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May 2007

DISCLAIMER

This documentation, as well as the software described in it, is furnished under license and may be used only in accordance with the terms of such license. MSC.Software Corporation reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this document without prior notice. The concepts, methods, and examples presented in this text are for illustrative and educational purposes only, and are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular engineering problem or design. MSC.Software Corporation assumes no liability or responsibility to any person or company for direct or indirect damages resulting from the use of any information contained herein. User Documentation: Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation. Printed in U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. This notice shall be marked on any reproduction of this documentation, in whole or in part. Any reproduction or distribution of this document, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of MSC.Software Corporation is prohibited. This software may contain certain third-party software that is protected by copyright and licensed from MSC.Software suppliers. Portions of this software are owned by UGS Corp. Copyright 1997. All Rights Reserved. The MSC.Software corporate logo, Adams, Adams/, MD, MD Adams, MSC, MSC Nastran, and MD Nastran are trademarks or registered trademarks of the MSC.Software Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. FLEXlm is a registered trademark of Macrovision Corporation. Parasolid is a registered trademark of UGS Corp. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section 0.0 Introduction

A Brief History of Adams . 0-5 About MSC.Software ... 0-7 Content of Course .... 0-8 Getting Help ... 0-10

Page

1.0 2.0

Virtual Prototyping Process ..... 1-3

Model Hierarchy ........... 2-4 Renaming Objects ........... 2-5 Adams/View Interface .... 2-7 Simple Simulations ....... 2-8 Saving Your Work .........2-9

3.0

PostProcessing Interface Overview ... 3-3 Animating ... 3-5 Plotting ... 3-6 Reporting ... 3-7

4.0

Coordinate Systems ........ Part Coordinate System ...... Coordinate System Marker ..... Differences Between Parts and Geometry.... Parts, Geometry, and Markers ....... Types of Parts in Adams/View ... Part Mass and Inertia ...... Measures ...... 4-4 4-6 4-7 4-9 4-12 4-14 4-15 4-17

Section 5.0 Initial Conditions and Point Trace

Part Initial Conditions ... 5-4 Initial Velocities .. 5-5 Point Trace ........ 5-6

Page

6.0

Constraints

Constraints .... 6-3 Use of Markers in Constraints .... 6-6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) .... 6-8 Joint Initial Conditions ..... 6-10 Merging Geometry .... 6-11 Angle Measures .... 6-13

7.0

Euler Angles ...7-4 Precise Positioning: Rotate ..... 7-6 Modeling Friction ... 7-7 Measures in LCS ...... 7-11

8.0

Building Geometry .... 8-4 Construction Geometry Properties.. 8-6 Solid Geometry ..... 8-8 Precise Positioning: Move ... 8-10

9.0

Applying Motion .... 9-4 Joint Motion ... 9-5 Functions in Adams ..... 9-7

10.0

Joint Primitives Types of Joint Primitives ......10-4 Perpendicular Joint Primitive ...10-6

Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

Section 11.0 Point Motions and System-level Design

Applying Point Motions .... 11-4 System-Level Design ....11-6

Page

12.0

Taking Measurements ..... 12-4 Displacement Functions ...... 12-6 Importing CAD-Based Geometry ... 12-8

13.0

Add-On Constraints ...... 13-4 Couplers ........ 13-6 Assembling Subsystem Models ..... 13-8

14.0

Simulations

Assemble Simulation .... 14-4 Simulation Hierarchy .... 14-6 Types of Simulations .... 14-7 Forces in Adams ....... 14-11 Spring Dampers in Adams ...14-12 Magnitude of Spring Dampers .... 14-14

15.0

Single-Component Forces: Action-Reaction .... 15-4 Spline Functions ....15-6 AKISPL Function .......15-8

16.0 17.0

Bushings

Bushings .....16-4

Impact

Impact Functions ... 17-4 Velocity Functions .....17-8

Section 18.0 Step Functions and Simulation Scripts

STEP Function ...... 18-4 Scripted Simulations .... 18-7 Adams/Solver Commands ..... 18-9

Page

19.0

Adams/Solver

Adams/Solver Overview ..... 19-4 Files in Adams/Solver ..... 19-5 Example of Adams/Solver Dataset (. adm) File ... 19-6 Stand-Alone Adams/Solver ... 19-7 Solver Compatibility .. 19-8 Example: 2D Pendulum ... 19-9 Formulation of the Equations of Motion .....19-12 Phases of Solution .... 19-13 Debug/Eprint (Dynamics) .... 19-20

20.0

Sensors ...... 20-4 Design Variables ...... 20-6

21.0

Splines from Traces ..... 21-4 Curve Constraints ..... 21-5 Automated Contact Forces ..... 21-7 Flexible Parts Adams/AutoFlex ..... 21-10

22.0

Multi-Component Forces ......... 22-4 Design Studies ...... 22-8

Section 23.0 Recommended Practices

General Approach to Modeling ... 23-4 Modeling Practices: Parts .... 23-5 Modeling Practices: Constraints .... 23-7 Modeling Practices: Compliant Connections ....23-9 Modeling Practices: Run-time Functions .. 23-10 Debugging Tips ..... 23-14

Page

Appendix A Tables

Introduction

INTRO-1

INTRO-2

Whats in this section:

A Brief History of Adams About MSC.Software Content of Course Getting Help

INTRO-3

Adams Full Simulation Package is a powerful modeling

and simulating environment that lets you build, simulate, refine, and ultimately optimize any mechanical system, from automobiles and trains to VCRs and backhoes. The Adams Basic Full Simulation Package training guide teaches you how to build, simulate, and refine a mechanical system using MSC.Softwares Adams Full Simulation Package.

INTRO-4

Adams: Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical

Systems. Technology was implemented about 25 years ago. Mechanical Dynamics Incorporated (MDI) formed by researchers who developed the base Adams code at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. MDI has been part of MSC.Software Corporation since 2002. Large displacement code.

INTRO-5

Systems-based analysis. Original product was Adams/Solver, an application that

solves nonlinear numerical equations. You build models in text format and then submit them to Adams/Solver. In the early 90s, Adams/View was released, which allowed users to build, simulate, and examine results in a single environment. Today, industry-specific products are being produced, such as Adams/Car and Adams/Chassis.

ADM701, Introduction, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

INTRO-6

About MSC.Software

Find a list of MSC.Software products at:

http://www.mscsoftware.com/products/products.cfm

http://www.mscsoftware.com/products/mdadams.cfm?Q=396

&Z=455

http://www.engineering-e.com/training/ Or your local support center

http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb/results_kb.cfm?S_ID=1-

KB9587

ADM701, Introduction, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation INTRO-7

Content of Course

After taking this course you will be able to:

Build Adams/View models of moderate complexity. Understand Adams product nomenclature and terminology. Understand basic modeling principles and extend your

Use the crawl-walk-run approach to virtual prototyping. Debug your models for the most common modeling

Use and be informed about all methods of Adams product

support.

