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Hydro Power Plant

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WATER POWER When the water drops through a height ,its energy is able to rotate the turbines which are coupled to alternators . The electric power is given by-:

P wQH 9.81103 Kw
Where w=specific weight of water in kg/m3w Q=rate of flow of water in m3/s H=Water head in m = Over All efficiency of the alternator & turbine set

1. A hydro plant operates under an effective head of 100m and a discharge 200 m3/s. If the efficiency of the turbine is 0.85 and efficiency of the alternator is 0.95, find power developed. 2. The average rate of inflows during the 12 months for a river are as under

January February March April May June

1000 cu-m/Sec 800 cu-m/Sec 600 cu-m/Sec 400 cu-m/Sec 400 cu-m/Sec 1200 cu-m/Sec

July August September October November December

2400 cu-m/Sec 2400 cu-m/Sec 1000 cu-m/Sec 400 cu-m/Sec 400 cu-m/Sec 1000 cu-m/Sec

Find the power that can be developed at an effective head of 150m and turbine generator efficiency of 0.85.

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3. A hydro-electric power station is supplied from a reservoir of capacity 3X107 m 3 at a head of 150m.determine the total energy available in KWh if the overall efficiency of the plant is 70%. 4. A hydro-electric power station is supplied from a reservoir having an area of 50km 2 and a head of 50 m. if the overall efficiency of plant to be 60%. Find the rate at which water level fall when the station is generating 30,000kw. 5. An hydro-electric station has to operate with a mean head of 50m.it make use of water collected over a catchment area of 200km 2 over which the annual rainfall is 420 cm with a 30% loss due to evaporation. Assuming the turbine efficiency as 85% and the alternator efficiency as 80% calculate the average power that can be generated. 6. A hydro-electric power station is designed for a catchment area of 400km 2 , rain fall for which is 125cm/annum.The head available is 30m. If 75% (yield factor) of the total rain fall is available , rest is lost to evaporation. Penstock efficiency is 95%.turbine efficiency 85% and generator efficiency is and load factor 40%.Determine the capacity of the station.

SITE SELECTION FOR HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANT Availability of water Water storage Head of water Geological investigation Water pollution Sedimentation Environmental effect Access to site

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CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROELECTRIC PLANT Classification According to water flow regulation 1. Run off river plant without pondage 2. Run off river plant with pondage 3. Reservoir plant Classification According to Load 1. Base Load Plant 2. Peak Load Plant 3. Pumped storage plant Classification According to water Head 1. Low head plants 2. Medium Head Plants 3. High Head Plants Run off river plant without Pondage These plants are used water as it comes, without any pondage or storage. There is no control on water flow. During lean flow the plant capacity is very low. During high flow. These plats can be provide a subtential portion of base load. The 72 MW plat of Louisville gas and elect. on Ohio river in USA Run off river plant with Pondage Pondage refer to storage at the plant to make hourly load fluctuation. These plants are serves as back load or Peak load depending on stream flow. During lean flow the plant capacity is very low. The 25 2MW plat of conowing hydro plant and safe harbor in U S A Reservoir Plant Water is stored in big reservoir behind a dam

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These plants are serves as back load or Peak load depending on water stored in the reservoir. It is possible control the flow water and use it most effectively. Bhakra plant in india Base Load plant They supply the base load of the system. Base load plant supply the constant load and operates at very high load factor. The capacity of the plant is very large. Peak Load plant They supply the peak load of the system. Peak load plant has large seasonal storage. The operate at low load factor. Pump storage plant It supplies the peak load. The pumping of water is done at off peak hour. The efficiency is 60 to 70%. Type of Plant Low head Medium head High Head Water Head Less than 30m 30m t0 100m Above 100m Turbine used Francis or Kaplan Francis or Kaplan Francis below 200m and Pelton above 200m

DIFFERENT PART OF HYDRO-ELECTRIC PLANT Storage Reservoir Dam This is only for Reference 5

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Forebay Spillway Intake Control Gate Pressure Tunnel Surge Tank Penstock Valve and gates Trash racks Tail Race Draft Tube Prime Mover and Turbines

