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T H E PRACTICE O F GROUND DIFFERENTIAL RELAYING Copyright Material IEEE

w.

H. Nichols, Member IEEE Westinghouse Electric Corporation Houston, Texas

Paper No. PCIC-88-4

,#R. E. Cosse', Jr. Lockwood, Andrews and Newnam, Inc. Houston. Texas SECTION I

ABSTRACT This paper presents the basic concepts of ground differential protection for transformers and generators. It is an important but seldom used scheme that provides a high degree of sensitivity for low magnitude faults, quick response for minimum burning time, and good performance at maximum fault levels. This scheme helps minimize equipment repair and may enhance system reliability. This paper also illustrates a method of current transformer selection, s o as to help insure operation of the ground differential scheme. INTRODUCTION Ground differential relaying provides fast and sensitive ground fault protection for wye connected and grounded electrical power equipment such as rotating generators or power transformers. Because it is a differential system, there is no need to incorporate undesirable time delay or sacrifice sensitivity for the sake of system coordination. This paper is divided into three ( 3 ) sections: Section I: Explains ground differential relaying for power transformers and generators. Because the purpose o f this section is to provide an understanding of the basic ground differential schemes, a simple time overcurrent relay is used as the ground differential relay (device 87G). Current transformer saturation and other physical limitations are not considered in this section. Section 11: Explains the ground differential scheme using a commercially available product type relay. This section illustrates the additional pragmatic involvement encountered when using a relay specifically designed for this application. Section 111: Performs the current transformer burden calculations for a commonly encountered situation. It is imperative that burden calculations are understood by the relay application engineer. The performance and results of these calculations helps ensure the reliable operation of the ground differential scheme as well as back-up relaying. There are several qualifications that must be made. First, systems with line to neutral loads are not considered by this paper. Second, the relay application engineer is cautioned to adhere to the application manuals and instruction books of the product relay which will be discussed in Section 11. This is necessary to guarantee conformance to all design requirements and possible limitations. Third, it is restated that current transformer burden calculations must be performed and well understood or expected performance will be -jeopardized. -

POWER TRANSFORMER SINGLE-ENDED SUBSTATION PROTECTION The zone of ground differential protection for power transformers includes the equipment between the power transformer neutral CT and the secondary main breaker phase CT's. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate a simple time overcurrent relay applied as an 87G device on a single-ended substation with a transformer neutral 400 amp grounding resistor. Relays 51-G1 and 51-GZ are time overcurrent relays connected to a separate neutral CT for current transformer burden consideration. Figure 1 demonstrates the resultant currents with a ground fault occurring outside the zone of ground differential protection. Figure 2 represents a ground fault occuring inside the ground differential zone. It is important to check the performance of the scheme for each of these situations. The purpose of the 1O:l ratio auxiliary CT is to match the difference between the CT ratios of the power transformer neutral CT and the phase CT's. Notice that the polarity connection of all the CT's is critical for correct operation of the scheme.
~ ~~ ~

SECONDARY MAIN

200015 PHASE CT'S

POWER TRANSFOFXER

& - - - - f$

mRN l o m AUXILIARY CTR N s

5 1 4 1 T R I P S SECONDARY PlAIN BREAKER 5 1 4 2 T R I P S TRANSFORMER.PRIMRY BREAKER 87G T R I P S BOT11 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MAIN BREAKERS THROUGH AN 86 RELAY C . T . RATIOS ARE CHOSEN FOR ILLUSTRATION PURPOSES IAP = AUXILIARY C.T:PRIMAR? CURRENT IAS = AUXILIARY C . T . SECONDARY CURSENT ITNS = TRANSFORMER NEUTRAL C.T. SECONDARY CURRENT I G F = SYSTEM GROUND FAULT CCRRENT
GROUND FALLT OUTSIDE ZONE OF GROUND D I F F E R E N T I A L PROTECTION

FIGURE 1

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88CH2661-7/88/0000-021$01 .OO 0 1988 IEEE

