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BOMBS?

OOKS

OR

Sustainable Disarmament for Sustainable Development

International Peace Bureau Annual Seminar co-organized with the Institute for Peace Studies

Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt

11-12 November 2007

SUMMARY REPORT

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Bibliotheca Alexandrina Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

Books or bombs ? : sustainable disarmament for sustainable development :

Summary report. – Alexandria, Egypt : Bibliotheca Alexandrina, 2008. p. cm. “International Peace Bureau Annual Seminar co-organized with the Institute for Peace Studies, Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt – 11-12 November 2007”. 1. Disarmament -- Congresses. 2. Nuclear disarmament -- Congresses. 4. Nuclear-weapon-free zones -- Middle East -- Congresses. I. International Peace Bureau. Seminar (2007 : Bibliotheca Alexandrina) II. Institute for Peace Studies (Bibliotheca Alexandrina)

327.174--dc21

2008370297

© 2008, Bibliotheca Alexandrina NON-COMMERCIAL REPRODUCTION

Information in this report has been produced with the intent that it be readily available for personal and public non-commercial use but may not be reproduced,

in part or in whole and by any means, without permission from the Bibliotheca

Alexandrina/IPS.

Printed in EGYPT 1000 copies

Cover photo:

A boy saves a few books from the rubble of his home, a six-storey apartment

building which was bombed by the Israeli air force. The building was in the middle of a densely populated area in the city of Tyre, Lebanon.

The views expressed in this report reflect the views of the participants and do not necessarily coincide with those of the Institute for Peace Studies or the International Peace Bureau.

Layout design: Mohamed TAMAN, 2008

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CONTENTS

I.

Introduction

5

II.

Military and social spending

7

III.

Effects of weapons on sustainable development

13

IV.

Role of civil society

17

V.

Conclusion

23

VI.

Programme

25

VII.

List of participants

29

VIII.

List of speeches

34

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Introduction

I.

Introduction

5

On 11-12 November 2007, the SMWIPM Institute for Peace Studies (IPS) and the International Peace Bureau (IPB) held a two day international seminar at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina entitled 'Books or Bombs? Sustainable Disarmament for Sustainable Development'. The gathering was attended by around 150 Egyptian and other persons with expert knowledge or interest in the issues: researchers, advocates, diplomats, students, journalists and civil society representatives from many countries, some from as far afield as Canada, Nigeria, Sri Lanka and Thailand. A particular highlight of the seminar was the presentation of the annual Sean MacBride Peace Prize, awarded on this occasion to Ambassador Jayantha Dhanapala. The seminar was followed on November 13 by the annual meeting of the IPB Council.

This event – the first official meeting of the IPB on the African continent - was also the main international gathering in 2007 for showcasing and debating IPB's principal ongoing programme, also entitled Sustainable Disarmament for Sustainable Development. Through this work IPB is building a global network to pursue three objectives:

to encourage states to shift resources away from military spending and towards greater investment in sustainable development;IPB is building a global network to pursue three objectives: to draw attention to the negative

to draw attention to the negative impact of weapons on the development process and to promote disarmament; andand towards greater investment in sustainable development; to integrate these efforts into peace and social justice

to integrate these efforts into peace and social justice campaigns around the world.on the development process and to promote disarmament; and The first day was conducted in plenary

The first day was conducted in plenary with – in addition to the opening ceremony and the Prize award - three substantial sessions looking at the Disarmament-Development linkage from different points of view: the global level, the regional context, and civil

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6

Books or Bombs?

society perspectives. The second day was devoted to two rounds of three parallel workshops, plus a reporting session and finale. The six workshops looked at topics ranging from the central question of military and development spending, to various weapons systems, science and technology and the role of education in a campaigning process.

In general it was clear that, in the choice of Books or Bombs?, a meeting held in a historic library such as the Bibliotheca Alexandrina could only favour the former. However, in the debate over how to reduce militarism and secure greater investments in sustainable development and anti-poverty measures, many differing views were expressed. Given the fact that most states tend to give top priority to their armed forces, it usually falls to the civil society to make the case for a 'human security' perspective.

What follows is a short summary of the themes discussed at the meeting. While no final statement was adopted, the texts of the presentations are available at www.ipb.org and can be distributed to any interested persons or institutions (see section 8).

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Military and Social Spending

7

II. Military and Social Spending

Among the most frequent perceptions felt during the seminar was a sense of alarm at the rapidly rising total of global military spending over the last few years. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the worldwide total for 2006 reached US $1,204 billion. Of this, the USA accounted for around 50%. Other major spenders were the UK, France, China, and Japan. Also in the 'top ten' were Germany, Russia, Italy, Saudi Arabia and India. (1) In addition to its basic budget, the aggregate costs of US operations alone in the Iraq and Afghan wars reached $611bn from 2003-07. Military spending now equals approximately 20 times the aid programmes offered to developing countries.

"If the only tool you have is a hammer, every problem tends to look like a nail", wrote Mark Twain. It can be argued that the US

military has a huge gold-plated toolbox - but it still tends to see most problems as nails. The US is first in all military categories (budgets,

) and spending is now at the highest

sales, weapons production

level since World War 2 -- at a time of desperate poverty (worldwide, but also in the USA itself) and environmental crisis.

Just when the international community is in urgent need of 'innovative financing' to fulfill the Millennium Development Goals, the contrast with the overall investment in militarism is striking, even shocking. Are these really the relative priorities of the world's great powers? Books or bombs - guns or butter - the dichotomy is far from new.

