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David A.

Bell

Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

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Copyright Oxford University Press, 2010

David A. Bell

Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

PREFACE
Thelaboratory investigations inthis manualare designed to demonstrate the electronics technology theory explained in my book Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices. A total of 43laboratory investigations are offered involving the construction and testing of circuits discussedinthetextbook. Eachlaboratoryinvestigationconsistsof: atitle anintroductionthatbrieflydescribestheinvestigation alistofrequiredequipmentandcomponents circuitdiagramsandconnectiondiagrams stepbystepprocedurestobefollowed alaboratoryrecordsheetforrecordingdata ananalysissectionforprocessingthedata

Eachinvestigationcannormallybecompletedwithinatwohourperiod.Theprocedures containsome references to the textbook; however, all necessary circuit and connection diagramsareprovidedinthemanual,sothattheinvestigationscanbeperformedwithout thetextbook.

DavidBell

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Copyright Oxford University Press, 2010

David A. Bell

Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

CONTENTS
1SemiconductorDiodeCharacteristics 2DiodeRectifierCircuits 3 ZenerDiode .. 4BJTCharacteristics .. 5BJTBiasCircuits 6BJTSwitchingCircuits. 7 BJTCommonEmitterCircuit . 8BJTCCandCBCircuits. 9JFETCharacteristics... 10JFETBiasCircuits... 11BasicJFETCircuits . 12CapacitorCoupledBJTAmplifier 13DirectCoupledBJTAmplifier 14SCRCharacteristicsand90PhaseControl 15SCRandTRIACControlCircuits . 16UJTandPUTCircuits.. 17PhotoconductiveCell,LED,andSolarCell . 4 9 7 19 24 28 33 37 42 47 52 57 62 67 72 76 82 87

18SeriesResistiveCircuits 19ParallelResistiveCircuits 20SeriesparallelCircuits. 21ResistiveNetworks 22NetworkTheorems 23 DCRCCircuit 24 Oscilloscope 25 RectifierVoltmeter 26 ACRLCircuit. 27 ACRCCircuit. 28 Series&ParallelImpedanceCircuits 29 SeriesResonance 30 ParallelResonance

95 100 104 110 115 120 125 129 133 137 143 147

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 1 Semiconductor Diode Characteristics


Introduction Theforwardcharacteristicsofalowcurrentswitchingdiodeandamediumcurrentrecti fier diode are investigated. Each device is forward biased to give several current levels, and the forward voltage is measured at each current. This produces a table of VF and IF quantitiesforplottingthecharacteristics.Diodereversecurrentisalsoinvestigated.

Equipment DCpowersupply(050V,100mA) DCvoltmeter(50V) DCammeter(100mA) DCammeter(20 A) Lowcurrentswitchingdiode,e.g.,1N914 Rectifierdiode,e.g.,1N4005 Resistors(470 ,5W),(68k ,0.25W),(1k ,0.5W) Circuitboard

Procedure 1 Low-Current Diode Characteristics 11 ConstructthecircuitshowninFig.11accordingtotheconnectiondiagraminFig.12. Notethatthelowcurrentdiode(D1)isconnectedtoterminalsAandBwithforward biasedpolarity.


Power supply 1 k R1

100mA A V

D1

Figure 1-1 Circuit for determining low-current diode forward characteristics.

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Ammeter

Power supply

A V A COM

Voltmeter

R1

A
A COM

D1 B Circuitboard

Figure 1-2

Connection diagram for determining diode forward characteristics.

12 Adjustthepowersupplyvoltagecontrolforzerooutput. 13 Switchonthepowersupplyandcarefullyadjustthevoltagetogivethecurrentlevels listedforProcedure13onthelaboratoryrecordsheet.(Donotexceedadiodecurrentof 20mA.)Ateachcurrentlevel,recordthediodeforwardvoltageontherecordsheet. 14 Adjust the power supply to return the diode voltage to zero. Switch off; then using the20 Arangeammeter,reconstructthecircuit asshowninFig.13.Notethatthe diode polarityisreversed, the ammeter is connected directly in series with the diode,andR1 isa68k resistor.
68k R1 Power supply V D1 B 20 A A A

Figure 1-3

Circuit diagram for determining diode reverse characteristics.

15 Switchonthepowersupplyandadjustthedevice(reverse)voltageto30V.Record thediodereversecurrentonthelaboratoryrecordsheet.

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Procedure 2

Rectifier Diode Characteristics

21 Reset the power supply output to zero and remove the lowcurrent diode from the circuit. 22 Reconstruct the circuit as illustrated in Fig. 14, and connect the rectifierdiode (D2) with forward biased polarity to terminalsA and B. Note that R1 is now 470 and thatthevoltmeterisconnecteddirectlyinparallelwithD2.
100mA A R1 Power supply V D2


470

Figure 1-4 Circuit for determining rectifier diode forward characteristics.

23 Switch on the power supply and adjust the diode voltage in steps as listed for Procedure23onthelaboratoryrecordsheet.(Donotexceedadiodecurrentof60mA.) At eachvoltage step, record the diode forward current on the laboratory record sheet. 24 Switch off the power supply and rearrange the circuit as in Fig. 13, using the recti fierdiodeanda20 Aammeter. 25 Switch on the power supply and adjust the device (reverse) voltage to 30 V. Record thereversecurrentonthelaboratoryrecordsheet.

Analysis 1 Plot the forward characteristic of the lowcurrent diode (D1) from the results of Procedure1. 2 Plottheforwardcharacteristicoftherectifier diode(D2) fromtheresultsof Procedure2. 3 Fromtheforwardcharacteristics,determinetheapproximateforwardvoltagedrop and dc forward resistance for D1 and for D2. Estimate the ac resistance for each diode. 4 Comment on the results of Procedures 15 and 25 (reverse biased diode current measurements).

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Record Sheet L1-1


Date Record Sheet Lab. # 1 Semiconductor Diode Characteristics Procedure 1-3 Low-Current Diode Forward Characteristics IF (mA) 0.1 VF (V) Procedure 1-5 Reverse Bias 1 2 3 5 10 15 20

VR 30 V

IR

Procedure 2-3 Rectifier Diode Forward Characteristics IF (mA) 0.5 VF (V) Procedure 2-5 Reverse Bias 1 5 10 20 30 40 50 60

VR 30 V

IR

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Record Sheet L1-2

Low-Current Diode Forward Characteristics (mA) 20 15 IF 10 5 0 (V)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 VF

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Rectifier Diode Forward Characteristics (mA) 60 50 40 IF 30 20 10 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 VF 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 (V)

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LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 2 Diode Rectifier Circuits


Introduction Ahalfwaverectifiercircuitisconstructed,anditsinputandoutputwaveformsareinves tigated. Then a fullwave bridge rectifiercircuit is constructed and tested. Finally, a two diode fullwave rectifiercircuit using a centretapped transformer is constructed, and its outputwaveformsareinvestigated.

