Sie sind auf Seite 1von 27

MINDING THE GAPS

TEMPORARY USE AS A STRATEGIC TOOL IN URBAN DESIGN

Emma Rutherford
MA Spatial Planning and Urban Design Final MA Design Thesis Faculty of Architecture and Spatial Design London Metropolitan University

August 2012

MINDING THE GAPS


TEMPORARY USE AS A STRATEGIC TOOL IN URBAN DESIGN

Emma Rutherford
Many thanks to those close to me for their patience and support over the last couple of years. To Design for London and in particular Paul Clarke for their time and knowledge. To my tutors for their insights and most of all to the others SPUDers for all the all the support, stimulating conversations and the relaxing pints afterwards.

MA Spatial Planning and Urban Design Final MA Design Thesis emma.a.rutherford@gmail.com

GLOSSARY

CONTENTS

GLOSSARY
Temporary Impermanent: Interim: Something which lasts for a limited period of time. The opposite of permanent. The time period beginning when the original function of a site or building is terminated and continuing until the site or building is redeveloped. The time between developments but less defined that interim. A term coined by Eric Reynolds that compresses interim and meanwhile together. A short sharp project A project that goes on until it is superseded or moved on. Something to stop a site seeming empty between developments. A deliberate filler. A project that is intended to only have a short life. Minding the Gaps

CONTENTS
Introduction 2 People 3 Logistics 4 Benefits 7 Legislative Context 8 Practice and Projects Just here, just now 10 We know what we want 12 The Berlin Story 16 An Amsterdam Tale 19 Meanwhile in London 24 Learning from Others 29 Conclusion 33 References 37 Bibliography 43

Meanwhile: Interwhile:

Pop-up: For now: Stop-gap:

CASE STUDIES
Films on Fridges 5 Folly for a Flyover 11 Camden Lock Market 14 Unser Graceland 17 Kinetic North 20 London Pleasure Gardens 26 The Dalston Mill 32

Short term:

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

Mind the Gaps Temporary uses are fast gaining recognition and popularity. Restaurants, galleries and cinemas are popping up all over the capital on a weekly basis. However this is just one element of the role that temporary use is playing in the shaping of our cities and increasingly it is being employed by official bodies as part of a more long term plan. At this transition point this study looks to explore temporary use as a strategic tool in urban design though a series of carefully selected case studies. These look to explore the range of scales (both time scales and physical scales) at which strategic temporary use occurs and address some key areas through considering the story of the project. The story will uncover; the process the project went through in order to be implemented, the crucial individuals or groups involved, how long the process took, if there were any primary tools or publications and what the long term out comes of the projects have been. Each is also accompanied by an individual project case study, this looks to address the two main scales this study needs to consider in order to get a cohesive understanding of the wider role of temporary use, the strategy and the detail. The study is intended to be an accessible and useful document which can be read as a whole but is equally made up of individual stories that are useful in their own right. From the outset it is also important to consider some of the things this study will not do. It will not consider temporary use in the broader sense, the recently published Temporary City1

INTRODUCTION
captures the scope of what can constitute as temporary very well. The definition of what is temporary is challenging to define in itself. It includes anything from individual one on one interactions such as those described in Temporary Autonomous Zones2 to questioning whether anything is permanent. During an interview in Trinity Buoy Wharf Eric Reynolds boldly stated, (e)very thing you see from this window is temporary3. This included the new Ravensbourne College buildings and the (temporary) O2 Arena, of course he was right however this is not an existential essay and so the projects considered will all have been intended to last less than 13 years when they were conceived. This study is also not a handbook or manual of how to run a temporary project, Meanwhile Space4 is a fantastic source of information and advice for those considering running a project of their own. Rather this project explores the gap between the temporary and what is considered the very permanent large scale urban designs, and considers the opportunities for each enriching the other. The study comes from a strong personal interest. Last summer I designed, organised and ran a temporary cinema in Hackney Wick. The experience was challenging, exhausting, incredibly satisfying and fun. The project however was very much of one specific moment in time and I felt slightly dissatisfied with that. It prompted consideration and exploration into the other forms of temporary use that were occurring and the growing influence they were having on the way planning is approached. This study also comes at a specific period in time. The economic crisis of 2008 hit London hard, retail vacancy rates in town centres rose from 5% in 2008 to 14.6% in 20125, developments were stalled so sites stood empty and the demand for new developments in fringe sites all but disappeared. In the same period unemployment rose from 5.1% to 8.5% 6, in the years following the recession the number of new start-ups was at a record high and projects built by frustrated young architects (including myself!) began exciting media attention. This excitement has spread rapidly and now anything from a franchised boutique in a department store to festival is labelled pop-up. This study is not a pop-up, it is concerned with the long view. It aims to learn through recording what has come before and provide an insight into the potential for temporary projects to influence the long-term.

Everything you see from this window is temporary3 View from Trinity Buoy Wharf window, 2011, photo Emma Rutherford

Harvey Nichols pop-up in Westfield Stratford,


photo Emma Rutherford

PEOPLE

LOGISTICS

Minding the Gaps Temporary projects are particularly related to both their physical and time based context. To understand the detail as well as the strategy of the subject case study fact sheets are used to record the same data for a range of projects. This will help understand how much temporary projects vary and what the constant challenges are. The areas selected are partly taken from personal experience. Last summer (2011) as part of a trio I designed, constructed and ran Films on Fridges, a temporary cinema in Hackney Wick. This has given me an insight into the range of scales that influence a project and led me to consider things it would be hard to learn second hand. The first case study is about Films on Fridges and will be placed alongside the areas considered to illustrate the how the case study fact sheets will work.

PEOPLE
Temporary projects by their very nature tend to operate in a less defined way that a permanent project would, this means that human relationships become absolutely essential. Much of the work is delivered on a voluntary basis and projects often strongly rely on funding, sponsorship or rent-free land. The main roles in any temporary project can be identified as the landowner, the instigator, the occupier and a partner/partners. It is important to point out that these roles are not exclusive of each other.

Minding the Gaps

LOGISTICS
PROJECT DURATION
The project duration has a huge impact on the way a project is planned and developed. Those lasting just a day will often require a lot more marketing and promotion so they can hit the ground running, they also tend to rely on paid tickets to ensure attendance, income and ultimately success. Longer running projects can afford to build a reputation and rely on repeat custom. Short and intense, long and quieter, neither of these is more or less valid. As stated previously the concept of what is temporary is hard to define however all the examples studied in were all initially intended to last for 13 years or less.

ROLES

The person/group who came up with the initial idea for the project brief. The instigator has an idea for what the programme could be and an idea of how the project could be feasible for the given time. For some projects this is a collective that can involve designers or architects, as well as community groups.

THE INSTIGATOR

The following section will consider the different practical aspects affecting a project. These can only be controlled to a certain degree. Often many of the factors are unknown until the later stages of a project. This requires projects to be flexible and adapt at different points in their development.

The person/group who owns the vacant land or building. This can be an individual, a company or a public body. When considering temporary use as a strategic tool in urban development the landowner has a particularly important role. They have a longterm interest in the site and will ultimately either make a profit or a loss depending on future development. In the current economic recession there has been a trend of landowners putting in place temporary uses on sites where a development is on hold.

THE LANDOWNER

The person/group running the event/programme. The occupier oversees and runs the project on a day to day basis, they are the person with the keys on the ground and makes sure that any onsite issues are dealt with and managed. This work is often voluntary.

THE OCCUPIER

PROGRAMME
(I)ts great if a project looks good but if it doesnt have the right programme itll never work 1
Giles Smith, Assemble CIC

A group or company that is integral to the delivery of the project.

A PARTNER/PARTNERS

This could be a sponsor, funding partner or a group that deliver activities for the project.

The people who use the services provided by the project and/or attend events.

THE USERS

The programme chosen defines the very nature of what the project will be. The in the recent movement of temporary use projects this has tended to be a culturally based programme - a cinema, a restaurant, a theatre. These are all very public and are considered to contribute socially to an area. This perhaps is the main difference between the more recent projects and previous temporary use projects. Previously temporary use was primarily the domain of flexible business models that did not need to be area specific. Open storage, a popular meanwhile use, rents land before development has happened. Currently use class designations for a building or site can have an effect on what the programme will be.

CONSTRUCTION PERIOD
This is reliant on site access and can strongly inform the design of a project. Projects with a short construction period require a considered design. For example due to licence limitations Films on Fridges was limited to a 4 day construction period and a 2 day takedown. This relied on volunteers unfamiliar with the project being an integral part of the construction. The design therefore was built around easy and quick assembly. Where possible elements were standardised so timber could be pre-cut off site reducing onsite labour. These restrictions reduce as the construction period become longer or is even unlimited/ongoing.

Building Franks a temporary bar on the roof of a multistory carpark in Peckham. photo, aestheticamagazine.com

CASE STUDY 001

LOGISTICS

6 public space could work. These projects require little money and make little money however they are a generous and enjoyable civic act that can enliven an area just as much as a cultural programme.

FILMS ON FRIDGES

Summer 2011

BUDGET
One of the main business cases for temporary projects is that they are quick and cheap. Compared to many conventional projects this is the case however, costs are often significant. Projects are typically paid for in one of two ways, they are either speculative or externally funded. Speculative projects rely on loans or prospective ticket, food and drink sales. Funded or sponsored projects are financed through grants from public or charitable bodies. They often relate to the aims of the project and whether it works with the ultimate goals of the funding body. Even on well-funded projects voluntary labour and sponsorship is a key element of the financing structure. To reduce costs most of the work is usually in house or with volunteer help, only very specialist tasks are out sourced. Sponsorship can come in many forms; Free products that can be sold at a profit, free materials that reduce construction costs, loaned equipment or reduced fees from professional services. The incentive for companies is eye catching and unconventional advertising or just wanting to be part of the project. It is also important at this stage to ask - does a project need to be profitable? In some cases alternative funding models are used. Projects run by The Decorators1 a London based collective are based on alternative funding models such as time banks and exchanging raw ingredients for a cooked meal2. Projects also do not always have to be commercial. There have been numerous examples of temporary public realm projects, Rebar3 in San Francisco have been especially creative with how temporary

H Forman & Son LANDOWNER Scout Ltd. INSTIGATOR Scout Ltd. with Emma Rutherford OCCUPIER Picturehouse Cinemas Ltd. PARTNER PROGRAMME Cinema and bar. 28 days PROJECT DURATION 4 days CONSTRUCTION PERIOD 4,000 raised through kickstarter BUDGET + money made. Initial site plan, Emma Rutherford Medium SITE SIZE Open land SITE TYPE 3 core, 3 key other and over 150 volunteers TEAM SIZE PERMISSIONS/PERMITS/LICENCES 28 day permission, and relevant licences. Due to the hazardous gasses in fridge doors the site needed to be registered as a waste storage facility. Following Films on Fridges the site has had numerous temporary projects including the Foremans Riviera during the period of the London 2012 Olympics. The site is still intended for permanent development however the landowner is maximising the potential income from temporary activities in the interim. Source: Emma Rutherford
Night time fridges photo, Emma Rutherford

The bigger the site, the bigger the challenge!

