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a connexion was often made, and the name altered to Galadhriel.

In the High-elve n speech her name was Al(a)triel, derived from alata 'radiance' (Sindarin galad) and riel 'garlanded ma iden' (from a root rig- 'twine, wreathe'): the whole meaning 'maiden crowned with a radiant garland', referring to her hair. calen (galen) 'green' is etymologically 'bright', and derives from this root; see also aglar. kno 'commander': this Quenya word is the origin of the second element m Fingon a nd Turgon. kel- 'go away', of water 'flow away, flow down', in Celon; from et-kele 'issue of water, spring' was derived, with transposition of the consonants, Quenya ehtele, Sindarin eithel. kemen 'earth' in Kementri; a Quenya word referring to the earth as a flat floor beneath menel, the heavens. kheliek- 'ice' in Helcar, Helcarax (Quenya helka 'icy, ice-cold'). But in Helevo rn the first element is Sindarin heledh 'glass', taken from Khuzdul kheled (cf. Kheled-zaram 'Mirrormere'); Helev orn means 'black glass' (cf. galvorn). khil- 'follow' in Hildor, Hildrien, Eluchl. kir- 'cut, cleave' in Calacirya, Cirth, Angerthas, Cirith (Ninniach, Thoronath) . From the sense 'pass swiftly through' was derived Quenya crya 'sharp-prowed ship' (cf. English cutter) , and this meaning appears also in Crdan, Tar-Ciryatan, and no doubt in the name of Isildur's son Cryon. lad 'plain, valley' in Dagorlad, Himlad; imlad a narrow valley with steep sides , in Imladris (cf. also Imlad Morgul in the Ephel Dath). laure 'gold' (but of light and colour, not of the metal) in Laurelin; the Sinda rin forms in Glredhel, Glorfindel, Loeg Ningloron, Lrindol, Rathlriel. lhach 'leaping flame' m Dagor Bragollach, and probably in Anglachel (the sword made by El of meteoric iron). lin (1) 'pool, mere' in Linaewen (which contains aew [Quenya aiwe] 'small bird' ), Teiglin; cf. aelin. lin- (2) This root, meaning 'sing, make a musical sound', occurs in Ainulindal, Laurelin, Lindar, Lindon, Ered Lindon, lmelindi. lith 'ash' in Anfauglith, Dor-nu-Fauglith; also in Ered Lithui, the Ashen Mount ains, forming the northern border of Mordor, and Lithlad 'Plain of Ashes* at the feet of Ered Lithui. lok- 'bend, loop' in Urulki (Quenya [h]lk 'snake, serpent', Sindarin Ihg). lm 'echo' in Dor-lmin, Ered Lmin; related are Lammoth, Lanthir Lamath. lm 'dusk' m Lmion, lmelindi; see d. lond 'land-locked haven' in Alqualond; the Sindarin form lond (lonn) in Mithlond. los 'snow' in Oioloss (Quenya oio 'ever' and losse 'snow, snow-white'); Sindari n loss in Amon Uilos and Aeglos. loth 'flower' in Lothlrien, Nimloth; Quenya lt in Ninquelt, Vingilt. luin 'blue' in Ered Luin, Helluin, Luinil, Mindolluin. maeg 'sharp, piercing' (Quenya maika) in Maeglin. mal- 'gold' in Malduin, Malinalda; also m mallorn, and in the Field of Cormalle n, which means 'golden circle' and was named from the culumalda trees that grew there (see cul-). man- 'good, blessed, unmarred' in Aman, Manw; derivatives of Aman in Amandil, Ar aman, manyar. mel- 'love' in Melian (from Melyanna 'dear gift'); this stem is seen also in th e Sindarin word mellon 'friend'

m the inscription on the West-gate of Moria. men 'way' in Nmen, Hyarmen, Rmen, Formen. menel 'the heavens' m Meneldil, Menelmacar, Meneltarma. mereth 'feast' in Mereth Aderthad; also in Merethrond, the Hall of Feasts in Mi nas Tirith. minas 'tower' in Annminas, Minas Anor, Minas Tirith, etc. The same stem. occurs in other words referring to isolated, prominent, things, e.g. Mindolluin, Mindon; probably related is Que nya minya 'first' (cf. Tar-Minyatur, the name of Elros as first King of Nmenor). mr 'jewel' (Quenya mr) m Elemmr, Gwaith-i-Mrdain, Mriel, Nauglamr, Tar-Atanamir. mith 'grey' in Mithlond, Mithrandir, Mithrim; also hi Mitheithel, the river Hoa rwell in Eriador. mor 'dark' in Mordor, Morgoth, Moria, Moriquendi, Mormegil, Morwen, etc. moth 'dusk' in Nan Elmoth. nan(d) 'valley' m Nan Dungortheb, Nan Elmoth, Nan Tathren. nr 'fire' in Narsil, Narya; present also in the original forms of Aegnor (Aikanro 'Sharp Flame' or 'Fell Fire') and Fanor (Feanaro 'Spirit of Fire'). The Sindarin form was naur, as in Sammath Naur, the Chambers of Fire in Orodruin. Derived from the same ancient root (a)nar was the name of the Sun, Que nya Anar (also in Anrion), Sindarin Anor (cf. Minas Anor, Anorien).