Equipment 115V,60Hzvariablevoltagetransformer(variac) 115V,60Hz,1:1isolatingtransformer 115V,60Hz,transformerwithcentretappedsecondary Oscilloscope Lowcurrentdiodes(4 1N914) Resistor(100 ,0.5W) Circuitboard

Procedure 1 Half-Wave Rectification 11 Construct the halfwave rectifiercircuit shown in Fig. 21 according to the connec tiondiagraminFig.22.(ThisistherectifiercircuitinFig.31ainthetextbook.)


Variac 115 V 60 Hz


Isolating transformer

D1

Vi

Vo RL 100 To oscilloscope


Figure 2-1 Half-wave rectifier test circuit.

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Oscilloscope

Variac

Isolatingtransformer

Circuit board

D1 RL


Figure 2-2 Connection diagram for the half-wave rectifier test circuit.

12 Adjust the variac for the lowest output voltage; then connect the 115 V, ac supply. 13 Switchontheacsupplyandslowlyincreasethevariacoutputuntilthediodecircuit inputwaveform(attheisolatingtransformeroutput)measures10Vpeaktopeakas displayedontheoscilloscope. 14 Measurethepeaklevelofthediodecircuitoutputvoltage.Neatlysketchthecircuit inputandoutputwaveformsonthelaboratoryrecordsheetandrecordthemeasured peaklevels(Vi andVo). 15 Increasethediodecircuitinputto20VpeaktopeakandrepeatProcedure14. 16 Switchofftheacsupplyandreversethediodeterminals. 17 SwitchontheacsupplyandrepeatProcedure14withVi 10Vpeaktopeak.

Procedure 2

Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier

21 Construct the fullwave rectifier circuit shown in Figs. 23 and 24. (This rectifier circuitisthesameasinFig.36inthetextbook.) 22 RepeatProcedures12through15. 23 Switch off the ac supply, and then disconnect (opencircuit) one terminal of one diode. 24 Switchontheacsupply,andnotetheopencircuiteffectontheoutput.

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Vi


115 V 60 Hz

Variac

Isolating transformer

D1

D3

Vo

RL 100 D2 D4

To oscilloscope


Figure 2-3 Bridge rectifier circuit.

To oscilloscope

To oscilloscope

Isolating transformer

Circuitboard D1 D3 RL D4

From variac

D2


Figure 2-4 Connection diagram for the bridge rectifier circuit.

Procedure 3

Two-Diode Full-Wave Rectifier

31 ConstructthefullwaverectifiercircuitshowninFig.25accordingtotheconnection diagram in Fig. 26. (This rectifiercircuit is the same as in Fig. 33 in the textbook.) 32 RepeatProcedures12through15.


Variac 115 V 60 Hz

Transformer withcentre tapped secondary


D1 RL 100

Vi

Vo To oscilloscope

D2

Figure 2-5 Two-diode full-wave rectifier circuit.

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To oscilloscope

To oscilloscope

Transformerwith centretapped secondary From variac

Circuit board

D1

RL

D2


Figure 2-6 Connection diagram for the two-diode full-wave rectifier circuit.

Analysis 1 Discuss the results of Procedure 1. Explain the difference between the input and outputwaveforms. 2 DiscusstheresultsofProcedure2.Explaintheeffectofopencircuitingonediode. 3 DiscusstheresultsofProcedure3.Comparethetwodiodefullwaverectifiertothe bridgerectifier.Whataretheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofeachcircuit?

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Record Sheet L2-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 2 Diode Rectifier Circuits Half-Wave Rectifier Circuit Procedure 1-4 Input voltage. Vi = 10 V p-to-p Output voltage. Vo = Date

Procedure 1-5 Input voltage. Vi = 20 V p-to-p Output voltage. Vo =

Procedure 1-7 Input voltage. Vi = 10 V p-to-p Output voltage. Vo =

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Record Sheet L2-2


Record Sheet 2 Lab. # 2 Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier Circuit Procedure 2-2 Input voltage. Vi = 10 V p-to-p Output voltage. Vo = Date

Input voltage. Vi = 20 V p-to-p Output voltage. Vo =

Procedure 2-4

Procedure 3-2 Input voltage. Vi = 10 V p-to-p Output voltage. Vo =

Input voltage. Vi = 20 V p-to-p Output voltage. Vo =

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 3 Zener Diode


Introduction The reverse characteristics of a Zener diode are first investigated. The device is reverse biasedinstepvoltagelevels,andthereversecurrentismeasuredateachstepuntilreverse breakdownoccurs. After the breakdown voltage is reached, the reverse current is in creased in steps and the diode voltage is measured at each step. In thisway a tableof VR andIR quantitiesisobtainedforplottingthereversecharacteristics.(Zenerdiodeforward characteristicscanbeinvestigatedinthesamewayasforanordinarylowcurrentdiode.) AsimpleZenerdioderegulatorcircuitisconstructedandtestedusingahalfwaverectifier powersupplyasaninput.

Equipment DCpowersupply(050V,100mA) Oscilloscope DCAmmeter(050mA) Multirangedcvoltmeter(020V) 4digit(orbetter)digitalvoltmeter 115V,60Hzvariablevoltagetransformer(variac) 115V,60Hz,1:1isolatingtransformer Zenerdiode1N753 Lowcurrentdiode1N914 1Wresistors120 ,150 Capacitor(330 F,25V) Circuitboard

Procedure 1 1N753 Characteristics 11 Connect the circuit and test equipment as shown in Fig. 41a according to the connection diagram in Fig. 41b. Note that the Zener diode is connected with reversebiaspolarity. 12 Adjustthepowersupplyforzerooutput;thenconnectitsacsupplyandswitchon.

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150k A R1 Power supply (a) Circuit

Ammeter

V D1 1N753
A A V COM


Voltmeter

Powersupply

Circuit board

R1

A
A COM

D1 B (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 4-1 Determination of Zener diode characteristics.

13 Carefully increase the diode reverse voltage in steps as listed for Procedure 13 on the laboratory record sheet until the diode goes into reverse breakdown. At each voltagestep,recordthediodereversecurrentontherecordsheet. 14 When the diode breakdown voltage is reached, carefully adjust the power supply voltagetosetthediodecurrenttothestepslistedforProcedure14onthelaboratory recordsheet.Ateachcurrentstep,recordthemeasuredreversevoltage.

Procedure 2

Zener Diode Regulator

21 Construct the halfwave rectifierpower supply and Zener regulator shown in Fig. 42,together with the test equipment. (This is the regulator circuit designed inExample317inthetextbookandanalyzedinExample318.) 22 Adjustthevariacforzerooutput;thenconnectthe115Vacsupply. 23 Switchontheacsupplyandslowlyincreasethevariacoutputtogivea16Vdcinput (Vi(dc))totheregulator.MeasureandrecordtheregulatoroutputvoltageattheZener diodeterminals. 24 Usingtheoscilloscope,measuretheregulatorpeaktopeakinputripplevoltage(Vri) andthepeaktopeakoutputripplevoltage(Vro). 25 AdjusttheacinputvoltagetoincreaseVi(dc) by10%.Measureandrecordthedcout putvoltagechange(theregulatorsourceeffect), Vo(source). 26 ResetthevariactosettheregulatorinputbacktoVi(dc) 16V. 27 Disconnect one end of RL and observe the output voltage change from fullload to noload(theregulatorloadeffect), Vo(load ).Record Vo(load ).