SITE AREA SITE TYPE

Whether a site is empty or already has existing buildings can greatly affect the nature of a project. Many of the more publicised projects have been built on empty sites however the majority of temporary use happens in reappropriated buildings. Unofficially many buildings are squatted for living and cultural programmes and officially many are adapted into workspaces and performance and events spaces. The condition of a building or the land will have a significant impact on the budget and construction time needed. Quite simply the more people, the more skills and the wider the network. For projects that operate on a small budget this is priceless. Wider networks give access to more helpful people, sponsors and possible connections with funders, essentially wider access to people who will be interested in and want to be part of the project in some way. More connections help to spread awareness of the project by word of mouth. Regardless of the group size there does have to be a good working relationship between all those involved. When the group gets bigger this invariably become more of a challenge.

TEAM SIZE

OUTCOME POST PROJECT

Empty Films on Fridges site, a blank canvas


photo, Emma Rutherford

BENEFITS

LEGISLATIVE CONTEXT

Mind the Gaps

BENEFITS

Minding the Gaps If this study wants to understand the potential impact in the long term it is essential to understand the legislative context a project will work in. This section will briefly consider the current policy context, the challenges of this and solutions or changes that are already underway. Temporary use sits in a hazy area of policy. There are currently no specific policies that relate to temporary use other than a provision in Part 4 of the Town and Country Planning General Permitted Development Order1 which enables land to be used for events for up to 28 days a year without needing planning permission this is often used for car boot sales and fairs. In general the absence of legislation has led to projects either not applying for planning permission or question marks over how to proceed from both the project and the Local Authority when permission is requested. Fortunately policy is rapidly reacting to the increased demand to occupy vacant sites. The economic crisis affected many small businesses, as a result the number of vacancies in retail units on the high street grew significantly between from 5% in 2008 to 14.6% in 20122. In 2009 this prompted government to publish Looking after our town centres3 a guide offering practical solutions for town centre managers to facilitate areas in reaching their full potential. A key outcome of the report was The Meanwhile Project a 2.6million fund that was equally allocated to 57 boroughs nationwide to improve their town centres though temporary use4. As part of the

LEGISLATIVE CONTEXT
MA Spatial Planning and Urban Design road trip in January 2011 we visited one such town centre. The high street in Redcar had been badly affected by the recession, before receiving funding there were 70 vacant shops on the high street. The money was put towards creating virtual shops, these animated the windows of vacant shops with stickers of virtual shop interiors suggesting possible future uses and even including an interactive Wheres Wally type game for local school children to play. Just 7 months after the virtual shops were installed in Redcar the vacancy rate on the high street had halved5. The Portas Report published in December 2011 built on the success of the Meanwhile Project specifically advocating temporary use as a way of bringing vibrancy and life back to the high street6. It also contained recommendations to streamline the process for initiating a project and to reduce some of the bureaucratic barriers currently facing those wanting to use vacant building for start-ups. These have been noted and are included in a supplementary document to the new streamlined national planning policy the National Planning Policy Framework7 the supplementary document proposes (t)o introduce a permitted development right to allow the temporary use of certain for two years, where the use would be low impact, without the need for planning permission.8 Eric Pickles has been quoted as saying (t)his change can unleash our young entrepreneurs to open pop-up shops and turn the high streets into an exciting start-up launch pad9. The publication marks a clear intention to enable local authorities to use temporary use in a controlled way as part of their Local Development Frameworks building a degree of flexibility into official policy. Alongside the evolving national policy it is crucial to consider how individual projects are affected. Currently there are three categories of temporary project. Those that are unofficial and happen with no licences or permits, those that operate under a 28 day licence and those that are longer and require full planning permission with a temporary clause. This is commonly used on major temporary projects such as the London Eye and the O2 arena to allow development for a specific period of time, it is also used in projects like Folly for a Flyover10 to enable development for a given period of time. The consent works like any other but with a clause stating that the development is only possible if it is temporary. This enables the occupier to plan for a certain amount of time and ensures the landowner that the land will be vacated after the agreed period. In order to bring more clarity to all parties, Meanwhile Space have developed a standard Meanwhile Lease 11. This standard lease allows a clear contract to be drawn up between the two parties with minimal cost implications for either.

Vacant retail spaces boarded up - an opportunity photo, guardian.co.uk Much of the discussion around the benefits of temporary use focuses on economic gains. This section explores the wider benefits for the various stakeholders and how this can contribute to long-term aspirations for an area. Meanwhile Space have explored these in depth in their report - Benefits for Stakeholders1. Importantly there is a potential financial gain for the landowner, if an asset is occupied the occupant covers the utility bills etc. and meanwhile use can also providing relief from business rates2. The occupant on the other hand benefits from low cost and low commitment space where ideas can be tested and where there is the opportunity for innovation and growth. There are also many clear benefits to the users and the wider community. Temporary use can help maintain vibrancy in an area where otherwise there would be a vacant building. The Meanwhile Project, which will be discussed in the legislative context section of this study, highlighted this with the ultimate aim of enabling long term development. It concentrated on bringing empty shops in city centres back to life through meanwhile projects thus retaining their commercial value and the quality of the street environment. The availability of vacant buildings in prominent locations also enables social projects or third sector organisations to provide services in a place that they would not usually be able to afford. All these conditions lead to a mutually beneficial situation, therefore at the very least the use of temporary projects should be considered in a long term plan.

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - JUST HERE, JUST NOW

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - JUST HERE, JUST NOW

10

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS

Minding the Gaps The popularity of pop-ups has exploded and they have gained wide spread media coverage with www.londonpopups.com - posting at least 50 new projects a week. This is a good example of how technology is changing the way projects are promoted, as explained by STEALTH. unlimited: Our cities have always been subject to continuous organic redesign, but the new wave of temporary activity is perhaps a manifestation of the acceleration in this process. New technology and communications media certainly have a central enabling role in temporary use.1 facebook, twitter, free websites and blogs are the main source of advertising for many projects. A pop-up is where a landowner allows an occupier to use their land, the projects are often quick and exciting. In recent years the frequency and variety of these events has increased dramatically. During the recent recession popups have been one way for start-ups to test the water. During times of economic stress, the idea of alternative reuse for stalled sites often bubbles to the surface.2 Eric Reynolds They have also been successfully used by worldwide brands and businesses as a high impact and low cost marketing strategy, a prime example being the TV program Friends opening a pop-up Central Perk caf in Londons Soho, to celebrate the release of the final series of the programme on DVD 3. The media attention this

JUST HERE, JUST NOW


would gain made it a good investment even if the caf itself wasnt profitable. These projects are specifically focused on one place at one point in time and do not intend to engage with a longer term view. There are however some notable examples where the pop-up approach has been used in projects that work as part of a longer term strategy for the area. Folly for a Flyover was a cinema that popped up in Hackney Wick last summer (2011) it was designed, constructed and run by Assemble CIC a collective of recently graduated artists and architects. The project was well received and very popular however what is less known is that it was also part of a longer term strategy for the Hackney Wick. The site on the edge of the canal and under the A12 Flyover was identified as an opportunity in HWFI (Hackney Wick Fish Island) Public Realm Strategy4 a study commissioned by the London Borough of Hackney and the London Development Agency and carried out by Muf architecture/art. The plan identifies 21 projects that build on the existing assets and character to create a public realm that is both legible and has improved connectivity5. The flyover site was offered to Assemble CIC through a member of the team who also worked for Muf art/architecture. There were several questions surrounding the site: Would people come? How did routes to the site work? Were existing transport connections adequate? Could the site sustain a caf? The Folly was a good
Dalston Mill 2009, Exyzt photo, oliverwainwright.co.uk

way to test the potential of the strategy through doing. It was also an effective way to raise awareness of the area for when future projects were implemented. The Folly was a success and the site is now being developed as a permanent public space. The layout and materiality of design has been affected by the interim project.6 In Making Space Dalston7 a research project considering the role of public space in Dalston, Muf also had an evolving approach to how temporary tests could support more traditional research techniques. The Dalston Mill8 was created on an identified opportunity site. The working mill designed by Exyzt was active for one month during the summer of 2009. As well as cultural and music events it provided milling and baking courses using wheat from its very own field. As with the Folly the site has been retained and is now the Eastern Curve Gardens an ongoing pocket park.

11

CASE STUDY 002

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - WE KNOW WHAT WED LIKE

12

FOLLY FOR A FLYOVER

Summer 2011

Minding the Gaps Urban Space Management Ltd. have been working in London since the 1970s and refer to themselves as a consultant, developer, manager and investor1. They use interim use as an integral part of their approach to development. Temporary use has been used by commercial models for a long time, this section will consider the nature of speculative temporary use and, through specific examples, how it has had a permanent impact on the development and its surroundings. Urban Space Management Ltd.s approach is a looser and more adaptable way of developing the city, they have a strong view on the potential of vacant sites and the role that temporary use can play in longer term plans for the city. Their projects tackle problem sites and as well as being financially profitable they have a definite social and spatial intent. Their view on maximising the potential of vacant or under used sites is clear, doing something is better than doing nothing2. When speaking of his methodology Eric Reynolds, Urban Space Managements founding director referenced their approach as one of an urban farmer maximising the potential of a site I know that most of the major landowners dont understand it at all but a farmer understands it because a farmer may have cows in a field and then he may have sheep in a field and then he may have oil seed rape in a field and he

WE KNOW WHAT WED LIKE


understands it I think we farm. We have N amount of space, we have Y amount of demand not necessarily for the space but things that come from the space and broadly thats how we approach things.3 This is in essence an ongoing right here, right now attitude that allows flexibility to adapt to future changes. The projects that have come from this approach are well used and well liked pieces of city; Spitalfields Market, Camden Lock Market and Gabriels Wharf are all projects that were initially conceived by Urban Space Management as interwhile 4 projects. The Camden Lock Market in particular is a good example of how an interwhile use has changed the subsequent plan for the area. In 1973 the land around Camden Lock was acquired on a 7year lease, at the time it was a derelict industrial site in an area of economic decline. Development was planned on the land but the proposed office development was put on hold by potential plans to build a motorway through the site. An arts and crafts market was established as a stop-gap project and when the decision was finally made to not build the motorway the market had become so popular it became the preferred permanent plan for the area.5 Camden Lock Market is now one of the most popular tourist attractions in London and the success of the lock market has led to the entire stretch between Chalk Farm and Camden Road stations being developed on the same model: a large collection of small independent traders. This same approach is being used in Brixton Market by the Space Makers Agency6 in an arcade that had struggled to attract traders for over a decade. In 2009 there was a call for traders wanting a lease of up to 3 months, with the ambition of becoming long term tenants. There was a huge response and within the year the arcade had developed into a vibrant collection of independent shops in central Brixton. Both of these cases allowed for relatively