Use the product documentation optimally.

INTRO-8

Organization of Manual

This manual is organized into modules that get progressively more

complex. Each module focuses on solving an engineering-based problem and covers mechanical system simulation (MSS) concepts that will help you use Adams most optimally. The earlier workshops provide you with more step-by-step procedures and guidance, while the later ones provide you with less.

Each module is divided into the following sections: Problem statement Concepts Workshop Optional tasks Module review

INTRO-9

Getting Help

Online Help

To access the online help, do either of the following: From the Help menu, select Adams/View Help to display the home page for the Adams/View online help.

While working in any Adams/View dialog box, press F1 to

display online help specific to that dialog box. Once the online help is displayed, you can browse through

INTRO-10

Getting Help

ADM701, Introduction, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation INTRO-11

Technical support

To find your support center, go to

Knowledge base

Go to http://support.mscsoftware.com/kb

Consulting services

http://www.mscsoftware.com/services/esg/

INTRO-12

MSC Virtual Product Development Community

To join the community of MSC.Software users, go to:

http://forums.mscsoftware.com. Select Adams to view the Adams discussions. Select MSC News to view product alerts and company news and events.

INTRO-13

INTRO-14

S1-1

S1-2

DESIGN PROBLEM Cut time and costs Increase quality Increase efficiency IMPROVED PRODUCT

Build

Test

Review

Improve

Bodies Forces Contacts Joints Motion generators

ADM701, Section 1, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-3

DESIGN PROBLEM Cut time and costs Increase quality Increase efficiency IMPROVED PRODUCT

Build

Test

Review

Improve

Measures Simulations Animations Plots

Importing test data Superimposing test data

ADM701, Section 1, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S1-4

DESIGN PROBLEM Cut time and costs Increase quality Increase efficiency IMPROVED PRODUCT

Build

Test

Review

Improve

Friction Forcing functions Flexible parts Control systems

Parametrics Design Variables

ADM701, Section 1, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S1-5

DESIGN PROBLEM Cut time and costs Increase quality Increase efficiency IMPROVED PRODUCT

Build

Test

Review

Improve

DOEs Optimization

Custom menus Macros Custom dialog boxes

ADM701, Section 1, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S1-6

S2-1

S2-2

Whats in this module:

Model Hierarchy Renaming Objects Adams/View Interface Simple Simulations Saving Your Work

S2-3

Model Hierarchy

Adams/View Modeling Hierarchy

Adams/View names objects based on this model hierarchy. For

example, Adams/View names geometry as .model_name.part_name.geometry_name. To change the parent for an object, rename the object.

Model Simulations Objects Measures Constraints Parts More Forces

Components

ADM701, Section 2, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S2-4

Renaming Objects

Adams/View naming conventions:

.mod Simulations Objects .mod.meas_1 .mod.joint_1 .mod.part_1 More .mod.spring_1

.mod.run_1.joint_1.fx

S2-5

Renaming objects clarifies model topology as follows:

Renamed

Not renamed

ADM701, Section 2, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S2-6

Adams/View Interface

Adams/View Main Window

Main Toolbox Model name Working grid Menus

Toolbox container

View triad

S2-7

Status bar

Simple Simulations

Simulation versus animation Simulations are solutions to equations of motion describing a mechanical system. Animations display a graphical playback of previously completed simulations.

Simulation time interval End Time : absolute point in time to stop simulation Duration : relative amount of time to simulate over

Simulation output Step Size : amount of time between steps Steps: total number of steps in a specified amount of time

S2-8

Most common formats in which you can save Adams/View

models

Adams/View database files (.bin) Include the entire modeling session including models, simulation results, plots, and so on. Are typically very large. Are platform independent in Adams, as of version 11.0, but all other versions are platform dependent. Adams/View command files (.cmd) Include only model elements and their attributes. Are relatively small, editable text files. Are platform independent.

S2-9

Adams/View database files (.bin)

S2-10

Other formats in which you can import and export data

Adams/Solver input files (.adm) Geometry files (STEP, IGES, DXF, DWG, Wavefront,

Stereolithography) Test and spreadsheet data files Simulation results files (.msg, .req, .out, .gra, .res).

S2-11

S3-1

S3-2

Whats in this module:

PostProcessing Interface Overview Animating Plotting Reporting

S3-3

Adams/PostProcessor has three modes:

Animation Plotting Report Plot 3D (Available only for Adams/Vibration analyses)

Example:

The tools in the Main toolbar change if you switch between the

S3-4

Animating

Mode type Treeview Main toolbar Viewport

Property editor

Dashboard

For more information, see the Animate tab in the Adams/PostProcessor online help.

ADM701, Section 3, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S3-5

Plotting

Mode type Treeview Main toolbar Viewport

For more information, see the Plot tab in the Adams/PostProcessor online help.

ADM701, Section 3, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S3-6

Reporting

Mode type Treeview Main toolbar Viewport

For more information, see the Report tab in the Adams/PostProcessor online help.

ADM701, Section 3, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S3-7

S4-1

S4-2

Whats in this module:

Coordinate Systems Part Coordinate System Coordinate System Marker Differences Between Parts and Geometry Parts, Geometry, and Markers Types of Parts in Adams/View Part Mass and Inertia Measures

S4-3

Coordinate Systems

Definition of a coordinate system (CS)

A coordinate system is essentially a measuring stick to define

S4-4

Types of coordinate systems

Global coordinate system (GCS): Rigidly attaches to the ground part. Defines the absolute point (0,0,0) of your model and provides a set of axes that is referenced when creating local coordinate systems. Local coordinate systems (LCS): Part coordinate systems (PCS) Markers

S4-5

Definition of part coordinate systems (PCS)

They are created automatically for every part. Only one exists per part. Location and orientation is specified by providing its location and

When created, each parts PCS has the same location and

ADM701, Section 4, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S4-6

Definition of a marker

It attaches to a part and moves with the part. Several can exist per part. Its location and orientation can be specified by providing its

S4-7

Definition of a marker (cont.)

It is used wherever a unique location needs to be defined. For

example:

The location of a parts center of mass. The reference point for defining where graphical entities are

example:

The axes about which part mass moments of inertia are specified. Directions for constraints. Directions for force application.

ADM701, Section 4, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S4-8

Parts Define bodies (rigid or flexible) that can move relative to other bodies and have the following properties:

Mass Inertia Initial location and orientation (PCS) Initial velocities

S4-9

Geometry Used to add graphics to enhance the visualization of a part using properties such as:

Length Radius Width

Note: Simulations that involve contacts do require the part geometry to define when the contact force will turn on or off. We will discuss contact forces in Workshop 20 - Hatchback IV.