Symptomatic of this imbalance is the fact, often noted in civil society circles, that ‘peace’ does not figure in the Millennium Development Goals. Disarmament in particular has been marginalized in the

(1) SIPRI Yearbook 2007, p.270: available via www.sipri.org and www.sipri.org/contents/milap/ milex/mex_trends.html. Translations of the SIPRI Yearbook are available in various languages, including Arabic.

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8

Books or Bombs?

agendas of the G8 and the Security Council. Furthermore, it was reported that the cost of armed conflict in Africa alone for the period 1990 - 2005 is approximately $300bn. This figure takes into account not only the direct costs of armed violence – medical costs, military expenditure, the destruction of infrastructure, and the care for displaced people – but also the indirect costs from lost opportunities, inflation, debt, and reduced investment.

It is not only a question of finance. Speakers and participants alike were conscious that massive amounts of scientific expertise and brainpower have been absorbed by the military over recent decades - consider the growing number of research projects funded by military institutions, public and private.

As regards the environmental dimension, it was pointed out that the carbon footprint of the US military is massive. The network of military bases now encircling the world take up very large areas of valuable land that could have been used for arable farming or other development purposes; the massive use of jet fuels, the pollution of soils with solvents and toxic chemicals of all kinds, the contamination associated with the production of nuclear weapons - all these and more constitute a heavy ecological impact.

Such issues were felt to be serious and urgent, given that the recommendations of the landmark 1987 UN Conference Disarmament and Development, and the references to this issue made at the UNGA Special Sessions on Disarmament in 1987, 1982, and 1988, have largely been forgotten. In several speeches reference was made to the military-industrial complex and the now-famous warnings about its unprecedented power made by President Eisenhower upon leaving office. Forgotten too, are the many proposals - for example those put forward by the French and Mexican governments - for an International Development Fund based on resources drawn from the military sector. Such ideas reflect the principles articulated in Article 26 of the UN Charter, which

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Military and Social Spending

9

calls for "the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources."

It is clear to those who have wrestled with this problem that even

if reductions are made, we can expect no automatic transfer of resources from the military to the social sector. There is always the danger that governments will use any savings to reduce taxes, for political reasons, rather than invest in jobs, technologies, research and other programmes that might go some way to relieve poverty and protect the environment. Thus the onus is on civil society and its allies in the political sphere to make the case for sustainable- development priorities.

The business of war is of course not limited to the public sector -

increasingly military operations are being privatised, and in addition those who design, produce and market weapons are principally in the private sector. A reading of the list of the world's 25 largest arms companies and their billion-dollar turnover figures compels us

to consider how pressure can be brought to bear on them to reduce,

eliminate, and diversify away from their weapons-related activities. This gave rise in the seminar to proposals for a worldwide boycott.

Strong feelings were expressed too about the support given by certain governments to repressive and anti-democratic regimes. It was argued that no military aid should be given to dictatorships. The relationship between democracy and development is however

a complex one: China for example has built a huge economy

without building democracy. But participants made the case that transparency is an essential step to both reining in the often-corrupt military sector, and promoting more healthy and participative forms of development; and that democracy was a desirable goal in itself.

In this field accurate information is vital. The remarkable work of the Stockholm International Research Institute (SIPRI) needs to be more widely known. The effort to translate the SIPRI Yearbook, a key

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Books or Bombs?

reference in the field, for example to Arabic, (2) has stimulated much interest, among social science researchers in the region in particular. Praise too was given for another Swedish product, Hans Blix's book Disarming Iraq which bears the sub-title in Arabic 'invasion instead of inspection'.

Middle East focus

Depending on one's definition, it can be argued that the Middle East is the most highly militarized zone in world. The situation seems to be spiralling out of control, with all the dangers that represents for civilians. The blockade of Gaza suggests that generalised punishment of civilians is now becoming a standard tactic of the Israeli government.

The situation in Iraq preoccupied many speakers. It was noted that 70% of the US population were against the war before it broke out. This changed when operations began, but the abject failure of the US and its Coalition in Iraq is once more proving highly unpopular at home. However, whether it will prove a decisive election issue remains to be seen. There were few signs of Congress being able to cap the war budget.

Much concern was expressed too about the supply of conventional weapons from both the West and the East, both to Israel and for example Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states. The regional arms race is absorbing too much of both sides' treasure and human intelligence.

Peace is a pre-requisite for effective and sustainable development in the region. But the occupation of Palestine, the invasion of Iraq, coupled with threats (eg to Iran) and political manipulation, have done immense harm to the prospects for a durable resolution.

(2) Undertaken by the Alexandria-based Swedish Institute, together with the Centre for Arab Unity Studies (CAUS), Beirut.

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Military and Social Spending

11

Behind the widespread despair and anger at the failures of both local and international actors to achieve a breakthrough, lies a fear of another full-scale war, conceivably leading to the ultimate horror: use of nuclear weapons against civilian populations. Israel still refuses to adhere to the NPT, its extensive arsenal is well-known, and as long as the nuclear weapons states refuse to disarm the temptation for others to acquire the very same tools of 'deterrence' must remain high.

The issue of double standards was raised many times. The long- standing US support for Israel and its military posture, while at the same putting pressure on Palestinians to bow to Israeli diktat, is hard to square with the role of an 'honest broker' for example at the Annapolis peace talks.