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Storage Reservoir

Storage reservoir is required to store water during excess flow period and the same may be used in lean flow periods. Low head plant required very large storage reservoir and vice versa The capacity of the storage reservoir depends upon the difference run offs between high and lean flow

Dam Dams are structures built over rivers to stop the water flow and form a reservoir. The dams collect water during the rainy season and stores it, thus allowing for a steady flow through the turbines throughout the year. Dams are also used for controlling floods and irrigation. The dams should be water-tight and should be able to withstand the pressure exerted by the water on it. There are different types of dams such as arch dams, gravity dams and buttress dams. The height of water in the dam is called head race

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The Three Gorges Dam is the largest operating hydroelectric power station (22,500 MW.) Forebay A forebay in a power plant unit serves to link the non-pressured diversion structures with the penstock. it is used to meet hourly load fluctuation.

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Spillway A spillway as the name suggests could be called as a way for spilling of water from dams. It is used to provide for the release of flood water from a dam. It is used to prevent over toping of the dams which could result in damage or failure of dams. Spillways could be controlled type or uncontrolled type The uncontrolled types start releasing water upon water rising above a particular level. But in case of the controlled type, regulation of flow is possible. Spill ways are classified as Intake The function of intake is to provide a passage to water to flow into the water conduit channel or penstock. This is only for Reference 9 Overflow spill way Chute spillway Side channel spill way Shaft spill way Siphon spillway

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The intake channel is provided with trash racks, screens and booms to divert and prevent entry of debris and ice into the turbine in take may be high pressure intake and low pressure intake

Trash Racks These are built up from long flat bars set vertically or nearly so and space in accordance with the minimum width of water passage through the turbine. The clear space between the bars varies from 25mm or 40mm to 150mm to 200mm on very large installation. it prevent ice and other material from entering the unit

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Surge tanks Surge tanks are tanks connected to the water conductor system. It serves the purpose of reducing water hammering in pipes which can cause damage to pipes. The sudden surges of water in penstock is taken by the surge tank, and when the water requirements increase, it supplies the collected water thereby regulating water flow and pressure inside the penstock There are three important types of Surge Tanks used in Hydro Electric Power Plant. Simple Surge Tank Restricted Orifice type Surge Tank Differential Surge Tank.

Penstocks Penstocks are pipes which carry water from the reservoir to the turbines inside power station. They are usually made of steel and are equipped with gate systems. Water under high pressure flows through the penstock. A tunnel serves the same purpose as a penstock. It is used when an obstruction is present between the dam and power station such as a mountain.

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Valve and gate Valve and gate is required for at the entrance of the turbine casing to shut off the flow and provide for un-watering the turbine for inspection and repair.

Tail race Tail race is nothing but the path through which water is pumped out of the hydro power plant after power generation.

Draft tube An air tight pipe of suitable diameter attached to the runner outlet and conducting water down from the wheel and discharging it under the surface of the water tail race is known as draft tube.

Prime movers or water turbine

In hydro electric power plant water turbines are used as prime movers and their function is to convert the kinetic energy of the water into mechanical energy which is further utilized to drive the alternators generating electrical energy.

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TURBINE According to the type of flow of water 1. Axial flow turbine 2. Inward radial flow turbine 3. Tangential or peripheral flow turbine According to the action of water on moving blades 1. Impulse Turbine 2. Reaction Turbine According to the name of the originator 1. Pelton Wheel turbine 2. Francis Turbine 3. Kaplan Turbine IMPULSE TURBINE In Impulse turbines the entire pressure of water is converted in to kinetic energy in a nozzle and jet.

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The resulting change in momentum (impulse) causes a force on the turbine blades. Since the turbine is spinning, the force acts through a distance (work) and the diverted water flow is left with diminished energy. Prior to hitting the turbine blades, the water's pressure (potential energy) is converted to kinetic energy by a nozzle and focused on the turbine. Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines. Impulse turbines are often used in very high (>300m/984 ft) head applications.

Impulse Turbine

REACTION TURBINE

The reaction turbine, as the name implies, is turned by reactive force rather than by a direct push or impulse. In reaction turbines, there are no nozzles as such. The blades that project radially from the periphery of the rotor are formed and mounted so that the spaces between the blades have, in cross section, in shape of the nozzle. Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines. Most water turbines in use are reaction turbines and are used in low (<30m/98 ft) and medium (30-300m/98984 ft) head applications. In reaction turbine pressure drop occurs in both fixed and moving blades.