S4-10

.model_1.UCA (Part)

.model_1.UCA.cyl_1 (Geometry)

.model_1.UCA.sphere_1 (Geometry)

S4-11

Dependencies in Adams

To understand the relationship between parts, geometry, and

Model

.mod

Part

.mod.pend

Geometry

.mod.pend.sph

Marker

.mod.pend.mar_1

Marker

.mod.pend.cm

Marker

.mod.pend.mar_2

Geometry

.mod.pend.cyl

S4-12

pend

mar_2 cyl

cm

sph

mar_1

S4-13

Rigid bodies

Are movable parts. Possess mass and inertia properties. Cannot deform.

Flexible bodies

Are movable parts. Possess mass and inertia properties. Can bend when forces are applied to them.

Ground part

Must exist in every model and is automatically created when a model is

created in Adams/View. Defines the GCS and the global origin and, therefore, remains stationary at all times. Acts as the inertial reference frame for calculating velocities and acceleration.

ADM701, Section 4, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S4-14

Mass and inertia properties

Adams/View automatically calculates mass and inertial properties

only for three-dimensional rigid bodies. Adams/View calculates the total mass and inertia of a part based on the parts density and the volume of its geometry. You can change these properties manually. Adams/View assigns mass and inertial properties to a marker that represents the parts center of mass (cm) and principal axis. You can change the position and orientation of the parts cm marker. The orientation of the cm marker also defines the orientation of inertial properties Ixx, Iyy, Izz.

S4-15

Part 1 Part 1

S4-16

Measures

Measures in Adams

Represent data that you would like to quantify during a simulation

such as:

Displacement, velocity, or acceleration of a point on a part Forces in a joint Angle between two bodies Other data resulting from a user-defined function

S4-17

Measures (Cont.)

Definition of object measures

Measure pre-defined measurable characteristics of parts, forces,

S4-18

S5-1

S5-2

Whats in this module:

Part Initial Conditions Initial Velocities Point Trace

S5-3

Initial location and orientation

The design configuration of all the parts (their part coordinate

systems) in a model defines their initial locations and orientations. You can fix a parts location and orientation so it can be used during the assemble simulation procedure (covered later).

S5-4

Initial Velocities

Initial velocities

In Adams, a part initially moves (at t = 0) as follows:

Adams uses a default of zero Adams calculates initial velocity; It may or may not be zero

Adams uses the Initial velocity specified Adams uses initial velocity due to the motions/constraints

S5-5

Point Trace

Definition of a point trace

Tracks the location of a marker during an animation. Can be used to visualize the clearance between two bodies during

a simulation.

Trajectory of a ball.

S5-6

SECTION 6 Constraints

S6-1

S6-2

Constraints

Whats in this module:

Constraints Use of Markers in Constraints Degrees of Freedom (DOF) Joint Initial Conditions (ICs) A ball is rolling down an inclined plane (no slip). Which constraints

S6-3

Constraints

Definition of a constraint

Restricts relative movement between parts. Represents idealized connections. Removes rotational and/or translational DOF from a system.

S6-4

Constraints Example

S6-5

Constraint equations in Adams

Constraints are represented as algebraic equations in

Adams/Solver. These equations describe the relationship between two markers. Joint parameters, referred to as I and J markers, define the location, orientation, and the connecting parts:

First marker, I, is fixed to the first part. Second marker, J, is fixed to the second part.

S6-6

Anatomy of a constraint in Adams

S6-7

Constraints and DOF

Each DOF in mechanical system simulation (MSS) corresponds to

at least one equation of motion. A freely floating rigid body in three-dimensional space is said to have six DOF. A constraint removes one or more DOF from a system, depending on its type.

S6-8

Determining the number of system DOF

Adams/View provides an estimated number of system DOF by

System DOF (number of movable parts DOF/part) [# Constraints # DOF(Constraint)]

i type

Appropriate parts are connected by each constraint. Correct directions are specified for each constraint. Correct type of DOF (translational versus rotational) are removed by

each constraint. There are any redundant constraints in the system. See also: DOF removed by a revolute joint in Appendix A.

ADM701, Section 6, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S6-9

Characteristics of joint initial conditions

You can specify displacement and velocity initial conditions for

revolute, translational, and cylindrical joints. Adams/View uses the specified initial conditions of the joint while performing a simulation, regardless of any other forces acting on the joint. If you do not specify joint ICs, Adams/Solver calculates the conditions of the connecting parts while performing a simulation depending on the other forces acting on the joint.

S6-10

Merging Geometry

Methods of attaching multiple geometry to a part

Using fixed joint to constrain geometric objects.

S6-11

Adding new geometry to an existing part.

geometry on a rigid part as opposed to constraining multiple parts. Question: When you merge geometry, is the overlapping volume accounted for?

ADM701, Section 6, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S6-12

Angle Measures

Definition of angle measures:

They are used to measure the included angle, : Between two vectors Defined by three markers Defined throughout a simulation

S6-13

Notes:

The units used for angle measures are in current Adams/View

angle units (degrees or radians). The sign convention (+/-) is defined such that the first nonzero value is positive.

S6-14

S7-1

S7-2

Whats in this module:

Euler Angles (Rotation Sequence) Precise Positioning: Rotate Modeling Friction Measures in LCS

S7-3

Definition of Euler angles

Adams/View uses three angles to perform three rotations about

the axes of a coordinate system. These rotations can be space-fixed or body-fixed and are represented as Body [3 1 3], Space [1 2 3], and so on, where:

1 = x axis 2 = y axis 3 = z axis

For rotation about these axes, use the right hand rule

S7-4

Example of body [3 1 3]: [90 , -90 , 180 ]:

S7-5

To rotate objects about an axis in Adams/View, specify:

The objects to rotate. The axis about which the objects are rotated. The angle through which the objects are rotated.

the right-hand rule. You can rotate several objects at once about the same axis.

