You are on page 1of 11

MODULE of Genetic Material

By :Group 6 1. Astrid Riauda Putriana 2. Encik Rosiana 3. Fadila Aftriani 4. Herizki Dwi Utami Putri 5. Isra Layla Yusti 6. Muflikhatur Rohmah 7. Sepada Asmarika Kadir 8. Shelvi Febryani

Departement of Biology Education Faculty of Teaching and Education University of Riau 2013

CHAPTER SIX GENETIC MATERIAL

Purpose :

1. After following this lesson, hopefully the student can understand the genetic material 2. Student can explain the genom of prakaryotic and eukaryotic cell 3. Student can explain replication,transcription and pascatranscription process

1.

PROKARYOTA GENOME : BACTERIAS DNA Genome is totallity of genes in haploid cells. The length of Escherichia colis DNA if

we were ranged it is 1,4 mm (1400m). The weight of molleculeis 2500 x 10 6 dalton with 400 genes. Escherichia colis DNA molecule has double helix and naked ( without protein association) and sircular. In bacteria cell, DNA along 1400 m in nucleoid body with diameter S! m and placed 25% from cell volume.

E. Colis genome have supercoiled become 50 loops from one central core that held in

shape by RNA.

Nucleoid dont separate with a membrane but nucleoid is an area in procaryota cell that limited strict enough.

If cell life and grow in media add-ons and a high rate of synthesis, the nucleoid surface in inactive cell, the limit usually more clear and solid. If nucleoid solid, DNA will be slid and high condentation in inactive form. If there are many nutrients and high synthesis, DNA will make a loop out nucleoid to prepare a place for transcription with RNA polymerase enzyme help.

The Size and Structure Genome from Some Viruses and Bacteria Plant Viruses Organism Potato Spindle Tuber Virus (PSVT) Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) Small RNA Viruses Organism R 17 Polio Viruses Small DNA Viruses Organism Gen Structure BM ( Molllecule Weight) Genes Amount Gen Structure RNA jtl RNA jtl BM 1,3 2,6 ( Molllecule Weight) Genes Amount 4 9 Gen Structure BM ( Molllecule Weight) Genes Amount

RNA jtl RNA jtl

0,025 0,11 2,0

<1 ?

OX 174 Polio Viruses

DNA jtc DNA jgc

1,7 3,0

6 5

SV 40 Viruses Big RNA Viruses Organism Influenza Viruses Mouse Leukimia Viruses Reovirus Big DNA Viruses Organism PM2 fa Pseudomonas P2 fag Coli T7 fag Coli T5 fag Coli Herpes Simplex Viruses Granulosis Insecta Viruses Bacteria Organism Haemophilus influenza Bacillus subtilis Escherichia coli Salmonella thypimurium

DNA jgc

3,2

Gen Structure RNA jtl RNA jtl RNA jtl

BM 3,6 11,2 15,0

( Molllecule Weight)

Genes Amount 12 37 25

Gen Structure DNA jgc DNA jgl DNA jgl DNA jgl DNA jgl DNA jgl

BM 6,0 6,7 25,2 75,0 96,0 100,0

( Molllecule Weight)

Genes Amount 10 10 42 1125 160 170

Gen Structure

BM

( Molllecule Weight)

Genes Amount

DNA jgc DNA jgc DNA jgc DNA jgl

1660,0 2400,0 2500,0 3000,0

2800 4000 4200 5000

2.

EUCARYOTIC GENOME The genome of eukaryotic cells found in the nucleus as a nucleoprotein complex that is

chromatin. Each unity is a solid form of chromatin is called chromosomes. The amount of

chromosomes each organism is different. Chromosomes in metaphase stage can differentiate between the arm and the centromere.

Chromosomes Chromosomes in metaphase stage can differentiate between the arm and the centromere. Arm of the chromosome consists of a pair of chromatids that it seems to have two pairs of arms. It Function as the attachment of centromeres thread spindle.

