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EFFECTS VOLTAGE SAG ON SINGLE-PHAS E DO MESTIC

AND OF FIC E LOAD S

Mahendra V Chilukuri, Lee M ing Yo ng and Ph ang Yoke Yin

Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya 63100, Malaysia

Abstract: This paper presents the effects of voltage sags on domestic and office
equipment and provides equipment sensitive curves for safe and reliable operation based
on the experimental results. With the increase usage of sensitive electronic equipments in
various industries, offices and household appliances, it is important to protect them from
any power quality disturbances to avoid unnecessary losses of any kind. From the several
types of power quality disturbances, the most frequent and concern for electric utilities
from customer point of view was voltage sag. Though a lot of research has been done
voltage sag characteristics and its effects on industrial equipment there is not much
literature available on the effect of voltage sags on single-phase loads, especially office
and home equipment. This project investigates the behavior of domestic and office
appliances for different magnitude, duration and angle of incidence of voltage sag.
Studies were conducted to obtain the sag tolerance curves which might or might not
comply with the voltage sag immunity standards. Industrial power corruptor was used to
generate voltage sag on one phase to observe the effects on the test equipment.
Experiments were conducted on common office and household appliances using
Industrial Power Corruptor (IPC) to monitor the equipment function and performance
before, during and after the sag. The current and voltage waveforms obtained from the
IPC software were analyzed and reported. The results seem to be useful and informative
for OEMs, Utilities and Emergency Power Supply Manufacturers.

Index Terms—Power Quality, Voltage Sag, Industrial Power Corruptor, Power System
Faults.

1 INTRODUCTION

Deregulation and privatization of electricity industry lead to the open competition to


provide electricity at higher reliability and quality then ever before to growing
automotive industry. The increased use of ICT and semiconductor devices at home and
offices has increased the challenges for utility and industry to focus on power quality.

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Though there are many types of power quality disturbances arising in electric
transmission and distribution system some of them or more frequent than other. Voltage
sag is one of the major power quality problem faced by the customers and requires
solutions at utility and customer level along with some radical changes at design of
equipment. Voltage sag is defined as more than 10% reduction in rms voltage from 0.5
cycles to 1 minute. The IEC definition for this phenomenon is dip [1]. Many high-tech
electricity-dependent devices and equipment used in commercial and industrial facilities
are sensitive to many types of power quality disturbances. On the other hand, the
increasing use of power electronics devices contributes further to the arising power
quality problems.

1.1 Voltage Sag Standards

Standards are needed for the effects of voltage sags on sensitive electronic equipment as
reference documents describing single equipment or component and systems in power
system. Both buyers and manufacturers use these standards to meet better power
compatibility. Manufacturers refer to the standard to manufacture products complying
requirement of the standard and buyers demand from the manufacturers that the product
should comply with the standard. The most common standards dealing with power
quality are IEEE, IEC, CBEMA and SEMI. Brief description of each standard is provided
as following.

1.2 IEEE Standards

IEEE Standard P1346 - Electric Power System Compatibility with Electronic Process
Equipment. This standard contains indices that will allow industrial engineers to evaluate
how sensitive their industrial processes will be to voltage sags. In addition, “IEEE
Standard 446-1995 - Recommended practice for emergency and standby power systems
for industrial and commercial applications range of sensibility loads”, includes the
CBEMA curve to show the equipment susceptibility to voltage sags. Due to the increase
of sensitive equipments, the voltage sag limit in the CBEMA curve might not be
restrictive enough to protect some type of sensitive equipments. IEEE Standard 1159 -
Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality defines a sustained
interruption as reduction in the rms voltage to less than 10% of the nominal voltage for

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longer than 1 minute. Sustained interruptions must be taken seriously as the fault will
cause disturbances and affect all the customers on the faulted section [8].