ADM701, Section 7, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S7-6

Modeling Friction

Joint friction can be applied to:

Translational joints (Translational Joint, DOF Removed by, see

Are independent of the contact area between two bodies. Act in a direction opposite to that of the relative velocity between

the two bodies. Are proportional to the normal force (N) between the two bodies by a constant ( ). Ff = N

ADM701, Section 7, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S7-7

Phases that define friction forces

Stiction Transition Dynamic

S7-8

Idealized Case

Stiction |Vrel | = 0

0 < < s Transition 0 < |V rel| = V1 < d < s Dynamic V 1 < |Vrel | = d

Adams/Solver case

|Vrel| < Vs 0 < < s Transition Vs < |V rel| < 1.5 Vs < d < s Dynamic 1.5 Vs < |Vrel | = d

Stiction

ADM701, Section 7, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S7-9

Effect of maximum deformation on friction

Always include preload and reaction force. Bending and torsional moment are possible (however, advanced

ADM701, Section 7, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S7-10

Measures in LCS

Measures can be represented in:

Global coordinate system (GCS) (default) A markers local coordinate system (LCS)

Example

When a ball falls due to gravity:

S7-11

Acceleration due to gravity in the GCS using symbols x g, g, z g to represent the global x, y, and z components is:

is:

S7-12

S8-1

S8-2

Whats in this module:

Building Geometry Construction Geometry Properties Solid Geometry Precise Positioning: Move

S8-3

Building Geometry

Properties of geometry

It must belong to a part and moves with the part. It is used to add graphics to enhance the visualization of a part. It is not necessary for performing simulations. Locations and orientations are defined indirectly by parts using

anchor markers.

moves with it. Conversely, anchor markers move when you move the associated geometry.

ADM701, Section 8, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S8-4

Types of geometry in Adams/View

Construction geometry Includes objects that have no mass (spline, arc, and so on). Is used to define other geometry. Solid geometry Includes objects with mass (box, link, and so on). Can be based on construction geometry. Is used to automatically calculate mass properties for the parent part.

S8-5

Marker geometry has

Anchor marker, which is itself Parent: part Orientation and location

No anchor marker Parent: part Location

S8-6

Polyline geometry has

No anchor marker Parent: part One line or multiple lines Open or closed Length, vertex points, and angle

Anchor marker Parent: part Start and end angle, radius

Anchor marker Parent: part Segment count, open/closed, points

ADM701, Section 8, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S8-7

Solid Geometry

Block geometry has

Anchor marker, which is the corner marker Parent: part Length (x), height (y), depth (z) with respect to corner marker

Anchor marker, which is the center marker Parent: part Radius of ring (xy plane), radius of circular cross section ( to xy

plane)

Anchor marker, which is the reference marker Parent: part Open/closed profile, depth, forward/backwards

ADM701, Section 8, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S8-8

Cylinder Geometry has

Anchor marker, which is the center marker (placed at first end) Parent: part Length (z), radius

S8-9

To move objects in Adams/View, specify:

The object being moved (or copied). And: Either, a point on the object, and the location to which the selected point will be moved. Or, a vector and a distance along the vector.

S8-10

S8-11

S9-1

S9-2

Whats in this module:

Applying Motion Joint Motion Functions in Adams

S9-3

Applying Motion

Adams/View provides two types of motions

Joint motion Point motion

Joint motion

There are two types: Translational: applied to translational or cylindrical joints (removes 1 DOF). Rotational: applied to revolute or cylindrical joints (removes 1 DOF). You define the joint to which motion is applied. Adams automatically uses the joints I and J markers, bodies, and

single DOF. You define function for magnitude. Questions: How does a motion remove DOF? Does this mean that a motion is considered a constraint?

ADM701, Section 9, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S9-4

Joint Motion

Marker usage in joint motions

The I and J markers (and, therefore, the parts to which they belong)

S9-5

The I and J markers overlap when motion t = 0. During simulation, the z-axes of both markers are aligned. You can define motion magnitude as a:

Displacement Velocity Acceleration function of time

S9-6

Functions in Adams

Definition of functions in Adams

You use functions to define magnitudes of input vectors used in: Motion drivers Applied forces Functions can depend on time or other system states such as

displacement, velocity, and reaction forces. Every function evaluates to a single value at each particular point in time. Motion drivers can only be a function of time:

M = f(time)

Functions defining motion driver magnitudes can be: Displacement (time) Velocity (time) Acceleration (time)

ADM701, Section 9, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S9-7

Note:

You can use the Function Builder to create and verify functions in

Adams/View. To access the Function Builder, right-click any text box that expects a function.

Display the Function Builder and press F1 to learn about creating functions

S9-8

S10-1

S10-2

Joint Primitives

Whats in this module:

Types of Joint Primitives Perpendicular Joint Primitive

S10-3

S10-4

ADM701, Section 10, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S10-5

Example using inline and parallel primitives

S10-6

Example of I and J markers in a perpendicular joint

primitive

S10-7

I marker:

Parent part: Bucket Its yz-plane is coplanar to the ground plane.

J marker:

Parent part: ground Its z-axis is perpendicular to the z-axis of the I marker.

always perpendicular during simulation. Use the construction method 2 Bod-2 Loc. Question: Would the lift mechanism behave any differently if the J markers parent part was Base?

ADM701, Section 10, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S10-8

S11-1

S11-2

Whats in this module:

Applying Point Motions System-level Design

S11-3

Point motions

There are two types: Single-point motion (removes 1 DOF) General-point motion (removes 1 to 6 DOF) You define: I and J markers to which motion is applied (via two bodies, location and orientation). Constraint nature of the motion (between 1 and 6 DOF). Functions for magnitudes of motion.

S11-4

S11-5

System-level Design

The crawl-walk-run approach

Do not build the entire mechanism at once. As you add a new component, make sure that it works correctly. Check your model at regular intervals.

S11-6

Avoid the need for complex debugging by following the crawl-

walk-run approach

S11-7

S12-1

S12-2

Whats in this module:

Taking Measurements Displacement Functions Importing CAD-Based Geometry

S12-3

Taking Measurements

Point-to-point measures

Measure kinematic characteristics of one point relative to another

point, such as the relative velocity or acceleration. To define them, you specify:

Characteristic (displacement, velocity, or acceleration) To-point marker location (I marker) From-point marker location (J marker, default is global origin) Represent coordinates in marker coordinate system (R marker,

default is GCS) Component to return (x, y, z, or magnitude) Adams/View uses displacement, velocity, or acceleration

functions.

S12-4

Function measures

Lets you evaluate arbitrary, user-defined expressions of interest

Flow rate Aerodynamic pressure Stress

You can create them in the Function Builder. Unlike other measures, function measures let you specify plotting

attributes.

S12-5

Displacement Functions

Displacement functions

For translational displacement, return scalar portions of vector

components (measurements are taken to I, from J, resolved in Rs CS), as shown on the next slide. For rotational displacement, return angles associated with a particular rotation sequence.

S12-6

Example:

S12-7

S12-8

Supported File Formats

Stereolithography (*.stl) and render (*.slp) files - Polygonal

representation of surfaces. Shell (*.shl) files - Geometry representations. Adams specific. CAD Files Require Adams/Exchange. You can import and export the following geometry formats: STEP, IGES, DXF, DWG, and Parasolid. Wavefront (*.obj) files - Set of output files that contain a description of the model graphics and motion data. Note: Adams/Exchange is MSCs optional software to Adams/View that lets you import and export geometric data in CAD format.