During a ground fault outside the zone of protection, the transformer neutral CT secondary current (ITNS) is equal in magnitude and phase angle to the auxiliary CT secondary current (IAS). ITNS and IAS chase each other around the loop bracketed by the current transformer secondaries. Since no tripping current is available to flow through relay 87G, the 87G relay does not operate. Consequently, the fault is cleared by the 51-G1 time overcurrent relay after a time delay. Relay 51-G1 is set faster than relay 51-G2 and only trips the secondary main breaker. Note that in Figure 1 no consideration was given to any load current that the power transformer may be supplying. This is because line to line loads consist of only positive and negative sequence currents which sum to zero at the phase CT secondary neutral point. Therefore, these load currents do not interfere with ground fault relaying. Figure 2 indicates a ground fault inside the zone of ground differential protection. With the fault in this location, current IAS is zero. The extremely high secondary impedance of the auxiliary CT forces ITNS to flow through relay 87G, causing the 87G relay to detect the ground fault and operate with little intentional time delay. Relay 87G trips primary and secondary main breakers through an 86 lockout relay to effectively isolate the ground fault. Relays 51-G1 and 51-G2 also sense the ground fault current but do not operate as they are set slower than 87G.

SECONDARY M A I N

2000/5

PHASE CT

51 G1

51 G2

lTURN 10 TURNS AUXILIARY CT

GROUND FAULT I N S I D E ZONE OF GROUND DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION FIGURE 2

Relay 51-Gl is intended to clear ground faults on the load side of the transformer secondary main breaker that are outside the zone of the ground differential protection. Time overcurrent relay 51-G2 trips the primary main breaker, however, 51-G2 is set slower than 87G or 51-G1 for coordination purposes. Relay 51-G2 is effectively a backup relay to 87G and 51-G1.

SOURCE NO. 1
SOURCE NO. 2

-&,I

T I E N.C. HAIN t ICF2 V M l U l N IGFZ I G F l = GROUND FAULT FROEl SOURCE 1 = 4 0 0 A I r . N 4 Y W I G F 2 = GROUND FAULT FROM SOURCE 2 = 4 0 0 A U Y TOTAL GROUND FAULT = I G F l + I G F 2 = 8 0 0 A

=tJ

DOUBLE ENDED WITH NORMALLY CLOSED T I E BREAKER FIGURE 3

POWER TRANSFORMER DOUBLE-ENDED SUBSTATION PROTECTION


Figure 3 illustrates a double ended substation with a normally closed tie breaker and ground differential protection. Assume that a ground fault occurs on the main bus, inside the zone of ground differential protection for ground source No. 1 and outside the zone of ground differential protection for ground source No. 2. In the neutral CT circuit of the faulted zone, ITNS and IAS are equal in magnitude, but 180 degrees out of phase. Consequently, they both flow through the 87G relay causing it to pick up. Note, that ground source No. 2 contributes to the tripping current of the faulted bus by adding a current component to 87G. This results in increased sensitivity for low level faults. However, this increased sensitivity may not always be available because the tie breaker or ground source No. 2 main breaker could be open. In the neutral CT circuit of ground source No. 2, ITNS and IAS are equal in magnitude and phase angle so no tripping current flows through the 87G relay. Notice that 51-G1 and 51-G2 ground relays are connected in a separate neutral CT circuit for current transformer burden considerations. These ground relays are coordinated in the same fashion as if the 87G were not included. An explanation of the coordination of the three ground relays is as follows: Relay 51-G1 is set to trip first of three ground relays. It trips the tie breaker to isolate the ground fault to one ground source. Relay 51-G2 is set to trip second, thereby tripping its respective secondary main breaker to clear ground fault on the load side of the secondary main breaker. Relay 51-G3 is set to trip third. It trips its respective primary main breaker to clear ground faults in the secondary wye windings of the power transformer or the connection between the transformer and the secondary main breaker.

Because relay 51-G3 requires approximately one second of tripping time, its slow response allows extensive damage to a faulted power transformer. To provide much better protection, including good sensitivity and fast response, the ground differential scheme is proposed. The 87G device responds within cycles to ground faults in its protective zone and trips the transformer primary and secondary main breakers through a lockout relay (86 device). The same 87G relay discriminates for ground faults occurring inside the zone of protection, preventing unnecessary tripping of the tie breaker.