1.3 SEMI

The SEMI International Program is a service offered by Semiconductor Equipment and


Materials International (SEMI). It represents the semiconductor and flat panel display
equipment and materials industries with the goal of helping members expand global
marketing opportunities and improve customer access. The SEMI F47-0200 standard,
entitled “Specification for Semiconductor Processing Equipment Voltage Sag Immunity”
defines the desired voltage sag immunity for single and two-phase voltage sag events. It
only specifies voltage sags with duration from 50ms up to 1s. The specification states that
Semiconductor processing, metrology and automated test equipment must be designed
and built to conform to the voltage sag ride through capability per the defined curve in
the figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 Required Semiconductor Equipment Voltage Sag Ride through Capability
Curve (SEMI F47) [9]

1.4 Causes of Voltage Sag

The causes of voltage sag can be divided into two categories, depending on the location
of the source in relationship to the power meter. Faults can happen on the utility side of
the meter which includes switching operations, power system faults, regulator
dysfunction and lightning. While on the end user side of the meter, the faults include
nonlinear loads, poor grounding, electromagnetic interference and static electricity.

1.4.1 Utility side of the meter

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Voltage sag caused by the utility side of the meter usually involve some type of activity
on the utility’s electrical power system either man made (switching operation) or natural
(lightning) events where both involve interruption of the voltage. Utilities switch
equipment on and off by the use of circuit breakers, disconnecting switches or reclosers.
Breaker trips when there is a fault on the power system or when breaker is due for
maintenance such as to insert capacitor for power factor improvement. As for natural
causes, lightning striking power line or substation equipment, tree or animal touching a
power line, car hitting a power pole, construction work may be cause of the faults. The
tripping of the breakers and the initiating fault will cause voltage to sag or swell
depending on the magnitude of the voltage and duration when it occurs. Faults on utility
side are usually categorized by single phase to ground faults, phase to phase faults or
three-phase to ground faults. The most common occurring faults is single phase to ground
and the possibility of three-phase fault occurring is very low.

1.4.2 End user side of the meter

Problems on the end user side of the meter usually happen when a disruption of
sinusoidal voltage and current is delivered to them by the utility. Faults also occur when
there’s excessive use of nonlinear load, starting of big motor which draws large amount
of current and causes voltage sag. These disturbances will affect the performance of
sensitive equipment but won’t damage them except for faults caused by transient that will
damage the equipments.

2 EXPERIMENTAL HARDWARE SETUP

2.1 Experimental Setup

In studying the effect of voltage sag on motor load domestic and IT-based equipment, a
voltage sag generator is required to initiate voltage sags. The voltage sags are generated
using the Industrial Power Corrupter (ITC) combined with a built in data acquisition
system. By using IPC, the user can control the depth and duration of voltage sags while
monitoring voltages, currents and other signals. Besides that, there were also 9 built in
standards in the IPC which are SEMI 47, CBEMA, ITIC, IEC 4-11, IEC 4-34, MIL1399,
Samsung, FAA1.3.2, FAA IPTE and F47 RQRD [11]. Among the 9 standards readily
available in the IPC, only 5 standards were used for testing in this study. SEMI 47 is an
industry standard for voltage sag immunity. Industrial equipment must tolerate voltage

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sags on the AC mains supply to specific depths and duration. ITIC and CBEMA is used
for voltage sag immunity on computer, telecommunications, business equipments,
software and IT services. As for IEC 4-11 and IEC 4-34, both standards specify the same
depths and durations of voltage sags which test the toleration of equipments rated up to
16A and more than 16A per phase separately. The 3-phase supply from the utility is
connected to the IPC and from the IPC, the 3-phase output is connected to load as shown
in Figure 2.1. Three single phase socket for each phase is also fed by the IPC. True phase-
to-phase sags can be generated. It must be connected to a computer running the IPC
software and is controllable from the computer using graphical software that is based on
a Windows operating system. The main functions of the software are:

Figure 2.1 IPC connected to 3 phase power supply

1. Control the sag magnitude


2. Control the sag duration
3. Trigger a sag event
4. Download and display data that was acquired on selected channels during the sag
events for further analysis.

2.2 Test Procedure

The following are the test procedure followed to perform testing on motor, domestic and
IT-based loads to study the effect of voltage sags.

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1. Define “Pass” and “Fail” for each equipment before conducting test
2. Connect the load to the 3 pin power supply socket
3. Select the suitable standard to be used for testing the equipments
4. Follow each pre-defined steps of the standards and trigger each sag event
5. Vary the sag duration and magnitude to find the threshold of the equipment where
it fails.
6. For each sag event triggered, voltage and current is recorded and the data can be
viewed using the Channel Scope software.
7. Plot a threshold vs. standard to compare whether the equipments tested complied
to the standard or not.