S12-9

Recommendation for CAD File formats

For CAD systems based on the Parasolid kernel, there are many benefits

to transferring geometry in Parasolid files. Adams/View creates solid bodies from the Parasolid information that allows for further Boolean operations as well as the selection of geometric features such as the center of a circle. The simpler the representation of the geometric information the better. This is why we often recommend that you use Stereolithography over formats such as IGES and STEP. Other simple formats include render and shell files. Successful transfer of IGES and STEP files from CAD systems to Adams/View depends on both systems. Some CAD systems export information that is easily processed by Adams/View while other CAD systems generate files that are difficult or impossible for Adams/View to import. For comparison of CAD file formats and recommendations for exporting CAD data please refer to the online Help.

ADM701, Section 12, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S12-10

S13-1

S13-2

Whats in this module:

Add-on Constraints Couplers Assembling Subsystem Models

S13-3

Add-on Constraints

Add-on (complex) constraints

Set up relationships between existing constraints in a system. Connect parts directly and indirectly.

S13-4

Types of Add-on constraints (cont.)

S13-5

Couplers

Definition of couplers

Couplers connect multiple parts indirectly by coupling 2 joints. Couplers remove 1 DOF. Couplers can be defined: By displacements By scales User defined Modeling of couplers requires two joints (applicable types are

S13-6

Couplers (cont.)

Example of a coupler

S13-7

When you assemble models

Any number of models can be assembled. Assembling models will create a new model. All assembled models (model1, model2) will continue to exist in the

S13-8

S13-9

Parts in assembled models

They maintain their global location and orientation, unless otherwise

specified. If parts have the same name in different merged models, Adams/View will either:

Merge them into one part. Rename the parts.

S13-10

SECTION 14 Simulations

S14-1

S14-2

Simulations

Whats in this module:

Assemble Simulation Simulation Hierarchy Types of Simulations Forces in Adams Spring Dampers in Adams

S14-3

Assemble Simulation

Definition of assemble simulation

Attempts to resolve any conflicts in the initial conditions specified

for the entities in the model (for example, broken joints). Also known as an initial conditions simulation.

You specify the initial position and orientation for a part when you

create it. For a part to be held fixed during the assemble simulation, you can specify up to three positions (xg, g, zg) and up to three orientations (psi, theta, phi).

S14-4

Note: Use initial positions sparingly. If you fix the initial positions of too

S14-5

Simulation Hierarchy

Assemble Simulation Assemble Nonlinear Linear

Motion Study

Default* Nonlinear

DOF = 0 Kinematic*

DOF > 0

Dynamic* Linear

dynamic simulation.

While working in any Adams/View dialog box, press F1 to display online help specific to that dialog box.

ADM701, Section 14, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S14-6

Types of Simulations

Static

System DOF > 0. All system velocities and accelerations

are set to zero. Can fail if the static solution is a long way from the initial condition.

Dynamic

System DOF > 0. Driven by a set of external forces and

ADM701, Section 14, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S14-7

Kinematic

System DOF = 0. Driven by constraints (motions). Only constraint (algebraic) equations are being solved. Calculate (measure) reaction forces in constraints.

S14-8

Linear

Adams/Solver can linearize the system of nonlinear equations of

motion about a particular operating point. From the linear set of equations, you can ask for an eigensimulation to obtain eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the linearized system to:

Visualize the natural frequencies and mode shapes of your system. Compare with test data or results data from FEA.

S14-9

Example of linear simulation

Must linearize about an operating point (often the equilibrium). Extraction of natural frequency. Natural frequency =

S14-10

Forces in Adams

Definition of forces

Try to make parts move in certain ways. Do not perfectly connect parts together the way constraints do. Do not absolutely prescribe movement the way motion drivers do. Neither add nor remove DOF from a system.

Characteristics of forces

S14-11

Definition of spring dampers

They are pre-defined forces. They represent compliance: Between two bodies. Acting over a distance. Along or about one particular direction.

S14-12

Characteristics of spring dampers

ADM701, Section 14, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S14-13

Magnitude based on stiffness and damping coefficients

Linear spring-damping relationship can be written as:

where:

q - Distance between the two locations that define the spring damper q - Relative speed of the locations along the line-of-sight between them k - Spring stiffness coefficient (always > 0) c - Viscous damping coefficient (always > 0) F0 - Reference force of the spring (preload) q0 - Reference length (at preload, always > 0) t - Time

S14-14

In Adams/Solver, the user-defined equation is:

ADM701, Section 14, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S14-15

S15-1

S15-2

Whats in this module:

Single-Component Forces: Action-Reaction Spline Functions AKISPL Function

S15-3

Characteristics of action-reaction single-component forces

(Sforces)

S15-4

Note: Adams applies action and reaction forces to the I and J markers that it automatically creates.

ADM701, Section 15, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S15-5

Spline Functions

Test data that can be incorporated into a simulation includes

Empirical data from suppliers or standard tables for: Nonlinear compliances (force versus velocity). Curves for torque versus motor speed (torque versus angular velocity). Data taken from physical prototype simulations for: Accelerometer data (acceleration versus time). Tire lateral force as a function of normal force and slip angle.

First , create a spline from either: Data points entered manually into the Spline Editor. Imported test data from a file.

S15-6

force. Several interpolation methods are available (using the function type):

Cubic-fitting method (CUBSPL) Akima-fitting method (AKISPL) B-spline method (CURVE)

S15-7

Akispl Function

Syntax for AKISPL function

AKISPL (x, z, spline, iord) x - Independent variable specifying the value along the x-axis. z - Optionally, a second independent variable specifying the value along the z-axis of the surface being interpolated. spline - Spline used to map the one-to-one correspondence of the dependent variables (y) against independent variable values (x or z). iord - An integer variable that specifies the order of the interpolated point (usually 0, but can be 1 or 2).

S15-8

Example of an AKISPL function

Note: You can create the CUBSPL and CURVE functions exactly as you

ADM701, Section 15, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S15-9

SECTION 16 Bushings

S16-1

S16-2

Bushings

Whats in this module:

Bushings

S16-3

Bushings

Definition of a bushing

Pre-defined force Represents compliance: Between two bodies Along or about three vectors

S16-4

Bushings (continued)

Characteristics of a bushing

ADM701, Section 16, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S16-5

SECTION 17 Impact

S17-1

S17-2

Impact

Whats in this module:

Impact Functions Velocity Functions

S17-3

Impact Functions

Impact functions in Adams

Used with user-defined force elements to model contacts, impacts,

collisions, and so on. Mimic nonlinear spring and damping forces that turn on and off depending on the distance between two objects. Just like a compression-only spring damper, Adams turns the force on when the distance between two objects, q, becomes less than the user-specified reference distance, q0:

S17-4

Applications of one-sided impact functions (IMPACT)

S17-5

Syntax for IMPACT function

where : q - Actual distance between the two objects (defined with a displacement function) q - Time rate of change of the variable q q0 - Trigger distance used to determine when the contact force turns on and off; it should be specified as a real, constant value k - Stiffness coefficient e - Stiffness force exponent c - Damping coefficient d - Damping ramp-up distance

S17-6

In Adams, the one-sided impact force is calculated as

S17-7

Velocity Functions

Definition of velocity and acceleration functions

Returns scalar portions of velocity or acceleration vector components

(translational or rotational).