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Variac 115 V 60 Hz

Isolating transformer

D1 1N914

C1 330 F


V Vi(dc)

R1

Vri

150 D2 1N753

RL 120

Vro To oscilloscope

(a)Circuit Voltmeter

4digit voltmeter To oscilloscope

V A COM


D1 R1

V A COM

C1 D2

RL

Variac

Isolating transformer (b) Connectiondiagram

Circuitboard

Figure 4-2

Zener diode regulator test circuit.

Analysis 1 FromtheresultsofProcedures13and14,plotagraphshowingtheZenerdiode reversecharacteristics. 2 From the Zener diode reverse characteristics, determine the reverse voltage at IZ 20mA.Calculatethedynamicimpedanceforthedevice. 3 Calculate the line regulation, load regulation, and ripple reduction factor pro duced by the Zener diode regulator. Compare the results to those calculated in Example318inthetextbook.

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Record Sheet L4-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 4 Date Zener Diode

Zener Diode Reverse Characteristics Procedure 1-3 VR (V) 2 4 6 6.05 IR (mA) Procedure 1-4 VR (V) IR (mA) 5

6.1

6.2

10

20

30

40

Zener Diode Regulator Output Voltage Vo = VZ = Procedure 2-3 Procedure 2-4 Peak-to-peak ripple Voltage: Vri = Vro = Source effect Load effect Vo(source) = Vo(load) =

Procedure 2-5 Procedure 2-7

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 4 BJT Characteristics


Introduction The common emitter (CE) and commonbase (CB) output characteristics are determined for a BJT by the pointbypoint process. The transistor is firstconnected in CE configura tionanditsbasecurrent(IB)issetataparticularlevel.Thecollectoremittervoltage(VCE) invariedinsteps,andthecollectorcurrent(IC)isnotedateachVCE step. Thisgivesatable ofIC versusVCE levelsfromwhichtheCEoutputcharacteristiccanbeplotted.Theprocess isrepeatedforseveralIB levelstogiveafamilyofCEcharacteristics.TheBJTcommonbase (CB) output characteristics are determined in a similar way, and the CE and CB current gaincharacteristicsarederivedfromtheoutputcharacteristics.

Equipment 2dcpowersupplies(0to20V) DCvoltmeter(0to25V) DCammeter(0to100 A) 2dcammeters(0to10mA) Resistors(2.2k ,0.5W),(100k ,0.25W) LowcurrentgeneralpurposenpnBJT(e.g.,2N3904) Circuitboard

Procedure 1 Common Emitter Output Characteristics 11 Connect the circuit and test equipment as shown in Fig. 71a according to the con nection diagram in Fig. 71b. (Note that the base current ammeter is to measure in microamps.) 12 Setbothpowersuppliesforzerooutput,andthenswitchon. 13 SetVCE to15V,andthenincreasethebasebiasvoltagetogiveIB 10 A. 14 ReadtheIC levelandrecorditonthelaboratoryrecordsheet. 15 MaintainingIB constant,adjustVCE toeachofthevoltageslistedforProcedure1on the laboratory record sheet. Record the measured IC at each VCElevel. (At each IC measurement,carefullycheckandadjustIB ifnecessary.)

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IC

R1

IB A

Power supply

Power supply

100 k

(a) CEtestcircuit

Ammeter(IB) Ammeter(IC) Voltmeter(VCE)

V A COM

V COM

V A COM


Power supply

R1

C B E

Q1

Power supply


Circuitboard (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 7-1

Circuit and connection diagram for determining BJT CE characteristics.

16 ReadjustVCE to15VandsetIB to20 A.ReadtheIC levelandrecorditonthelabo ratoryrecordsheet. 17 RepeatProcedure15. 18 ReadjustVCE to15VandsetIB to30 A.ReadtheIC levelandrecorditonthelabo ratoryrecordsheet. 19 RepeatProcedure15. 110 Readjust VCE to 15 V and set IB to 40 A. Read the IC level and record it on the laboratoryrecordsheet. 111 RepeatProcedure15.

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Procedure 2

Common Base Output Characteristics

21 Set the power supply voltages to zero, switch off, and then modify the circuit as showninFig.72.

R1 Power supply 2.2k V IE A IC A Power supply

(a) CBtestcircuit

Ammeter(IE)

Ammeter(IC)

Voltmeter(VCE)

V A COM

V COM

V A COM

R1
C B E

Q1

Power supply Power supply


Circuitboard (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 7-2

Circuit and connection diagram for determining BJT CB characteristics.

22 Withbothpowersuppliessettozero,switchon. 23 Adjust VCB to 15 V; then increase the base bias voltage to produce a 1 mAemitter current(IE). 24 ReadtheIC levelandrecorditonthelaboratoryrecordsheet. 25 MaintainingIE constant,adjustVCB toeachofvoltageslistedforProcedure2onthe laboratory record sheet. Record the measured IC at each VCBlevel. (At each IC mea surement,carefullycheckandadjustIE ifnecessary.) 26 ReadjustVCB to15VandsetIE to3mA.ReadtheIC levelandrecorditonthelabo ratoryrecordsheet.

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27 RepeatProcedure25. 28 ReadjustVCB to15VandsetIE to5mA.ReadtheIC levelandrecorditonthe laboratoryrecordsheet. 29 RepeatProcedure25.


Analysis 1 PlottheBJTCEcharacteristicsfromtheresultsofProcedure1. 2 Draw a vertical line on the CE characteristics atVCE 5 V. From the intersections of this line with the device characteristics, prepare a table of corresponding IC and IB levels.Seethelaboratoryrecordsheet. 3 CalculatethehFE valuesforeachIC levelintheVCE 5VcolumnintheIC/IB table, andrecordtheseinthetable. 4 PlottheBJTCEcurrentgaincharacteristicsfromtheIC/IB table. 5 PlottheBJTCBcharacteristicsfromtheresultsofProcedure2. 6 Draw a vertical line on the CB characteristics atVCB 5 V. From the intersections ofthislinewiththedevicecharacteristics,prepareatableofcorrespondingIC andIE levels.Seethelaboratoryrecordsheet. 7 CalculatethehFB valuesforeachIC levelintheIC/IE table. 8 PlottheBJTCBcurrentgaincharacteristicsfromtheIC/IE table.