The recorded waveforms are analyzed and conclusions are derived based on the
waveforms and observations recorded.

2.3 Computation for Power Quality Parameters

The computation for some of the power quality parameters are explained as follows:

a) Voltage sag and swell detection:

Sag detection method used in this project was based on IEEE standard 1159 [1],
where RMS voltage below 0.9 p.u. of the system voltage is considered as voltage sag.
The sag duration was calculated from the time either one of the phases dropped below
the minimum voltage limit until all of the three phases recovered within voltage limit.

8
7
6
5 LL
LLG
4
3L
3 3P
2
1
0

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Figure 2.2 Type of fault observed from TNB PQMS data.

Jun
5
July
4.5 Aug
4 Sep
3.5 Oct
3 Nov
Dec
2.5
Jan
2
Feb
1.5 Mar
1 Apr
0.5 May
Jun
0
July

Figure 2.3 The occurrence of fault for 1 year from Jun 2005 – July 2006 at one PQ
monitoring site (UKM, Bangi).

3 Experimental Results

The main purpose of conducting experiments on various equipments is to study the


effects of voltage sags on their operation and determine voltage tolerance curve for
equipment. For this experiment, the equipments are divided into the following categories:

a) Industrial equipment: 3 phase induction motor, VSD


b) Domestic equipment: electric kettle, electric oven, automatic rice cooker, television,
lightings, decoder, massager, fan, microwave oven, blender and UPS.
c) IT equipment: Hub, inkjet printer, laser printer, LCD monitor, scanner, computer and
CRO

The voltage sag magnitude and duration based on the pre-determined steps in each
standard had been investigated. As mentioned in the chapter No, the sags were generated
using IPC. The sag thresholds where the equipments fail were also determined by
adjusting sag magnitude and duration on the front panel of IPC.

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3.1 Experiments on PC

Voltage sag doesn’t show any significant problem to personal computers. In such case, it
is easy to prevent the problem by installing uninterruptible power supply (UPS) for a
small cost which will provide sufficient time to save all the data before shutting down.
However it is not the same especially for PC-based offices which rely entirely on data
processing through PC in their work. An interruption will cause great losses; some
examples are financial trading and telecommunication offices.

a) Computer A

• Intel Pentium II Processor


• 128MB RAM
• 4GB Hard Disk
• Windows 98 OS

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500 20

300 12

100 4
Volts

Amps

-100 -4

-300 -12

-500 -20
-40 -12 16 44 72 100 128 156 184 212 240 -40 -12 16 44 72 100 128 156 184 212 240
L1-N load - milliseconds - 8/25/2006 3:30:50 PM L1 Ld (±1000A) - milliseconds - 8/25/2006 3:30:50 PM

Figure 3.1(a) Corresponding current and voltage of computer during voltage sag period
for 70% depth and 10-cycle duration, computer didn’t restart due to sag.

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500 50

300 30

100 10

Amps
Volts

-100 -10

-300 -30

-500 -50
-40 28 96 164 232 300 368 436 504 572 640 -40 28 96 164 232 300 368 436 504 572 640
L1-N load - milliseconds - 8/25/2006 3:41:28 PM L1 Ld (±100A) - milliseconds - 8/25/2006 3:41:28 PM

Figure 3.2(b) Corresponding current and voltage waveform of computer during voltage
sag period for 40% depth and 30-cycle duration, computer restarts due to sag.

Figure 5.3(a) shows the current and voltage waveform when computer A is running and
during the application of sag. Its load current before sag value is 2.5A. The restart of
computer A is marked by high current surge of 9 times the normal current, which is
indicated at the end of sag which can be seen in figure 5.3(b), for sag depth 40% and
duration of 30 cycles. It is observed that the value of current surge at the end of the sag is
higher compared to the case which computer A is not affected by sags. The value of the
spike is 22A in figure 5.3(b) when the computer restarts as compare to 14A in figure
5.3(a) when there is no effect of sag on the computer.