VM(I,[J], [L]) VR(I,[J], [L]) VX, VY, VZ(I,[J],[R], [L])

Notes:

Velocity function, VR, is used to define velocity along the line of sight,

which is commonly used in spring dampers. If the markers are separating: VR > 0. If the markers are approaching: VR < 0.

ADM701, Section 17, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S17-8

S18-1

S18-2

Whats in this module:

STEP Function Scripted Simulations Adams/Solver Commands

S18-3

Step Function

Definition of a STEP function

In Adams, the STEP function approximates an ideal mathematical

step function (but without the discontinuities). Avoid discontinuous functions because they lead to solution convergence difficulties. The STEP function steps quantities, such as motions or forces, up and down, or on and off.

S18-4

Syntax for STEP function

STEP (q, q1, f1 , q2, f2 )

where:

q - Independent variable q1 - Initial value for q f1 - Initial value for f q2 - Final value for q f2 - Final value for f

Note: q1 < q2

S18-5

Example

S18-6

Scripted Simulations

In Adams/View there are two ways to run a simulation

Scripted Interactive

Simulation scripts

Let you program the simulation before submitting the simulation. Let you quickly repeat a simulation with the same set of

parameters. Let you perform more sophisticated simulations. Are required for design studies, design of experiments, and optimization simulations. Simulation scripts are children of a model, and are, therefore, saved in a command file.

ADM701, Section 18, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S18-7

Types of scripted simulations in Adams/View

Simple run Adams/View commands Adams/Solver commands

S18-8

Adams/Solver Commands

Scripted simulations based on Adams/Solver commands

Adams/Solver commands let you perform sophisticated

Changing model parameters during a simulation. Using different output step sizes over different simulation intervals

(versus specifying only one duration and output step size). Using different solution parameters (such as convergence tolerance) over different intervals.

S18-9

Example of a simulation script that changes model topology while

simulate/dynamic, end=3.0, steps=30 deactivate/joint, id=3 simulate/dynamic, duration=2.0, steps=200

S18-10

SECTION 19 Adams/Solver

S19-1

S19-2

Adams/Solver

Whats in this module:

Adams/Solver Overview Files in Adams/Solver Example of an Adams/Solver Dataset (.adm) File Stand-Alone Adams/Solver Example: 2D Pendulum Formulation of the Equations of Motion Phases of Solution Debug/Eprint (dynamics)

S19-3

Adams/Solver Overview

Adams/View

Integrated Adams/Solver

Import

Export

Dataset . adm

Output

Input Input Interactive Solver commands OR Input Output Message file . msg Adams Command file .acf

Adams/Solver

S19-4

Files in Adams/Solver

Adams/Solver dataset files (.adm)

Statements define an element of a model such as a part, constraint,

force, and so on. Functions are numeric expressions that define the magnitude of an element such as a force or motion.

For more information, see the Adams/Solver online help.

Commands define an action that needs to be taken during a simulation. See also: Adams/Solver Commands in Section 18

S19-5

S19-6

Stand-Alone Adams/Solver

Simulations in stand-alone Adams/Solver

Interactive: Not scripted: enter commands one by one. Scripted: use an Adams/Solver command file (.acf). Batch - Run multiple jobs in the background using an Adams/Solver

command file (.acf). Note: Adams/Solver command files must start with the name of the model to be analyzed and must end with a STOP command.

within Adams/View

S19-7

Solver Compatibility

With Adams, the new Adams/Solver (C++) version has added

significant functionality. With these additions, Adams/Solver (C++) now supports some entities that are not supported for Adams/Solver (FORTRAN). For this reason, a solvercompatibility check has been added. When using Adams/View, this check is called as each object is created. The check is also called for:

Each object as it is created when a .cmd file is imported The entire model when an .adm file is imported The entire model before simulation

S19-8

Example: 2D Pendulum

Adams Implementation: Euler-Lagrange Equations Description

A link of mass M, moments of inertia I, and length 2L is attached to

ground using a revolute joint at the global origin O. The joint is oriented in such a way that motion is only allowed in the X-Y plane of the global coordinate system. The coordinates of the center of mass of the link, with respect to the global origin, are represented by the states (x,y). A coordinate system (Op-Xp-Yp) is attached at the center of mass of the link, such that Xp is along the length of the link. The angle between Xp and Xg is denoted by .

S19-9

S19-10

Force balance equations Momentum equations (only in ) Kinematic differential equations Constraint equations

S19-11

Nonlinear system - Nine differential and algebraic equations

(DAEs)

Force balances

Equations of Motion

Unknown

Momenta

Kinematics

S19-12

Phases of Solution

Task

Solve the differential and algebraic equation:

Predict an initial solution

Phase 2:

Correct the prediction

Phase 3:

Evaluate quality of solution (accept solution)

Phase 4:

Prepare for next step

ADM701, Section 19, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation

S19-13

Task

Solve the differential and algebraic equation:

Phase 1:

Predict an initial solution Predict an initial value using an explicit method. The predictor is simply looking at past values to guess the solution at the next time. The governing equations for G are not satisfied. This is simply a good starting point for the next phase.

