaviaIIe
is lIe inleIIigence oJ lIe individuaI ov gvoup ad-
dvessed. WilI lIe nove inleIIigenl nenIevs oJ
lIe audience lIe eJJecls na Ie nove Iasling vIen
lIe pavlicipaled in lIe decision pvocess Iul vilI
Iess inleIIigenl nenIevs lIe covvecl concIusion na
nol aIvas Ie seen and gvasped vilIoul Ieing
nade expIicilI I lIe connunicalion.
Advevlising visdon ieIds a nunIev oJ in-
povlanl IpolIeses. WIeve sslenalic vesuIls
ave avaiIaIIe lIe Iave considevaIIe signiJicance
Iecause oJ lIe Jacl lIal lIe oIjeclive oJ lIe con-
nunicalion is usuaII cIeavI deJined. TIis is in
conlvasl lo cevlain olIev aveas vIeve peopIe ave
eagev lo connunicale Iul il is exlveneI diJJicuIl
lo deJine vIal lIe ave lving lo connunicale so
lIal one can naIe an adequale evaIualion oJ lIe
success oJ lIe eJJovl.
TIeve ave a nunIev oJ inpovlanl Iinilalions,
Iovevev, lo vovI in advevlising as a souvce oJ
pvincipIes oJ connunicalion.
TIe Jivsl is lIe Jacl lIal nan oJ lIe vesuIls
ave Iepl conJidenliaI Iecause oJ lIeiv connevciaI
vaIue. A second diJJicuIl is lIe conpIexil oJ lIe
silualion in vIicI veseavcI is cavvied on. Ovgani-
zalions JvequenlI Iave sinuIlaneous vadio, nevs-
papev, nagazine, and poslev advevlising vilI con-
pIex lenpovaI veIalions vIicI naIe il diJJicuIl lo
allviIule vesuIls lo speciJiaIIe causes. TIivdI,
lIe veseavcI Ias Ieen done pvinaviI vilIoul veJ-
evence lo lIeovelicaI sslenalizalion so lIal il is
diJJicuIl lo genevaIize lIe vesuIls lo nev silualions.
BesuIls ave nosl JvequenlI oJ lIe lpe lIal ad A
pvoduces nove saIes lIan ad B, Iul vilIoul an
sslenalic accounl oJ lIe vespecls in vIicI lIe
lvo ads veve lIe sane and in vIicI lIe veve
diJJevenl.
LaslI, inpovlanl ideas Iave cone Jvon anaIsis
oJ pvoIIens oJ connunicalion in induslv. TIe
inpovlance oJ lIis pvoIIen vas cIeavI sIovn I
lIe eavI sludies oJ Mao 12 and olIevs. A IooI
IiIe lIal oJ CIeslev Bavnavd 13 on IeadevsIip Ias a
Iavge nunIev oJ signiJicanl IpolIeses as lo lIe
voIe oJ connunicalions, lIe JovnaI and inJovnaI
cIanneIs vIicI exisl vilIin an ovganizalion and
lIe Iavvievs lo nove eJJeclive connunicalion up
and dovn lIe Iines oJ ovganizalion and acvoss
lIen. Sslenalic vovI is Ieing Iegun on lIe
pvoIIen oJ connunicalion vilIin nanagenenl,
Ielveen nanagenenl and lIe vovIev, and Ielveen
nanagenenl and lIe puIIic.
TIe pvoIIen conJvonling us cuvvenlI is nol
lIen IacI oJ ideas and IpolIeses. TIese as ve
Iave seen ave avaiIaIIe on evev side. WIal ave
pvinaviI IacIing ave lvo lIings |1) IacI oJ a
conpveIensive lIeovelicaI slvucluve lo enIvace lIe
divevse ideas and IuncIes Jvon lIe vavious JieIds
and |2) sslenalic expevinenlaI vovI lo cIecI
and veviJ ov veJule lIe IpolIeses oIlaining.
In sslenalizing lIe JieId lIe vovI vIicI Ias
Ieen done on lIe pscIoIog oJ Ieavning Ias
pvoved oJ enovnous IeIp. TIis is nol unexpecled
vIen ve slop lo considev lIal connunicalion is
essenliaII lIal pIase oJ Ieavning in vIicI lIe con-
dilions Jov Ieavning ave sel up I anolIev indi-
viduaI, lIe connunicalov. TIus aII leacIing is
connunicaling.
12
Mao E., TIe Iunan pvoIIens oJ an induslviaI civiIi-
zalion, N. Y., MacniIIan, 1933.
13 Bavnavd, C. I. TIe Junclions oJ lIe execulive, Havv-
avd Univ. Fvess, 1938.
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VOL. 92, No. 5, 1948] SOCIAL COMMUNICATION 375
As a vesuIl oJ lIe inlinale veIalionsIip oJ con-
nunicalion lo Ieavning ve Iave a quile sizeaIIe
Iod oJ pvincipIes aIvead avaiIaIIe lo guide us in
lIe deveIopnenl oJ a science oJ, connunicalion.
We Inov lIe eIenenls vIicI ave nosl veIevanl lo
anaIsis oJ lIis pvocess-slinuIi, vesponses, no-
lives, and vevavds. We Inov sonelIing aIoul
lIe condilions undev vIicI nev IaIils ave ac-
quived. We Inov vIal Iappens vIen lIe Jouv
eIenenls ave appvopvaleI lined and vIal Iappens
vIen lIe ave nol.
