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Chapter 1

Fundamentals of Vibrations
- Professor Masoud Sanayei
1
Harmonic Motion:

The simplest form of periodic oscillatory motion is harmonic motion.






Periodic Motion

where, t = Period [sec]

x(t)
t
A
m
t = period
k
Optic filmstrip recorder
( ) ( ) ( )
x t x t x t n t t = + = +
2
Consider the following notations as:
Frequency, [Hz] or cps
Circular frequency, [rad/sec]
Amplitude of vibration

Then, the Simple harmonic equation can be written as:
( )
2
x t Asin t Asin t
t
e
t
= =
Cos t
P
A
1
5
2
3
4
O
Sin t
u=t
1
2
3
4
5
t
x(t)
A
O
t
t x(t)
1 0 0
2 t/4 A
3 t/2 0
4 3t/4 -A
5 t 0
1
f
t
=
2
2 f
t
e t
t
= =
A
3
Time history relation between displacements, velocities and accelerations:
Displacement
Velocity
Acceleration

Let





( )
x t Asin t e =
( )
x t Acos t Asin t
2
t
e e e e
| |
= = +
|
\ .
( ) ( )
2 2
x t Asin t Asin t e e e e t = = +
4
1.57 Rad / Sec e =
4 Sec t =
f 0.25 Hz =
Vector phase relationship between displacement, velocity and acceleration:
(Assume = 1.57 rad/sec)





Also note:
(1) D.E. for free vibration

2
x x e =
2
x x 0 e + =
5
Exponential form: Trigonometric functions and exponential functions are
related as:

Harmonic motion can be represented as:

Complex sinusoid

Z satisfies differential equation (1)
Conjugate of z is z*

z* is rotating in the negative direction with angular speed of . Then



i
e cos i sin
u
u u = +
( )
i t
z Ae A cos t i sin t
e
e e = = +
z x iy = +
u=t
Re
Im
z=A e
it

O
2 i t 2
z A e z
e
e e = =
( )
* i t
z x iy Ae A cos t i sin t
e
e e

= = =
( ) ( )
* i t
1
x z z Acos t Re Ae
2
e
e = + = =
( ) ( )
* i t
i
y z z ASin t Im Ae
2
e
e

= = =
y
Z
x
Z+Z* A
t
t
Z*
6
Mathematical advantages of exponential operations:

Let and

Then,






Exponential representation is for mathematical convenience.
1
i
1 \1
z A e
u
=
2
i
2 2
z A e
u
=
( )
1 2
i
1 2 1 2
z z A A e
u u +
=
( )
1 2
i
1 1
2 2
z A
e
z A
u u
=
n n in
z A e
u
=
1 1
i
n n n
z A e
u
=
7