Hackney Parks authority (land), Transport for London (A12 structure) LANDOWNER and British Waterways (canal and tow path) Muf Art and Architecture + Assemble CIC INSTIGATOR Assemble CIC OCCUPIER The Barbican + Create PARTNER PROGRAMME Cinema, caf and rowing boats on the canal 6 weeks (Initially 1 month) PROJECT DURATION 3 weeks CONSTRUCTION PERIOD 40,000 (create) + free materials + BUDGET money made Folly nestled in its context Small SITE SIZE Open land with canal and flyover SITE TYPE 18 core + over 200 volunteers TEAM SIZE PERMISSIONS/PERMITS/LICENCES Full planning permission with temporary clause. Bat survey. Assemble were required to have 24hr external security. Approval from British Waterways for boating.

photo, londonist.com

OUTCOME POST PROJECT


The site was part of HIFI Public Realm Strategy a study exploring the public realm in Hackney Wick carried out by Muf art/architecture. It is gradually turning into a permanent public space however, there was a shortfall in funding to provide permanent utilities to the site is delaying the project. Source: Members of Assemble CIC
Night time at the Folly photo, ayoungertheatre.com

Proposed Cathedral Group development, Deptford


photo, deptforddame.blogspot.com

13

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - WE KNOW WHAT WED LIKE inexpensive ways of testing whether this programme would work. In both cases it did and the projects have gone on to be socially and economically successful and have had an impact on the way the surrounding area has developed. Another popular speculative venture is developers using sites in creative ways, either while construction is in progress or while a development is stalled. Though most of these it could be said are primarily driven by gaining social cache and maximising alternative streams of income, some are also shaping the way future developments evolve. Cathedral Group are well known for their engagement with temporary or evolving plans. The Deptford Project is a popular local centre that hosts a variety of events and includes a caf in decommissioned commuter train carriages. It was completed in 2008 as a conscious move to kickstart7 a 42m mixed-use PPP regeneration scheme Cathedral Group won in 2006. The Deptford project has become very popular amongst existing residents and has subsequently opened up the adjacent railway arches to local crafts people on temporary leases. A vibrant community has built up here which will undoubtedly have an influence on the character of the resulting scheme. From these it is clear to see that there is a market for temporary development. Commercial developers regardless of their social beliefs would not operate a number of projects at a loss using this model. It is interesting then to consider the approach public sector initiated schemes have and how the projects have developed.

CASE STUDY 003

14

CAMDEN LOCK MARKET


Let from British Waterways Board LANDOWNER Urban Space Management Ltd. INSTIGATOR Several market stall holders OCCUPIER Northside Developments, LB Camden, PARTNER Capital Radio, Camden Town Centre Management and Dingwalls PROGRAMME Art and Crafts Market Initially 7 year lease PROJECT DURATION Ongoing CONSTRUCTION PERIOD 12 million BUDGET Big SITE SIZE Open land next to canal w/market hall SITE TYPE Information not Available TEAM SIZE PERMISSIONS/PERMITS/LICENCES Full planning permission needed. Individual licences acquired by individual traders.

1973 to date

Camden Lock pre market photo, http://londonist.com

OUTCOME POST PROJECT


The market is still successful today and is one of Londons most popular tourist destinations. The area between Chalk Farm and Camden Town station has adopted the same business model. Source: www.urbanspace.com
Camden Lock Market today photo, camden-market.com

The Deptford Project 2009, The Cathedral Group photo, curestudio.com

15

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS Berlin and Amsterdam both have examples temporary projects that were supported and facilitated by policy and have resulted in significant regeneration of an area. In both of cities examples Urban Catalyst has been a key player in the process, Urban Catalyst is a Berlin based European research project specialising in urban development through temporary use. They believe (t)he traditional instruments of architecture and urban planning are increasingly unable to address the new challenges.1 Their aim is to foster public discourse on contemporary urban issues and develop concepts and strategies for planners and architects2. Urban Catalyst were initially focused on research primarily through case studies however, more recently they have won concept design commissions in their own right.

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - THE BERLIN STORY

16

Minding the Gaps Berlin is widely recognised as a city where temporary use has been an integral part of the way the city is now developing. This is largely the result of the citys turbulent history which has resulted in a wealth of vacant and under used land near the city centre. During WW2 the city was bombed extensively. This physical upheaval was swiftly followed by political instability as the city was governed by a succession of Fascist, Communist and then Capitalist regimes. Furthermore the construction and then demolition of the Berlin Wall shaped the city spatially in a unique way. Along the line of the former wall some development runs right to the boundary creating tight areas but in other places it has left large spaces of undeveloped land and former industrial sites. The result is a lot of slack space right in the centre of the city. When the wall was demolished in 1990 the number of people living in the city stood at 2 million and the slack was expected to be filled by a surge in population however this never materialised and by 1994 the population has only increased by half a million people3. Informal settlements began using spaces and land unofficially to live in and set up informal cultural venues, this prompted the group Studio Urban Catalyst to explore the idea of temporary use as an alternative strategy of development for the city and its planning department. Their study Urban Catalysts published in 20034 investigated the potential of temporary uses as a motor of

THE BERLIN STORY


urban change and the results of the study outlined the practical implications of temporary use for planning and urban development. Temporary uses became more commonplace in the city and the economic benefits for landowners were increasingly recognised. Though the temporary occupants themselves were not profitable the awareness for the site increased and therefore the prospect for future tenants was far better. Temporary use was essentially used as a marketing strategy for sites. Increasingly temporary use grew to be recognised as a mutually beneficial arrangement and to clarify the situation the term Zwischennutzung-literally translated as in-between use- was introduced into German planning policy.5 This had little material effect on the role of temporary use and occupants were still often expelled when more profitable and permanent tenants were found. It did however begin to elevate the perception of in-between use by recognising it officially. Michael Rostalski an architect and urban researcher of the Workstation group who is involved in the temporary use movement in Berlin has been quoted as saying at this stage, urban decision makers in Berlin had not even contemplated the potential of temporary use beyond opportunities for financial development.6 In 2004 the Berlin Senate Department of Urban Development commissioned a study focusing on the informal actors leading the process of informal urbanism. Titled Land Pioneers of Berlin7 it was aimed at acknowledging the importance of temporary use and the effect it was having on the citys development. The study provided an overview of interim use in Berlin and showcased over 100 local examples. The following year the Senate Department hosted a City Forum to highlight the results and debate further ways to encourage temporary use in Berlin and commissioned a detailed report to record and develop the citys findings and recommendations.
Temporary beach, Berlin, photo, atlasobscura.com

Map showing distribution of temporary projects across Berlin Source, Urban Pioneers, Pg 49

17

CASE STUDY 004

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - THE BERLIN STORY One interesting development of this process was the recognition of the impact the creation of a new coordinator of interim use had been to initiate interim use in an area on the former wall boundary. The position was created at the equivalent of a local authority level rather than a citywide level to enable maximum impact, as it is at this point that planning permissions are granted or denied and where there is more in-depth knowledge of local aims and dynamics. Working with a number of community groups and interested individuals approximately 100 hectares of open space as were marketed as land in exchange for ideas and through this a number of community gardens, parks and recreation sites were created.8 This process highlights the importance of a strong base of local knowledge and a passion and understanding of the potential that temporary use has if it is to be pursued as a strategy. Other findings recorded the reluctance of some occupiers to leave and reinforced the importance of clear leases stating the timescale of a project. There was also a noted reluctance from the city administration to make publicly owned sites available for interim use. Subsequently a detailed database of available sites was produced and there was a commitment to invest in projects. Like the creation of the term Zwischennutzung this process did not change legislation but the very act of investing in research and the understanding of temporary use changed the perception of projects. It gave more legitimacy to both the occupier and landowner and so introduced an expected level of respect. The value placed on temporary use has resulted in a mutually beneficial dynamic, the landowner needs the occupier as much as the occupier needs the landowner. Technically illegal bars and clubs are now tolerated by property developers who see the value of their half-built real estate rise with hearsay.9 Urban Pioneers: Temporary Use and Urban Development in Berlin10 published in 2009 by Urban Catalyst develops the thinking on temporary use, once again this was supported by the citys government. The message is clear: Interim use is an investment in a citys image.11 With the temporary occupation being identified as valuable through its very presence there has been less pressure on programmes or projects to be financially profitable and as a result the diversity of projects filling the bald patches12 in Berlins urban fabric is huge. The citys small temporary parks or secret gardens are a good example of this. Created in disused corners of the city, using cheap plants and vegetables their instigators believe in adding an element of surprise in the urban landscape through a shift in scale and materials13 . These secret gardens provide communal food growing opportunities and are a significant part of the citys urban realm. Berlin is a good example of how political will, influence and energy can bring something to the forefront of general awareness. Through placing value on temporary uses they have acquired value, value that landowners want. Though some projects have been publicly financed the majority of the support has come from private or charitable funding bodies. The result has been an organic and diverse culture of the impermanent that is firmly rooted in the citys approach to the citys development.

18

UNSER GRACELAND/OUR GRACELAND


State of Berlin + local residents LANDOWNER Club Real and Caduta Sassi art groups. INSTIGATOR The local residents OCCUPIER The State Department of Berlin PARTNER PROGRAMME Public park Ongoing PROJECT DURATION Ongoing CONSTRUCTION PERIOD Not available - received funding from the BUDGET District Council + the Senate Dept Medium SITE SIZE Open land SITE TYPE The local community TEAM SIZE PERMISSIONS/PERMITS/LICENCES 2002 a rent free verbal agreement lease agreement plus public liability indemnity insurance. In 2004 relinquishment agreement with the site-managers at a monthly rent of 60.