Phase 2:

Correct the prediction

Phase 3:

Evaluate quality of solution (accept solution)

Phase 4:

Prepare for next step

ADM701, Section 19, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S19-14

Task

Solve the differential and algebraic equation:

Phase 1:

Predict an initial solution

Phase 2:

Correct the prediction Evaluate G. If G is near zero, corrector is finished. Go to phase 3. Use the Newton-Raphson method to correct the prediction. Solve for y. Update y. Repeat iteration until || y|| < corrector error tolerance

S19-15

Example:

Phase 3:

Evaluate quality of solution (accept solution)

Phase 4:

Prepare for next step

ADM701, Section 19, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S19-16

Task

Solve the differential and algebraic equation:

Phase 1:

Predict an initial solution

Phase 2:

Correct the prediction

Phase 3:

Evaluate quality of solution (accept solution) Estimate local truncation error if estimated < ( L) Yes Accept solution. Go to phase 4 No Reject solution and repeat phase 1 and 2 with new step size

ADM701, Section 19, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S19-17

Global Error ( G) The difference between the current solution and the true solution Local Truncation Error ( L) The error introduced in a single step

Phase 4:

Prepare for next step

S19-18

Task

Solve the differential and algebraic equation:

Phase 1:

Predict an initial solution

Phase 2:

Correct the prediction

Phase 3:

Evaluate quality of solution (accept solution)

Phase 4:

Prepare for the next step Update higher order derivatives used in prediction for the next step Determine step size and order for next step Go back to phase 1, and start a new step

S19-19

DEBUG/EPRINT (Dynamics)

Each GSTIFF integrator step consists of two phases:

Phase 1: a forward step in time (the predictor for dynamics) 1. The step number - A running count of the number of steps taken and can be used as a measure of how hard Adams/Solver is working. 2. The order of the predictor for dynamics - Corresponds to the order of the polynomial Adams/Solver uses to predict the solution at the end of the integration step. 3. The value of time at the beginning of the step. 4. The size of the step.

S19-20

Phase 2: the solution of the equations of motion (the corrector for

dynamics).

5. The cumulative number of iterations - A running count of the iterations

6.

7.

8. 9.

needed to solve the equations of motion and can be used as a measure of how many computations Adams/Solver is performing. The iteration number - One at the beginning of each step and increments by one until Adams/Solver converges to a solution or exceeds the maximum allowable number of iterations. Absolute value of largest equation residual error - This number is an indicator of how far Adams/Solver is from a solution. This number should decrease after every iteration in healthy simulations. Dataset element associated with #7 - The equation that has the largest equation residual error for the above dataset element. Equation associated with #8.

S19-21

10. Absolute value of the largest change in a variable - The final iteration

should not need to change variables very much. This number is an indicator of how far Adams/Solver needs to change variables to approach a solution. Ideally, this number should decrease after every iteration. 11. Dataset element associated with #10. 12. Variable with the largest change for #11. 13. Jacobian updates - If Adams/Solver has updated the Jacobian, YES appears under the new Jacobian header.

S19-22

3. Time at beginning of step 1. Running count of successful steps 5. 2. Order of predicting polynomial

4. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10.

11.

12.

S19-23

S20-1

S20-2

Whats in this module:

Sensors Design Variables

S20-3

Sensors

Sensors

Monitor any quantity of interest in a model during a simulation, and

take a specified action when the quantity reaches or exceeds a critical value. Take one of the following actions:

Completely stop the simulation. If used with a script, sensors halt the current simulation and continue

with the next command in the script. Can be used to evaluate certain expressions when the required condition is met. You can access this value using the Adams/Solver function, SENVAL. See the following Knowledge Base Articles:

Using SENVAL to count full rotations of a spinning part:

ADM701, Section 20, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S20-4

Sensors (Continued)

A sensor basically represents an If/Then statement: If quantity = value (+/- tolerance) Then take a specified action

Monitor the reaction force in a constraint and deactivate the

constraint when the force exceeds a specified value. Monitor the distance between two objects and reduce the solution step size just before contact, to avoid convergence problems.

S20-5

Design Variables

Design variables

Define independent parameters that can be tied to objects. Organize the critical parameters of the design into a concise list of

Example

You can create a design variable called cylinder_length to control

S20-6

Note: You can also use parametric analyses to automatically run a series of simulations that vary your design variables, which you will do in Workshop 22.

ADM701, Section 20, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S20-7

S21-1

S21-2

Whats in this module:

Splines from Traces Curve Constraints Automated Contact Forces Flexible Parts - Adams/Flex

S21-3

Definition of spline from a trace

A point trace tracks a location of a marker or circle over time with

respect to another part. Adams/View can create a two- or three-dimensional spline from a trace. Creating a spline from a trace is used to back-calculate (reverse engineer) the shape of an existing part based on its motion (cam synthesis).

Notes:

When you trace an object and create a spline from it, the point or circle

should move in a smooth, even path. If the path is closed, you should simulate for one cycle only.

S21-4

Curve Constraints

Types of curve constraints in Adams

Point-on-curve Curve-on-curve

Curve-on-curve constraints

Used where a curved edge on one part always follows a curved edge

Two parts Two curves that will always remain in contact

S21-5

See Also: DOF removed by curve constraints in Appendix A

ADM701, Section 21, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S21-6

Contact forces

Special forces acting on parts that are activated when part geometries

come in contact with each other. Have values that are determined by a set of contact parameters identical to those in the IMPACT function. Multiple contact forces can be combined to create more complex contacts.

S21-7

Contact pairs in Adams

S21-8

Things to note while creating automated contact forces

Point-to-curve Curve-to-curve Sphere-to-plane Curve-to-plane Point-to-plane

The xy planes of the two reference markers must be parallel. The z-axis of the reference marker of the plane (the planes normal vector) must point away from the plane and at the circle or sphere.

S21-9

Better loading predictions for durability analyses

The flexible component is the focus of your attention. Basically asking the question: "What is the system doing to my flexible

component?"

The model fidelity is the focus of your attention. Component flexibility is

just another parameter of the system design. Basically asking the question: "What is the flexible component doing to my system?"

S21-10

Allows you to create flexible bodies in the Adams environment Allows for easy substitutions of flexible bodies for rigid bodies

in your Adams models Can perform quick modifications on the flexible bodies to perform multiple iterations of the flexible body model

To run through a workshop, see the Adams/Flex Examples. For more information, see the Adams/Flex online help.

S21-11

S22-1

S22-2

Whats in this module:

Multi-Component Forces Design Studies

S22-3

Multi-Component Forces

Types of multi-component forces

Vector force (three translational components) Vector torque (three rotational components) General force vector (three translational, three rotational

components)

S22-4

Notes:

The floating J marker always maintains the same location as the I

marker. The characteristics of other multi-component forces conceptually work the same way.

S22-5

Example of a force vector

A vector force representing a contact between a ball and a

cantilever:

S22-6

Because the J marker belongs to part B, the force acts on part B

when the bodies collide. Because the J marker moves with the I marker, part B knows where to apply the reaction force. Note: In the example, the J and R markers must belong to the same part. However, the R marker can belong to any part. See Also: Characteristics of a multi-component force, in Appendix A

S22-7

Design Studies

Trial and error method (manual iterations)

Model Parts Joints Forces

Simulate

View results

Yes

No

Completed

S22-8

Design study method (automated iterations)

Design Variable (V) Objective (O) Model Parts Joints Forces Simulate Results automatically generated

No

Yes

The loop goes through specified number of iterations (i=1,n) Tabular report Plot O versus V (for each iteration)

S22-9

Definition of a design study

Varies a single design variable (V) across a range of values. Runs a simulation at each value. Reports the performance measure for each simulation.