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Record Sheet L7-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 7 Date BJT Characteristics

Procedure 1 Common-Emitter Characteristics VCE (V) 0.5 IC (mA) IC (mA) IC (mA) IC (mA) 1 2 5 10 15

(IB = 10 A) (IB = 20 A) (IB = 30 A) (IB = 40 A)

From the CE Characteristics (VCE = 5 V ) IB (A) 10 IC (mA) hFE 20 30 40

Procedure 2 Common-Base Characteristics VCB (V) 0.5 IC (mA) IC (mA) IC (mA) 1 2 5 10 15

(IE = 1 mA) (IE = 3 mA) (IE = 5 mA)

From the CB Characteristics (VCB = 5 V ) IE (mA) IC (mA) hFB 1 3 5

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LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 5 BJT Bias Circuits


Introduction

Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

ThreebasicBJTbiascircuitsareinvestigated:basebias,collectortobasebias,andvoltage dividerbias.TwotransistorswithdifferenthFE values(hFE(A) andhFE(B))areusedtodemon stratethedccurrentgaineffectoneachbiascircuit.Eachcircuitisconstructed,andthedc voltages throughout the circuit are measured for the BJT with hFE(A) andthen for the BJT withhFE(B).Theresultsarecomparedwithcircuitsinthetextbook. Equipment DCpowersupply(0to20V) DCvoltmeter(0to20V) 0.25Wresistors470k ,270k ,33k ,12k ,2.2k ,1.2k ,1k 2differenttypeoflowcurrentnpnBJTs(e.g.,2N3904and2N718) Circuitboard

Procedure 1 Base Bias and h FE Values 11 IdentifythetwotransistorsasAandB. 12 Using transistor A, connect the base bias circuit and test equipment as shown in Fig.91. 13 SwitchonthepowersupplyandadjustitsoutputtogiveVCC 18V. 14 Measure VCE. If transistor Q1 is saturated, increase the base resistor as necessary to moveQ1 outofthesaturatedstate.Onthelaboratoryrecordsheet,recordVCE andthe resistanceofRB forthebasebiascircuitwithtransistorA. 15 Switchoffthepowersupply,andsubstitutetransistorBfortransistorA. 16 SwitchthepowersupplyonandagainandcheckthatVCC 18V. 17 Measure VCE and again increase RB if necessary to move the transistor out of the saturated state. Record VCE and the resistance of RB for the base bias circuit with transistorBonthelaboratoryrecordsheet.

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Power supply

VCC 18V RB 470k R C 2.2k

Voltmeter

Circuitboard

RB

R C

A V COM

C B E

Q1

Q1


(a) Basebiastestcircuit (b)Connectiondiagram

Figure 9-1 Base bias test circuit and connection diagram.

Procedure 2

Collector-to-Base Bias

21 Using transistorA, connect the collectortobase bias circuit and test equipment as showninFig.92.

Power supply

VCC 18V

Voltmeter

Circuitboard

R C 2.2k

R C


RB 270k Q1
A V COM

RB
C B E

Q1


(a) Collectortobasebiastestcircuit (b)Connectiondiagram

Figure 9-2 Collector-to-base bias test circuit and connection diagram.

22 SwitchonthepowersupplyandadjustitsoutputtogiveVCC 18V. 23 Measure VCE, and on the laboratory record sheet, note the measured voltage for collectortobasebiaswithtransistorA. 24 Switchoffthepowersupply,andsubstitutetransistorBfortransistorA. 25 SwitchthepowersupplyonandagaincheckthatVCC 18V. 26 Measure VCE againand record the measured voltage for collectortobase bias with transistorB.

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Procedure 3

Voltage Divider Bias

31 Using transistor A, connect the voltage divider bias circuit and test equipment as showninFig.93.


R1 33k R C 1.2k

VCC 18V

Voltmeter

Power supply

Circuitboard

R1

R C
C B E

Q1

Q1 RE 1k
V COM

R2 12k
A

R2

RE

(a) Voltagedividerbiastestcircuit

(b)Connectiondiagram

Figure 9-3

Voltage divider bias test circuit and connection diagram.

32 SwitchonthepowersupplyandadjustitsoutputtogiveVCC 18V. 33 Measure VC and VE and note the measured voltages for voltage divider bias with transistorAonthelaboratoryrecordsheet. 34 Switchoffthepowersupply,andsubstitutetransistorBfortransistorA. 35 SwitchthepowersupplyonandonceagaincheckthatVCC 18V. 36 Measure VC andVE againand note the measured voltages for voltage divider bias withtransistorBonthelaboratoryrecordsheet.

Analysis 1 FromtheresultsofProcedure1calculatehFE(A) andhFE(B). 2 OnthelaboratoryrecordsheettabulatethemaximumandminimumVCElevelsfor eachbiascircuitfortransistorsAandB.UsethemeasuredvoltagestocalculateIC foreachcircuit.RecordtheIC levelsinthetableonthelaboratoryrecordsheet. 3 Drawadcloadlineandmarkthebiaspointextremesforeachbiascircuit. 4 ComparethecircuitstabilityforeachbiascircuittothesimilarcircuitsinSection55 inthetextbook. 5 UsingthemeasuredhFE values,analyzeeachcircuittocalculateIC andVCE.Compare thecalculatedandmeasuredquantities.

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Record Sheet L9-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 9 Procedure 1 VCE Transistor A Transistor B Procedure 2 VCE Transistor A Transistor B Procedure 3 VC Transistor A Transistor B VE VCE IC RB IB IC RB IB IC hFE Date BJT Bias Circuits

Analysis Base bias VCE(min) VCE(max) IC(min) IC(max) Collector-to-base Voltage divider bias bias

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LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 6 BJT Switching Circuits


Introduction Adirectcoupled BJT switching circuit is constructed and tested with dc input voltages and with a square wave input. Two capacitorcoupled switching circuits are also tested: onewiththeBJTbiasedinanormallyonstate,andtheotherwiththeBJTnormallyoff.

Equipment Oscilloscope Squarewavegenerator 2dcpowersupplies(0to20V) DCvoltmeter(0to20V) Resistors(4.7k ,0.25W),(8.2k ,0.25W),(27k ,0.25W),(39k ,0.25W) Capacitors(0.22 F,25V) LowcurrentgeneralpurposenpnBJT(e.g.,2N3904) Circuitboard

Procedure 1 Direct-Coupled Switching Circuit 11 Construct the directcoupled BJT switching circuit in Fig. 101. (This is the circuit designedinExample522inthetextbook.)

VCC 12V

Powersupply

Circuitboard

Power supply

R C 8.2k

R C

RB

RB Q1 27k
C B E

Q1

(a) Direct coupled switching circuit

(b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 10-1 Direct-coupled BJT switching circuit.

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12 13 14 15 16

SwitchonthecollectorpowersupplyandadjustVCC to12V. SwitchonthebasepowersupplyandadjustVBto0V. MeasureandrecordVCE. AdjustVBto5VandagainmeasureandrecordVCE. SubstitutethesignalgeneratorforthebasesupplyvoltageasinFig.102,andconnect theoscilloscope(using10:1probes)tomonitorthewaveforms.


To oscilloscope

VCC 12V

Power supply

To oscilloscope R C 8.2k


Signalgenerator R C
C B E


RB 27k Q1

RB

Q1

(a) Directcoupledcircuit

Circuitboard (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 10-2

Waveform investigation for a direct-coupled BJT switching circuit.