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ReactionTurbine

PELTON WHEEL TURBINE

A peloton wheel turbine works under large head and low quantity of water .the potential energy of the water in the penstock is converted into kinetic energy in a jet of water issuing from a nozzle. The rate of water flow can be controlled by the movement of the spear. The water jet impinges on buckets fixed on the periphery of the rotor and causes motion of the rotor. It is impulse type turbine.

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KAPLAN TURBINE

A Kaplan turbine works under low head and large quantity of water .A Kaplan turbine is a propeller turbine with adjustable blades. Kaplan turbine operates at high efficiency even under part load conditions. Kaplan runner is also capable of reverse operation as a pump and is ideally suitable for pump storage plant. It is reaction type turbine similar to Francis turbine. FRANCIS TURBINE It is a inward mixed flow type turbine reaction turbine and is suitable for medium head and medium flow plants. such turbine develop power partly due to velocity of water and pressure acting on the front and back of the runner. The water under pressure enter the runner from guide vanes radially and discharge out of the runner axially.

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The motion of the runner of the water is controlled by movable wicket gates fixed around the runner Since the pressure in inlet is more that at outlet the water flows in a closed cicuit and the runner is always full of water. After doing useful work the water discharge through the draft tube which submerged deep in tail race. GOVERNOR The function of the governor is to keep the speed constant when the load on the turbine increases and decreases. This is achieved by controlling flow of water entering the turbine by automatic adjust of guide vane in case of reaction turbine and nozzle or needle in case of reaction turbine. The governor system for modern hydraulic turbine has a regulating time of 5 second.

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The Principle Elements for speed regulating system for hydraulic turbines are Speed Responsive element generally fly ball mechanism Relay valve to supply oil pressure to either side of the servo motor piston. Servo-motor along with oil pressure operated system to move turbine control mechanism. Restoring mechanism to hold servomotor in fixed position when input and output equalized. Oil pressure supply required for the action of servo motor.

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The plant auxiliaries Head Gate drain valve and Piping Air compressor Cranes Battery and Battery Charging Unit Vacuum & Pressure gauges Relay & associated protective equipment Exciter and Synchronizing equipment Substation and its equipment Specific Speed Specific speed of a turbine is the speed of a scale model of turbine which develops 1 metric h.p. under a head of 1 meter.

Ns
Where

N Pt H 1.25

NS=Specific Speed in metric unit N =Speed of the turbine in rpm Pt = Output in metric h.p.

7. The power developed by a hydro plant is 180 MW. if the alternator efficiency is 85% and turbine efficiency is 90%.suggest which type of turbine is suitable for the plant. If the discharge is 250m3/sec.

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H=Effective Head in Meter

Type of Turbine Pelton

Head

Specific speed Metric Unit 10-50

in

Above 200m 30m-200m Less 30m than

Francis Kaplan

60-300 30-1000

Assignment Short Question 1. What is water power?

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Thermal Power Plant


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Selection site of thermal power plant Transportation network: Easy and enough access to transportation network is required in both power plant construction and operation periods. Gas pipe network: Vicinity to the gas pipes reduces the required expenses. Power transmission network: To transfer the generated electricity to the consumers, the plant should be connected to electrical transmission system. Therefore the nearness to the electric network can play a roll. Geology and soil type: The power plant should be built in an area with soil and rock layers that could stand the weight and vibrations of the power plant. Earthquake and geological faults: Even weak and small earthquakes can damage many parts of a power plant intensively. Therefore the site should be away enough from the faults and previous earthquake areas. Topography: It is proved that high elevation has a negative effect on production efficiency of gas turbines. In addition, changing of a sloping area into a flat site for the construction of the power plant needs extra budget. Therefore, the parameters of elevation and slope should be considered. Rivers and floodways: obviously, the power plant should have a reasonable distance from permanent and seasonal rivers and floodways. Water resources: For the construction and operating of power plant different volumes of water are required. This could be supplied from either rivers or underground water resources. Therefore having enough water supplies in defined vicinity can be a factor in the selection of the site. Environmental resources: Operation of a power plant has important impacts on environment. Therefore, priority will be given to the locations that are far enough from national parks, wildlife, protected areas, etc. Population centers: For the same reasons as above, the site should have an enough distance from population centers. Need for power: In general, the site should be near the areas that there is more need for generation capacity, to decrease the amount of power loss and transmission expenses. Climate: Parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind direction and speed affect the productivity of a power plant and always should be taken into account.