MAIN BUS

IGFZ c 'GF3 . ( ;ROUND FAULT

--8
FIGURE 4

+;Ft r
m U I 3

PROTECTIVE

W U

GENERATORS IJITHOUT GROUND DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

r , T

INTERNAL GROUND FAULT ON GENERATOR NO. 1 CABLE FIGURE 5

GENERATOR PROTECTION Providing fast effective ground fault protection for parallel generators is not as easy as it sounds. Figure 4 is a very common system that has a real disadvantage. For example, if a ground fault occurs between generator G1 and the generator breaker 52-,1, it is quite possible that all the generators on-line will be tripped off by their respective 51G relay before the fault is cleared. All three ground relays see approximately the same amount of ground current and all three are set to trip at about the same time. This is not a desirable situation and can be remedied in a number of ways. However, for minimum expanse, equipment, and floor space it is hard to come up with a better solution than adding ground differential protection. The same system, except with the addition of an 87G relay and the necessary auxiliary current transformer, is shown in Figure 5. Now, if a ground fault occurs in any of the generators, or the generator cable, the respective 87G relay clears its generator breaker faster than any of the 51G relays can operate. It also stops the prime mover and removes generator excitation to clear the ground fault. Overall, there is a minimum disturbance to the system, as the unfaulted generators are left on-line.
GROUND SOURCE NO. 1 GROUND SOURCE NO. 2

I '
TIE
W

THC GROUND RELAY C I R C U I T HAS A SET OF PHASE C . T ' S AND THE PHASE RELAY C I R C U I T HAS A SET OF PHASE C . T . ' S . GROUND SOURCE NO. 2 HAS A S I M I L A R COMPLEMENT OF RELAYS

NOT SHOWN.

SECTIOiJ I1 PRODUCT RELAY

FIGURE 6

The previous diecussions used a simple time overcurrent relay as the 87C device. This was done to illustrate the theory of ground differential relaying. The discussion now focuses on the use of a product relay (87C device) that is specifically designed for the ground differential scheme.
The pickup sensitivity of the product type 87G relay is a function of the current in the lower coil times the current in the upper coil.

In this case, because the product type 87G relay is polarity sensitive, it is advantageous to make the auxiliary current transformer ratio slightly larger than necessary. Now ITNS will be slightly smaller than IAS forcing the difference between them to flow into the non-polarity terminal of the lower coil of 87G while ITNS flows into the polarity terminal of the upper coil of 87G. This results in a negative torque on the relay, forcing the contacts in the opening direction and helping to prevent false tripping.

POWER TRANSFORMER PROTECTION FOR A DOUBLE-ENDED SUBSTATION USING A PRODUCT TYPE RELAY FOR RELAY 87G AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL PHASE RELAYING Figure 6 shows a double ended substation with a normally closed tie breaker, partial differential phase relaying and a product type 87G relay for increased sensitivity. Note that only the relaying for Ground Source No. 1 is illustrated and the ground differential relaying has a dedicated set of phase current transformers. The terminals marked (+) on the product relay are polarity sensitive, such that the current must simultaneously flow into both terminals marked (+) before it can pick up. Again, the polarities of all the CT's are critical.

Note that the auxiliary CT has been connected as an autotransformer in Figures 7 and 8 with product type 87G relays. Obtaining an isolation type auxiliary current transformer with odd-ball ratios like 11 to 1 may prove difficult. However, it is typically no problem obtaining an isolation type auxiliary CT with a 10 to 1 ratio. If one replaces the 10 to 1 isolation transformer connection.with an autotransformer connection the final ratio will be 11 to 1. For equipment obtainability and precaution from false tripping, the auxiliary CT is often connected as an autotransformer. Also note that time overcurrent relays 51-G1 and 51-G2 are on a separate neutral CT for current transformer burden considerations.

Figure 7 is drawn to simplify the scheme of Figure 6 . Figure 7 shows only the ground fault relaying on Ground Source No. 1. A phase-to-ground fault is simulated on the main bus outside the zone of ground differential protection of both ground sources.

In Figure 7 , the fault is cleared by the operation of the 51-G1 and 51-G2 relays. The 51-G1 relay in either ground source trips the tie, then relay 51-G2 in Ground Source No. 1 trips the secondary main breaker a short time later.

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I
IGFl

4 ,J(
is U

4IGFZ

s.
TIE FIGURE 7

I
N.C. TIE
GROUND FAULT (G.F.) INSIDE THE ZONE

GROUND FAULT (G.F.) IS OUTSIDE ZONE OF GROUND DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION.