17 Setthesignalgeneratoroutputfora; 3V,10kHzsquarewave. 18 Sketch the circuit input and output waveforms on the laboratory record sheet, and notetheupperandlowerpeakvoltages. 19 Increasethesignalfrequencytoinvestigatethecircuitswitchingtimes. 110 Measure and record the turnon time (ton) and the turnoff time (toff), and sketch the waveformsontherecordsheet.

Procedure 2

Normally-On Capacitor-Coupled Switching Circuit

21 ConstructthenormallyoncapacitorcoupledBJTswitchingcircuitinFig.103.(This circuitisdesigned in Example 523 in the textbook.) Leave the signal generator unconnectedatthistime. 22 SwitchonthecollectorpowersupplyandadjustVCC to9V. 23 MeasureVCE andnotethevoltageontherecordsheet. 24 Shortcircuitthetransistorbaseandemitterterminalsandagainmeasureandrecord VCE. Removetheshortcircuit. 25 Connectthesignalgeneratorandadjustthesignaltoa; 3V,10kHzsquarewave. 26 Sketch the circuit input and output waveforms on the laboratory record sheet, and notetheupperandlowerpeakvoltages.

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To oscilloscope VCC 9V RB 39k To oscilloscope

Power supply

R C 4.7k Signalgenerator

RB R C
C B E

C1 Q1 0.22 F C1

Q1

(a) Normallyoncircuit

Circuitboard (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 10-3

Normally-on capacitor-coupled BJT switching circuit.

Procedure 3

Normally-Off Capacitor-Coupled Switching Circuit

31 Switchoffthepowersupply,andreconstructthecircuitintothenormallyoffcapacitor coupledswitchingcircuitinFig.104.

VCC 9V To oscilloscope R C 4.7k Signalgenerator C1 Q1

To oscilloscope


Power supply

R C
C B E

0.22 F RB 39k

C1 RB Q1

(a) Normallyoffcircuit

Circuitboard (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 10-4

Normally-off capacitor-coupled BJT switching circuit.

32 33 34 35

SwitchonthepowersupplyandsetVCC to9V. MeasureVCE andnotethevoltageontherecordsheet. Connectthesignalgeneratorandadjustthesignaltoa; 3V,10kHzsquarewave. Sketch the circuit input and output waveforms on the laboratory record sheet, and notetheupperandlowerpeakvoltages.

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Analysis 1 Discuss the measured voltages and waveforms for the directcoupled switching circuit. 2 Analyze the directcoupled circuit to determine IC, IB, and hFE(min). Calculate the minimumbaseinputvoltagetodrivethetransistorintosaturation. 3 Discussthecircuitswitchingtimes. 4 Discussthemeasuredvoltagesandwaveformsforthenormallyoncapacitorcoupled switchingcircuit. 5 AnalyzethenormallyoncapacitorcoupledcircuittodetermineIC,IB,andhFE(min). Calculatetheminimumbaseinputvoltagetodrivethetransistorintocutoff. 6 Discussthemeasuredvoltagesandwaveformsforthenormallyoffcapacitorcoupled switchingcircuit.

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Record Sheet L10-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 10 Procedure 1-4 Procedure 1-5 Procedure 1-8 +Vo(pk) = Vo(pk) = Date BJT Switching Circuits (Vi = O) (Vi = 5 V) VCE = VCE = Input waveform Output waveform Input waveform Output waveform VCE = VCE = Input waveform Output waveform

Procedure 1-10 ton = toff =

Procedure 2-3 Procedure 2-4 Procedure 2-6 +Vo(pk) = Vo(pk) =

(Vi = O)

Procedure 3-3 Procedure 3-5 +Vo(pk) = Vo(pk) =

VCE = Input waveform Output waveform

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LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 7 BJT Common Emitter Circuit


Introduction A BJT commonemitter circuit is constructed and tested for dc and ac performance. Circuit maximum ac output voltage is investigated together with ac voltage gain, input impedance, and output impedance. The circuit is then modifiedto have an unbypassed emitterresistor,andtheacperformanceisagaininvestigated.

Equipment DCpowersupply(0to20V) DCvoltmeter(0to20V) Oscilloscope Signalgenerator 0.25Wresistors3.9k ,4.7k ,56k ,68k ,82k 15Vcapacitors0.12 F,10 F,180 F LowcurrentgeneralpurposenpnBJT(e.g.,2N3904) Circuitboard

Procedure 1 DC and AC Conditions 11 ConstructthecircuitinFig.111.(ThisisthecircuitinFig.624inthetextbook.)Leave thesignalgeneratorandoscilloscopeunconnectedatthistime. 12 SwitchonthepowersupplyandadjustitsoutputforVCC 12V. 13 MeasureandrecordthelevelsofVB, VE, andVC. 14 ConnectthesignalgeneratorandoscilloscopetothecircuitasillustratedinFig.111b. 15 Setthesignalgeneratortoproducea3kHzsinewaveandadjustthesignalamplitude togivemaximumundistortedoutputfromthecircuit.(Notethatitmaybenecessary to use avoltagedividertypically a 100 k and a 100 resistorto reduce the signalamplitude.) 16 Sketch the input and output waveforms, and record the peak input and output voltages. 17 Adjustthesignalamplitudetoproducea; 1Voutput.RecordthepeaklevelsofVi andVoandcalculatethecircuitvoltagegain.

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VCC 12 V R1 68k

R C 3.9k

C3 0.12 F Q1

C1

10 F

vs

R2 56k


RE 4.7k

RL 82k

C2 180 F

To oscilloscope

To oscilloscope


R1 C1

R C C3 Power supply
C B Q E 1

(a) Commonemittertestcircuit

Signal generator

R2 RE C2

RL

Circuitboard (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 11-1

Common-emitter circuit and test equipment.

Procedure 2

Input and Output Impedances

21 SetthesignalgeneratorasinProcedure17. 22 Temporarily disconnect the signal generator and connect a 1.8 k resistor (Ra) in serieswiththesignalgeneratorandthecircuitinput,asillustratedinFig.112.


Ra

R1 68k C1

To oscilloscope To oscilloscope

1k vs


R2 56k


R1


R C C3 Power supply
C B Q1 E

(a) Circuitmodification

Signalgenerator

C1 Ra

R2 RE C2

RL

Circuitboard (b) Connectiondiagrammodification Figure 11-2 Common-emitter circuit input resistance measurement.