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Land cover: Some land cover types such as forests, orchard, agricultural land, pasture are sensitive to the pollutions caused by a power plant. The effect of the power plant on such land cover types surrounding it should be counted for. Area size: Before any other consideration, the minimum area size required for the construction of power plant should be defined. Distance from airports: Usually, a power plant has high towers and chimneys and large volumes of gas. Consequently for security reasons, they should be away from airports. Archeological and historical sites: Usually historical building are fragile and at same time very valuable. Therefore the vibration caused by power plant can damage them, and a defined distance should be considered. The main and auxiliary equipment of thermal plants are Coal Handling Plant Pulverizing Plant draft fan Boiler Ash Handling Plant Turbine Condenser Cooling Tower And Ponds Feed Water Heater Economiser Super heater and Reheater Air pre heater Alternator with Exciter Protection and control equipment Instrumentation

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COAL HANDLING PLANT

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Unloading Process Feeding Process Screening Process Crushing Process Stacking Process Reclaiming Process Bunkering Process Unloading Process:-Normally coal handling plant receives the coal by three mode of operation: By Rail By road By Arial rope way Feeding Process:-the feeding process involve continuous and control coal flow to meet the requirement. The feeder used in thermal plant is Belt Feeder Apron feeder Vibrating feeder Belt Feeder

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Screening Process: There are three basic type of screening process Scalping Fine removals Grading Crushing Process: There are four basic process to reduce the size Impact attrition Shear Compression

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Impact Crusher

Attrition Crusher

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Shear Crusher

Compression crusher

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Stacking Process: This process involves in dead storage in the form of piles laid directly in the ground. In case of road transport and aerial transport coal are unloaded in stack yard and the coal is stacked properly using dozers. When coal supply by railway is excess it would be stacked through a separate conveyor. For these purpose stacker or telescopic chutes are used. Reclaiming Process: The stored coal is required to bunker in case of emergency or improper coal supply. The reclaiming process involves the lifting of coal from stack yard by means of dozer or reclaimer like bucket wheel. The dozer feed this coal in hopper. This process is simple process. This process is simple. The main object of this process to bunker crush coal or non-crush coal as per requirement of bunker to support the other process feeding. Bunkering Process: This process involves feeding of bins and maintaining the level of these bins. From the conveyor belt the coal is discharged into bunker or bins with the help of trippers. BOILER A boiler (or steam generator) is a closed vessel in which water, under pressure , is converted into steam. The heat is transferred to the boiler by all three modes of heat transfer i.e. conduction, convection and radiation. The boiler is classified as: 1. Fire Tube Boiler 2. Water Tube Boiler

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Fire Tube Boiler

The boiler is named so because the production of combustion passes through the tubes which are surrounded by water. Depending on whether the tube is vertical or horizontal the fire tube boiler is divided into two types 1. Vertical tube boiler 2. Horizontal tube boiler A fire tube boiler is simple, compact and rugged in construction. Its initial cost is low. Water Tube Boiler

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In this boiler, the water flows inside the tubes and hot gases flow outside the tube. Water tube boiler are classified as 1. Vertical tube boiler 2. Horizontal tube boiler 3. Inclined tube boiler The circulation of water in the boiler is may be natural or forced.

In this boiler, the water flows inside the tubes and hot gases flow outside the tube . Water tube boiler are classified as 1. Vertical tube boiler 2. Horizontal tube boiler 3. Inclined tube boiler The circulation of water in the boiler is may be natural or forced. Super Heater

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Super heated steam is that steam which contains more heat than the saturated steam at the same pressure. The additional heat provides more energy to the turbine hence power output is more. Superheated steam causes lesser erosion of the turbine blades and can be transmitted for longer distance with little heat loss The function of the super heater is to remove the last trash of moisture from the saturated steam. A super heater may be convention type, radiant type or combination Super Heater

Reheater In addition to super heater modern boiler has reheater also. The function of the reaheater is to superheat the partly expanded steam from the turbine, this ensure that The steam remain dry through the last stage of the turbine. A reheater may be convention type, radiant type or combination.