Chromatin Chromatin consists of DNA, RNA, and protein. 2 Proteins that be found in chromatin there are Histone and Non histone. Protein histones are very base proteins because they contains base amino acids arginine and lysine. There are five classes of histones, are H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Histone proteins function in maintaining the integrity of the structure and function of chromatin. 50% of the protein nonhiston functions in chromosome condensation and movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. The other 50% function as enzymes and factors involved in replication, transcription and transcription regulation. Observations chromatin preparations by electron microscopy showed that the chromatin fibers seem as a single strand of beads. The strand of beads is subunit of chromatin is called the nucleosome.

Nucleosomes Nucleosome is a unit that contain 200 base pairs of DNA with 9 histone proteins.

Nucleosom consist of core particle (particle center), DNA connecting, and histone H1. Core particle consists of 146 base pairs. Histones consist of 4 pairs there are H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. The length of the DNA connecting are varies among species and different tissues.

3.

SOLENOID DAN SUPER SOLENOID


There are two classes of chromatin fibers that have a diameter of 10 nm and 30 nm.

10 nm fiber is formed from a regular nucleosomes linear, whereas the 30 nm fiber is formed by 10 nm fibers that are twisted helix.

solenoid having a diameter of 30 nm with a twist called supersolenoid diame400 nm.

Chromosome DNA in chromosomes is not only packed with histones into nucleosomes but also multiple strands perpetually complicated folding and protein prepared by other proteins into a series of small area region.

4.

MATRIX NUCLEUS
Matrix nucleus is a dynamic structure. Most chemical components making up the matrix is

protein. Levels of protein in the nucleus matrix ranged from 90% of the matrix material nucleus. The rest consists of RNA, DNA and phospholipids. Matrix nucleus plays a role in three main activities: 1. Replication(doubling) 2. Transcription(copying) 3. Post-transcriptional events

Genetic code The genetic code is a rule that determines the order nucleoid that can be translated into the amino acid sequence of a protein. The nucleotide sequences mRNA is read by three groups of three. Each group of three called codons. Some amino acids can be bound to multiple codons. The ability of the genetic code in mRNA to produce a composite tRNA-amino acid to the ribosome, determined by the sequence of nucleotides in tRNA is a pair genetic code. The couple called the anticodon.

5. a. b.

DNA REPLICATION Step 1 The double helix needs to unwind before replication can begin Accomplished by enzymes called DNA helicases which open the double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the two strands

c. d. e.

Additional proteins prevent the strands from assuming their double-helical shape Replication forks areas where the double helix separates Enzymes known as DNA polymerases add nucleotides to the exposed nitrogen bases, according to the base-pairing rules forming two double helixes .

f.

Step 3 The process continues until all of the DNA has been copied & the polymerases are signaled to detach

g. h.

Nucleotide sequences are identical in the two DNA molecules Checking for errors DNA polymerases are important in proofreading the nucleotides can backtrack

i.

Errors in DNA replication about one error per 1 billion nucleotides

6.

TRANSCRIPTION
Transcription is a process of making RNA with the DNA template.

produce mRNA transcription (RNA messenger), rRNA (ribosomal RNA) and tRNA (transfer RNA transport ). Transcription process consists of three steps: a. Initiation Enzyme RNA polymerase binds to the DNA molecule in a particular area that is right in front of the gene to be copied. meeting place between RNA polymerase with DNA called a promotor once bound to DNA, RNA polymerase enzyme opens the DNA double strands to facilitate the nucleotides on short braided DNA.

b. Elongation Elongation process of copying moves straight ahead is always going in the direction of 5'3. usually copy is always longer than the genes are copied.

c. Termination Transcription termination process can not occur in any place it where it should happen that a gene is copied last and intertwine. transkripsion end marked by terdissosiasinya enzyme RNA polymerase copies of DNA and RNA loss. RNA molecules are the result of copying grouped by function. molecules are rRNA, tRNA and mRNA. tRNA and rRNA is the end result of the process of gene expression in cells and acts as an RNA molecule. mRNA while still doing all the excretion of gene translation or translation and just acts as an intermediary between gene expression and the end result is a polypeptide

The results of the transcription process is an exact copy of the same gene copy. There are 3 stages of pre-mRNA binding mechanism that 1. Severance 2. Free attaching themselves 3. Cutter and union