OF GROUND DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION. FIGURE 8 GROUND SOURCE NO.1


GROUND

SOURCE
N0.2

When the fault is changed to inside the zone of ground differential protection of Ground Source No. 1 as shown in Figure 8 , both ITNS and IAS flow into the polarity terminal of the lower coil and ITNS flows into the polarity terminal of the upper coil. By design, the pick up value of the product type relay is the current in the upper coil times the current ,in the lower coil.

AIN

To take advantage of the product type relay capability for good sensitivity, the tap of the lower coil is usually set on a value less than 1.0;perhaps .25 amps. Leaving the tap setting of the upper coil equal to 1.0 amp, the pick up value of the relay is 1 x .25 .25 amps squared. Therefore, if the product of the current flowing into the polarity terminals of both coils exceeds .25 amps squared, the relay will pick up. (However, the relay application engineer must be cautioned that the lower the tap pickup settings the higher the burden on the neutral CT.)

C.T.

1
N.C. TIE USE THIS SCHE!E ONLy WITH NORMALLY CLOSED TIE BREAKERS. FIGURE 9

Figure 9 illustrates an alternate connection f o r the product type ground differential relay. Notice that the 87G relay is not in the circuit for internal ground fault protection unless there is a fault contribution from a second ground source such that both coils of the 87G relay simultaneously have current flowing into the terminals marked (+). Also with this connection care must be taken that neither the phase, auxiliary, nor the neutral current transformers are driven into saturation during a fault. Note that only the ground relays on one ground source are shown.

Figures 8 and 9 demonstrate two reasons why a product relay is often used for this application: 1. It can have slightly better sensitivity than the 51-G relays, especially if there are two ground sources and a normally closed tie. It is easy to take advantage of its polarized terminals to minimize the chance of false tripping.

2.

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SECTION I11 CONSERVATIVE BUT SAFE METHOD FOR CURRENT TRANSFORMER BURDEN CALCULATIONS A serious consideration for engineering a system of the type as shown in Figure 8, is to be sure the current transformers have a large enough burden capability to perform correctly. At first glance, one would think that the phase current transformers have the heaviest duty, due to the reflected impedance through the auxiliary transformer of the 87G relay lower coil times the turns ratio squared. However, the real responsibility of making the system work properly falls on the neutral current transformer. The phase and auxiliary current transformers often only add additional burden for the neutral current transformer to contend with, when there is a contribution from the other ground sources to a ground fault within a zone of ground differential protection. The following example demonstrates a neutral current transformer burden calculation for a double ended 20 MVA, 13.8 Kilovolt substation with 400 amp grounding resistors. The following data is given as typical and pertains to Figure 8 for this example. The neutral current transformer is 200/5. V51-G3 The secondary resistance of the neutral current transformer is .06 ohms. The phase current transformer ratio is 2000/5 The grounding resistors are rated 400 amps for 10 seconds. Time overcurrent relays 51-G1, 51-G2 and 51-G3 are all set at .5 amp taps. The maximum secondary current of neutral current transformer (ITNS) under fault conditions is 400A divided by 200/5 10 amps. This is 20 times the tap setting of relay 51-G3.
=

Note that the secondary current IAS of the auxiliary current transformer with an 11/1 ratio is 11 amps in this case. 400A primary ground fault current (IGF2) divided by main breaker phase CT ratio (2000/5) is one amp. IAP times auxiliary CT ratio of 11/1 provides a value of 11 amps for IAS. The total current through 87G (lower coil) is (IAS 11A) plus (ITNS 10A) equals 21 amps.

The most severe duty for the neutral current transformer is a maximum internal ground fault with both mains closed, the tie breaker closed, and both ground sources contributing to the fault. Assume no saturation from either the auxiliary or phase current transformers.