TIese pvincipIes lie logelIev a Iol oJ lIe IuncIes
devived Jvon sone oJ lIe pvaclicaI gvoups nen-
lioned eavIiev. Bul lIe aIso lend lo naIe us sIep-
licaI oJ sone oJ lIe lIeovies advanced I sone
connunicalovs. Lel ne cile one exanpIe.
Man advevlisevs assevl lIal an connunicalion
viII Ie eJJeclive iJ il is vepealed JvequenlI enougI.
FscIoIogicaI lIeov, on lIe olIev Iand, slvesses
lIe Jacl lIal vepelilion viII onI Ie eJJeclive vIen
lIe pvopev conIinalions oJ lIe olIev eIenenls oJ
nolive, vevavd, and vesponse ave oIsevved. WilI-
oul a vesponse Ieading lo salisJaclion nol Ieavning,
Iul unIeavning sIouId occuv. Al lIe supevJiciaI
IeveI ve couId sa lIal nan vepelilions viII
slvenglIen lIe desived IeIaviov Iul lIe slvenglIen-
ing is nol lIe vesuIl oJ vepelilion aIone.
TIis appvoacI oJ lIe advevlisev lo lIe pvoIIen
oJ connunicalion is iIIuslvaled in lIe slov in lo-
da's Nev YovI Tines concevning a pIanned
canpaign lo eIininale vace pvejudice.
An aggvessive nalionaI advevlising canpaign uliI-
izing vivluaII evev lpe oJ nediun veacIing lIe
puIIic, vilI lIe oIjeclive oJ naIing vaciaI pvejudice
as unpopuIav as B.O. viII Ie cavvied on I lIe Ad-
vevlising CounciI, Inc., il vas announced eslevda.
Buving a pvess conJevence pviov lo lIe announce-
nenl oJ lIe canpaign, Lee BvisloI, vice pvesidenl oJ
BvisloI-Mevs and canpaign coovdinalov, said
Evev neans oJ advevlising vIicI couId pvoIaII
Ie useJuI viII Ie noIiIized in lIis JigIl againsl
pvejudice. Sone oJ lIe Iesl Ivains in lIe advevlising
pvoJession Iave donaled lIeiv line and laIenl lo lIe
design oJ slviIing poslevs and eIoquenl slalenenls
oJ lIe Anevican cveed. TIvougI Iusiness JaciI-
ilies ve viII use advevlising in nevspapevs, naga-
zines, ovev lIe aiv, in ouldoov dispIa paneIs, and suI-
va cav cavds.
Biscussing lIe pvogvan, Edvavd BoaI, counciI
canpaign nanagev, said il vouId Ie pusIed slvongI
in lIe SoulI. We Inov lIal lIeve is sone suppovl
in lIe SoulI aIvead, Mv. BoaI assevled. We
inlend lo Iil lIe SoulI as Iavd and as oJlen as ve
can and JeeI veasonaII cevlain lIal nucI oJ ouv
naleviaI viII Ie vun in SoulIevn nevspapevs and
olIev nedia consislenlI. 14
TIe oIjeclive is a vovlI one and connunica-
lion nedia na Iave an inpovlanl voIe in
allacIing
lIis pvoIIen, Iul I an suve ou viII JeeI Jvon
Mv. WivlI's papev Ialev in lIe pvogvan lIal sone
inpovlanl eIenenls oJ lIe pvoIIen Iave nol Ieen
suJJicienlI laIen inlo accounl. Hovevev, iJ lIe
cop Jov lIe canpaign is adequaleI Ieed lo in-
povlanl pevsonaI nolives, vepelilion viII incvease
lIe cIances oJ an individuaI's Ieing exposed lo lIe
connunicalion.
I Iave slvessed lIe voIe oJ pscIoIogicaI lIeov.
EquaII inpovlanl is lIe deveIopnenl oJ socioIogi-
caI and anlIvopoIogicaI lIeovies concevning con-
nunicalions. TIe va in vIicI connunicalion
is lvansnilled in vavious lpes oJ sociaI slvucluve
is an oIvious exanpIe vIeve lIe individuaI and
lIe gvoup ave inlevdependenl. Even nove signiJi-
canl is lIe Jacl lIal undevslanding oJ lIe vevavd
sslen Jov individuaIs is onI possiIIe in lIe IigIl
oJ lIe slvucluve oJ lIe individuaI's sociel, and
lIal socioIogicaI and anlIvopoIogicaI anaIses oJ
vIal gels vevavded and vIal gels punisIed in lIe
sociel as a vIoIe, and nove pavlicuIavI in lIe
suIgvoups oJ lIe sociel, Ias a nosl inpovlanl
Junclion.
TIis IvieJ suvve Ias, I Iope, sIovn lIal vilIin
lIe Iasl decade lIeve Iave Ieen deveIoped lIe Iasic
naleviaIs needed lo suppovl an aII-oul oJJensive
in deveIoping a science oJ connunicalion. TIe
inpvoved lecIniques Jov lIe anaIsis oJ lIe con-
lenl oJ connunicalion, lIe vecenl inpvovenenl
in nelIods oJ sluding lIe IeIaviov eIiciled I
connunicalion, and lIe avaiIaIiIil oJ IolI ac-
cunuIaled expevience and sone sslenalic lIeov
naIe il possiIIe lo sel up nove cvilicaI oIsevvalion
and expevinenls. Il appeavs quile IiIeI lIal ve
sIaII vilness suIslanliaI pvogvess vilIin lIe nexl
eavs on lIis inpovlanl nev Jvonliev.
14
Nev YovI Tines Jov FeI. 6, 1948.
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