3.2 Computer B
• Pentium (R) 4
• 504 MB RAM
• 80GB Hard Disk
• Windows XP OS

Figure 5.4(a) shows the current and voltage waveform when computer B is running and
when sag is applied. Its load current before sag value is 1.5A. Computer B restarts at a
sag depth of 15% and 18-cycle duration. It is observed that there is a current surge at the
end of the sag when computer B restarts and no current surge in figure 5.4(b) when
computer B is not affected to sag. The value of the spike is 15A in figure 5.4(b) when the
computer restarts as compare to 5.5A in figure 5.4(a) when there is no effect of sag on
computer B.

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500 10

300 6

Volts 100 2

Amps
-100 -2

-300 -6

-500 -10
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
L3-N load - milliseconds - 3/28/2007 2:44:44 PM L3 Ld (±1000A) - milliseconds - 3/28/2007 2:44:44 PM

Figure 5.4(a) Corresponding current and voltage waveform of computer during voltage
sag period for 70% depth and 1-cycle duration, computer didn’t restart due to sag.

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500 20

300 12

100 4
Amps
Volts

-100 -4

-300 -12

-500 -20
-40 4 48 92 136 180 224 268 312 356 400 -40 4 48 92 136 180 224 268 312 356 400
L3-N load - milliseconds - 3/28/2007 2:57:27 PM L3 Ld (±1000A) - milliseconds - 3/28/2007 2:57:27 PM

Figure 5.4(b) Corresponding current and voltage waveform of computer during voltage
sag period for 15% depth and 18-cycle duration, computer restart due to sag

Voltage sag can cause computers to restart and lose data. If the depth of voltage sag is
larger than 40% and duration is more than 5 cycles for computer A, it will restart.
Computer B will restart if the depth of sag is larger than 15% and a duration of more that
18-cycles. Voltage sag has no effect on computer for voltage sag and duration before the
indicated value. From the experiment, it can be concluded that the specification of the
computer plays an important role on the sag effect. It is shown that the latest model of the
computer has higher ride through capability of voltage sag than the later model. Both
computers comply with the voltage sag immunity standards. Similar experiments were
conducted and on various domestic an office appliances and the following sag immunity
table were obtained to analyze the behavior and function of the equipment.

TABLE 1: EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAG ON THE RESTARTING OF COMPUTER A COMPARISON

10
Sag Depth Sag Duration (in cycles)
(%)
5 10 20 30 40 60

70 N N N N N N

60 N N N N N N

50 N N N N N N

40 N Y Y Y Y Y

N: Computer does not restart due to sag

Y: Computer restarts due to sag

TABLE 2: EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAG ON THE RESTARTING OF COMPUTER B

Sag Sag Duration (in cycles)


Depth
(%) 5 10 20 30 40 60

25 N N N N N N

20 N N N N N N

15 N N Y Y Y Y

10 N N Y Y Y Y

N: Computer does not restart due to sag

Y: Computer restarts due to sag

TABLE 3: EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAG ON THE PRINTER A

Sag Sag Duration (in cycles)


Depth
5 10 20 30 40 60
(%)

30 N N N N N N

20 N N N N N N

10 N N N N N N

0 N Y Y Y Y Y

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N: Printer doesn’t switch off due to sag

Y: Printer switches off due to sag

TABLE 4: EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAG ON THE PRINTER B

Sag Sag Duration (in cycles)


Depth
5 10 20 30 40 60
(%)

25 N N N N N N

20 N N N N N N

15 N N Y Y Y Y

10 N N Y Y Y Y

N: Printer doesn’t switch off due to sag

Y: Printer switches off due to sag

TABLE 5: EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAG ON THE NETWORK HUB

Sag Sag Duration (in cycles)


Depth
5 10 20 30 40 60
(%)

30 N N N N N N

20 N N N N N N

10 N N N N N Y

0 Y Y Y Y Y Y

N: Hub doesn’t switch off due to sag

Y: Hub switches off due to sag

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TABLE 6: EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAG ON LCD MONITOR

Sag Sag Duration (in cycles)


Depth
5 10 20 30 40 60
(%)

25 N N N N N N

20 N N N N N N

15 N N Y Y Y Y

10 N N Y Y Y Y

N: LCD monitor doesn’t switch off due to sag

Y: LCD monitor switches off due to sag

TABLE 7: EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAG ON THE SCANNER

Sag Sag Duration (in cycles)