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Effects of Weapons on Sustainable Development

13

III. Effects of Weapons on Sustainable Development

General

A huge literature exists on the use of weapons in armed conflict. No doubt a large number of the books held in the Bibliotheca Alexandrina are devoted to this very theme - since after all war is one of the great subjects of human history. But far less has been thought and expressed on the ways that war and violence impact the lives of ordinary people and especially their economic situation, their livelihoods and their struggles to overcome poverty - in other words, in modern parlance, the impact on sustainable development. From a human security perspective this is absolutely vital. Since there are so many different weapon types and so many dimensions of development, the following notes from the presentations at the seminar can only offer a limited introduction to the subject.

Nuclear weapons

If ever used, nuclear weapons would be a development disaster. The effects would go far beyond the massive civilian casualties and the destruction of property of apocalyptic proportions as seen in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Radioactive contamination would threaten all life forms for generations, and the spectre of nuclear winter following a catastrophic nuclear exchange would render agricultural production difficult or impossible for long periods.

Hence the importance given within the seminar to the challenge of establishing a nuclear weapons free zone (or alternatively, a zone free of weapons of mass destruction) in the Middle East. Such proposals go back to 1974 and despite numerous initiatives both in the region and at the UN, the prospect still appears far from realization. Related factors include the decline in oil supplies and concerns over climate

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14

Books or Bombs?

change, which have increased the interest of many in the region in both nuclear energy and renewables.

However progress made in other regions - in fact the entire southern half of the globe and most recently in Central Asia -- gives rise to expectations that the political obstacles can eventually be overcome. It was hoped that progress on regional peace in general, together with confidence-building in the nuclear field, could be mutually reinforcing. In any event, civil society has a crucial role to play.

Landmines and cluster munitions

Much progress has been made in terms of the public awareness of these especially objectionable weapons, but not always is it understood that over 75 countries are now affected. In many of them the infestation is widespread, and in all cases, given the nature of these weapons, the damage done is indiscriminate. This is not only a military or a disarmament matter. It has many dimensions:

humanitarian, health, economic, agricultural etc.

The Ottawa Process to Ban Landmines has been outstandingly successful, if only because most states (155 in late 2007) have now joined a Treaty that in the early days many experts thought stood no chance. Today the priority need is to mobilise new and sustainable financial resources as the media spotlight moves away. One important approach is to integrate mine action into national development strategies and plans. Comprehensive mine action includes de-mining, stockpile destruction, victim support, and mine awareness.

The Cluster Munitions issue has now taken centre stage in the diplomatic theatre, with the Oslo process towards a new treaty in full swing. Much needs to be done however to ensure public support and to pressurise governments to 'go the whole way' towards a ban, not to be seduced into accepting half-measures such as 'smart weapons'.

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Effects of Weapons on Sustainable Development

15

The conference was encouraged to learn that in May 2007 the Institute for Peace Studies launched a special appeal on this subject to mobilise the public in Egypt and beyond.

The special situation in Egypt: the consequences of World War 2 mine- laying, especially along the north coast and in Sinai etc., mean that serious accidents are still occurring. The combatants of that era claim they do not have minefield records. Mine clearance is proceeding but the funding available has dropped. It is estimated that $250m is still needed. Clearance in those areas could allow some dispersal of the densely-packed population in the Nile Delta region. There are complex issues related to tourism, legal title to land, and the involvement of various ministries. Egypt's policies in areas such as survivor assistance and disability provision were described and analysed.

Egypt has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty but in 2004 it did introduce a moratorium. Furthermore, the Egyptian position is in evolution. It was thought likely that it will sign the Oslo Cluster Munitions Treaty before Ottawa. In part this is due to border defence issues: the government says it has at present no way to secure the frontiers other than to use mines.

Small arms

Small arms and light weapons represent a relatively new field for the disarmament community, even though they have been a scourge and a threat to human life for hundreds of years. Among the development impacts we can consider: the medical and rehabilitation costs associated with woundings; trauma, loss of employment and family break-down associated with deaths; dangers to development projects and staff; forced migration; and the general climate of fear induced by the presence of guns. Most crippling of all in the long term is the involvement of young people with armed gangs and the

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Books or Bombs?

criminal economy. It is thus an issue that must be tackled by all actors engaged in the development process.

The issue can be seen as having a supply side and a demand side, and a wide variety of measures are required to tackle each aspect. Many of these were embodied in the 2001 UN Programme of Action on Small arms and light weapons. However efforts have been blocked at the global level, especially after the failure of the 2006 Review Conference. Attention has therefore moved to the regional and national levels. Many regions have introduced strict border controls, and regional disarmament measures have been coupled with peace settlements. Collection and destruction operations have often been associated with the disarming of combatants. Unfortunately this has yet to happen in the Middle East.

Current attention at the global level has focussed on the efforts to achieve an Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) to regulate the trade in both small and larger conventional weapons. At present there is a Group of Government Experts considering the content of the proposed treaty, and the UN Secretary-General is soliciting opinions from governments.

In recent years the small arms situation has been complicated by the post 9-11 anti-terrorism laws, the ease of access by Non-State Actors to significant quantities of weapons, and also the shift towards car bombs, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and suicide bombs as the weapons of choice.

As with mine action, an important shift is taking place in terms of finding ways to integrate small arms into development programmes and strategies.