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Economizer Boilers are provided with economizer and air pre-heaters to recover heat from the flue gases. An increase of about 20% in boiler efficiency is achieved by providing both economizer and air pre-heaters. Economizer alone gives only 8% efficiency increase. The feed water from the high pressure heaters enters the economizer and picks up heat from the flue gases after the low temperature super heater. Economizer can be classified as an inline or staggered arrangement based on the type of tube arrangement.

Air-Preheater After the flue gases leave economizer, some further heat can be extracted from them and is used to heat the incoming air for combustion. Air pre heater may be 1. Plate type 2. Tabular type 3. Regenerative type Cooling of flue gases by 200 increases the efficiency of the plant by 1%. Ash Handling Plant In Thermal Power Plants coal is generally used as fuel and hence the ash is produced as the byproduct of Combustion. Ash generated in power plant is about 30-40% of total coal consumption and hence the system is required to handle Ash for its proper utilization or disposal. The steam power plant produces 5000 of tons ash daily (2000MW) The ash may be---- Fly Ash Bottom ash

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Fly Ash Ash generated in the ESP which got carried out with the flue gas is generally called Fly ash. It also consists of Air pre heater ash & Economizer ash (it is about 2 % of the total ash content). Bottom ash Ash generated below furnace of the steam generator is called the bottom ash. The operation of ash handling plants is. Removal of ash from the furnace ash hoppers Transfer of the ash to a fill or storage and disposal of stored ash

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The ash may be disposed in the following way. Waste land site may be reserved for the disposal of ash. Building contractor may utilize it to fill the low lying area.
Deep ponds may be made and ash can be dumped into these ponds to fill them completely

When sea born coal is used, barrage may take the ash to sea for disposal into water grave. The modern ash handling system usually used in large steam power plants are . Belt conveyor system Pneumatic system Hydraulic system Steam jet system Belt conveyor system In this system the ash is made to flow through a water seal over the belt conveyor in order to cool it down and then carried out to a dumping site over the belt. It can deliver 3 tonnes of ash per hour with a speed of 0.3m/minute. The life of belt is 5 years. it is used in small power plant Pneumatic system In this system air is employed as a medium to driving the ash through a pipe over along distance. This system can handle 5-30 tonnes of ash per hour This is used for disposal of fly ash Hydraulic system In this system a stream of water carries ash along with it in a closed channel and disposed it off to the proper site. It is of two types high pressure system and low pressure system.

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Steam jet system This system employs jets of high pressure blowing in the direction of ash travel through a conveying pipe in which ash from the boiler ash hopper is fed. It is employed in small and medium size plant Steam consumption is 110 kg per tonne of material conveyed. Draught System The combustion in the boiler requires supply of sufficient quality of air and removal of exhaust gases The Circulation of air is caused by difference of pressure is known as draught. Thus draught is the differential in pressure between the two points. A draught tube may be 1. Natural Draught 2. Mechanical Draught Natural Draught A natural Draught is provided by the chimney or stack. Chimney serves two purposes.. 1. To produce a draught so that air can flow into the boiler and products of combustion are discharged to atmosphere. 2. To deliver the products of combustion and fly ash to a high altitude so that air pollution is reduced. Natural draught has its limitation. Modern plants has high rate of heat transfer and Draught losses are very high. In view of this Natural draught is used only for small boilers. Mechanical Draught Modern large size plants use very large size of boilers of capacity above 1000,000 kg per hour. Such boiler needs tremendous volume of air (around 200000 m3) per minute. A chimney provides this. Therefore mechanical draught is used. In a mechanical draught the system the movement air is due to the action of fan. A mechanical Draught consists of forced Draught or induced draught or both.

