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EDITORS: Cifuentes Honrubia, Jos Luis; Rodrguez Rosique, Susana TITLE: Spanish Word Formation and Lexical Creation

SERIES: IVITRA Research in Linguistics and Literature 1 PUBLISHER: John Benjamins YEAR: 2011 Bruno O. Maroneze, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS, Brazil SUMMARY Spanish Word Formation and Lexical Creation, as laid out in its Preface, gathers 19 papers presented at the Conference on Word Formation and Lexical Creation held in Alicante, in March 2010. All the contributors, with one exception, are from Spanish institutions. The papers are organized in four parts. The first part, entitled Conflation, contains six papers dealing with the concept of conflation, which is, as explained in the Preface, a verbalization process which transforms a complete predicative schema into a new single verb (p. VII). One of the predicate-arguments is incorporated into the derived verb. The first chapter, by Barrajn Lpez, describes meteorological denominal verbs in Spanish, comparing them to the same class of verbs in some other languages. The author first discusses the impersonality of these verbs and their morphological structure (pp. 3-9); then, the most important part of the article is dedicated to the description of their argument structure. The verbs in question are divided in two main groups: local meteorological verbs (pp. 9-13) and causative meteorological verbs (pp. 13-17). The Spanish verbs are carefully compared to the corresponding verbs in other languages (Slovak, Russian, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Portuguese and Creole -- on the last, see below). The main conclusions (p. 17) are that these verbs may be categorized in several semantic subclasses and present different degrees of syntactic impersonality; furthermore, their syntactic and semantic behavior is not the same, cross-linguistically. It is not clear from which Creole language the author takes the data; she writes that [b]oth languages [Portuguese and Creole] coexist in South Africa, Portuguese being the official language (pp. 12-13). However, there are eleven official languages in South Africa, Portuguese not being one of them. Probably, the author refers to other countries in Southern Africa, like Angola and Mozambique. I also have no information on any Portuguese-based Creole spoken in South Africa. The second chapter, by Bolaos Navaln, is entitled Instrumental verb formation. The chapter begins with a thorough theoretical discussion on morphological, syntactic and semantic aspects of verb formation in Spanish (pp. 21-27). The author distinguishes synthetic and analytic structures, which differ on the explicitness and independence of the argument of the verb; it is argued that both share a common conceptual origin, but the synthetic structure must not be considered as derived from the analytic in any sense, syntactic or semantic. Nevertheless, they both conceptualize the same scene through different constructions. Also important is the description of the concept of conflation (pp. 25-26).

The author then describes the concept of instrument as understood in syntax and presents two typologies of instruments (pp. 27-29). After arguing that these typologies are not suited for the description of the synthetic (conflated) constructions (pp. 29-31), Bolaos proposes his own classification, in three main groups (each of them with subtypes): unergative instruments (where the instrument is conflated with the verb and requires no further complements, p. 33 -e.g. trompetear, tamborilear), localization instruments (where the instrument participates in the localization process, but from an external position, p. 35 -- e.g. cacear, cincelar) and contact instruments (formations that present a local conflation where the instrument does take part in the localization process, p. 38 -- e.g. aporrear, atenazar). The third chapter, by Jos Antonio Candalija Reina, focuses on denominal verbs which demand a prepositional object. The article begins with a theoretical discussion on argument structure and the semantics of prepositions (pp. 43-46), as well as the relation between the preposition and the prefix present in many of these verbs (pp. 47-48) and the notions of incorporation and conflation (pp. 49-51). The last part (pp. 52-60) is dedicated to the description of 17 denominal verbs and their demanded prepositions; the author, supporting his argument with etymological data, intends to show that the preposition reflects a local, spatial sense (sometimes metaphorical) of the verb argument. An important aspect that is pointed out (although not thoroughly developed) is that the analytic and the synthetic constructions demand both the same preposition, and this is explained not because one is derived from the other, but because both constructions share a semantic component which requires the meaning of that specific preposition. The next chapter, the longest, is entitled Spanish deadjectival verbs and argument structure, by Jos Luis Cifuentes Honrubia. He begins with a discussion on the concept of conflation (pp. 6770) and on deadjectival verbs in Latin and Spanish (pp. 70-76). In the fourth section (pp. 70-99), the author presents a very thorough description of the semantic patterns involved in the conflation of deadjectival verbs. He detects four main patterns (X cause Y to become Adj; X be Adj; Y behaves as X; become X), each one with subtypes, as well as other cases of more difficult classification. The author also brings large lists of examples, with sentences extracted from diachronic and synchronic corpora (CORDE and CREA). The author concludes that all patterns share the same type of argument conflation: attributive conflation (p. 99). Also very interesting is the diagram showing the relationship among all of the patterns (p. 102). The chapter by Lavale Ortiz, entitled Sensory-emotional denominal causative verbs, describes a group of denominal causative verbs which express a physical or psychological change of state (p. 140) i.e., their meaning may be paraphrased by cause + incorporated noun. They include the so-called psychological verbs (like angustiar, avergonzar, emocionar), but also some other ones that indicate physical change of state and behave syntactically and semantically like psychological verbs (like contusionar, infartar, lesionar, all examples taken from p. 120). The author describes the possible kinds of arguments (human, intentional etc.) which appear with these verbs, as well as which of these verbs may participate in the causative/inchoative alternation (pp. 133-137). The author also points that some of these verbs, interestingly, may also express locative or possessive meanings. The last chapter of the first part is Morphology and pragmatics of affixal negation, by Susana Rodrguez Rosique. It is a very interesting semantic analysis of the Spanish prefix des-, which