The best value for V among the values simulated. The approximate design sensitivity of V (rate of change of

S22-10

Sensitivity, S, at iteration, I

S22-11

S22-12

S23-1

S23-2

Recommended Practices

Whats in this module:

General Approach to Modeling Modeling Practices: Parts Modeling Practices: Constraints Modeling Practices: Compliant Connections Modeling Practices: Run-time Functions Debugging Tips

S23-3

Crawl-walk-run

Try to understand the mechanism from a physical standpoint. Use building blocks of concepts that have worked in the past. Add enhancements to the model while testing periodically. Build kinematic models before building dynamic models. Use motions to check models before applying forces. Use motions which start with zero velocity. Verify enhancements to a complex model on a simpler model first.

S23-4

Geometry associativity errors

Geometry may be added to the wrong part.

Mass properties

Using imported CAD-created geometry (IGES, STL, and so on) can

yield inaccurate mass properties. Ensure inertia matrix is realistic. Use aggregate mass for a quick check of system mass and inertia. Use the Table Editor to do a quick check and potentially fix individual part masses and inertia. Small part mass and inertia lead to unrealistically high frequencies.

Initial velocities

Check to see that part initial velocities are consistent (look in the .out

file).

ADM701, Section 23, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S23-5

Dummy parts

Whenever possible, avoid using them. If absolutely needed, constrain all six DOF and assign a mass of 0.0

(not 1e-20).

Design configuration

Build a model close to assembled position. Build a model close to a stable equilibrium position, if possible.

S23-6

Fixed joints

Not needed, since two or more parts can be combined or merged into a

single part. An extra part with a fixed joint adds unnecessary equations to your system. When locking a part to ground, enormous torque may develop due to large moment arms. If absolutely needed, then add fixed joints at the center-of-mass (cm) location of lightest part. If locking a part to ground, consider assigning a very large mass/inertia to it so it can behave like ground.

S23-7

Universal joints

When a universal joint is at 90, you get a singular matrix.

Motion

Motion elements should only be functions of time.

S23-8

Spring dampers

Ensure that the marker endpoints (DM(I,J)) are never superimposed. Watch out for springs with very stiff spring constants. Watch out for springs with no damping.

Bushings

Watch out for bushings with large rotations.

S23-9

Function Builder

Assists in building functions. Assists in function verification. Has function plot capability.

Velocity

Make sure velocities are correct in force expressions. For example,

Splines

Approximate forces with smooth, continuous splines. Extend the range of spline data beyond the range of need. Cubic splines (CUBSPL) work better on motions than Akima. Akima splines (AKISPL) work better on forces than Cubic. The Akima interpolation method is faster and can be defined as a surface, but its derivatives are generally discontinuous.

S23-10

IMPACTs/BISTOPs

Do not use 1.0 for exponent on IMPACT or BISTOP functions. Models with IMPACTs/BISTOPs should have slight penetration in

Measures

Set up measures of your run-time functions. Set up measures of components of your run-time functions. Ensure that your function will not try to divide by zero.

S23-11

Contacts

Do not use 1.0 for exponent on IMPACT or BISTOP functions. Models with contacts should have slight penetration in design position

Tires

Models with tires should have slight penetration in model position when

doing statics. If only rear tires penetrate, the static position could be a handstand.

S23-12

Units

Use consistent units throughout the model (time, mass, stiffness,

damping, and so on). Choose units (mass, force, time, and so on) that do not require using very large or very small numbers. Be wary when your model contains numbers like 1e+23 or 1e-20. Use appropriate unitswhen modeling large models such as an aircraft landing on a runway, length units of millimeters may not be appropriate. Conversely, when modeling small models such as a power window switch (made up of small moving parts), using length units of meters may not be appropriate. Use reasonable time unitshigh frequencies may be better modeled with time units of milliseconds rather than seconds.

Gravity

Check magnitude and direction. Check for multiple gravity elements.

ADM701, Section 23, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S23-13

Debugging Tips

Model verify

Lists number of moving parts, number of each type of constraint. Lists Gruebler's count and actual DOF count. Lists redundant constraints. Reports misaligned forces/force elements, joints, and so on. Helps identify and eliminate causes for input warning (don't ignore).

Model topology

Text or graphical model topology. Table Editor provides spreadsheet-like overview of model content.

S23-14

Debugging Tips

Icon Feedback

Broken icon in design configuration probably means incorrectly defined

joint or force.

Table Editor

Convenient way to inspect and modify models (particularly large ones).

Interactive Simulation

By default is turned on.

S23-15

Model display update

As Adams/Solver performs the simulation, you have the option to get

Output step Integration step Iteration

This may help you monitor behavior of model components.

S23-16

Subroutines

Check for their existence. While debugging a model, eliminate user subroutines so that they are

Gravity

Turning gravity off can accentuate modeling errors and make

debugging easier.

S23-17

Statics

When applicable, perform an initial static simulation first. If static solution fails: Turn on Model display update = at every iteration to provide additional insight. Identify and eliminate the undesired static configurationthere could be more than one static configuration and Adams/Solver could be finding the undesired one. Check to see if there are any floating parts. Check the signs of applied forces. Experiment with Alimit/Tlimit/Maxit/Stability. Check if impacts are initially in contact; if not, they should be. Running an initial dynamic simulation can help you determine why the

ADM701, Section 23, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S23-18

Dynamics

If integrator fails to start-up: Check sign and magnitude of forces. Look at accelerations to understand what is happening. Perform initial static analysis first. Try a quasi-static simulation. Try changing integrator parameter - HINIT. Try a different integrator. If integrator fails in the middle of a simulation: Look at animation and plots until failure, to understand simulation. Decrease integrator parameter - HMAX. Do not let the integrator step over important events. Short duration events, such as an impulse can be captured by setting the maximum time step, HMAX, to a value less than the impulse width. Use HMAX so Adams/Solver acts as a fixed-step integrator Decrease error. Try a different integrator.

ADM701, Section 23, May 2007 Copyright 2007 MSC.Software Corporation S23-19

If integrator takes very small steps: Look for sudden changes in force and motion input. Rescale model to get more uniform numbers. Velocities at time=0 Check initial velocities using the .out file.

S23-20

APPENDIX A Tables

Appendix A-1

Appendix A-2

Tables

Whats in this appendix:

Constraints Tables (Incomplete) Forces Tables (Incomplete) Constraints Tables (Completed) Forces Tables (Completed)

Appendix A-3

Appendix A-4

Appendix A-5

Appendix A-6

Appendix A-7

Appendix A-8

Appendix A-9

Appendix A-10

Appendix A-11

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