Adding the voltage drops around the secondary neutral current transformer loop as shown in Figure 10 is as follows: V NEUTRAL CT secondary-.06 ohms x lOA(1TNS)3.5 ohms x 10 amps (ITNS)
0.6 V

- 35.0 v
=

V87G(Lower pole)=3.52 ohms x 21A(ITNS+IAS) V87G(Upper pole)=.42 ohms x 10A (ITNS) V WIRE
=

74.0 V 4.2 V

.1 ohms x 10 amps (ITNS)

TOTAL VOLTAGE VT

1.0 v -115.0 V

Assume the impedance of relay 51-G3 is 3.5 ohms, i.e.,with tripping current ITNS at 20 times the tap setting of the . 5 amp tap. The ratio of the auxiliary transformer is 11/1 which is slightly larger than the nominal 10/1 ratio as discussed earlier. A product type relay is used for the 87G function with an upper coil tap setting of 1.0 amps and a lower coil tap setting of .25 amps. The upper coil of the 87G relay may see up to 10A under fault conditions (400 amps divided by 200/5 CT ratio). Assume the impedance of the upper pole is 0.42 ohms, i.e., at 1.0 tap setting with 10 amps flowing. The lower coil of the 87G relay may see a little more than twice as much current as the upper coil since it sees the contribution of both ground sources. Assume the impedance of the lower coil is 3.52 ohms, i.e., at .25 tap setting with 5 amps flowing. Coil impedance at greater magnitudes of current is unknown; therefore, it will be assumed to be 3.52 ohms. Assume the total impedance for the neutral C.T secondary wire is .1 ohms.

Please consider that 115 volts is quite high for a current transformer with a relatively low ratio like 200/5 to produce without saturating. However, for good reliable performance, the neutral current transformer must not be driven into saturation, because this will hinder or prevent the operation of the induction disc ground relays due to wave distortion. A recommended 15% margin should be maintained between the calculated CT secondary voltage and the ANSI burden rating of the neutral CT, to compensate for unknowns. In this case, an ANSI relay burden capability of C150 is appropriate for the neutral CT to help assure correct operation of the ground relays.

POWER TRANSFORMER NEUTRAL

RES I STANCE

UPPER COIL

VT- TOTAL SECONDARY VOLTAGE PRODUCED BY NEUTRAL CT C I R C U I T NEUTRAL CT C I R C U I T FIGURE 10

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5 C.T. B
CALCUUTlONS

It is possible that the previous calculation for Figure 8 is conservative for a ground fault inside the zone of ground differential protection for gr6und source No. 1. Because the auxiliary or phase CT's may be driven towards saturation and unable to develop the full 74 volts across V87G (lower coil) as illustrated in the previous example. Please refer to Figure 10 and note that the primary voltage of the auxiliary CT appears across the secondary of the main breaker phase CT's. The relay application engineer should investigate the saturation curves of the auxiliary CT and main breaker phase CT's (applied to the ground differential schemo) to determine which of the two devices has the lesser burden capability. Then determine the maxi" possible voltage for V87G (lower coil) as permissible from the actual electrical limitations of these devices. Assume, for this example, that the perspective auxiliary CT is capable of developing more than 50 volts across its secondary with very little error. This translates to 11 x 50 volts or 550 volts across its primary winding. Remembering that the auxiliary CT primary is cornuctod across the secondary of the quantity (3) phase a ' s , it is now necessary to check their saturation c u n e as shown in Figure 11. The phase CT saturation curve indicates they have an ANSI burden capability greater than C400, as chosen for this exarple. But they cannot produce a full 550 volts across their secondary without extremely high exciting current: arch more than can be provided by the 400 amp external ground source. Therefore, the phase CT'8 have the lesser burden capability. Load current is ignored for this exercise.

il

U 7

I SECONDARY EXCITING CURRENT Cf SATURATION CURVE EXAMPLE ONLY BURDEN CAPABILI'N GREATER THAN C 400

FIGURE :11

To quickly establish if the piwe CT's can I A S as shown in Flgure 10) to 87G oontribute current ( (lower c o i l ) during an internal ground fault, look a t E , (phase CT secondary voltage) from Pigun, 11 a t a d u m excitation current of 0 . 3 3 amps. The value of 0 . 3 3 amps i s derived from 400 amps (primary ground fault current f r o m an external ground source) divided by 2000/5 ( w o e CT ratio) which equals 1 .O amp; the 1.0 a m p i s divided by the quantity 3 (because there are 3 phase CT's) whioh equals 0 . 3 3 amps. The seaondary voltage & of the phase CTIs With 0 . 3 3 amps exciting by current i s shovn to be 405 volts; dividing 405 the auxiliary CT ratio (11/1) equals 37 volts. This is the madmm voltage that may be supported by these p h r e CTls aoross 87G (lover coil) if they are excited entirely by the primary 400 amp external ground eource ground fault current contribution and do not contribute external secondary current t o a burden. This does not mean that v87G (lover coil) W i n always be a t least 37 volts w i t h a 400 cup ground fault contribution from ground source l o . 2.

