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IN1.

5 Definite Integrals Page 1 of 2 J une 2012




IN1.5: DEFINITE INTEGRALS

( )

b
a
dx x f
is called the definite integral from a to b.

a is the lower limit of integration
b is the upper limit of integration.


This can be calculated only if
( ) f x
is defined for all x in the interval a x b
Examples
1.Calculate ( )
4
2
1 x dx +


( )
4
4 2
2 2
2
1
2
4
4
2
8
x
x dx x
(
+ = +
(

| |
= +
|
\ .
=







2.Calculate
( )
2
0
cos
x
x e dx


( )
2 2 0
2
0 0
2
2
cos sin sin sin0
2 2 2
1
0 0
2 2
1

2
x
x
e e e
x e dx x
e
e

( | | | |
+ = =
| | (
\ . \ .
| |
| |
=
| |
\ .
\ .




( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
b
b
a
a
f x dx F x F b F a = = (

where
( )
( ) F x f x dx =



Integrate (x+1).

Write the answer in square brackets with
the upper(4) and lower(2) limits placed as
shown.

Evaluate the integral at the upper limit(4)
and lower limit(2).

Subtract the value at the lower limit from
the value at the upper limit.
IN1.5 Definite Integrals Page 2 of 2 J une 2012
Applications
Examples

1. The work done moving an object from point a to point b is given by
W =
2
(3 2)
b
a
x dx +

joule.

Find the work done in moving the object from the point x = 0 to the point x = 3.

W =
3
2
0
(3 2) x dx +

=
3
3
3
0
3
2 (3 6) (0) 33
3
x
x
(
+ = + =
(

Joule.


2. The decrease in a koala population is given by
0.2
( ) 500
t
N t e

= per year. If the initial population of


koalas was 3000 (when t=0), find the approximate koala population after 10 years.

0.2
( ) 500
t
N t e

=

| |
10 10
0.2
0 0
10 10
0.2
0 0
10
10
0.2
0
0
2 0
10 0
2
10
10
500
500
500
0.2
500 500
0.2 0.2
3000 2500 2500
838.34
t
t
t
t t
t
t
dN
dt e dt
dt
dN e dt
N e
e e
N N
N e
N

= =

=
=
=
=
(
=
(


=
=
=




Number of koalas after 10 years is 838.

Exercises
1.Evaluate:
(a) ( )
4
1
2 3 x dx

(b)
( )
2
2
0
3 1 x x dx + +

(c)
2
2
1
1
dx
x


(d) ( )
2
0
2cos sin x x dx

(e) ( )
0
cos sin2 x x dx

(f)
4
3
2
2
x
e dx






1. 2.The acceleration of a particle is given by
2
( ) 2 +3e
t
a t t

= m/s
2
. If its initial velocity, v(0), is 2
m/s find the velocity when t = 3. (acceleration =
dv
dt
)

Answers
1(a) 6 (b) 12 (c) (d) 1 (e) 0 (f) 2/3(e
6
-e
12
) (g) 1/3ln4.
2. 22.88m/s

(g)
4
1
1
3
dx
x


Integrate both sides with respect to x,
from t=0 to t=10.
10 t
N
=
= number of koalas after 10 years
0 t
N
=
= number of koalas when t=0