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23 CheckthatthesignalvoltageamplitudeappliedtoRa isthesameasthatmeasured inProcedure17. 24 Observe the amplitude of the circuit ac output voltage. Change the resistance of Ra asnecessary to give an output amplitude which is half of that measured in Procedure15.RecordtheresistanceofRa asthecircuitinputimpedance(Zi). 25 Disconnect Ra, reconnect the signal generator, and adjust the signal level to that measuredinProcedure17onceagain. 26 Temporarilydisconnectthe82k loadresistor(RL)andsubstitutea3.9k resistor (Rb)forRL. 27 Observe the amplitude of the circuit ac output voltage. Change the resistance of Rb asnecessary to give an output amplitude which is half of that measured in Procedure16.RecordtheresistanceofRb asthecircuitoutputimpedance(Zo). Procedure 3 Unbypassed Emitter Resistor

31 DisconnectRb andreconnectRL. 32 Disconnecttheemitterbypasscapacitor;thenrepeatProcedure17. 33 RepeatProcedures21through27startingwithanewresistanceofRa usingRb 3.9k ,asbefore.

27k

and

Analysis 1 FromtheresultsofProcedure1,plotthedcandacloadlinesfortheCEcircuitand showthemaximumoutputvoltageswing. 2 Analyze the circuit to determine the dc voltages and compare to the measured voltages. 3 Analyze the circuit to determine Av, and compare to the Av from the results of Procedure 17. Comment on the phase relationship between the input and output waveforms. 4 AnalyzethecommonemittercircuittoestimateZi andZo.Comparethecalculated valuestothosemeasuredinProcedure2. 5 From the results of Procedure 33, calculate the voltage gain (Av) for the common emittercircuitwithanunbypassedemitterresistor.Analyzethecircuittodetermine Av andcomparetothemeasuredAv. 6 Analyzethecommonemittercircuitwithanunbypassedemitterresistortoestimate Zi andZo.ComparethecalculatedvaluestothosemeasuredinProcedure33.

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Record Sheet L11-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 11 Procedure 1-3 Date BJT Common-Emitter Circuit VCC VB VE VC

Procedure 1-6

Input wavefor m Output wavefor m

Procedure 1-7 Procedure 2-4 Procedure 2-7 Procedure 3-2

Vi(pk) = Zi = Zo = Vi(pk) =

Vo(pk) =

Av =

Vo(pk) =

Av =

Procedure 3-3

Zi =

Zo =

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LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 8 BJT CC and CB Circuits


Introduction BJTcommoncollectorandcommonbasecircuitsareconstructedandtestedfordcandac performance. Voltage gain, input impedance, and output impedance are investigated for bothcircuits.

Equipment DCpowersupply(0to20V) DCvoltmeter(0to20V) Oscilloscope Signalgenerator 0.25Wresistors(56 ,1k ,1.2k ,3.9k ,4.7k ,27k ,56k ,68k ,82k ) 15Vcapacitors(0.12 F,10 F,180 F) LowcurrentgeneralpurposenpnBJT(e.g.,2N3904) Circuitboard

Procedure 1 Common-Collector Circuit (Emitter Follower) 11 ConstructthecircuitinFig.121.Leavethesignalgeneratorandoscilloscopeuncon nectedatthistime. 12 SwitchonthepowersupplyandadjustitsoutputforVCC 12V. 13 MeasureVB, VE, andVC, andrecordthevoltagesonthelaboratoryrecordsheet. 14 ConnectthesignalgeneratorandoscilloscopetothecircuitasillustratedinFig.121. 15 Setthesignalgeneratorfrequencyto3kHzandadjustthesignalamplitudetogive a; 0.5Voutput. 16 Sketch the input and output waveforms on the laboratory record sheet, and record thepeakinputandoutputvoltagelevels. 17 Temporarily disconnect the signal generator and connect a 27 k resistor (Ra) in serieswiththesignalgeneratorandthecircuitinput. 18 Check that the ac signal voltage to Ra is the same as the circuit input voltage mea suredinProcedure16.

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VCC 12 V R1 68k

C1 Q1 10 F vs R2 56k C2

180 F RE 4.7k

RL 1 k

To oscilloscope

Power supply


R1
C B Q E 1

(a) Commoncollectortestcircuit

Signal generator

C1

R2 RE C2

To oscilloscope

RL

Circuitboard (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 12-1

BJT Common-collector circuit and test equipment.

19 Observe the amplitude of the circuit ac output voltage. Change the resistance of Ra as necessary to give an output amplitude which is half of that measured in Proce dure16.RecordtheresistanceofRa asthecircuitinputimpedance(Zi). 110 Disconnect Ra, reconnect the signal generator, and again adjust the signal level to thatmeasuredinProcedure16. 111 Temporarily connect a 56 resistor (Rb)in parallel with RL;then readjust the input amplitudetogivethemaximumundistortedoutput. 112 DisconnectandreconnectRb toseeifitspresencereducestheoutputamplitudebya factor of 2. Change Rb as necessary to give this effect. Record the resistance of Rb asthecircuitoutputimpedance(Zo). Procedure 2 Common-Base Circuit

21 Convertthecommoncollectorcircuitintoacommonbasecircuitbythemodifications shown in Fig. 122. Leave the signal generatorand oscilloscope unconnected at this time.(ThecircuitinFig.122aisthesameasinFig.638inthetextbook.) 22 SwitchonthepowersupplyandadjustitsoutputforVCC 12V. 23 MeasureVB, VE, andVC, andrecordthevoltagesonthelaboratoryrecordsheet. 24 Connectthesignalgeneratorandoscilloscopetothecircuitasillustratedin Fig.122.

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VCC 12 V R1 68k R C 3.9k

C3 0.12 F C2 180 F RE 4.7k vs Q1


Circuit board

Power supply


C3
C B Q1 E

R1 R C

RL 82k C1 R2 RE

To oscilloscope

R2 56k

C1 10 F

C2

RL

(a) Commonbasetestcircuit

To oscilloscope


Signal generator (b) Connectiondiagram Figure 12-2 BJT Common-base circuit and test equipment.

25 Setthesignalgeneratorfor3kHzsinewaveandadjustthesignalamplitudetogive a; 1Voutputfromthecircuit. 26 Sketch the input and output waveforms on the laboratory record sheet and record thepeakinputandoutputvoltagelevels. 27 Temporarilydisconnectthesignalgeneratorandconnecta56 resistor(Ra)inseries withthesignalgeneratorandthecircuitinput. 28 Check that the ac signal voltage to Ra is the same as the circuit input voltage mea suredinProcedure26. 29 Observetheamplitudeoftheacoutputvoltage.ChangetheresistanceofRa asnec essarytogiveanoutputamplitudewhichishalfofthatmeasuredinProcedure26. RecordtheresistanceofRa asthecircuitinputimpedance(Zi). 210 DisconnectRa,reconnectthesignalgenerator,andadjustthesignalleveltothatmea suredinProcedure26onceagain. 211 Temporarily disconnect the load resistor (RL) and substitute a 3.9 k resistor (Rb) forRL. 212 Observe the amplitude of the ac output voltage. Change the resistance of Rb as necessary to give an amplitude which is half of that measured in Procedure 26. RecordtheresistanceofRb asthecircuitoutputimpedance(Zo).