means, basically, the negation of the base verb. She shows that negative meaning is not a simple notion, describing various subtleties and, particularly, the differences between the negation by affixes and sentential negation. Perhaps the most interesting conclusion is that pragmatics performs a very important role in the interpretation of this prefix. The second part, Formal processes, contains papers on diverse morphological, syntactic and semantic phenomena involved in word formation. The first chapter, Deverbal nouns with the suffix -dura, by Josefa Martn Garca, describes morphological, syntactic and semantic properties of deverbal nouns ending in -dura. Initially, the author presents some etymological and morphological data (pp. 166-171); the last part of the chapter classifies the deverbal nouns in event nominals, result nominals (with subtypes) and non-resultative and non-eventive nominals. Each group is thoroughly described and, in the final remarks, the author concludes that this suffix mainly selects telic verbal bases with an internal argument (p. 181), and forms especially nominalizations denoting entities, particularly, result-objects of an action (p. 181). This explains, according to Martn Garcia, some traits of this suffix, like its limited productivity in contemporary Spanish. The second article in this part is the only one which doesnt deal directly with word formation: On protagonizar an event and the scope of the concept of light verb, by Mara Antonia Martnez Linares, discusses whether protagonizar should be considered a light verb, and the very concept of light verb. The author first presents the characteristics of protagonizar which could be used to argue that it is a light verb (pp. 186-196); then, she presents counterarguments which show that protagonizar has a heavy semantic weight (pp. 196-201) and, in the last part of the chapter, brings extensive semantic and syntactic data to show that the concept of light verb is vague and must be extended or reformulated. The short chapter by Jess Pena, The relationship between verb-noun in derivational series, examines pairs of verbs and their related nouns from the point of view of diachronic morphology. Pena compares the verb-noun pairs in Latin and Spanish, showing cases in which there is no simple continuity from Latin to Spanish. In some situations, for example, the morphological relationship is lost in Spanish; in some others, there has been a crossing of two Latin derivational series; in yet others, the verb is a Spanish innovation; amongst a few other cases. The author concludes that many irregularities in the verb-noun pairs can only be understood from a historical point of view. Diachronic morphology and the relation between verb and noun are also the main subjects of the next chapter, Nominalizations of transfer verbs, by Antonio Rifn Snchez. The author analyses 62 verbs of transfer and their corresponding nouns, formed by conversion and by suffixation (using -miento and -cin). Rifn Snchez classifies the verbs into three categories, depending on whether the verb has one, two or three related nouns, and describes their etymological and semantic differences. He concludes that [t]he competition between nouns leads to an attempt at differentiating nouns either semantically, diatopically or through the disappearance of one of them, but we cannot go as far as saying that stability is reached (pp. 252-253). David Serrano-Dolader, in Base selection and prefixing, discusses whether base-affix