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The Role of Civil Society

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IV. The Role of Civil Society

The seminar looked at civil society's role from three main angles:

science, education and campaigning.

Science

Nowadays science, engineering and technology are fully engaged in the development of the neo-liberal capitalist economy. Yet an alternative path can be envisaged, and indeed is being actively pursued in many countries by scientists who share the essential value of putting human welfare and sustainability before private profit. Especially important challenges can be seen in the following key fields:

- climate change

- health care/pharmaceuticals

- employment creation

- ecological agriculture/genetics

The now-rapid growth in awareness of climate change means that a number of new principles are emerging, and changes are rapidly taking place in terms of research priorities and more democratic, inter-disciplinary structures.

It can be argued that the relationship of science and technology to war, however, is changing less. From the ancient Greeks to the atomic age, success in warfare has depended on efforts to achieve new technological breakthroughs. This search continues today; as an example, in 2007, 40-50% of all US scientists and engineers work for the military. The most significant development in this area is the growing privatisation of military-related work, even though the source of most of the funds remains governmental. In 2004, state funding of military R & D in advanced economies reached $85bn, as compared to health/environment ($50bn), and renewable energy

($1bn).

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18

Books or Bombs?

Main areas of military R&D include: munitions and explosives; sensors; counter terrorism; robotic/fixed wing aircraft and

helicopters; maritime weapons and vessels; nanotechnologies; and

all weapons of mass destruction.

The issue of dual-use technology is a permanent dilemma, be it the simplest kitchen knife or the most sophisticated uranium enrichment facility. The main solutions are to be found in transparency, control systems and international cooperation.

Military corporations are major players, and increasingly in collaboration with universities. There are numerous paths for funding military R&D: examples were given for schemes run by governments, private companies, and joint govt/industry initiatives. Military corporations are especially active in promoting science education in schools, colleges, universities and within the military itself.

Space science is another area of growing concern, given the aggressive US development of its missile defense programme and the reactions from states such as Russia and China, who are busy developing their own systems. The question was raised: Whose law shall prevail in space? It was felt by participants that such activities must urgently be placed under UN auspices and must be de-militarised. Furthermore, ways must be found to confine nanotechnology development to peaceful purposes. It is a rapidly-advancing field that can make important contributions to sustainable development - through more efficient solar cells, filtering systems for clean drinking water and so forth.

A different approach is the re-valuing of traditional (often rural)

forms of knowledge, which can help in the promotion of what

is known as endogenous development. This approach gives high

importance to the local community as a meeting area for developing local resources, for both production and consumption. Thus it

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The Role of Civil Society

19

can act as a springboard for the restructuring of civil society. This process requires:

-

accepting the challenge of diversity in the community

 

-

valorizing the traditional heritage and its ecological specificity, as a way to rediscover the potential of local resources and rejuvenate the culture

-

planning

from

below,

based

on

lessons

learned

from

experimentation

Examples were shown of locally-made products derived from small- scale industry based on these principles.

'Science for peace' is an concept of enormous importance but is relatively under-developed, despite the efforts of organisations such as Pugwash, the International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global Responsibility, and the growing network of peace research centres (of which the Institute for Peace Studies is one). Far larger budgets are needed to support alternative training programmes and career prospects for young scientists. Other approaches include the promotion of ethical codes, support for objectors and whistleblowers, and the organisation of boycotts against particularly questionable projects. Great figures of the past such as Einstein, Russell and Rotblat remind us all of the need to make moral choices.

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Education

The fundamental concept among peace educators is usually known as the Culture of Peace. UNESCO (including Associated Schools network) and other UN bodies have done much to give this worldwide currency, especially through the elaboration of normative instruments (Goals, Decades, Frameworks for Action etc). The field is certainly growing, even though far less resources are devoted to this type of education than to military education and training.

Peace education is an extraordinarily rich and varied field. It includes programmes and approaches focussing on broad areas such as tolerance, gender perspectives, human rights (including children's

rights), conflict prevention and resolution, disarmament

specific projects such as child-to-child networks, Freire-inspired literacy programmes, the making of peace gardens and the naming of streets after peace heroes; or simple tools for public education such as bus tickets printed with peace messages.

and very

Presentations in this area concentrated on the value of inter- disciplinary work across many subjects; adequate preparation of teachers through both initial and in-service training programmes; the central place held by concepts of negative and positive peace; and the vital importance of developing critical thinking, as well as the criteria and tools necessary for effective evaluation. Fundamentally we can say that education is about liberation and transformation, both of the individual and of society.

It was felt by all participants that the establishment of IPS in Alexandria is a very important step in the right direction, and that recognizing this fact is what made IPB accept IPS as a member organisation.

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The Role of Civil Society

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Campaigning

Education and knowledge are the vital tools we need for acting in the world, and to transform it in a peaceful direction. Campaigning involves the use of these tools in an organised effort to change policies and to influence decision makers, for example in the effort to reduce spending on the military and to channel it towards social needs. This is a political process requiring a political intervention.

Types of campaigning reflect the state of development of society. A comparison with the sociologist Alvin Toffler's 'three waves' can help us distinguish:

- spontaneous protests, eg local level peasants' rebellions;

- the formation of labour unions and large structured national organisations in industrial society;

- post-industrial computer-based networking systems with global reach.

All three of these types are visible today, and some campaigns employ elements of them all.

Campaigning is both an art and a science: it requires careful planning and strategy, but also a more instinctual process of judging the public mood and knowing 'what works'.