Depth
5 10 20 30 40 60
(%)

25 N N N N N N

20 N N N N N N

15 N N N N N N

10 N N Y Y Y Y

N: No effect on scanner due to sag

Y: Scanner stops operating and operation had to be restarted

TABLE 8: EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAG ON L INCANDESCENT LAMP

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Depth Sag Duration (in cycles)
(%)
5 10 20 30 40 60

40 N N N N N N

30 N N N N N N

20 N N Y Y Y Y

10 N N Y Y Y Y

N: No effect on lamp due to sag

Y: Lamp switches off due to sag

TABLE 9: EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAG ON ELECTRIC RICE COOKER

Sag Sag Duration (in cycles)


Depth
5 10 20 30 40 60
(%)

50 N N N N N N

40 N N N N N N

30 N N N N N N

20 N Y Y Y Y Y

N: No effect on rice cooker due to sag

Y: Rice cooker switches off due to sag

TABLE 10: EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAG ON TELEVISION

Sag Sag Duration (in cycles)


Depth
5 10 20 30 40 60
(%)

40 N N N N N N

14
30 N N N N N N

20 N N N N N N

10 N N Y Y Y Y

N: No effect on television due to sag

Y: Television switches off due to sag

TABLE 11: EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAG ON MICROWAVE

Depth Duration (in cycles)


(%)
5 10 20 30 40 60

45 N N N N N N

40 N N N N N N

35 N Y Y Y Y Y

30 N Y Y Y Y Y

N: No effect on microwave due to sag

Y: Microwave switches off and operation had to be restarted due to sag

TABLE 12: EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAG ON ASTRO DECODER

Depth Duration (in cycles)


(%)
5 10 20 30 40 60

30 N N N N N N

20 N N N N N N

10 N N Y Y Y Y

0 N N Y Y Y Y

15
N: No effect on decoder due to sag

Y: Decoder switches off due to sag

TABLE 13: EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SAG ON MASSAGER

Depth Duration (in cycles)


(%)
5 10 20 30 40 60

30 N N N N N N

20 N N N N Y Y

10 N N N N Y Y

0 N N N N Y Y

N: No effect on massager due to sag

Y: Massager stops operating and operation had to be restarted due to sag

4. Conclusion

Voltage sags are one of the most frequently occurring important power quality problems
in the industry process which can cost billions of production losses annually and the cost
is rising every year. It is important for the utilities and customers to understand the effects
of low power quality. This problem needs to be solved due to the increased use of power
quality-sensitive equipments, the increased use of equipments that generate power quality
problems, the increased interconnectedness of the power system and the deregulation of
the power industry. Recent hike in the electricity tariff increase by the TNB, Malaysian
government makes mandatory reason for the utilities & IPPs to improve the power
quality to residential & industrial customers and also manufacturers to design equipment
with sufficient immunity for power quality disturbances in order to satisfy the customers
and reduce damage [24].

1) From the data provided by TNB, the type of sag that occurs most is single stage dip
due to fault. This type of sag commonly affects residential areas as they are supplied
by single phase supply. As for industrial areas which are supplied by three phase

16
supply, the impact of sag on three phase motors is less severe if the fault is single
phase to ground fault. Tripping of motor might be avoided but operation of the
process might be affected as motor may decrease in speed and heat up; the life span
of the motor itself may decreases in the long run.
2) The experiment on equipments is divided into three categories; motor loads tested
against SEMI F47 standard, domestic loads tested against ICE 4-11 standard and IT
equipments tested against ITIC and CBEMA standards.
3) The conclusion of voltage sag on lightings and resistive loads by observing all the
waveforms are, during sag period the current is proportional to the sag voltage as the
load is resistive. Once the sag is over, the current returns to its normal value without a
current spike. There is no severe effect of sag on all the resistive equipments tested
but sag might shorten the life span of the equipments on a long haul.
4) The conclusion that can be made on non linear and IT equipments by observing the
waveforms are, when sag is applied there is a current surge at the end of sag when
voltage is about to be restored to its nominal value. This high current surge will trip
the protection in the equipment and cause the equipment to switch off, this is shown
through the waveform obtained from the experiment and through physical
observation. Some of the equipments may continue its operation when voltage is
restored and those equipments that had to be restarted will pose a problem for the
user.
5) There are a few factors to be considered to find the most efficient solution to the
voltage sag; the occurrence of sag, the sensitivity of the equipment, the place to
install the protection, the type of protection and cost. Installation of power
conditioning equipment helps reduce or eliminate power quality disturbances.