2002 to date

Map showing site in street grid Source, Urban Pioneers

OUTCOME POST PROJECT


The park is popular and well used, regular festivals are held there. It is also sometimes used for trailers to park. Source: Urban Pioneers, Urban Catayst pg. 75
The land being used by the local community

photo, Urban Pioneers

The Volkspalast or Peoples Palace, is an ongoing unofficial cultural centre in Berlin. source, v3.arkitera.com

19

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - AN AMSTERDAM TALE

CASE STUDY 005

20

Minding the Gaps If Berlin is a good example of how official bodies can support and promote temporary use through strategic placed political will, investment in research and city wide promotion, Amsterdam is a good example of how specific and focused investment can significantly regenerate one part of a city. Amsterdam has a long history of a liberal and permissive culture, with roots in the Situationitsts , the Provo-movement in the 60s1, Kabouters in the 70s2 and the squatting movement in the 80s were all rooted in anti-establishment ideas and had an engaged and assertive approach to the city. This confident (sub)culture3 has led to an proactive relationship with the city and its opportunities. The squatting movement of the 80s in particular saw a significant number of buildings throughout Amsterdam occupied by a range of cultural uses including one particular collective of artists who were based in a building in the Amsterdam harbour. They were evicted in the late 1980s as part of a development plan for high spec residential units however this gathering of people was in fact the first stage of Amsterdam Noords alternative regeneration process.4 The wharfs of Amsterdam Noord are separated from the city by the Ij river and were the citys main docks until 1980s when shipping activity declined. Since then the area has remained mostly under occupied and in 1999 the city administrations economic policy to support

AN AMSTERDAM TALE
creative industries identified the derelict NDSM wharf as a development opportunity5. An open competition was launched for alternative uses and a collective called Kinetic North applied, some of whom had been in the group who squatted in the harbour in the 1980s. Their winning proposal to redevelop the wharf through cultural entrepreneurship6 was awarded a 13 year lease for the land. The development was based around the idea of 20 creative clusters, each cluster with a specific creative interest, some performance based, others more focused on the visual arts and some like the skate park based around street culture. Each of these clusters was allocated a low rent space in return for which they were responsible for the construction of their workspace and obtaining the required legal permissions and licences. The availability of the space was not actively advertised but rather people approached Kinetic North if they were interested in being a part of the project. The project was overseen by a board of 6 professionals with a background in cultural, legal or financial fields to advise and support the occupants. An important link in the project was an intermediary who acted as a single point of communication between the clusters and the board. The intermediary was also the single point of communication between the project and the city governance and financiers. This helped what was essentially a bottom up structured organisation work with typically top down governance and financing structures. To support the project fully the City provided advice and full co-operation with permits and licences. Crucially they also fully funded the project through a breeding fund the money for which came from a combination of central and local municipality budgets and was part of a

KINETIC NORTH

2000 to date

City of Amsterdam LANDOWNER City of Amsterdam INSTIGATOR Kinetic North OCCUPIER City of Amsterdam PARTNER PROGRAMME Cultural units, specific programmes vary. Initial 13year lease, now extended to PROJECT DURATION 25 years Approx 1 year CONSTRUCTION PERIOD 13 million BUDGET Large SITE SIZE Open land w/some industrial buildings SITE TYPE Information not available TEAM SIZE PERMISSIONS/PERMITS/LICENCES The City gave Kinetic North the Land rent free. Individual tenants were responsible for aquiring the relevent licences and permits.

Kinetic North skate park photo, juicemagazine.com

OUTCOME POST PROJECT


The project continues to be successful, it has inspired an alternative approach to planning in the Northern Dock area based on STEALTH 30 year plan, Platform for temporary use on the Northern bank of the Ij.
Proposed Deptford development, photo, STEALTH.unlimited The Northern Ij Docks photo, STEALTH.unlimited.

Source: STEALTH.unlimited. http://www.templace.com/tool-pool/onecfe2.html?tool_id=4073

21 national policy specifically aimed at creating Art Factories.7 In exchange Kinetic Norths large investment in terms of nonmonetary capital: time, knowledge, ideas and networks, was recognised and valued. Since it began the Kinetic North project has transformed the NDSM Wharf into an thriving and popular area of the city with the Amsterdams main tourism website promoting it as the most creative and active parts of Amsterdam8. In recent years international companies have been attracted to the area with MTV moving their Dutch headquarters to the neighbouring wharf in 2007 directly attributing their move to the culture and atmosphere of the North Bank9. More recently the opening last April (2012) of the Eye Film Institute clearly signalled the fact that the city was expanding over the Ij, something that would have been unthought-of 10 years ago10. The project was granted an extended 25 year lease on the land and its success prompted the city planning authority to consider the wider benefits of using temporary use as a strategy for the whole Northern Dock area. It commissioned a concept master plan carried out by STEALTH. unlimited (2003). Titled Platform for temporary use on the Northern Banks of the IJ11, the plan is part of the Urban Catalyst research group and in it STEALTH propose an approach of dynamic planning12. The document considers temporary use within the context of a flexible 30 year development plan for the area, whose ultimate aim is to create a characterful and integrated piece of city.

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - AN AMSTERDAM TALE

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - AN AMSTERDAM TALE

22

(W)e propose a Master plan with no end goal. Here, we have no final image. In that way, temporary use will be not that temporary any more, but can influence the way the plan looks in the end.13

Northen IJ-lake - An area for water related activities. Businesses will be placed in a green environment. At the south side will be space for a yachting harbour and a ship dock.

Pieter Klomp, STEALTH.unlimited

This evolving approach uses the strengths of temporary use identified in the document as being: the ability to bringing the people in and fill the time-gap to create a good economic microclimate, to secure the area and protect land that had already been decontaminated through occupation and most significantly a to test the urban ground in a way that would work around rigid existing zoning restrictions.14 To deal with the vast docklands the document splits the large area into four character zones, and the character of each of these zones relates to the proposed uses. This provides a diverse range of programmes which goes far beyond the cultural sphere. Temporary residential units, industrial units, offices and leisure facilities are key components of the plan. The aim is to create a mini city15 a place to live, work and play, the broad range of uses reflects this. In order to identify where specific sites are STEALTH propose an inventory of gaps, this records both physical and time gaps in relation to each other to see the extent of opportunity and then a fact sheet is developed for each gap so that suitable projects can be matched with suitable gaps as opportunities arise. There is very little information available in English on how this process is developing though the image of the area is now one firmly rooted in independent businesses and a creative community.

A - Shell terrain

Vacant NL being installed, photo, Vacant NL

There has since been more widespread discussion in the Netherlands about how to approach the large number of vacant buildings that only increased further during the economic recession. The 2010 Venice Biennale pavilion Vacant NL challenged this directly by exhibiting the extent of the situation, or put differently the vast number of opportunities. The curators statement asserts two of the pavilions main aims as promoting Temporary use as strategy and encouraging Interim use as test bed for reallocation.16 To do this the exhibition concentrated on the 1000+ vacant state owned buildings in Holland through physically replicating them as blue foam scaled masses suspended above head height in a room of the The Rietveld Pavilion. A building which has itself has been essentially vacant for 39 years. An atlas cataloguing the vacant buildings accompanied the exhibition highlighting that the attitude that established the NDSM Wharf could potentially spark opportunities Nationwide.

Cornelis Douwes terrain - Here are the large industrial buildings. This area will keep its industrial function. It will be used more intensively and new companies will be housed. Possible after 2025 there will be a change in this area and will housing become possible here too. There will be 365 000 m2 for businesses available. D - At the Cornelis Douwesterrain numerous business facilities have been created recently. During the next 2 decades or more, the area will not be subject to redevelopment hence leaving a marginal possibility for (active implementation of) temporary use.

Buiksloterham - The central part of Buiksloterham will remain a zone for businesses and industries. Shell will be building here its New echnology Centre. In this area, until 2025, no additional change will appear. In between the Klaprozenweg and the Asterweg the businesses will remain but if possible houses will join them. The borderline between living and working is being explored. In the future, there will be up to 2 800 houses and 190 000m2 of businesses. B - Buiksloterham has a lot of possibilities for activating smaller scale individual lots. There is room for experiments with temporary and mobile architecture, too. The existing 'use gaps' of Buiksloterham can already be 'inhabited', since the minimum of infrastructure is there.

B - Buiksloterham

NDSM-wharf - Here one will maybe live in a tall tower, with a view over the IJ river. This is the heart of the IJ-Embankment at the widest part of the IJ River. The large hall of the NDSM-wharf will be there with the culture factory of North, Kinetic North. In total there will be 5 000 houses and space for 350 000m2 of businesses and industries. C - Defined as the core attraction area, NDSM terrain will most benefit from temporary use that creates public attractors in the open-air.

Shell-terrein - On the Shell area there will be living in high density, sometimes in buildings up to 30 metres high. One can chose to live in old buildings or in new buildings, urban facilities will be available. In the future there will be 2 200 houses and space for 150 000m2 of companies. A - The Shell terrain will in 5 years go into quick redevelopment. There will be two possible scenarios for temporary use: in existing buildings before their demolition or through usie of public ground floors of newly developed buildings.

C - NDSM terrain

D - Cornelis Douwesterrain

Map of four character areas in Amsterdam Noord source, STEALTH.unlimited

23

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - MEANWHILE IN LONDON

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - MEANWHILE IN LONDON

24

Minding the Gaps Unlike the earlier private speculative developments discussed earlier in the UK The two main international case studies show the potential for temporary use to be part of a state led urban development strategy instigated by city planning departments and local authorities. In the UK there is already clear interest and excitement surrounding the subject of temporary use however to date its use as a strategic tool initiated by government has been limited. Concentrating on one main project Meanwhile London in East Londons Royal Docks, this section will explore instances where this has begun to happen, what the results so far have been and how this could be taken forward. When looking at these it is important to highlight that as has been demonstrated in the previous examples temporary strategies do take time to develop and with these projects being very much in their early stages it is not yet possible to know what their ultimate effects will be.
Site Locations
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
14

MEANWHILE IN LONDON
and supports the long term objectives for the area. The Royal Docklands in London have very similar conditions to those of Amsterdam Noord. Covering over 80 hectares, when they were built in the mid-19th Century the three historic docks were the largest enclosed docks in the world and were at the heart of Londons trade based economy3. However, since the closure of the final dock in 1985 the land has been sparsely used. The Royal Docks have long been identified as an important area for strategic development, not only for their proximity to central London but also, as a large proportion of the land is publicly owned they provide an opportunity for a strategic and cohesive plan. To support this there has been significant investment in new transport connections4, an exhibition centre, a university and an airport. These moves were intended to unlock potential development sites however, unfortunately as yet this has not fully evolved. Previous approaches for the Royal Docks were centred on one overarching plan; in 30 years 53 masterplans for the area were produced with limited success. The 2008 economic crisis and related property recession however, prompted the London Development Agency* to reassess their approach and consider a looser strategic framework5. Clear strategic moves supported this, the first was the establishment of a Green Enterprise Zone and the second was a joint vision document produced by The Mayor of London and the London Borough of Newham these wiped away all previous plans and framed the area in a new light. This was in itself successful with Siemens deciding to establish their UK research centre expected to open later this year (2012) on the bank of the Royal Victoria Dock. As a way of responding to the large quantity of publicly owned vacant land, the London Development Agency with Property Magazine launched an open competition in November 20106 for ideas of how three publicly owned sites in the Royal Docks could be used during an initial one year meanwhile lease with possibilities to extend or to move if the project was suitable. The Meanwhile London competition looked to explore whether there could be a greater diversity of economically viable uses for upcoming developments, to attract attention to the area and to raise the profile of the opportunities, as stated in the brief Meanwhile London will bring the Royal Docks potential to the attention of the local community and the marketplace.7 The three sites were all seen as important strategic sites for long-term development8, but each had the potential to provide economic activity in the short term9. The land was available for a year rent free from the summer of 2011 and the competition clearly stated that there would be no financial assistance for the winning proposals but support and advice would be available to help make the ideas a reality.10 One of the intentions of the competition was to see if the Royal Docks could attract a

O2 Arena Millennium Mills London City Airport Newham Dockside ExCeL I.C.C. Siemens Cable Car (proposed)

Crossrail (proposed) Docklands Light Railway Jubilee Line Cable Car Route (proposed) Olympic Walking Route Potential 2012 Related Activity (Sites TBC)

Canning Town Centre


Approx area = 5060m (0.5ha)

Meanwhile London / Royal Docks Site Life Competition Site Location


Not to Scale Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. For reference purposes only. No further copies may be made.

