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PHILOSOPHY OF MAN

Definition of Term: Philosophy is a science whose essence is found on reason, experience, reflection, intuition, meditation, imagination , and speculation that leads to CRITICAL THINKING which embraces questioning , analyzing , criticizing, synthesizing, evaluating, and judging a given phenomenon Philosophy of the Human Person o Deals with the origin of human life, nature of human life, and the reality of human existence o In Philosophy it is concern of the meaning of human nature and nature of the human self. It explores human nature itself, to know his essence, form which makes human unique. It discusses the essential or uniqueness about the term Man as being. o The essential question that can be asked is Who am I? It challenges and evaluates his being, his relationship to the World and relationship to his Creator. o Some topic of Philosophy of Human person: Historicity, Man as Embodied Spirit, Man as Being-in-the-world, Man lives in time, I-It relationship, I-Thou relationship, I-Thou (eternal) relationship, Death and Immortality and his highest activity is love. Certain Philosophies of Man: Greek Philosophers GREEK PHILOSOPHERS believes that what constitutes the world is also that constitutes human. o THALES - WATER is the world of stuff Somatic level of human nature: it is a scientific knowledge that the human brain contains 80% water and 70% in the human body. o ANAXIMENES AIR Human: body condensed air soul rarefied air o PYTHAGORAS soul is immortal, divine o PROTAGORAS ultimate criterion of truth: man is the measure of all things o SOCRATES Human THINKS and WILLS. Human soul is more important than the body. o PLATO DUALISTIC nature : body material, ergo, mutable and destructible; Soul immaterial, ergo immutable and indestructible. Three components of the soul Rational soul mind and intellect Spirited soul will or volition Appetitive soul emotion or desire According to Plato values are chosen; Choice is volitional It means that the development of the character and intelligence like the body is open to human choice. o ARISTOTLE no dichotomy between body and soul. Body and soul are in a state of unity

the soul is matter and has seven parts Five senses The power of speech The power of reproduction Another Stoic view is that the human nature is part of determined universe. Man must be the subject of the will of God and to the law of nature Certain Philosophies of Man: Medieval Philosophers MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY is THEODICY o ST. AUGUSTINE God created human with a mortal body with an immortal soul and gave him free will. o ST. THOMAS AQUINAS He claims that the human person is substantially united body and soul. Soul is united with the human body principle of life Soul requires the body as the material medium for its operation particularly perception Soul has operative functions which do not need a material medium: they are humans intellect and will. o RENE DESCARTES idea of substance; man is a machine and a thinking being, a thing that thinks Thinking substance human can know and think apart from the body Extended substance human assumes life and move through the animal spirits and not through soul o KARL MARX Human nature is derived from labor since its totality is human activity. o THOMAS HOBBES humans are physical objects, sophisticated machines Sensation involves a series of mechanical processes operating within the human nervous system Human nature emphasizes our animal nature leaving each of us independently of everyone else acting only his self-interest without regard for others. This produces state of war a way of life that is certain to prove solitary, poor, nasty o MARTIN BUBER social being He applied the principle of personalism Theory of humans interrelatedness to others I-it, Thou-he/she I-Thou is the highest level of human relationship This relationship happens when the I and the Thou are bound together in the context of love o