Examples of campaign work were given from many countries. In Ireland a group of school students set up an after school 'arms company' and set about purchasing weapons on the open market - a brilliant technique for showing how lax are the restrictions on this particular trade. (3)

(3) DVD available from AFRI - http://www.afri.ie

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Books or Bombs?

Today's campaigners stand on the shoulders of those who inspired and organised mass movements over the last two or three centuries:

struggles against slavery, colonialism, apartheid, and nuclear weapons; and for democracy, workers' and women's rights, civil liberties and more. We have major successes to report, but in fact most campaigns for social change fail - the reasons need to be analysed in depth.

The issue of military spending was explored from a campaign perspective. The three key stages are:

1. transforming threat perceptions

2. achieving actual spending reductions

3. ensuring that resources are transferred to social spending/ sustainable development.

An important related issue is the debate on taxation: should citizens be encouraged to refuse the portion of their tax that is spent on the military? Can new funds be established using such money, along the lines of the Tobin tax on financial transactions? Can we agree to tax weapons sales?

Finally, the role of the IPB itself was highlighted. (4) The organisation has committed itself to working on the broad issue of 'sustainable disarmament for sustainable development', with a specific focus on the spending question. Its work involves helping set up national campaigns and partnerships, linking them to the global network of activists and educators, and facilitating the dialogue between peace and development actors.

(4) See latest publication: Whose Priorities? A guide for campaigners on military and social spending, IPB, 2007. (Full text and order form at www.ipb.org)

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Conclusion

V.

Conclusion

23

The conference gave voice to many important concerns.

Military spending levels are far too high. They represent a robbery from the poor. The IPB's worldwide campaign for reductions must be supported and expanded. How it will be carried out over the long term needs to be debated, since different conditions prevail in different countries. Possible approaches include:

target of 10% reductions by 2010prevail in different countries. Possible approaches include: worldwide boycott of major arms-producing companies

worldwide boycott of major arms-producing companiesapproaches include: target of 10% reductions by 2010 broadeningtheconcepttoembraceDisarmament,Development a a and

broadeningtheconcepttoembraceDisarmament,Development

a

a

and Democracy.

The effects of weapons on development are extremely wide-ranging. They impact not only zones of armed conflict, but also impoverished communities where small arms in particular circulate freely. Scientists and military decision makers are investing enormous amounts of intellectual and financial resources in perfecting 'smart weapons' that supposedly result in less civilian casualties. What is missing is an equivalent effort in 'smart peacemaking' which could avoid the need for recourse to arms in the first place.

All the examples of peace promotion put forward at the seminar can be considered part of the emerging 'Culture of Peace'. The effort to reduce our reliance on weapons and armed forces in general will be successful, not only as a result of specific efforts to limit and reduce government budgets assigned to 'defence', but also as a consequence of a broad shift towards the human security paradigm, and a consequent prioritisation of investment in sustainable security and participatory democracy.

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Books or Bombs?

If this process is to succeed - especially in tense regions such as the Middle East - it is vital that governments should be encouraged to seek the views and the expertise of civil society, and especially those scientists, researchers, educators, and campaigners who have a vision of a harmonious society based on dialogue and social justice rather than the law of force.

The profusion of creative ideas put forward at the seminar demands an effective and sustained follow up. Many forms of future collaboration between the partners are being considered. Above all there is a need for intensified international coordination of peace efforts. If the slogan "Books not Bombs" is to be realised on a global scale, far greater resources - human and financial - will be needed.

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Programme

VI.

Programme

25

Books or Bombs?

Sustainable Disarmament for Sustainable Development International Peace Bureau Annual Seminar co-organized with the Institute for Peace Studies

Day 1: 11 November 2007

10:00 - 11:00

Opening Session:

- Dr. Ismail Serageldin, Director, Bibliotheca Alexandrina

- Mr. Tomas Magnusson, President, International Peace Bureau

- Amb. Jan Henningsson, Director, Swedish Institute

- H. E. Minister Faiza Abou El Naga, Minister of International Cooperation, Egyptian Government.

Chair: Amb. Aly Maher El Sayed, Director, Institute for Peace Studies

11:00 - 12:30

Plenary session 1:

Disarmament for Development at the Global Level Award of 2007 Sean MacBride Peace Prize

- Amb. Jayantha Dhanapala, IPB Hon. President, former UN Under Secretary- General for Disarmament Affairs

- Ms. Frida Berrigan, New America Foundation’s Arms and Security Initiative

Chair: Mr. Alyn Ware, Parliamentary Network for Nuclear Disarmament & IPB Vice- President

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12:30 - 14:00

Lunch Break

14:00 - 15:30

- Amb. Mounir Zahran, Egypt Council for Foreign Affairs

Ms. Valerie Yankey-Wayne, Intl. Action Network on Small Arms Chair: Ingeborg Breines, Director, UNESCO Liaison Office, Geneva

-

15:30 - 16:00

Break

16:00 - 17:30

Plenary session 3:

Disarmament for Development Civil Society Perspectives

-

Ms. Clare O’Grady Walshe, Action from Ireland

Mr. Jean-Pierre Dardaud, President, Frères des Hommes, Paris Chair: Ms. Arielle Denis, Movement de la Paix, France & IPB Vice-President