Meanwhile London was conceived as part of the transformation of the Royal Docks2 *PLEASE NOTE: when The London Development Agency is mentioned The London Development Agency (LDA) was abolished in April 2011 as part of the Mayor of Londons devolution proposals, LDA functions and assets including land were folded into the Greater London Authority as part of a wider reorganisation of the GLA Group.1

Royal Albert Royals Business Park


Approx combined area = 5792m (0.6ha)

Pontoon Dock
Approx combined area = 8570m (0.8ha)

15

The Royal Docks showing the three selected sites for the Meanwhile London competition source, Design for London

25 more diverse range of uses. In this sense the competition was a huge success, it received 42 entries with a huge diversity of proposals, ranging from leisure facilities such as a swimming pool and BMX park to places of production including a honey farm, an upcycling facility and a boat building colony.11 The four selected schemes, Industri(us) for the Newham Dockside site, Caravanserai for the Canning Town site and London Pleasure Gardens with the Royal Docks Baths by Studio Egret West for the Pontoon Dock site were selected for their variety and feasibility. Three of the winning proposals were delivered to the extent that they were able to open for the London 2012 Olympic Games.12 Given that one of the strengths of temporary use is to test how a permanent project could work in an area it is interesting to consider how these have gone so far and what challenges they have faced. Some of these findings were recorded during a walk around the projects during the first week of the Olympics in July 2012. Information has also been gathered by assisting Design for

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - MEANWHILE IN LONDON London and speaking to those involved, there is a hope that these findings can go on to inform an attitude of how temporary use could play a wider role in the ongoing development of the Royal Docks. Of the projects selected both Caravanserai and Industri(us) chose to share the Canning Town site as neither needed the full plot they had been awarded. In July both projects were suffering from lack of footfall with real numbers being a fraction of what predictions had been. To be honest its quite a disaster. We were told that there would be lots of people that needed somewhere to go but it turns out were here and there are no people.13 In response Industri(us) considered turning the project into a music venue and hosted one successful night attracting over 500 people before deciding to temporarily close the site to assess how the projects core aims could be delivered in a profitable way. The reduced visitor numbers were a pattern across all the main competition sites. In the London Pleasure Gardens activity was reduced to the walking strip between the ExCel centre and the DLR station, where there was a collection of food stalls and big screens. Unfortunately at this point London Pleasure Gardens already had a lot of ground to make up. During the construction stages large amounts of asbestos were found on the ground which had a significant impact on the budget and timescale of the build and resulted in the project borrowing 3million from the London Borough of Newham. Additional problems were encountered when Bloc, a weekend festival had major problems. The event was successful in attracting people and over 15,00014 tickets were sold. However on the opening night there were serious logistical issues with ticketing and crowd control this greatly affected the income of the project and ultimately the creative director of the London Pleasure Gardens resigned on August 3rd and the company went into administration15. At the time of writing activities were still happening on site and it is clear that the story of this project is not complete. Caravanserai were still open

CASE STUDY 006

26

LONDON PLEASURE GARDENS


LDA /LB Newham LANDOWNER LDA /LB Newham, Property Week INSTIGATOR Strong & Co. Ltd OCCUPIER LDA /LB Newham PARTNER PROGRAMME Festival site and 21st Century Pleasure Gardens Initial 2 year lease, ran for 1 month PROJECT DURATION Under a year. CONSTRUCTION PERIOD 3million from LB Newham BUDGET Big SITE SIZE Open land with some closed SITE TYPE industrial buildings Information not available TEAM SIZE PERMISSIONS/PERMITS/LICENCES Full planning permission, meanwhile lease, relevant events/drinks licences.

Summer 2012

Winning plan of the London Pleasure Gardens photo, architectsjournal.


co.uk

The project opened on June 30th 2012 and went into administration August 3rd 2012. The site is not currently open to the public. The site has permanent development plans for a residential/mixed use development as part of an area wide strategy.
Industri(us) photo, Emma Rutherford Caravanserai photo, Emma Rutherford Royal Docks Baths (on hold) source, newham.com

OUTCOME POST PROJECT

Source: www.londonpleasuregardens.com and Design for London

London Pleasure Gardens at night photo, easyliving.co.uk

27 and running community activities and is socially if not economically successful.16 There have been some clear issue in the Meanwhile London process so far. If temporary use is to be a more integral part of the Docks development it is important to consider these carefully. Here there is a split between the London Pleasure Gardens and the other projects. The London Pleasure Gardens was probably more a victim of logistical issues and management. Many of the baseline factors outlined in the first part of the study made the site a challenge from the outset. It is very big and so very expensive, the ground condition was poor and it was not originally designed as a festival site so access was restricted. The occupiers were experienced at working at this scale in previous projects including Shambala at Glastonbury. However the logistical limitations made this a very difficult and challenging dynamic. There were also question marks over the trading limitations placed on the site during the Olympic period however it is claimed that these were made clear from the outset and were factored into any financial plan. Industri(us) and Caravanserai had exciting programmes that it could be argued would have found it difficult be financially self-sufficient in such a short amount of time regardless of where they were placed as has been demonstrated in the NDSM Wharf this type of project takes a long time to root itself in an area and the length of lease was a challenging limitation. Footfall being dramatically lower that predicted would exacerbate the situation. In this situation there is a conflict between diversifying the possible programmes and meeting the brief, this may not always be possible to meet both

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - MEANWHILE IN LONDON their walk, the kids they see it from the cable car and they come running.18 Just as in the overseas examples these programmes are responding to the unique assets of the area calm open water, and also explore the long term plans for the area in which the docks were identified as an ideal location for a large scale water sports centre. This encouraging pattern continues on projects that have been established by speculative developers in the Royal Docks where exciting and innovative programmes are being implemented successfully. Urban Space Management acquired Trinity Buoy Wharf in 1998 on a long term lease19. Since then a vibrant community of independent businesses housed in converted shipping containers has developed. Initially on a long term lease this project proves that given the right site creative industries can establish a base and thrive in the Royal Docks. Dear Future20 a project by Cathedral Group also adopts this approach, advertised as an empty space waiting to be occupied by brilliant people with brilliant ideas the project is based in the Moss Electrical building near Silvertown Way and like the Kinetic North Development does not advertise but works on people expressing an interest in being part of the project. Dear Future presents itself in a specific way aimed at attracting a certain type of creative individual. So far this has worked fashion designers, illustrators, independent film production companies and even David Barrie, founder of the Peoples Supermarket have all applied for space. This approach takes longer to mature however is mutually beneficial and effective in using temporary use to introduce new uses and communities into an area.

PRACTICE AND PROJECTS - MEANWHILE IN LONDON

28

Wakeup Docklands and the subsequent urban beach


photo, Emma Rutherford

objectives. What is interesting however is to look beyond the competition at the sites around the Royal Victoria Dock where there is a more promising story. Though not selected several spin off projects were set up under the same lease structure. Wakeup Docklands opened a wake boarding wire and a related shop and bar on the waterfront next to the cable car. Business is doing well and there is a clear idea that the project can grow and that there are benefits to having a number of projects together were getting lots of people stopping in for a drink When the Emirates opened we got a lot more people and when the Siemens opens itll get even busier. You know all of this, us the Pleasure Gardens itll all get busier.17 Wake up Docklands are currently in the process of renovating a boat that will act as a bar and eventually become part of the Royal Docks Baths. Another company near the entrance to the Emirates cable car were also given a one year lease and set up a water zorbing attraction, they are also benefiting from the developments in the area were busy. Its cheap (5 for 5mins) so a lot of people stop on

Container City on Trinity Buoy Wharf, Urban Space Management Ltd. photo, Emma Rutherford

29

LEARNING FROM OTHERS

LEARNING FROM OTHERS by Localism?5 (March 2012) documents and works through some of the issues and questions. It highlights the pivotal role that temporary use can play in the process. Mufs Making Space in Dalston is the first attempt to design a project that responds to what Localism means criteria for sites and addresses local concerns in concert with location: HA7148 site code strategic ones6. The project has revealed the tt Neveritaweg 15 address complications of the process inspatial: particular the act 750m2 size of mediating competing interests in projects. building However it has been positive and its X open air outcomes water are now being applied to other projects by type of contract: X Design for London7. It is clear rent that this process long lease empty of testing through doing is valuable. private park, the Eastern Curve in what would otherwise have been an empty site. The active research presented a clear attitude towards how the public realm is configured and the important role it has in the area. Bruce McRobie a former Hackney Council project manager confirms this I think the project has given the masterplan a reality, rather than it just being a book sitting on a shelf. If you hadnt done any of this it would be easy to come along and say well this master plan is wrong.11 This concept of learning through doing is repeated across all of the examples explored. There is a reoccurring theme of the temporary providing a loose fit approach. It provides the opportunity to learn from ones initial steps and

30 adjust ones plans where necessary, the Interim can thereby offer space for urban complexity and dynamism; 12 This opportunity must consider both space and programme. So far project that are considered temporary are predominantly cultural events run for a specific group of society, however as stated by STEALTH: The temporary user (...) can be almost everyone: a normal company, an artist, an entrepreneur, or a rebel group who needs space for a project.13 There is therefore a need to diversify what we consider as suitable programmes for temporary use. The Amsterdam example embraces this proposing all the uses
2028

Minding the Gaps So far a variety of temporary projects and approaches have been considered, they have all have demonstrated the potential for a longer term engagement with the development of an area. This next section will assess some of the points that emerge in all the examples and how this could inform an attitude towards strategic temporary use going forward. The examples where temporary use has had a fundamental effect have been those with a commitment and investment in the area, they prove that this approach to development is no quick fix. The projects have a specific relationship with their context, such as the emerging businesses on the waterside in the Royal Docks. Many projects like Camden Lock Market and NDSM Wharf took years to develop, and with that developed a community. It may be better to consider that temporary use does not in fact lead to quicker developments but to more diverse ones. The testing of programs like the Brixton Market arcade and many of the cultural projects in Berlin are about a more flexible economic model whose structure can evolve. Brixton market could have been a mini supermarket, but much like the large banks in the economic crisis, when something big fails it is much harder to recover from and the physical impact on the area is significant.1 The model of a cluster of small units lends itself to adapt over time. The approach therefore rather than being a temporary one is an evolving one.