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MARTIN BUBER According to Martin Buber there are types of relationships these are I-it, I-Thou and I-Thou eternal relationship. Through these relationships we create communication and at the same engaging the other as a whole being. In I-it relationship the way they relate to and experience each other as objects or means to an end. Communication cannot happen in the I-it relation. For Buber, the I-Thou relationship represents the world of relationships. This kind of relationship happens between the I and Thou. When we place in relation to one another, I is shared and Thou is accepted as well. When I and Thou would have a constant communication, they find meaning because this is the start of no pretensions and true connection takes place. How do we make I-Thou relationships as opposed to I-it relationships? Is Thou something that we go looking for us? Is Thou made or is Thou discovered? Buber explains I-Thou is not to be discovered but it is met through our beautiful journey. When we begin to start searching to execute a role for us, we are setting up a tendency for an I-it relationship. I believe that I experienced I-Thou relationships with some of my close friends. I enjoy being with them, who accept me of who I am and vice-versa. To be with my close friends companies I feel safe and I can share the truth with them. We could make mistakes and sometimes we let each other down. The good side we do not hold grudges and we know how to forgive with one another. The I must allow the Thou to be authentic and real. The Thou is discovered when there are no anticipation or no hopes. The I-Thou relationship is by allowing to be true and freely to one another. For an I-Thou relationship happen, there should be no end goal. Martin Buber explains love is the response of an I to eternal Thou. The I must introduce himself, speak to the other, the Thou. The important belief of love is that the Thou has reached out and spoken first. The act of love is truly a response. The ultimate Thou is God. In I-Thou relation there are no pretensions and we could talk to God freely. Being one with Thou can be express sharing our time and presence with God. The I-Thou relation can stand in union with his nature, sharing of ideas, of dreams and being true to each one of us. The I-Thou relationship is by allowing to be true and freely to one another. For an I-Thou relationship happen, there should be no end goal. Martin Buber explains love is the response of an I to eternal Thou. The I must introduce himself, speak to the other, the Thou. The important belief of love is that the Thou has reached out and spoken first. The act of love is truly a response. The ultimate Thou is God. In I-Thou relation there are no pretensions and we could talk to God freely. Being one with Thou can be express sharing our time and presence with God. The I-Thou relation can stand in union with his nature, sharing of ideas, of dreams and being true to each one of us

Certain Philosophies of Man: Modern Philosophers JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU o Human is unique in the world, ones being, ones existence, is different from all others o State of nature human are basically good and they tend to compassionate to each other o In his political theory, instead of being bound together, people should be linked by social contract, a pact in a political order to which reasonable persons would freely give their allegiance o He believed that God is the source of all justice. JEAN PAUL SARTRE o Human existence is found in human exercise of freedom and responsibility Certain Philosophies of Man: Existentialist Philosophers MARTIN HEIDEGGER o Human existence can only attained when the human person lives his life authentically o Authentic existence requires human to do the ff: Human has to free himself from his inauthentic existence Human owns his existence, he has to project his possibilities; human has to make himself Human person has to experience dread, care, concern, guilt Humans resolute decision to live authentically, human has to accept death as his own most inevitable possibility. VICTOR FRANKL o human can find meaning in his existence in a three-fold: By doing a life-project By experiencing value By finding meaning of suffering SOREN KEIRKEGAARD o human can achieve a meaningful existence when human liberates himself from his/her crowd existence KARL JASPERS o The attainment of human existence is possible when he is seen as whole or as the Encompassing. Human can be the Encompassing when he sees as an existent being, as a conscious being, as a spirit and as an existence. JOHN STUART MILL o utilitarianism o Pain or even sacrifice of pleasure is warranted on Mills view only when it results directly in the greater good of all.

JEREMY BENTHAM o Utilitarian value: actions are right in proportions as tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce pain. By happiness are intended pleasure, and the absence of pain o The principle of utility, defines the meaning of moral obligation by reference to the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people DAVID HUME o He believed that our beliefs and actions are the products of custom or habit. o According to him, it is our feelings that exert practical influence over human volition and action. o All human actions flow naturally from human feelings without any interference from human person FRIEDRICH NIETZCHE o no rules for human life, no absolute values, no certainties on which to rely; rejects religion

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Behavioral and Cultural Values are inner personal responses or incentive, which prompt a person to a certain way Characteristics: Subjective Societal/Situational

Meaning, Nature, Purpose and Norms of Morality Morality o Human Acts o Acts of Man Classification of Human Acts o Moral Actions o Immoral Actions o Amoral Actions

Nature of the human person THREE-FOLD LEVEL OF HUMAN NATURE 1. Somatic level body, substance, constitution 2. Behavioral level - mode of acting 3. Attitudinal level mental reaction to a given stimulus; position of every individual concerning his/her opinion, feeling or mood. Human being is the substantial union of body and soul. Humans are social beings. Humans are historical beings Humans are acting beings. Meanings of values Values o Latin word valere vigor, a power to do specific thing o Refers to interests, pleasures, likes, duties, preferences, moral obligations, desires, wants, goals, needs, aversions and attractions. Two Kinds of Values 1. Absolute Moral Values those which are ethically and socially binding to all men, at all times and in all places Characteristics: Objective Universal External Moral Values Refer to the qualities of an act, which are performed by an individual freely and knowingly. It is founded on human person, love and freedom