The neutral CT will have enough burden capability, in this example, to develop a full 10 amps of secondary current with 400A primary ground fault current. Multiplying the 87G (lower coil) impedance of 3.52 ohw by the 10 amp secondary current from the neutral CT (ITNS) results in an 87G (lower coil) voltage of 35.2 volts, when all its current is supplied by the neutral CT. Assuming a small amount of exciting current required by the auxiliary CT, there is a minimal amount of auxiliary CT secondary current (IAS), as contributed by the phase CT's in this example. The 37 volts across 8JG (lower coil) as attempted by the phase CT's is only slightly greater than the 35.2 volts contributed by the neutral CT. Since IAS is very small, in this example, it is doubtfull if V87G (lower coil) will much exceed 36 volts during an internal ground fault. Basically V87G (lower coil) requires a trial and error solution since the neutral, phase, and auxiliary CT's are interconnected. In order to more easily predict and maintain good response time of the 87C relay during an internal ground fault, it is helpful1 to choose phase and auxiliary CT's with a burden capability large enough to contribute some current (IAS as indicated in Figure 10) to 87G (lower coil). If the phase CT's or auxiliary CT are driven into saturation, wave distortion of their output M y slow the 876 relay down more than expected. It is now possible to recalculate the voltage across the secondary terminals of the neutral CT as follows:
V neutral CT

.06 ohms x 10 amps

V51-G3

3.5 ohas x 10

0.6 volts
35.0 volts

V87G (Lower Pole) approximately V8JG (upper pole)

V wire

.42 ohms x 1OA

36.0 volts 4.2 volts

0.1 oms x 10 amps

-AAJQlU
76.8 volts

Total Voltage VT

27

Maintaining a 15% to 20% margin, to compensate for unknowns, between the calculated voltage and the burden rating of the neutral CT requires close to a ClOO ANSI neutral CT burden capability. Some of the points the reader should consider and possibly compensate for before proceeding are as follows:

References
(1 1 Werthinghouee Electric Corporation, "Applied

Protective Relaying"

(2)

* * *

He should understand what load current does to the scheme and calculations. He should consider what a double phase to ground fault (internal and external) does to the scheme and calculations. He should understand the purpose of the phase overcurrent relays (device 511, directional overcurrent relays (device 67) and the power relays (device 32), and how they coordinate with the system. He should investigate CT burden calculations for ground faults, and phase faults. He should be extra careful that the neutral CT is never driven into reverse excitation by the phase and auxiliary CT combination during an internal . fault for schemes similar to Figure 8 He should understand what happens to the phase and auxiliary CT's if they are driven into reverse excitation by the neutral CT during an internal ground fault. He should compare the advantages and disadvantages of the schemes as shown in Figures, 3, 6, and 9 as well as understand the limitations of each. He should question and agree or disagree with all the points made by the authors. He should question using a 67N (ground directional relay) in lieu of the 87G relay. He should consider any other questions or conditions not mentioned in this paper.

Weetinghouse Electric Corporation, nIL 41-@242.4P-'Qpe CWC and CWP Dlrsotional Ground Relaps"

(3) Weetinghouse Electric Corporation, NIL 41-1000-~yp0 CO "Hi-Lown Overcurrent Relay"


(4)
WESTINGHOUSE "DESCRIPTIVE E L E C T R I C CORPORATION, B U L L E T I N 41-240", MARCH

1983

*
*

* * *

All of this adds up to another technical paper that we hope to tackle at a later time.

SUMMARY
Unfortunately, ground differential protection is a rather complicated scheme requiring close attention to CT ratios, CT polarity, relay polarity, CT burden capability, and relay limitations. However, when properly applied, it can enhance certain important qualities of the relay protective system. Notice that the relay application engineer should not apply this scheme without a thorough understanding of the application and the provided equipment. This paper is an attempt to convey the basic concept of ground differential protection for those who are willing to pursue continuing study. The authors are not responsible for misunderstandings or inadvertent technical errors in this paper.

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