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German Institute Of Science And Technology

TUMAsia

E3.5/E3.1A Heat Exchanger

MSc. Aerospace Engineering 13/14 Dated on 21 August 2013
st

Submitted by, SANDEEP KUMAR

4th September 2013

Introduction Heat exchanger is process equipment in which heat exchange takes place between fluids of two different temperatures by removing heat from a hot fluid or adding heat to a cold solid. Depending upon the relative direction of fluid motion exchangers are classified as parallel, counter flow and cross flow. In parallel flow, the hot and cold fluids flow in the same direction and therefore enter the exchanger on the same and the exit the exchanger on the same end, In counter slow, the two fluids flow in opposite direction and thus the exchanger and the exit the exchanger from opposite ends. Cross flow heat exchangers will not be analysed as a part of this experiment. Objective To study the working principle of parallel and counter flow heat exchanger and find the effect of fluid flow rates on the surface heat transfer coefficient inside and outside the tube for counter flow Theory Heat is transferred whenever a temperature gradient exists, the three well-known modes of heat transfer, i.e. (1) conduction, (2) convection, and (3) radiation, can operate separately or simultaneously

1. Conduction is the mode of heat transfer through solids or fluids, in which there is no movement of the fluid in the direction of heat flow. For 1-D conduction through a plane wall, the Fourier's law gives the rate of heat transfer: 2. Convection is the mode in which heat is transferred through a fluid system by the motion of the fluid. "Forced convection" occurs when the motion of the fluid is caused by a mechanical means such as a pump. "Natural convection" occurs when the motion of the fluid is caused by the heating process, e.g. by buoyancy. According to the flow rate of the fluid in the heat exchanger, and the resulting Reynolds number, flow in the bulk of the fluid may be "Laminar" or "Turbulent". In laminar

flow (i.e. when Reynolds number is low), the fluid flows in a number of filaments which do not mix. It follows that in laminar flow most of the heat transferred through the fluid is by conduction. At higher Reynolds numbers, the ordered laminar flow breaks down and is replaced by random and turbulent flow. The movement within the fluid now rapidly distributes the heattransferred from the walls. However, even when the bulk of the fluid has vigorouslyturbulent flow, turbulence within the boundary layer against the walls is greatlysuppressed. Consequently, heat transfer within the boundary layer is again mainly due toconduction. Forced convection in turbulent flow gives better heal transfer in a heatexchanger.

Considering

Th,i and Tc,i be the inlet temperatures of the hot and cold streams respectively Th,o and Tc,o be the outlet temperatures of the hot and cold streams respectively

At some location x within the heat exchanger, a small amount of heat dQ is transferred in time t from the hot stream to the cold stream over a length dx:

Here we use the notation (x) to signify variable quantities. The reader is asked to note that is the total thermal resistance between the hot and cold streams per unit length. The total heat exchanging length inside the device is L. Ideally, we would like to be to able to calculate the total heat flow rate transferred within the heat exchanger, to the temperatures at its ends, i.e. inlet and outlet, or:

Here, all quantities are now total quantities, added over the whole length of the heat exchanger, denoted with the subscript T. Physically, we expect that the temperature difference between the hot and cold streams inside the heat exchanger will vary through the heat exchanger, as the hot stream cools and the cold stream heats up, but we can try to find a relevant or representative temperature difference between the two streams that we call the Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD). Hence, we see from Eqn. 2 that we need to evaluate the LMTD.

Compare Eqns. 2 and 3:

It is evident from Eqn. 4 that the LMTD is the average difference between the temperatures in the hot and cold streams, averaged over the entire length of the heat exchanger. Eqn. 4 shows us that in order to evaluate the LMTD we will need to have an expression for the variation of the temperature difference between the hot and cold streams. From Eqn. 1:

Adding Eqns. 5 and 6:

Hence, from Eqn. 8, the difference between the hot and cold streams decreases exponentially as we move along x inside the heat exchanger from the inlet at x = 0 to the outlet at x = L. We can now remove the constant of integration, a. We can apply two boundary conditions,

one at the inlet and one at the outlet where the temperatures are known. For convenience we use Eqn. 7 that is otherwise equivalent to Eqn. 8:

Substituting the results in Eqns. 8, 9 and 11 into Eqn. 4:

Finally, we can write an expression for the varying temperature difference between the hot and cold streams inside the heat exchanger, but substituting the results in Eqns. 9 and 11 into Eqn. 8:

This is the most generic analysis, and includes situations in which the temperature of one of the two streams does not change.