This project gives a more detail insight of the importance of voltage sag and how it will
affect industrial, office and home appliances. Household appliances do not get damaged
due to voltage sag and this has been observed from experimental results on domestic
appliances. This information is important as the usage of sensitive equipment is
increasing in all the areas and the effect of voltage sag would be a nuisance and unwanted
losses in time and money can be avoided. However, it is recommended to repeat the
performed experiment every few years to keep abreast with the latest technology
especially IT and non linear equipments which are more susceptible to sag.

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5 Acknowledgment

The authors gratefully acknowledge the technical support of Faculty Lab Staff.

6 References

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Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality, USA, 1995, pp.11 –
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18
23. Voltage-Dip Proofing Inverters & Voltage-Dip Compensators Booklet
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APPENDIX

Table 8 Summary of the performance of individual loads on voltage sag

Duration in cycles
Depth
10 20 30 40 50 60 Observations

Noticeable decrease in speed in


motor accompanied by sound, no
effect on VSD, no effect on IT-
based equipment, dimness in
lighting loads, no effect on
70 No Effects No Effects No Effects No Effects No Effects No Effects electric kettle, oven and rice
cooker, blender and fan stops
operating and continue when
voltage is restored, no effect on
non-linear equipment and
massager.

Noticeable decreased in speed in


motor accompanied by sound, no
effect on VSD, no effect on IT-
based equipment, increase
dimness in lighting loads,
Fluorescent Fluorescent fluorescent lamp A switches off
Fluorescent lamp Fluorescent lamp Fluorescent lamp
60 No Effects lamp switches lamp switches and recovers after sag, no effect
switches off switches off switches off
off off on electric kettle , oven and rice
cooker, blender and fan stops
operating and continue when
voltage is restored, no effect on
non-linear equipment and
massager.

19
Noticeable decreased in speed in
motor accompanied by sound, no
effect on VSD, no effect on IT-
based equipment, increase
dimness in lighting loads,
fluorescent lamp switches off and
Fluorescent Fluorescent Fluorescent recovers after sag, no effect on
Fluorescent lamp Fluorescent lamp Fluorescent lamp
50 lamp switches lamp switches lamp switches electric kettle, oven and rice
switches off switches off switches off
off off off cooker, blender and fan stops
operating and continue when
voltage is restored, image of TV
distorted and recovers after sag,
LED light in microwave dimmed,
no effects on decoder and
massager.

Noticeable decreased in speed in


motor accompanied by sound, no
effect on VSD, no effect on IT-
based equipment except for
computer A restarted, increase
dimness in lighting loads,
fluorescent lamp A switches off
Fluorescent Fluorescent lamp Fluorescent lamp Fluorescent lamp Fluorescent Fluorescent
and recovers after sag, no effect
lamp switches switches off, switches off, switches off, lamp switches lamp switches
40 on electric kettle, oven and rice
off, computer A computer A computer A computer A off, computer A off, computer A
cooker, blender and fan stops
restarted restarted restarted restarted restarted restarted
operating and continue when
voltage is restored, increase in
severity of distortion of TV image
and recovers after sag, LED light
in microwave dimmed, no effects
on decoder and massager stops
operating and recovers after sag.

Noticeable decreased in speed in


motor accompanied by sound, no
effect on VSD, no effect on IT-
based equipment except for
computer A restarted, increase
dimness in lighting loads,
Fluorescent
Fluorescent Fluorescent Fluorescent Fluorescent Fluorescent fluorescent lamp A and B
lamps switches
lamps switches lamps switches lamps switches lamps switches lamps switches switches off and recovers after
off, computer A
off, computer A off, computer A off, computer A off, computer A off, computer A sag, electric kettle switches off
restarted,
30 restarted, restarted, restarted, restarted, restarted, and recovers after sag, no effect
microwave
microwave and microwave and microwave and microwave and microwave and of sag on oven and rice cooker,
and electric
electric kettle electric kettle electric kettle electric kettle electric kettle blender and fan stops operating
kettle switched
switched off switched off switched off switched off switched off and continue when voltage is
off
restored, image of TV distorted
and recovers after sag, microwave
switches off and operation had to
be restarted, no effects on
decoder and massager stops
operating and recovers after sag.