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In forced draught system the fan is installed near the boiler .the fan force the air through the furnace, economizer, air preheater and chimney. The pressure of air, throughout the system, is above atmospheric and air is forced to flow through the system. In an induced draught system the fan is installed near the base of the chimney .The burnt gases are sucked out from the boiler, thus reducing the pressure inside the boiler. To less than atmosphere. This induces fresh air to enter the furnace. A mechanical Draught need additional capital investment and maintenance .But it required for proper operation of modern power plant. In super thermal power plant, each boiler may use two forced fans and two induced fan. Feed Water heater Feed Water heating improve over all efficiency.

The dissolved oxygen which would otherwise cause boiler corrosion are removed in the feed water heater. Thermal stresses due to cold water entering the boiler drum are avoided. Quantity of steam produced by the boiler is increased. Some other impurities carried by steam and condensate, due to corrosion in boiler and condenser, are precipitated outside the boiler.

Water Steam Flow diagram

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Deaerator A deaerator is a device that is widely used for the removal of oxygen and other dissolved gases from the feed water to steam-generating boilers. In particular, dissolved oxygen in boiler feedwaters will cause serious corrosion damage in steam systems by attaching to the walls of metal piping and other metallic equipment and forming oxides (rust). There are two basic types of deaerators, 1. 2. Condenser Steam after expansion through the prime mover , goes through the condenser which condense the exhaust steam and also remove air and other non-condensable gases from steam while passing through them. The exhaust steam is condensed and used as feed water for the boiler. this improves the plant efficiency. A vacuum pump is necessary to remove air leaking to the boiler. Condenser are of two type 1. Jet or contact condenser 2. Surface condenser Cooling Towers and Ponds A Condenser needs huge quantity of Water to condense the steam .Roughly 1 Kg of steam needs 100 Kg of water for condenser. As large source of water supply is usually not available near the thermal plant. Therefore most plant used a close cooling water system where the warm water coming out of the system is warmed and reused. A cooling tower is a steel or concrete hyperbolic structure having a reservoir at the bottom for storage of cooled water. The height of the cooling tower may be about 150m or so and the diameter of the base is about 150m. the tray-type the spray-type

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The Type of cooling towers are 1. Wet type cooling towers 2. Dry type cooling towers 3. Wet and dry cooling towers Wet type cooling tower, which are also called Evaporative, water comes in intimate contact with the cooling and transfer about 75% of heat by evaporation.

The dry type cooling tower uses either air cooled condenser or air cooled heat exchanger and there is no cotact between the air and water. The wet dry tower has both wet fill and dry heat exchange surface. Electrostatic precipitator An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge.

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the basic idea of an ESP: Charging Collecting. removing Every particle either has or can be given a chargepositive or negative. We impart a negative charge to all the particles in a gas stream in ESP. Then a grounded plate having a positive charge is set up. The negatively charged particle would migrate to the grounded collection plate and be captured. The particles would quickly collect on the plate, creating a dust layer. The dust layer would accumulate until we removed it

The structural design and operation of the discharge electrodes (rigid-frame, wires or plate) and collection electrodes. Tubular type ESP Plate type ESP The method of charging single-stage ESP two-stage ESP

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The temperature of operation cold-side ESP hot-side ESP The method of particle removal from collection surfaces wet ESP Dry ESP Advantages of thermal power plant The fuel used is quite cheap. Less initial cost as compared to other generating plants. It can be installed at any place irrespective of the existence of coal. The coal can be transported to the site of the plant by rail or road. It require less space as compared to Hydro power plants. Cost of generation is less than that of diesel power plants. Disadvantage of thermal power plant It pollutes the atmosphere due to production of large amount of smoke and fumes. It is costlier in running cost as compared to Hydro electric plants. Requirement of water in huge quantity Handling of coal and disposal of ash is very difficult.

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Nuclear Power Plant

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Nuclear Power plant

A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is one or more nuclear reactors. As in a conventional thermal power station the heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine connected to a generator which produces electricity. As of February 2, 2012, there were 439 nuclear power plants in operation. Nuclear power plants are usually considered to be base load stations, which are best suited to constant power output. Nuclear Reactions Fission and Fusion Nuclear Fission Nuclear fission is the reaction by which a heavy nucleus (that is one with a high value of Z) is hit with a small particle, as a result of which it splits into two (occasionally more) smaller nuclei. The incoming particle must be able penetrate right into the center of the atom, down to the nucleus, which limits the choice of particle to be used.