Technical data: Core tube Material -Copper External diameter 9.5 mm Internal diameter 7.9 mm Length 3 x 350 mm External heat transfer area 0.031 m2 Internal heat transfer area 0.0261 m2 Mean heat transfer area Am 0.0288 m2 Flow area 49 x 10-6 m2 Outer tube Material -Copper External diameter 12.7 mm Internal diameter 11.1 mm Annulus flow area 25.9x 10"6 m2

EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE Parallel flow Connect the heat exchanger for parallel flow. Check that the beater tank contains water to the correct level. Fully open the "high" flow valve, switch on the mains and healer and raise the hot water temperature (t5) to about 65C. Reduce the hot water flow rate to about 50 g/s and

set the cold water flow rate to about 20 g/s. Set the healer control so that t5 is steady about 65C. Proceed to take measurements set out in Table 1. Counter flow Quickly switch off the mains and turn off the cold water control valve. Reverse the direction of cold water flow through the heat exchanger by reversing the cooling water and drain tubes. Switch on the mains, and reset the hot and cold water flow rates and to as closely as possible the same values as in above. (The actual values are not important but for a strict comparison the flow rates and initial temperatures must be the same in both the parallel and counter flow). Repeat the measurements previously made. Effect of the fluid velocity on the surface heat transfer coefficients Ensure that the heat exchanger is connected for counter flow, Check that the heater tank contains water to the correct level. Fully open the "high flow" valve, switch on the Mains and heater and raise the hot water temperature ( t5) to about 65C. Adjust the cold water to bring the mean hot water [t3 + t6]/2 to about 65C. Allow conditions to stabilize, and then proceed to take measurements set out in Table 2. Reduce the hot water flow rate to about 80% of the initial value without changing the cold water flow rate. Use the healer control to bring the mean hot water temperature back to the original value. Allow conditions to stabilize, and then repeat the measurements. Repeat experiment with hot water flow rates of about 60%, 40% and 20% of the initial value. Result and Discussion The general characteristics of parallel and counter flow are observed and data was analysed. The heat exchangers are governed by the second law of thermodynamics (Clausius statement). The first observation made when interpreting the temperature data was that although in parallel flow there was slightly larger temperature difference at the exits of the heat exchanger when compare to counter flow, the counter flow configuration was found to be more efficient. The counter flow is said to have better effectiveness as the experimental values and theoretical values of heat transfer rate for the counter flow configuration have very less difference producing lesser error when compared to parallel flow configuration. In the parallel configuration, the heat exchanger lost more heat to the surroundings. In parallel flow configuration the outlet temperature of the hot fluid must be greater than the outlet temperature of cold fluid in referring to data obtained and in counter flow configuration the outlet temperature of hot fluid must be higher than the inlet temperature of cold fluid, but it is not necessary to be higher than exit temperature of the cold fluid. As per the First Law of Thermodynamics, it is analysed that the under a constant flow rate the ratio of temperature difference between the hot and cold fluid is also constant for all constant mass flow rates, but taking account of varied mass flow rate the ratio of the temperature difference also varies. When the flow rate is high the temperature difference also increases and the vice versa is also true.

The following results were obtained for the analytical methods carried out on a concentric tube heat exchanger

Parallel flow Heat transfer from hot water Heat transfer from cold water 1713.8 1663.64

Counter flow 2006.4 1805.76

Percentage Over heat transfer coefficient Over heat transfer coefficient(Inside the tube) Over heat transfer coefficient(Outside the tube)

100

80

60

40

20

3780.152

4183.93

3808.796

3237.694

2898.637

41261.52

37376.27

26974.63

16753.63

9185.339

4181.792

4098.776

4121.081

3973.823

3603.093

References Heat and Mass Transfer R.K. Rajput- S.Chand Publications

http://www-old.me.gatech.edu/energy/laura/node5.html http://research.me.udel.edu/~prasad/meeg346/labs/heat_exchanger/heatex.pdf