Noticeable decreased in speed in


motor accompanied by sound, no
effect on VSD, no effect on IT-
based equipment except for
computer A restarted, all lighting
Fluorescent and Fluorescent and Fluorescent and All lighting All lighting
Fluorescent loads switches off and recovers
incandescent incandescent incandescent loads switches loads switches
lamp switches after sag electric kettle and rice
lamp switches lamp switches lamp switches off, computer A off, computer A
off, computer A cooker switches off and recover
off, computer A off, computer A off, computer A restarted, restarted,
20 restarted, after sag, no effect of sag on oven,
restarted, restarted, restarted, microwave, microwave,
microwave and blender and fan stops operating
microwave and microwave and microwave and electric kettle electric kettle
electric kettle and continue when voltage is
electric kettle electric kettle electric kettle and massager and massager
switched off restored, image of TV distorted
switched off switched off switched off switched off switched off
and recovers after sag, microwave
switches off and operation had to
be restarted, no effects on
decoder and massager switches
off and had to be restarted.

20
Noticeable decreased in speed in
motor accompanied by sound, no
effect on VSD, computers
restarted, printers and scanner
switches off and operation have
Fluorescent and Fluorescent and Fluorescent and All lighting All lighting
Fluorescent to be restarted, hub and LCD
incandescent incandescent incandescent loads switches loads switches
lamp switches monitor switches off and recovers
lamp switches lamp switches lamp switches off, all IT-based off, all IT-based
off, all IT-based after sag, all lighting loads
off, all IT-based off, all IT-based off, all IT-based equipment equipment
equipment switches off and recovers after
equipment equipment equipment switches off, switches off,
switches off, sag electric kettle and rice cooker
switches off, switches off, switches off, microwave, microwave,
10 microwave, switches off and recover after sag,
microwave, microwave, microwave, electric kettle, electric kettle,
electric kettle no effect of sag on oven, blender
electric kettle electric kettle electric kettle all non-linear all non-linear
and all non- and fan stops operating and
and all non- and all non- and all non- equipments equipments
linear continue when voltage is
linear linear linear switched off switched off
equipments restored, TV switches off and
equipments equipments equipments and massager and massager
switched off recovers after sag, microwave
switched off switched off switched off switched off switched off
switches off and operation had to
be restarted, decoder switches off
and recovers after sag and
massager switches off and had to
be restarted.

Noticeable decreased in speed in


motor accompanied by sound, no
effect on VSD, computers
restarted, printers and scanner
switches off and operation have
Fluorescent and Fluorescent and Fluorescent and All lighting All lighting
Fluorescent to be restarted, hub and LCD
incandescent incandescent incandescent loads switches loads switches
lamp switches monitor switches off and recovers
lamp switches lamp switches lamp switches off, all IT-based off, all IT-based
off, all IT-based after sag, all lighting loads
off, all IT-based off, all IT-based off, all IT-based equipment equipment
equipment switches off and recovers after
equipment equipment equipment switches off, switches off,
switches off, sag electric kettle and rice cooker
switches off, switches off, switches off, microwave, microwave,
0 microwave, switches off and recover after sag,
microwave, microwave, microwave, electric kettle, electric kettle,
electric kettle no effect of sag on oven, blender
electric kettle electric kettle electric kettle all non-linear all non-linear
and all non- and fan stops operating and
and all non- and all non- and all non- equipments equipments
linear continue when voltage is
linear linear linear switched off switched off
equipments restored, TV switches off and
equipments equipments equipments and massager and massager
switched off recovers after sag, microwave
switched off switched off switched off switched off switched off
switches off and operation had to
be restarted, decoder switches off
and recovers after sag and
massager switches off and had to
be restarted.

21