LEARNING FROM OTHERS


AN EVOLVING WAY OF PLANNING
if it aint broke, dont fix it; if it doesnt fit, adapt it; if its new, try it small; if its small, let the people do it; if it works, run with it2

Stephen Marshall

A culture of economy of scale is built into the way European cities are designed, however the increase in temporary use has happened at a period when this has failed and more prominent vacant sites have become available. The programmes established are perhaps ones that would not normally be seen as worth the investment, both in terms of financial capital and land. Temporary use allows these programmes a period of probation, making the landowner comfortable in taking the chance and the occupier freedom if the business doesnt work. As stated in the STEALTH.unlimiteds plan for the Northern bank if the Ij: Its not gentrification, its economic diversification thats important. (...) The key will be bringing jobs into the cities that arent just for lawyers and insurance executives and the like...3 Projects like the Kinetic North art factory and Dear Future in Canning Town clearly respond to this desire to give things a go. It is not a coincidence that the political culture in many of these cities is also at a point of transition, the

Diagram showing change in relations (from 1980s till 2003) between alternative (squatting: yellow/orange) and institutional (city: blue) forces in Amsterdam towards unusual coalitions. Source, STEALTH.unlimited

boundary between culture and counter culture is increasingly hard to define. In the Netherlands this is evident, Kinetic North the self-proclaimed Selfmade City4 and one of the citys biggest success stories in terms of cultural regeneration was started by a group previously expelled as illegal squatters. In Berlin similarly the unofficial use of land has become an unexpected model for urban development. There is a more direct meeting of top down governance and bottom up start-ups. In the UK the introduction of Neighbourhood Planning and Localism is bringing a new dimension to the way our cities are planned. There are many questions surrounding how the process will actually work and what it really means, the publication of Is this what you mean
* Learning from others was taken from the name of the research study commissioned by the LLDC into the dynamics of temporary use and how that could influence the future of Queen Elizabeth Park Stratford. 2012

TEMPORARY USE AS RESEARCH

status of contract: to be signed duration of contract: from june 2003 to to june 2008 current use: user name program

Northern IJ lake

XXL NDSM city

new

time-space diagram
a] spatial criteria: - plots (surface area) - site type: buildings / open air / water - infrastructure per site - special restrictions (sound contour, sensitive neighbour,...)

public space The practice of testing through doing is an accesibility: essential part of an evolving plan, it provides the OV X car X opportunity to learn about a place. As discussed available by Jane Jacobs, infrastructure

kinetic north

2023

cities are an immense laboratory of trial and error, failure and success in city building and city restrictions: design 8 pollution soil polution
sound construction

(indicate time): phone water road X elec X (2004) sewer X (2004)

b] time criteria: - present occupation and duration of contracts: long lease / rents / private ownership - availability of space during intermediary period - beginning and phasing of physical realisation

2028

2018

legal light construction This testing allows not just spatial qualities example site HA7148 physical realisation, but also social dimensions to be recorded and phasing: plan ndsm east inform a future plan. Making Space program in Dalston housing/working start 2008 illustrates this well. The research proposed delivery 2015 strategies, design moves and a programme comments: ... of site attractiveness: cultural activity to inform and enhance the public 2003 high X realm as shared spaces for bothmid residents and low visitors9. Initial findings were potential testedtemporary through 10 use: short term projects like the Dalston Mill (Case direction related to public / visitors Study 007). Subsequently the success of the Inventory of Gaps, STEALTH.unlimiteds tools for mapping sites in time and spatially source, STEALTH.unlimited. Dalston Mill has created an ongoing pocket
2013 2008 2003

time-space gap

existing

NDSM wharf

Buiksloterham

Shell

31 needed in a city. This is a good attitude to have as it increases the opportunities for innovative proposals. With a diversification of programme comes a need to consider the role that temporary use projects play economically. Here there are two main attitudes. The attitude expressed in Berlin that temporary use is valuable in its own right, this allows for more freedom of programme or the predominant attitude in the UK which considers temporary use primarily as an opportunity for a return on land value with a profitable project. The ideal approach is probably somewhere in-between the two and is more similar to the way development works in general. In a city not all programmes are economically profitable but that does not mean that they are not valuable. STEALTH.unlimited in their document Constituting the Interim identify 5 forms of capital - urban capital, symbolic capital. cultural capital, social capital, economic capital and cognitive capital, different projects provide different benefits. Put in slightly blunter terms There will be no Interim if you try to cash in on the increase in value. Just stop trying to put a price tag on things.14 of the important role that human relationships play. Any project is reliant on the people identified in the very first section of this study: the landowner, the instigator, the occupier and a partner/partners. In both Berlin and Amsterdam the creation of specific roles that respond to these human dynamics and was integral to delivering successful projects.

LEARNING FROM OTHERS were a series of 10 short life structures that would set up new kinds of public amenities and public movement15 and sought to highlight urban conditions. Using temporary construction techniques Magnets were proposed to link points of severance and celebrate moments of beauty. The approach of the temporary as a form of research provides an approach where both the long and short term plans for an area work together, this echoes the approach that Eric Reynolds advocates (w)here possible, a twin track of activity should be followed, with the interwhile taking place alongside the sometimes protracted planning process.16 The commentary of the short term can inform the future plan. The public sector owns a significant amount of the countrys land, this is a big opportunity. As has been demonstrated in Dalston and in the Royal Docks the emerging approach of temporary use could provide a way of establishing how some of these assets could develop. Though there are significant challenges posed by procurement law and the risk of allegations of state aid, activating this land, can only be a good thing in the long run. Temporary use allows a flexible and evolving model that mitigates some of the possible long term risks of development. The examples in this study have demonstrated that investment in temporary use and taking a chance can pay off handsomely. As stated by Peter Bishop, former Director of Design for London good leadership whether public or private sector needs to be actively curious about what might emerge. And be prepared to hold its nerve against any short term opposition. 17

CASE STUDY 007

32

THE DALSTON MILL

Summer 2009

The idea of the temporary has long been used as a way of commenting on the city. Many of Cedric Prices projects capitalised upon the notion of impermanence. Magnets in particular

WAYS FORWARD

If there is a will to get stuff going there then becomes a need to invest. This can be the state financially backing individual projects as was the case with the NDSM Wharf where targeted investment started significant regeneration in an area that was previously a big challenge. It can also be as in Berlin where most of the support came through investment in research, putting political will behind the movement. Either way in both cases there is a clear recognition

A NEED TO INVEST

LB Hackney LANDOWNER Muf art/architecture/J+L Gibbons INSTIGATOR Exyzt OCCUPIER Barbican, Arts Council + LB Hackney PARTNER PROGRAMME Wheat Field, flour mill, bread oven community park and events space 3 weeks PROJECT DURATION Information not available CONSTRUCTION PERIOD 44,000 + money made BUDGET Medium SITE SIZE Open land SITE TYPE Information not available TEAM SIZE PERMISSIONS/PERMITS/LICENCES 28 day permission

The Eastern Curve Garden photo, opendalston.blogspot.com

OUTCOME POST PROJECT


The Dalston Mill was part of Making Space in Dalstone a study into the public realm in Dalston. Both the Mill and the current project the Eastern Curve are part of a long term strategy for the area.

Cedric Prices Magnets, Source, Architecture Foundation

The Mill at night photo, opendalston.blogspot.com

Source: Legacy Plus: Interim Uses and East Londons Olympic Legacy, London AF, 2010

33

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION Amsterdam, though the creation of specific roles that provide a single point of contact between those involved in a project and the state. In both cases this is proving to be crucial to the process. The essence of the subject still goes back to the categories listed on the case study fact sheets. Landowner Instigator Occupier Partner Programme Project duration Construction period Budget Site Area Site Type Team Size Permissions/Permits/Licences When considering whether a temporary project is suitable these are the place to start. As has been demonstrated once, established the extent to which projects can grow is limitless. The changes in legislation are prompting a re-evaluation in to how places are planned. Temporary use provides many of the tools and tactics needed to navigate and maximise this complicated process. Learning through doing is an ideal way of communicating ideas. Therefore it is clear that temporary use must now be considered as an integral part of strategically planning diverse and inclusive bits of city.
The Movement Cafe, The Cathedral Group Summer 2012, photo Emma Rutherford

34

Minding the Gaps STEALTH.unlimiteds Constituting the Interim expressed it well in saying: Be aware that the power and attraction of the Interim lies above all in the fact that so much is not present, not regulated, and not (or not yet) organized, but that in consequence a great deal is generally not accessible, not usable (or only with difficulty), not lasting, and not officially authorized, and that the regime presented in this Constitution therefore aims solely to guarantee the accessibility of the Interim without compromising the freedom that it offers, and to resolve relevant long-running issues in spatial planning;1 Here lies the dilemma in temporary use, it is something attractive and exciting but by its very nature if it is regulated too much its spontaneity will be lost and with it a large element of its appeal. This does not mean that it should be dismissed as something that can only occur in an unregulated and unplanned manner. The examples studied have shown that there are a variety of tactics that can be used to incorporate temporary use into urban strategies. Educational research and investing political will are effective ways of promoting the practice. This ultimately relies on private speculative investment for projects. The effect in Berlin has been a large collection of small projects spread throughout the city. This is breeding a culture

CONCLUSION
of getting stuff done and building a dynamic that is adaptable and diverse. Amsterdam on the other hand invested political will in one objective, creative culture and one place, the NDSM Wharf. Through targeted investment, a significant amount of money has been used to dramatically change the nature of the Wharf. Now seen as the citys creative quarter it is attracting residents, visitors and investment. This is being used as springboard to implement a 30 year plan based on the same approach across the whole of the Northern Dock area. The time frame of these projects has gone beyond what people would normally expect from a temporary project, strengthening the point that perhaps it is better to refer to this way of planning as an evolving approach rather than a temporary approach. British projects have also explored the dynamics of temporary use. Hundreds of pop-ups are happening monthly in London alone. There is excitement and enthusiasm surrounding them however, there are projects that are using a temporary approach as part of much grander plans. Speculative work has resulted in very effective projects that are firmly ingrained in their context. The work of Urban Space Management and Cathedral Group in particular embraces the possibilities of temporary use, capitalising on its flexibility rather than trying to control it. Many temporary projects have evolved into places that people love and could not imagine London without. More recently state led initiatives are embracing the possibilities that temporary use provides either as a catalyst for further development as seen in the Royal Docks or as a way to gain a deeper understanding of a place through doing as in Dalston with by Muf art/architecture. The tools used in the various projects are key, in order to have an understanding of what the aspirations for an area could be it is important to understand the resources available. The inventory of gaps used by STEALTH.unimited in Amsterdam is effective in recording the opportunities both in time and land in relation to each other presents the information in an easily legible way. This is something that would be of huge value in the next stage of investigations in the Royal Docks that are intended to follow this study and will result in a supplementary document to it. Research has also been shown to be an important tool, the research produced in Berlin by Urban Catalyst recording the process of temporary use in the city is not only affecting practice in Germany but is also is used as a resource worldwide. When dealing with such a hazy and rapidly evolving subject finding efficient ways to document what is happening is invaluable as a tool for practice. In all the projects perhaps the most valuable tools are the human relationships involved. More than any other type of project temporary use is dependent on people investing time and creative energy, often for free. The importance of this dynamic has been recognised in both the Berlin and