-

17:30 - 19:00

Optional BA Tour

19:30

Reception hosted by the Swedish Institute

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Programme

Day 2: 12 November 2007

27

10:00 - 12:30

Morning workshops

1. Military Spending and Human Development

- Amb. Jayantha Dhanapala

- Ms. Frida Berrigan

- Amb. Mounir Zahran

2. Weapons of Mass Destruction Free Middle East

- Amb. Mohd Shaker - Egypt

- Mr. Alyn Ware, IPB Vice-President

3. Landmines, Remnants of War, Cluster Munitions

- Ayman Sorour - Protection, Egypt + ICBL

- Raza Shah Khan, SPADO, Pakistan

12:30 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00 - 16:00

Afternoon workshops

4. Small Arms & Light Weapons

- Mr. Alfred Lubang – Nonviolence International

S.E. Asia, Philippines/Thailand

- Ms. Valerie Yankey-Wayne, International Action

Network on Small Arms

5. Science & Technology Research – its Relationship with the Economy of War and Development Choices

- Mr. Reiner Braun – International Network of Engineers and Scientists for Global

Responsibility (INES)+ International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms, Germany

- Dr Hamed El-Mously INES Egypt

- Dr Dhirendra Sharma, Centre for Science Policy, India

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6. Education and Campaigning: Building Civil Society Coalitions

- Ms. Ingeborg Breines, Director of UNESCO Liaison Office, Geneva

- Dr. Alicia Cabezudo, International

Association of Educating Cities and Fundación

Cultura de Paz, Argentina

- Mr. Colin Archer, IPB Secretary-General

16:00 - 16:30

Break

16:30 - 18:00

Reporting Plenary Session & Closing Remarks

- Tomas Magnusson, IPB President

- Amb Aly Maher, IPS Director

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29

VII. LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

1

Abd El-Ghany, Nermin Ali - Parliamentary Network for Nuclear Disarmament, Egypt

2

Abd El-Ghany, Nesrin Ali - Student, Egypt

3

Abd El-Ghany, Nevin Ali - IPB Individual member, Egypt

4

Abdel Kader, Nariman - President, Egypt

5

Abdel Malek, Talaat - Ministry of International Cooperation, Egypt

6

Abdel Moneim, Mansour - Ukraine Consul, Egypt

7

Abdel Wahab, Noha - Y.D.G (Alex Council), Egypt

8

Abdelaal, Sadek Aly - Egyptian Pugwash for science and Foreign Affairs, Egypt

9

Abdel-Rassoul, Mona - Ein Shams University, Egypt

10

Abdin, Marwan - IPS student, Egypt

11

Abdul Nabi, Raghda - Member (Misriaty Program), Egypt

12

Ablazov, Valeryi - Military Affairs to the Ukrainian Ombudsman, Ukraine

13

Abou El Naga, Faiza - H. E. Minister of International Cooperation, Egypt

14

Ahmed, Salmeen - HR specialist in the Customs Authority, Egypt

15

Ali, Ahmed - Family and Local Community Development Association Fayoum, Egypt

16

Al-Kotby, Ahmed Ragab - Faculty of Law - English Department - University of Alexandria, Egypt

17

Al Shejni, Elham - League of Arab States, Egypt

18

Alton, Janis - Canadian Voice of Women/IPB Council, Canada

19

Aly, Mohamed Metwally

- Product Development Manager, Egypt

20

Amer, Fadoua - Institute for Peace Studies (IPS), Egypt

21

Amin, Perihan - Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt

22

Amrallah, Borhan - Ministry of Justice, Egypt

23

Anwar, Mohamed - Agriculture Engineer, Egypt

24

Arafa, Yasmine - Graduate, Faculty of Law, University of Alexandria, Egypt

25

Archer, Colin - IPB Secretary-General, UK

26

Askarova, Nigar - Azerbaijan Alliance for Peace & Development, Azerbaijan

27

Assa’d, Jinane - Ecumenical Studies Center, Global Network of Religions for Children, Jordan

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28 Attalla, Laila - Student, Egypt