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A fission reaction such as the one above must produce energy (after all if it didnt we couldnt use it generate electricity). And to produce energy it must lose mass.

Generally the mass defect is 0.207 amu 0.207X 931= 193 MeV . it is assumed that 1 fission of U235 causes a release of 200MeV 200MeV=200X1.6X10-11 watt sec or joules Thus 1 watt require 1/200X1.6X10-11 fission per second

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Nuclear Fusion Fusion is the opposite of fission, it is the joining together of two light nuclei to form a heavier one (plus a small fragment). For example if two 2H nuclei (two deuterons) can be made to come together they can form He and a neutron.

The other possible outcome of the fusion of two deuterons in addition to the formation of 3He (as above), it could also result in the formation of a tritium (3H) nucleus with a release of 4 MeV of energy.

Main Parts of a Nuclear Reactor

Reactor core This is contain a number of fuel rods made up of fissile Moderator This material in the reactor core is used to moderate, or reduce the neutron speed to a value that increase the probability of fission occurring.(Heavy water, carbon) This is only for Reference 25 materials

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Reflector This completely surrounds the reactor core within the thermal and helps to bounce escaping neutron back into the core. shielding arrangement

This conserves the nuclear fuel, as the low speed neutrons, thus returned are useful in continuing chain reaction. Shielding Shielding helps in giving protection from the deadly and particles radiations rays as well as neutrons giving off by the process of fission within the reactor. Control of Reactor Cooling System This removes heat from the nuclear core produced by nuclear reaction, the heat being used to generate steam in other apparatus. The types of coolants used are carbon dioxide, hydrogen, Control rods The control rod is used to absorb the neutron.(boron, hafnium, cadmium) Multiplication factor The ratio of number of neutrons in any one generation to number of neutrons in the preceding generation is called multiplication factor k. If K<1 , fission reaction rapidly decreases If K>1 , fission reaction rapidly Increases Critical Size The reactor has to be a certain minimum size for chain size is known as critical size reaction to continue. This helium, water and sodium.

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Type of Nuclear Reactor Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor, or AGR Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) Fast Breeder Reactors Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor, or AGR In order to improve the cost effectiveness of this type of reactor, it was necessary to go to higher temperatures to achieve higher thermal efficiencies and higher power densities to reduce capital costs. This entailed increases in cooling gas pressure and changing from Magnox to stainless steel cladding and from uranium metal to uranium dioxide fuel. This in turn led to the need for an increase in the proportion of U235 in the fuel. The resulting design, known as the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor, or AGR. Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) The most widely used reactor type in the world is the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) which uses enriched (about 3.2% U235) uranium dioxide as a fuel in zirconium alloy cans. The fuel, which is arranged in arrays of fuel "pins" and interspersed with the movable control rods, is held in a steel vessel through which water at high pressure (to suppress boiling) is pumped to act as both a coolant and a moderator. The high-pressure water is then passed through a steam in the usual way. Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) The second type of water cooled and moderated reactor does away with the steam generator and, by allowing the water within the reactor circuit to boil, it raises steam directly for electrical power generation. Such reactors, known as Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs), throughout the world. This, however, leads to some radioactive contamination of the steam circuit and turbine, which then requires shielding of these components in addition to that surrounding the reactor are in use in some ten countries. This is only for Reference 27 generator, which raises steam

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Fast Breeder Reactors All of today's commercially successful reactor systems are "thermal" reactors, using slow or thermal neutrons to maintain the fission chain reaction in the U235 fuel. Even with the enrichment levels used in the fuel for such reactors, however, by far the largest numbers of atoms present are U238, which are not fissile. Consequently, when these atoms absorb an extra neutron, their nuclei do not split but are converted into another element, Plutonium. Plutonium is fissile and some of it is consumed in situ, while some remains in the spent fuel together with unused U235. These fissile components can be separated from the fission product wastes and recycled to reduce the consumption of uranium in thermal reactors by up to 40%, although clearly thermal reactors still require a substantial net feed of natural uranium. It is possible, however, to design a reactor which overall produces more fissile material in the form of Plutonium than it consumes. This is the fast reactor in which the neutrons are unmoderated, hence the term "fast".

This is only for Reference 28