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Analysis 1 From the results of Procedure 1, plot the dc and ac load lines for the common collectorcircuitandshowthemaximumoutputvoltageswing. 2 Calculatethecommoncollectorcircuitvoltagegain(Av) fromtheresultsof Procedure 16. Analyze the circuit to determine Av, and compare it to the Av calculatedfromthemeasurements. 3 Analyze the commoncollector circuit to estimate Zi and Zo. Compare the calcu latedvaluestothosemeasuredinProcedure1. 4 From the results of Procedure 2, plot the dc and ac load lines for the common collectorcircuitandshowthemaximumoutputvoltageswing. 5 Calculatethecommoncollectorcircuitvoltagegain(Av) fromtheresultsof Procedure 26.Analyze the circuit to determine Av,and compare to the Av calcu latedfromthemeasurements. 6 AnalyzethecommoncollectorcircuittoestimateZi andZo.Comparethecalculated valuestothosemeasuredinProcedure2.

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Record Sheet L12-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 12 Procedure 1-3 Date BJT CC and CB Circuit VCC VB VE VC

Procedure 1-6 Vi(pk) = Vo(pk) = Av =

Input wavefor m Output wavefor m

Procedure 1-9 Procedure 1-12

Zi = Zo = VCC VB VE VC

Procedure 2-3

Procedure 2-6 Vi(pk) = Vo(pk) = Av =

Input wavefor m Output wavefor m

Procedure 2-9 Procedure 2-12

Zi = Zo =

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LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 9 JFET Characteristics


Introduction Drainand transfer characteristics are constructed for an nchannel JFET by the pointby pointprocess.TheJFETisfirstconnectedinCSconfiguration,anditsgatevoltage(VGS) is set at zero. The drainsource voltage (VDS) in varied in steps, and the drain current (ID) is noted at each VDS step. This gives a table of ID versus VDS levels from which the drain characteristic can be plotted. The process is repeated for several VGS levels to give a fam ilyofdraincharacteristics.TheJFETtransfercharacteristicispreparedinasimilar way by holding VDS constant while varying VGS and noting the corresponding levels of ID andVGS. DraincharacteristicsarealsoobtainedbytheuseofanXYrecorder. Equipment 2dcpowersupplies(0to20V) DCvoltmeter(0to25V) DCammeter(0to20mA) Resistors(1k ,0.25W),(1M ,0.25W) LowcurrentgeneralpurposenchannelJFET(e.g.,2N5486) Circuitboard XYrecorder

Procedure 1 Drain Characteristics 11 ConnectthecircuitandtestequipmentasshowninFig.131aaccordingtothecon nectiondiagraminFig.131b. 12 Setbothpowersuppliesforzerooutput;thenswitchon. 13 Maintaining VGS constant, carefully adjust VDS to each of the voltages listed for Procedure1onthelaboratoryrecordsheet.RecordthemeasuredID ateachVDSlevel forVGS 0. 14 CarefullyadjustVGS to 1V;thenrepeatProcedure13toproduceatableofcorre 1V. spondingVGS andID levelsforVGS 15 RepeatProcedure13forVGS 2Vand 3V.

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ID

R1 1M

Power V GSV supply

Q1

V VDS

Power supply

Voltmeter

(a) JFETtestcircuit Voltmeter

Ammeter


V V

V A COM A COM

V A V COM


R1
D S G

Power supply

Q1


Power supply

Circuitboard (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 13-1

Circuit and connection diagram for determining JFET characteristics.

Procedure 2

Transfer Characteristics

21 Using the same circuit as in Fig. 131, set VGS to 0 and VDS to 10 V. Measure the ID level,andrecorditonthetableforProcedure2onthelaboratoryrecordsheet. 22 Maintaining VDS constant at 10 V, adjust VGS to each of the voltages listed for Procedure 2 on the laboratory record sheet. Record the measured ID ateach VGS level. Procedure 3 Drain Characteristic Plotting on XY Recorder

31 Connect the circuit and test equipment as shown in Fig. 132a according to the connectiondiagraminFig.132b. 32 Set both power supplies for zero output and the XY recorder sensitivity for 1 V /cm verticaldeflectionandhorizontaldeflection.

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XYrecorder

R2 1k R1 1 M V

Drain power supply V

Q1

Gate power supply Drain powersupply


V=

(a) JFETtestcircuit


(1 V/cm)


ID

XYrecorder

R2


V/ A COM

Vertical

D S Q G 1

Horizontal

VDS

R1

V=

(1 V/cm)

Circuitboard


Gate powersupply

V/ A COM


(b) Connectiondiagram

Voltmeter

Figure 13-2

Use of an XY recorder to draw JFET drain characteristics.

33 Install suitable plotting paper in the XY recorder, switch on the XY recorder, adjust itspentoasuitablezerovoltagestartingpoint,andlowerthepenontothepaper. 34 Slowly increase the drain voltage to produce a suitable trace representing the JFET draincharacteristicforVGS 0. 35 Raise the XYrecorder pen at the maximum point on the characteristic; then reduce thedrainsupplyvoltagetozero. 36 CarefullyincreasethegatepowersupplyvoltagetoproduceVGS 1V. 37 Lower the pen again; then slowly increase the drain voltage to produce a trace 1V. representingtheJFETdraincharacteristicforVGS 38 Raise the XY recorder pen at the maximum point on the characteristic; then reduce thedrainsupplyvoltagetozero. 39 RepeatProcedures36through38forVGS levelsof 2Vand 3V. 310 RaisetheXYrecorderpenatthemaximumpointonthelastcharacteristicandremove thepaper.

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Analysis 1 PlottheJFETdraincharacteristicsfromtheresultsofProcedure1. 2 PlottheJFETtransfercharacteristicsfromtheresultsofProcedure2. 3 From the drain characteristic for VGS 0, determine the values of the rD and Yos parameters. 4 From the transfer characteristic, determine the values of the Yfs parameters at 1VandVGS 4V. VGS 5 Draw horizontal and vertical scales on the drain characteristics plotted by the XY recorder.IdentifyeachcharacteristicaccordingtotheVGSlevel.PrinttheJFETtype numberonthecharacteristics.

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Record Sheet L13-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 13 Procedure 1 Date JFET Characteristics Drain Characteristics VDS (V) 0.5 ID (mA) ID (mA) ID (mA) ID (mA) 1 2 3 4 5 10

(VGS = 0) (VGS = 1 V) (VGS = 2 V) (VGS = 3 V) Procedure 2 (VDS = 10 V) VGS (V) 0 ID (mA)

Transfer Characteristic

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LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 10 JFET Bias Circuits


Introduction ThreebasicJFETbiascircuitsareinvestigated:gatebias,selfbias,andvoltagedividerbias. Twotransistors(Q1 andQ2)areusedtodemonstratetheeffectofdifferentVGS(off) andIDSS values. Each circuit is constructed, and the dc voltages throughout the circuit are mea sured,firstwithQ1 inthecircuitandthenwithQ2.Theresultsarecomparedwithcircuits inthetextbook.