35

MINDING THE GAPS

MINDING THE GAPS

36

TEMPORARY USE DOESNT NEED URBAN PLANNING, URBAN PLANNING NEEDS TEMPORARY USE
Urban Catalyst Studio

37

REFERENCES

REFERENCES

38
6 Department for Business Innovation and skills, Portas Review: An independent review into the future of our high streets, http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/business-sectors/ docs/p/11-1434-portas-review-future-of-high-streets.pdf, accessed 21/08/2012 7 Communities and Local Government , New opportunities for sustainable development and growth through the reuse of existing buildings: Consultation, 3 July 2012, http://www. communities.gov.uk/publications/planningandbuilding/reusebuildingsconsultation, accessed 21/08/2012 8 Ibid. 9 Communities and Local Government, Pop-up shops and entrepreneurs to prosper from high street changes, 20 July 2012, http://www.communities.gov.uk/news/ corporate/2185517, accessed 21/08/2012 10 Case Study 002 11 Meanwhile Space, Meanwhile Lease, http://www. meanwhile.org.uk/useful-info, accessed 15/08/2012

REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION
1 Peter Bishop, Lesley Williams, The Temporary City, London: Rout- ledge, 2012 2 Ibid, pp. 219 3 Eric Reynolds, Urban Space Management Ltd., 08/07/2011 4 Meanwhile Space - http://www.meanwhilespace.com 5 Local Data Company, monthly report on town centre vacancy rates, http://www.localdatacompany.com, accessed 21/08/2012 6 http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-kingdom/ unemployment-rate, accessed 29/08/2012

JUST HERE, JUST NOW


1 Peter Bishop, Lesley.Williams, The Temporary City, London: Routledge, 2012. pp, 213 2 Eric Reynolds, Interwhile uses, Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, Volume 4 Number 4: April-June 2011, copy provided by the author. pp, 371 3 Kirsty Cameron, Friends Central Perk opens up in London, The Telegraph, 25 September 2009 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/6230505/ Friends-Central-Perk-opens-up-in-London.html, accessed 22/08/2012 4 Muf, HWFI, http://www.muf.co.uk/archives/portfolio/hwfi, accessed 22/08/2012 5 Ibid 6 Interview with Giles Smith Assemble CIC, 14/08/2012 7 Muf, Making Space Dalston, http://www.muf.co.uk/ archives/portfolio/making-space-in-dalston-2, accessed 22/08/2012

LOGISTICS
1 Interview with Giles Smith Assemble CIC, 14/08/2012 2 The Decorators - http://www.the-decorators.net 3 Ridleys Restaurant - http://www.the-decorators.net 4 ReBars temporary public spaces have contributed significantly to public space in San Fransisco Rebar Group - http://rebargroup.org

BENEFITS
1 Meanwhile Space, Benefits for Stakeholders, http://www. meanwhilespace.com/useful-info/Resources/Benefits_Stakeholders-Meanwhile_Future.pdf, accessed 22/08/12 2 Ibid

WE KNOW WHAT WE WANT


1 Urban Space Management, History, http://www.urbanspace. com/history_of_USM.html, accessed 23/08/2012 2 Eric Reynolds, Interwhile uses, Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, Volume 4 Number 4: April-June 2011, copy provided by the author, pp 371 3 Interview with Eric Reynolds, Urban Space Management Ltd., 08/07/2011 4 Eric Reynolds term temporary projects see Glossary. 5 Interview with Eric Reynolds, Urban Space Management Ltd., 08/07/2011 6 Space Makers Agency - http://spacemakers.org.uk 7 Cathedral Group, The Deptford Project, http://www. cathedralgroup.com/current-ppp-project/thedeptford-project-2/, accessed 14/08/2012 8 The Barbican, The Dalston Mill, 15 July 2009 - 9 August 2009 http://www.barbican.org.uk/artgallery/event-detail. asp?ID=9311, accessed 24/08/2012

LEGISLATIVE CONTEXT
1 The Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order, Schedule 2 Part 4, 1995 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ uksi/1995/418/contents/made, accessed 15/08/2012 2 Local Data Company, monthly report on town centre vacancy rates, http://www.localdatacompany.com, accessed 21/08/2012 3 Communities and Local Government, Looking after our town centres, 2009, http://www.communities.gov.uk/archived/ publications/ planningandbuilding/towncentres, accessed 21/08/2012 4 Meanwhile Space, Town_centres_fund_Dec_09, http:// www.meanwhile.org.uk/useful-info, accessed 21/08/12 5 BBC Tees, How to save Redcars town centre, 25 November 2010 http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/tees/hi/people_and_places/ history/newsid_9225000/9225820.stm, accessed 17/08/2012

39

REFERENCES
2 Kabouters, Provo-movement, http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/21cc/counterculture/ assaultonculture/provo/provo.html, accessed 22/08/2012 3 STEALTH Group, Culture of temporary use in Amsterdam, 24 June 2003 http://www.templace.com/think-pool/one9c8c.html?think_ id=4035, accessed 25/08/2012 4 STEALTH Group, Kinetic North organization, 26 June 2003 http://www.templace.com/tool-pool/onecfe2.html?tool_ id=4073, accessed 25/08/2012 5 MIMOA, MTV Networks Benelux, http://www.mimoa.eu/projects/Netherlands/Amsterdam/ MTV%20Networks%20Benelux, accessed 25/08/2012 6 STEALTH Group, Kinetic North organization, 26 June 2003 http://www.templace.com/tool-pool/onecfe2.html?tool_ id=4073, accessed 25/08/2012 7 STEALTH.unlimited (A Dokic and M.Neelen), Platform for temporary use on the northern banks of the Ij, April 2003 http://www.evadeklerk.com/downloads/Internationaal/ Stealth%20Platform%202002.pdf, accessed 22/08/2012, pp 35 8 Iamsterdam, Noord, http://www.iamsterdam.com/en-GB/experience/aboutamsterdam/areas/amsterdam-neighbourhoods/noord, accessed 25/08/2012 9 MIMOA, MTV Networks Benelux, http://www.mimoa.eu/projects/Netherlands/Amsterdam/ MTV%20Networks%20Benelux, accessed 25/08/2012 10 Ronald Hooft, Take me to the river, MARK, June /July 2012 38, pp 68 11 STEALTH.unlimited (A Dokic and M.Neelen), Platform for temporary use on the northern banks of the Ij, April 2003 http://www.evadeklerk.com/downloads/Internationaal/ Stealth%20Platform%202002.pdf, accessed 22/08/2012, pp 35 13 Ibid, pp 8 14 Ibid, pp 9 15 Ibid 16 Rietveld Landscape, Vacant NL, where architecture meets ideas Curatorial statement, 2012 http://www.rietveldlandscape.com/downloads/Curatorial%20 statement%20by%20Rietveld%20Landscape.pdf, accessed 25/08/2012

REFERENCES
15 London Pleasure Gardens, Administration, 3 August 2012 http://londonpleasuregardens.com/site/2012/08/03/ administration/, accessed 08/08/2012 16 Conversation with Cany Ash, Ash Sakula, Caravanserai, 16/08/2012 17 Interview with Wakeup Docklands, onsite team, 03/08/2012 18 Interview with Aquaballs, onsite team, 03/08/2012 19 Urban Space Management Ltd, Trinity Buoy Wharf, http:// www.urbanspace.com/trinity_buoy_wharf.html, accessed 15/08/2012 20 Dear Future - www.dearfuture.co.uk

40

THE BERLIN STORY


1 Urban Catalyst Studio - http://www.urbancatalyst.net 2 Ibid 3 Meanwhile Space, Meanwhile in Berlin: A short Case Study, http://www.meanwhile.org.uk/useful-info/misc/ MeanwhileinBerlin.pdf, accessed 18/08/2012 4 Urban Catalyst, Strategies for Temporary Uses: Potential Development of Urban Residual Areas in European Metropolises, September 2003, http://www.templace.com/ think-pool/attach/download/1_UC_finalR_synthesis007b. pdf?object_id=4272&attachment_id=4276 accessed 17/08/2012 5 Francesca Ferguson, Architecture Minds the Gap: Berlins fragmented urbanisation, Essay in Did Someone Say Participate?: An Atlas of Spatial Practice, MIT Press:Michigan, 2006, pp 128 6 Benjamin Zagami, Indeterminate Spaces: An Investigation into Temporary Uses in Berlin and the Implications for Urban Design and the High Street in the UK, August 2009, pp 10 http://www.psonpeel.com.au/BJZ_MastersThesis.pdf, accessed 23/08/2012 7 Nicole Blumner, Planning for the Unplanned: Tools and Techniques for Interim Use in Germany and the United States, 2006 http://www.difu.de/english/occasional/, accessed 23/08/2012 8 Ibid 9 Francesca Ferguson, Architecture Minds the Gap: Berlins fragmented urbanisation, Essay in Did Someone Say Participate?: An Atlas of Spatial Practice, MIT Press:Michigan, 2006, pp 130 10 Urban Catalyst, Urban Pioneers Temporary Use and Urban Development in Berlin, Berlin:Jovis, 2007, pp 118 11 Ibid 12 Francesca Ferguson, Architecture Minds the Gap: Berlins fragmented urbanisation, Essay in Did Someone Say Participate?: An Atlas of Spatial Practice, MIT Press:Michigan, 2006, pp 130 13 Ibid

MEANWHILE IN LONDON
1 Greater London Authority, London Development Agency, http://www.london.gov.uk/who-runs-london/greater-londonauthority/gla-functional-bodies/london-development-agency, accessed 08/08/2012 2 Lee Mallett, Meanwhile London competition: Opportunity Docks, 19 November 2010 http://www.propertyweek.com/comment/analysis/docklandsdozen-see-the-shortlist-for-our-meanwhile-londoncompetition/5013823.article, accessed 08/08/2012 3 GLA and London Borough of Newham, Royal Docks Parameters for Developments, March 2011 http://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Royal%20 Docks%20Parameters%20for%20Development.pdf, accessed 12/08/2012 4 Docklands light railway completed in 1985, Jubilee line extension completed in 1999, cross rail will be completed in 2014 Design for London, Royal Docks Heritage Report Provided by Design for London, accessed August 2012 5 Peter Bishop, Lesley.Williams, The Temporary City, London: Routledge, 2012, pp 203 6 Lee Mallett, Meanwhile London competition: Opportunity Docks, 19 November 2010 http://www.propertyweek.com/comment/analysis/docklandsdozen-see-the-shortlist-for-our-meanwhile-londoncompetition/5013823.article, accessed 08/08/2012 7 Ibid 8 Peter Bishop, Lesley.Williams, The Temporary City, London: Routledge, 2012, pp 209 9 Ibid 10 Lee Mallett, Meanwhile London competition: Opportunity Docks, 19 November 2010 http://www.propertyweek.com/comment/analysis/docklandsdozen-see-the-shortlist-for-our-meanwhile-londoncompetition/5013823.article, accessed 08/08/2012 11 Design for London, Presentation of Meanwhile London entries, 2010 Provided by Design for London, accessed August 2012 12 The Royal Docks Baths was postponed due to a change of site and related complications but is planned to be developed later this year. Conversation Design for London, 15/08/2012 13 Interview with Industri(us), onsite team, 03/08/2012 14 Musicweek, CrowdSurge addresses reported Bloc Festival ticketing problems, 11 July 2011 http://www.musicweek.com/news/read/crowdsurgeaddresses-reported-bloc-festival-ticketing-problems/049535, accessed 08/08/2012