29 Baghdady, Ahmed - Retired, Egypt

30 Bala, Saleh - Nigerian Army, Colonel, Nigeria

31 Belal, Ahmed - IPS Student, Egypt

32 Berrigan, Frida - New America Foundation, USA

33 Braun, Reiner - INES-IALANA-IPB, Germany

34 Breines, Ingeborg - IPB Vice-President, Norway/CH

35 Cabezudo, Alicia - International Association of Educating Cities/IPB Council Member, Argentina

36 Cappagli, Luis Enrigue, Egypt

37 Court, Eryl - Unitarian-Universalist United Nations, Canada, Canada

38 Cramer, Ben - Mouvement de la Paix, France

39 Dardaud, Jean-Pierre - Frères des Hommes, France

40 De Jonghe, Etienne - Pax Christi International, Belgium

41 Denis, Arielle - IPB Council Member, France

42 Dhanapala, Jayantha - IPB Hon. President, Sri Lanka

43 Diaa El-Din, Sahar - Al-Wafd newspaper, Egypt

44 Dufay, Jo - Greenpeace International, Canada

45 Duta, Aurel - Global Network Against Weapons & Nuclear Power in Space, Romania

46 El Banhawi, Mostafa - Egyptian Navy, Egypt

47 El Hennawi, Shahinaz - Institute for Peace Studies (IPS), Egypt

48 El Keiy, Tarek - Head of Alexandria City Council, Egypt

49 El Kholy, Azza - Institute for Peace Studies (IPS), Egypt

50 El Mously, Hamed - The Egyptian Society For Endogenous Development of Local Communities/ INES, Egypt

51 El Sarrag, Nadine - Institute for Peace Studies (IPS), Egypt

52 El Sayed, Aly Maher - Director, Institute for Peace Studies (IPS), Egypt

53 El Sharkawy, Naser - Al- Khaleej Center for Strategic Studies, Egypt

54 El Sokkary, Ahmed - The Egyptian Association For Research And Community, Egypt

55 El-Hamshary, Sherine - «Job Nile» recruitment systems, Egypt

56 El-Masry, Mohamed - Al-Ahram Newspaper, Egypt

57 El-Rafey, Heba - Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt

58 El-Refai, Yasmine - Nahdet El Mahroussa, Egypt

59 Elsaaty, Hoda - Journalist-El Masry Al Yom, Egypt

60 El-Shazly, Fathy - Project director:Secretariat for the De-mining & Development.NWC.MIC, Egypt

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31

61

El-Shorbagi, Mazhar - Researcher, USA/Egyptian

62

Elwi, Mostafa - Faculty of Economics and Political Science - Cairo University, Egypt

63

Elwy, Mohamed - National Council for Human Rights, Egypt

64

Esmail, May El-sayed - Sustainable Development Association, Egypt

65

Frerichs, Jonathan - World Council of Churches, US/Switzerland

66

Gaber, Samar Mahmoud - Student, Egypt

67

Gibson, Urban - IPB Treasurer, Sweden

68

Gopinathan, Achamkulangare - Ambassador of India, Egypt

69

Groff, Maja - UN ICTY, Canada

70

Grunewald, Guido - DFG-VK, Germany

71

Guerrato, Lucio - Director, The Anna Lindh Foundation, Sweden, Egypt

72

Hammad, Mona - Teacher, Egypt

73

Harang, Alexander - Norwegian Peace Alliance/IPB, Norway

74

Hasanova, Malahat - Member Parliament, Azerbaijan

75

Hashem, Ahmed - EWE, Egypt

76

Hegazi, Sara - IPS Student, Egypt

77

Henningsson, Jan - Director, The Swedish Institute, Egypt

78

Horsman, Paul - Coordinator-Peaceful Energy Campaign, Netherlands

79

Hossam, Wael - Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt

80

Huseynova, Fiduma - Deputy, Baku City Executive Power, Azerbaijan

81

Iglesias, Emilio Sanchez - Consul General of Spain, Egypt

82

Islambouly, Hagar - Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt

83

Kandil, Abdel Hakim - Professor, Nuclear & Inorganic Chemistry, Egypt

84

Karpachova , Nina - The Ombudsman of Ukraine, Ukraine

85

Khalifa, Safaa - Specialist-Media, Egypt

86

Khayrallah, Sami - Al Masri Al Yom Newspaper Office in Alexandria, Egypt

87

Kit, Ihor - Voice of Women for Peace, Canada

88

Leneveu, Helena - REAL Exhibitions, France

89

Lubang, Alfredo Ferrariz - Nonviolence Int’l, Southeast Asia, Philippines

90

Maaz, Maha - Institute for Peace Studies (IPS), Egypt

91

Magnuson, Tomas - President, IPB, Sweden

92

Maiche, Karim - Student, Finland

93

Mammadova, Asmatkhanim - Baku State University, Docent, Azerbaijan

94

Mansour, Waleed - Graduate, Egypt

95

Martini, Gianni - Consul General of the Republic of Italy, Egypt

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96

Mekhemar, Fawzy - Al Akhbar Newspaper, Egypt

97

Merghany, Salah El Den - Libyan General Consul, Egypt

98

Mobarak, Mohamed - Student, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Egypt

99

Mokhtar, Tawfik Moh. - F18, Ministry of Military Production, Egypt

100

Murray, Joe - Action from Ireland, Ireland

101

Nasr, Omneya - Editor, Arabic Affairs Desk, Al Ahram Newspaper, Cairo, Egypt

102

Nazmi, Sohayla - Al Ahram Newspaper Office in Alexandria, Egypt

103

Nofal, Rania - Institute for Peace Studies (IPS), Egypt

104

Obiagwu, Abel Chibuike - World Youth Peace Organization, Nigeria

105

Omar, Ahmed Esmat Ali - Alex Guide Establishment, Egypt

106

Onsy, Ashraf - Management Consultant, Egypt

107

Onwuekwe, Ejimole Fidelia - World Youth Peace Organisation, Nigeria

108

Otto, Margret - Women’s Peace Network, Germany

109

Quistorp, Eva - Women for Peace, Boell Foundation, IPB consultant, Germany

110

Rashed , Myra - IPS student, Egypt

111

Renzano, Jules - UMOJA As One, Kenya

112

Riad, Sherif - Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt

113

Roxman, Karin - The Swedish Institute, Egypt

114

Rumzada, Rashid - Office of Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsman) of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Azrebaijan

115

Sadig, Qais - Ecumenical Studies Center, Jordan

116

Salama, Ayman - Nasser Higher Military Academy, Egypt

117

Salama, Yousria - IPS student, Egypt

118

Salome, Bernard - Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt

119

Sander, Carol - Voice of Women for Peace, Canada

120

Said, Mohamed Kadry - Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies, Egypt