compatibility is influenced by categorial as well as semantic restrictions, using as data words formed by the Spanish prefix des-. After reviewing previous studies on similar prefixes in Italian and French, the author makes a proposal regarding what should be the most appropriate way to approach the study of the restrictions in base selection in derivational processes (p. 264). He then exemplifies this method in the study of the prefix des- (pp. 265-280). As can be inferred from the argumentation, Serrano-Dolader believes that categorial restrictions, and not only semantic ones, must be considered. Part three is Neologisms and lexical creation, bringing contributions on neologisms and lexical semantics. The first chapter, Phonetic adaptation and derivational morphological development of foreign words in Spanish in the DPD, by Celia Bern Sicilia, deals with the adaptation of foreign words by the Diccionario Panhispnico de Dudas. After a brief section on the notions of neologism and borrowing, the author lists 69 productive borrowings and foreign words registered in the DPD (p. 291), and analyses them as to their phonetic (pp. 292-295) and morphological adaptation (pp. 295-304). Bern Sicilia concludes that there is relative chaos in the adaptation of foreign words, especially due to the multiplicity of factors involved in this process (p. 305) but, despite that, there is a concern with homogeneity and coherence. From Latin super- to Spanish sobre, by Jos Luis Cifuentes Honrubia and Javier Frenillo Nez, describes the semantic changes involved in the passage from the Latin prefix super- to the Spanish prefix sobre-, in the formation of verbs. The authors make a very thorough description of the possible meanings of sobre-, emphasizing semantic extensions and metaphorical and metonymic motivations. The authors main conclusion is that the non-spatial meanings of the prefix, most abundant in Spanish, are derived from spatial meanings, present especially in Latin. Mara Tadea Daz Hormigo, in Word formation processes and proposals for the classification of formal neologisms, analyses four important manuals of Spanish word formation, in order to describe the differences in the classification of word formation processes. After that, she presents the classification of the OBNEO group, which is a classification proposal for neologisms, comparing it with the previously described ones. Daz Hormigo concludes that there is great disagreement across all the described proposals, and suggests that a typology for the classification of neologisms should perhaps follow an pre-existing typology instead of creating a new one. The next chapter is entitled The concept of light in Spanish denominal verbs, by Jorge Fernndez Jan and Hilde Hanegreefs. The authors analyze the semantics of five etymologically related verbs: iluminar, alumbrar, deslumbrar, vislumbrar and columbrar (all from Latin lumen, light). After a detailed review of the concept of verbs of perception (pp. 370378), the authors describe the semantics of each one of the verbs, using Cognitive Semantics as theoretical support. The constructional behavior of the verbs is also described in considerable detail. They show that the concept of light is decisive in human experience (p. 405) and each one of these verbs conceptualizes different aspects of this concept. Montserrat Planelles Ivez, in Metaphors as a source of lexical creation in the field of wine criticism, describes French and Spanish expressions used to refer to the characteristics of wine. With the support of Lakoff and Johnsons theory of metaphor, the author shows how metaphor is

Joseph Salmons 6/28/12 4:58 PM

Comment [1]: Is that what you meant?

Joseph Salmons 6/28/12 4:59 PM

Comment [2]: Please add a reference. Many LINGUIST readers wont know the book.

a source of lexical creation and polysemy, originating many neologisms in this domain. The last chapter of this part is entitled On deverbal word formation as condensation of previous mental patterns, by Estanislao Ramn Trives. He approaches the problem of deverbal noun creation from a strictly theoretical point of view, employing concepts and authors of the European structuralist tradition. The last part of the book, Applications, has only two chapters. The first, Lexical collocations and the learning of Spanish as a foreign language, by Marta Higueras Garca, centers itself on the concept of collocation. Starting with a very detailed description of the concept, the author establishes the main differences between collocations and its close concepts of free combinations and compounds. After a historical review, Higueras Garca then emphasizes the importance of collocations for language learning and finishes the chapter by presenting a series of projects and lines of investigation in the description of Spanish collocations. The last chapter addresses what seems to be a completely new field of study: the teaching of word formation in foreign language studies. Denominal verbs in ELE/EL2 classroom (a didactic approach), by Santiago Roca Martn, describes a word formation test taken by North American students of Spanish. After briefly describing the verbs that are the subject of the experiment (instrumental denominal verbs) and asserting that the subject is almost never approached in the foreign language teaching context; the author shows how the students managed to create denominal verbs and what their main difficulties in doing so were. He concludes that it is feasible and necessary to include this topic in foreign language teaching. EVALUATION The book covers many different aspects of the subject, as is expected in a collection written by many authors. There are also many different theoretical approaches to the studied phenomena, but it can be said that Cognitive Linguistics predominates. Among the various subjects related to word formation, we can observe that the study of the semantics of word formation predominates. This is probably a reflection of the growing importance of Semantics in Linguistics in general. The book also brings some contributions on topics which some readers would consider only indirectly related to word formation, like syntax (especially the chapter by Martnez Linares on the verb protagonizar), lexical semantics (especially the chapter by Fernndez Jan and Hanegreefs on the verbs related to light) and lexicology (especially the chapter by Higueras Garca on collocations). Nevertheless, this shows that the field of word formation must not be restricted to morphology; these other topics greatly enrich our domain of investigation. One of the most important contributions of the book is that it brings many very important Spanish theorists unknown to the non-Spanish world to the attention of English-speaking readers. Still, it is important to note that the authors make extensive use of citations in Spanish (for both examples and scholarship), which may pose a difficulty for non-Spanish speaking readers. That said, the book will be of great interest to researchers in the field of word formation, especially those working on Romance languages.

Joseph Salmons 6/28/12 5:00 PM

Comment [3]: Does that work?

ABOUT THE REVIEWER Bruno O. Maroneze completed his Ph.D. in the University of Sao Paulo in 2011. His Ph.D. thesis focuses on Brazilian Portuguese neologisms formed by suffixation. His main research interests are on the semantics of word formation and, especially, the study of neologisms. He is currently teaching in the Faculty of Communication, Arts and Letters of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS, Brazil.