LEARNING FROM OTHERS


1 Meanwhile Space, Benefits for Stakeholders, http://www. meanwhilespace.com/useful-info/Resources/Benefits_Stakeholders-Meanwhile_Future.pdf, accessed 22/08/12 2 Stephen Marshall, Cities, Design and Evolution, Oxford: Routeladge, 2008, pp 276-7 3 A Harvard Magazine Roundtable, Cities and Suburbs, via http://www.templace.com/tool-pool/onecfe2.html?tool_ id=4073, accessed 23/08/2012 4 NDSM Wharf - http://beta.ndsm.nl/?lang=en 5 K.Long, Is this what you mean by Localism, March 2012 6 Ibid pp 3 7 Ibid 8 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York: Random House, 1961 9 Muf, Making Space Dalston, http://www.muf.co.uk/ archives/portfolio/making-space-in-dalston-2, accessed 22/08/2012 10 The Barbican, The Dalston Mill, 15 July 2009 - 9 August 2009 http://www.barbican.org.uk/artgallery/event-detail. asp?ID=9311, accessed 24/08/2012 11 K.Long, Is this what you mean by localism, March 2012, pp 15 12 STEALTH.unlimited (A Dokic and M.Neelen) and I. de Kievith, Constituting the interim, http://www.stealth.ultd.net/ stealth/22_constituting.the.interim.html accessed 17/08/2012, pp 5 13 STEALTH.unlimited (A Dokic and M.Neelen), Platform for temporary use on the northern banks of the Ij, April 2003 http://www.evadeklerk.com/downloads/Internationaal/ Stealth%20Platform%202002.pdf, accessed 22/08/2012 14 STEALTH.unlimited (A Dokic and M.Neelen) and I. de Kievith, Constituting the interim, http://www.stealth.ultd.net/ stealth/22_constituting.the.interim.html accessed 17/08/2012, Interview with Annius Hornstra, director of the housing association Haag Wonen quoted in the Constitution for the Interim. 15 Samantha Hardingham (ed), Cedric Price Opera, WileyAcademy: Italy, 2003, pp 220 16 Eric Reynolds, Interwhile uses, Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, Volume 4 Number 4: April-June 2011, copy provided by the author, pp 374 17 Peter Bishop, Lesley.Williams, The Temporary City, London: Routledge, 2012, pp 215

CONCLUSION
1 STEALTH.unlimited (A Dokic and M.Neelen) and I. de Kievith, Constituting the interim, http://www.stealth.ultd.net/ stealth/22_constituting.the.interim.html accessed 17/08/2012, pp 5

AN AMSTERDAM TALE

1 The British Library, Provo-movement, http://www.bl.uk/ learning/histcitizen/21cc/counterculture/assaultonculture/ provo/provo.html, accessed 22/08/2012

41

42

A strategy working on the principle of valuing what is there. Making Space in Dalston proposed series of connected projects, some temporary some more permanent all working towards a longer term plan, photo, www. muf.co.uk

One of those temporary projects bringing a street alive, photo, www. muf.co.uk

43

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY
pdf?object_id=4272&attachment_id=4276 accessed 17/08/2012 Urban Catalyst, Urban Pioneers Temporary Use and Urban Development in Berlin, Berlin:Jovis, 2007 Policy/Guidance Communities and Local Government, Looking after our town centres, 2009, http://www.communities.gov.uk/archived/ publications/ planningandbuilding/towncentres, accessed 21/08/2012 Communities and Local Government , New opportunities for sustainable development and growth through the reuse of existing buildings: Consultation, 3 July 2012, http://www. communities.gov.uk/publications/planningandbuilding/reusebuildingsconsultation, accessed 21/08/2012 Department for Business Innovation and skills, Portas Review: An independent review into the future of our high streets, http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/business-sectors/ docs/p/11-1434-portas-review-future-of-high-streets.pdf, accessed 21/08/2012 Design for London, Presentation of Meanwhile London entries, 2010 Provided by Design for London, accessed August 2012 Design for London, Royal Docks Heritage Report Provided by Design for London, accessed August 2012 GLA and London Borough of Newham, Royal Docks Parameters for Developments, March 2011 http://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Royal%20 Docks%20Parameters%20for%20Development.pdf, accessed 12/08/2012 The Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order, Schedule 2 Part 4, 1995 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ uksi/1995/418/contents/made, accessed 15/08/2012 Websites http://www.localdatacompany.com, accessed 21/08/2012 http://www.tradingeconomics.com/united-kingdom/ unemployment-rate, accessed 29/08/2012 Projects Dear Future - www.dearfuture.co.uk Film on Fridges - http://www.filmsonfridges.com The Meanwhile Project - http://www.meanwhile.org.uk NDSM Wharf - http://beta.ndsm.nl/?lang=en Ridleys Restaurant - http://ridleys.org Companies Assemble CIC - http://assemblestudio.co.uk The Cathedral Group Plc.- http://www.cathedralgroup.com The Decorators - http://www.the-decorators.net Design for London - http://www.designforlondon.gov.uk Meanwhile Space - http://www.meanwhilespace.com Muf art/architecture - http://www.muf.co.uk Rebar Group - http://rebargroup.org Space Makers Agency - http://spacemakers.org.uk Urban Catalyst Studio - http://www.urbancatalyst.net Urban Space Management Ltd. - http://www.urbanspace.com Interviews and Conversations Aquaballs, onsite team, 03/08/2012 Cany Ash, Ash Sakula, Caravanserai, 16/08/2012 Design for London, various 03/08/2012 16/08/2012 Eric Reynolds, Urban Space Management, 08/07/2011 Giles Smith Assemble CIC, 14/08/2012 Holly Briggs Assemble CIC, 28/08/2012 Industri(us), onsite team, 03/08/2012 Wakeup Docklands, onsite team, 03/08/2012

44

Minding the Gaps


Bibliography A-Z Aurora Fernandez Per and Javier Mozas, Strategy and Tactics in Public Space, a+t: Spain, Issue 38, Autumn 2011 The Barbican, The Dalston Mill, 15 July 2009 - 9 August 2009 http://www.barbican.org.uk/artgallery/event-detail. asp?ID=9311, accessed 24/08/2012 BBC Tees, How to save Redcars town centre, 25 November 2010 http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/tees/hi/people_and_places/ history/newsid_9225000/9225820.stm, accessed 17/08/2012 Benjamin Zagami, Indeterminate Spaces: An Investigation into Temporary Uses in Berlin and the Implications for Urban Design and the High Street in the UK, August 2009 http://www.psonpeel.com.au/BJZ_MastersThesis.pdf, accessed 23/08/2012 Communities and Local Government, Pop-up shops and entrepreneurs to prosper from high street changes, 20 July 2012, http://www.communities.gov.uk/news/ crporate/2185517, accessed 21/08/2012 Eric Reynolds, Interwhile uses, Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, Volume 4 Number 4: April-June 2011, copy provided by the author Francesca Ferguson, Architecture Minds the Gap: Berlins fragmented urbanisation, Essay in Did Someone Say Participate?: An Atlas of Spatial Practice, MIT Press:Michigan, 2006 Greater London Authority, London Development Agency, http://www.london.gov.uk/who-runs-london/greater-londonauthority/gla-functional-bodies/london-development-agency, accessed 08/08/2012 A Harvard Magazine Roundtable, Cities and Suburbs, via http://www.templace.com/tool-pool/onecfe2.html?tool_ id=4073, accessed 23/08/2012

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Iamsterdam, Noord, http://www.iamsterdam.com/en-GB/experience/aboutamsterdam/areas/amsterdam-neighbourhoods/noord, accessed 25/08/2012 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York: Random House, 1961 K.Long, Is this what you mean by localism, March 2012 Lee Mallett, Meanwhile London competition: Opportunity Docks, 19 November 2010 http://www.propertyweek.com/comment/analysis/docklandsdozen-see-the-shortlist-for-our-meanwhile-londoncompetition/5013823.article, accessed 08/08/2012 London Pleasure Gardens, Administration, 3 August 2012 http://londonpleasuregardens.com/site/2012/08/03/ administration/, accessed 08/08/2012 MIMOA, MTV Networks Benelux, http://www.mimoa.eu/projects/Netherlands/Amsterdam/ MTV%20Networks%20Benelux, accessed 25/08/2012 Musicweek, CrowdSurge addresses reported Bloc Festival ticketing problems, 11 July 2011 http://www.musicweek.com/news/read/crowdsurgeaddresses-reported-bloc-festival-ticketing-problems/049535, accessed 08/08/2012 Nicole Blumner, Planning for the Unplanned: Tools and Techniques for Interim Use in Germany and the United States, 2006 http://www.difu.de/english/occasional/, accessed 23/08/2012 Oliver.Wainwright (ed), Legacy Plus: Interim Uses and East Londons Olympic Legacy, London: The Architecture Foundation, 2010 Peter Bishop, Lesley.Williams, The Temporary City, London: Routledge, 2012 Rietveld Landscape, Vacant NL, where architecture meets ideas Curatorial statement, 2012 http://www.rietveldlandscape.com/downloads/Curatorial%20 statement%20by%20Rietveld%20Landscape.pdf, accessed 25/08/2012 Ronald Hooft, Take me to the river, MARK, June /July 2012 38, pp 68 Samantha Hardingham (ed), Cedric Price Opera, WileyAcademy: Italy, 2003 STEALTH Group, Culture of temporary use in Amsterdam, 24 June 2003 http://www.templace.com/think-pool/one9c8c.html?think_ id=4035, accessed 25/08/2012 STEALTH Group, Kinetic North organization, 26 June 2003 http://www.templace.com/tool-pool/onecfe2.html?tool_ id=4073, accessed 25/08/2012 STEALTH.unlimited (A Dokic and M.Neelen) and I. de Kievith, Constituting the interim, http://www.stealth.ultd.net/ stealth/22_constituting.the.interim.html accessed 17/08/2012 STEALTH.unlimited (A Dokic and M.Neelen), Platform for temporary use on the northern banks of the Ij, April 2003 http://www.evadeklerk.com/downloads/Internationaal/ Stealth%20Platform%202002.pdf, accessed 22/08/2012 Stephen Marshall, Cities, Design and Evolution, Oxford: Routeladge, 2008 Studio Urban Catalyst, Urban Catalysts, Strategies for temporary uses potential for development of urban residual areas in European metropolises, September 2003 Urban Catalyst, Strategies for Temporary Uses: Potential Development of Urban Residual Areas in European Metropolises, September 2003, http://www.templace.com/ think-pool/attach/download/1_UC_finalR_synthesis007b.

45

MINDING THE GAPS

MINDING THE GAPS

46

Printed by Newspaper Club: www.newspaperclub.com

Everything you see from this window is temporary View from Trinity Buoy Wharf window, 2011, photo Emma Rutherford

PLEASE MIND THE GAPS