121

Scambiato, Luciano - IPB Steering Committee, Italy

122

Schuetz, Heide - Women’s Network for Peace, Germany

123

Serour, Ayman - Protection (Landmines Organisation), Egypt

124

Serrour, Sara - Institute for Peace Studies (IPS), Egypt

125

Serry, Badrya - Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt

126

Seyidova, Gulshan - Peace Dept, Azerbaijan Woman & Development Center, Azerbaijan

127

Shaker, Mohamed I. - Egyptian Council for Foreign Affairs, Egypt

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33

128

Shalaby, Soad - Institute for Diplomatic Studies, Egypt

129

Sharma, Dhirendra - Centre for Science Policy/Convener, Scientists & Philosophers for Global Responsibility, India

130

Shehab El-Din, Mohamed - Nahdet El-Mahroussa, Egypt

131

Shoman, Amr - Sama Engineering Systems, Egypt

132

Sirry, Aly - Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Egypt

133

Soliman, Salah - Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt

134

Sorensen, Geir - Royal Norwegian Embassy, Egypt

135

Sorensen, Jorunn - Royal Norwegian Embassy, Egypt

136

Sorensen, Poul - Esbjerg Peace Centre, Denmark

137

Suleymanova, Elmira - Commission for Human Rights, Azerbaijan - Alliance for Peace and Development, Azerbaijan

138

Taghi-Zada, Irada - Dept.of Office of Commissioner for Human Rights, Azerbaijan

139

Taghi-Zada, Tural - Child to Child Peace Network, Azerbaijan

140

Taghi-Zada, Zamfira - Azerbaijan Alliance for Peace & Development, Azerbaijan

141

Tagoe, Micheal - National Foundation for Youth Initiative, Director of programmes and projects, Ghana

142

Tsuchida, Yayoi - Gensuikyo, Japan

143

Turianskyi, Ihor - Ukrainian Parliament Commission for Human Rights, Ukraine

144

Walshe, Clare O´Grady - Action from Ireland, Ireland

145

Ware, Alyn - IALANA-PNND-IPB Vice-President, New Zealand

146

Wassef, Mayada - Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt

147

Weingarten, Lee - IPB Secretariat, Switzerland

148

Wirmark, Bo - IPB Steering Committee, Sweden

149

Woods, Ashley, UK/France

150

Yene, Joseph Oscar - Independent radio journalist, Cameroun/Italy

151

Yanke Wayne, Valerie - International Action Network on Small Arms, Ghana

152

Yassin, Tarek - Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt

153

Yousef, Elsayed Hany - El Gomhoria Newspaper, Egypt

154

Yousifov, Vugar - First Secretary, Azerbaijan Embassy, Egypt

155

Youssef, Mohsen - Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt

156

Zahran, Mounir - Egyptian Center for Foreign Affairs, Egypt

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VIII. LIST OF SPEECHES

Name

Title

Type of

presentaion

PLENARIES

   

Mr. Tomas Magnusson

Introduction and Presentation of MacBride Peace Prize

paper

Ambassador

Books about Bombs - and others

 

Jan Henningsson

Dr. Talaat Abdel Malek

 

paper

Ambassador Aly Maher El Sayed

Introduction

paper

IPB

Award of 2007 Sean MacBride Peace Prize

press release

Ambassador Jayantha Dhanapala

Disarmament and Development at the global level

paper

 

Books not Bombs:

 

Ms. Frida Berrigan

Challenging Militarism for Peace and Development

paper

Ambassador

Disarmament and Development in the Middle East

 

Mounir Zahran

paper

Ms. Valerie Yankey-Wayne

Presentation

power point

Ms. Clare O'Grady Walshe

Presentation

power point + peace song

Mr. Jean-Pierre Dardaud

Disarmament and development: the civil society perspective

 
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WORKSHOP 1

Military Spending and Human Development

Ambassador Jayantha Dhanapala

   

Ms. Frida Berrigan

   

Ambassador

Military Spending and Human Development

 

Mounir Zahran

paper

Summary:

   

Ben Cramer

WORKSHOP 2

Weapons- of Mass Destruction-free Middle East

Ambassador Mohamed Shaker

A Zone Free of Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East

background

paper

Mr. Alyn Ware

Nuclear Free Zones

power point

Rapporteur Ms. Nermin Ali Abd El-Ghany

Report

text

WORKSHOP 3

Landmines, Explosive Remnants and Cluster Munitions

Mr. Ayman Sorour

   

Mr. Fred Lubang

Landmines, Explosive Remnants and Cluster Munitions

background

paper

IPS

Cluster Munitions statement

press

announcement

Summary:

   

Mr. Fred Lubang

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WORKSHOP 4

Small arms

Mr. Fred Lubang

Disarmament for Development - the Small Arms Case

background

paper

Ms. Valerie YankeyWayne

   

Summary:

   

Ms. Valerie YankeyWayne

WORKSHOP 5

Science and technology

Mr. Reiner Braun

Science and technology

power point

Prof. Dr. Hamed El-Mously

Endogenous Development: an approach to the resurrection of civil society

paper

Dr. Dhirendra Sharma

Humans in Outer Space - Interdisciplinary Odysseys

paper

Summary:

   

Mr. Reiner Braun

WORKSHOP 6

Education & Campaigning

 

Sustainable Disarmament for Sustainable Development through education and information

background

Ms. Ingeborg Breines

paper

Prof. Alicia Cabezudo

   

Mr. Colin Archer

   

Summary:

   

Mr. Bo Wirmark

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