Equipment DCpowersupply(0to20V) DCvoltmeter(0to20V) 0.25Wresistors470k ,270k ,33k ,12k ,2.2k ,1.2k ,1k 2 lowcurrentgeneralpurposenchannelJFETsofdifferenttypes(e.g.,2N5457and MPF102) Circuitboard

Procedure 1 Device Parameters and Gate Bias 11 IdentifythetwoJFETsasQ1 andQ2;thenusingQ1,connectthegatebiascircuitand testequipmentasshowninFig.141. 12 SwitchonthepowersuppliesandadjustVGS tozeroandVDD to18V. 13 MeasureID andrecorditonthelaboratoryrecordsheetasthedrainsourcesaturation currentIDSS forQ1 withVGS 0. 14 IncreaseVGS to 1VandmeasureID.RecordID onthelaboratoryrecordsheetrecord 1V. forQ1withVGS 15 Increase VGS untilID fallstoapproximately0.1mA. 16 MeasureVGS andrecorditasthegatesource cutoffvoltageVGS(off) forQ1 withID 0. 17 SwitchoffthepowersuppliesandsubstitutetransistorQ2 fortransistorQ1. 18 RepeatProcedures12through16usingJFETQ2.

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ID

R1 1M

Power V GSV supply

Q1

V VDS

Power supply

(a) Gatebiascircuit

Voltmeter

Voltmeter

Ammeter


V V

V A COM A COM

V A V COM


R1

Power supply

DG S Q1


Power supply

Circuit board (b) Connectiondiagram Figure 14-1 JFET gate bias circuit and connection diagram.

Procedure 2

JFET Self Bias

21 Using transistor Q1, connect the self bias circuit and test equipment as shown in Fig.142. 22 SwitchonthepowersupplyandadjustVDD to18V. 23 MeasureVDandVS andnoteonthelaboratoryrecordsheetfortransistorQ1. 24 SwitchoffthepowersupplyandsubstituteQ2 forQ1. 25 SwitchthepowersupplyonandagaincheckthatVDD 18V. 26 MeasureVDandVSagainandrecordthevoltagesfortransistorQ2.

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Power supply


RD 4.7k

VDD 18V

Circuitboard


Voltmeter

RD


RS 680

D S G

RS
A V COM

(a) Self bias circuit (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 14-2 JFET self bias test circuit.

Procedure 3

JFET Voltage Divider Bias

31 Using transistor Q1, connect the voltage divider bias circuit and test equipment as showninFig.143.

VDD 18V R1 2.2M RD 2.7k Voltmeter

Power supply

Circuitboard

R1

RD
D S G

R2 560k

RS 2.7k
A V COM

R2 RS

(a) JFETvoltagedividerbiascircuit (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 14-3 JFET voltage divider bias test circuit.

32 SwitchonthepowersupplyandadjustVDD to18V. 33 Measure VD, VS,and VG and note the levels on the laboratory record sheet for the voltagedividerbiascircuitwithQ1. 34 SwitchoffthepowersupplyandsubstituteQ2 forQ1. 35 SwitchthepowersupplyonandagaincheckthatVDD 18V. 36 MeasureVD,VS,andVG onceagainandnotethelevelsonthelaboratoryrecordsheet forthevoltagedividerbiascircuitwithQ2.

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Analysis 1 OnthelaboratoryrecordsheettabulatetheVDS levelsforeachbiascircuitfortran sistors Q1 and Q2. Use VDS to calculate ID for each circuit and record it in the tableonthelaboratoryrecordsheet. 2 Drawadcloadlineandmarkthebiaspointextremesforeachcircuit. 3 ComparethecircuitstabilityforeachbiascircuittothesimilarcircuitsinSection105 inthetextbook. 4 Using the measured VP and IDSSvalues and the IDlevels for VGS = 1 V, draw approximatemaximumandminimumtransfercharacteristicsforQ1 andQ2. 5 Draw bias lines for each circuit on the transfer characteristics, and determine VDS(max) andVDS(min). Comparethecalculatedandmeasuredquantities.

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Record Sheet L14-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 14 Date JFET Bias Circuits

Procedure 1 Gate Bias IDSS (VGS = 0) IDS (VGS = 1 V) Transistor Q1 Transistor Q2 Procedure 2 Self Bias VDD Transistor Q1 18 V Transistor Q2 18 V

VGS(off)

VD

VS

ID = VS/RS

Procedure 3 Voltage-Divider Bias VDD VD Transistor Q1 18 V Transistor Q2 18 V

VS

VG

Analysis Gate bias VDS(min) VDS(max) Self bias Voltage divider bias

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LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 11 Basic JFET Circuits


Introduction AJFETcommonsourcecircuitisconstructedandtestedfordcconditions.Theacvoltage gain,inputimpedance,andoutputimpedancearemeasured.Thecircuitisthenconverted intocommondrain and commongate configurations, and the ac performance of each configurationisinvestigated.

Equipment DCpowersupply(0to25V) DCvoltmeter(0to25V) Oscilloscope Sinusoidalsignalgenerator; 1V,3kHz 0.25Wresistors(2 2.7k ),120k ,1M ,5.6M 25Vcapacitors(0.02 F,0.15 F,10 F) LowcurrentgeneralpurposenchannelJFET(e.g.,2N5486) Circuitboard

Procedure 1 Common-Source Voltage Gain 11 Construct the circuit in Fig. 151. (This is the circuit in Fig. 119 in the textbook.) Leavethesignalgeneratorandoscilloscopeunconnectedatthistime. 12 SwitchonthepowersupplyandadjustitsoutputforVDD 25V. 13 MeasureVG, VS, andVD. Recordthevoltagesonthelaboratoryrecordsheet. 14 ConnectthesignalgeneratorandoscilloscopetothecircuitasillustratedinFig.151. 15 Setthesignalgeneratorfrequencyto3kHzandadjustthesignalamplitudetogive a; 1Voutputfromthecircuit. 16 Sketch the input and output waveforms on the laboratory record sheet, and record thepeakinputandoutputvoltages.

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VDD 25 V R1 5.6M RD 2.7k

C3 0.15 F Q1

C1

0.02 F

vs

R2 1M


RS 2.7k


RL 120k

To oscilloscope To oscilloscope

C2 10 F


R1


C1

RD C3 Power supply
D SQ G 1

(a) Commonsourcetestcircuit

Signalgenerator

R2

RS C2 RL

Circuitboard (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 15-1

JFET common-source circuit and test equipment.

Procedure 2

Common-Source Input and Output Impedance

21 SetthesignalgeneratorasinProcedure15. 22 Temporarily disconnect the signal generator and connect a 1 M resistor (Ra) in serieswiththesignalgeneratorandthecircuitinput,asillustratedinFig.152.


R1

Ra C1

C1

R1

Ra Signalgenerator R2

1M vs

R2


(a) Circuitmodification

(b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 15-2

Common-source circuit input resistance measurement.

23 Check that the signal voltage amplitude applied toRa isthesame as that measured inProcedure16. 24 Observe the amplitude of the circuit ac output voltage. Change the resistance of Ra asnecessarytogiveanoutputamplitudewhichishalfofthatmeasuredinProce dure15.RecordtheresistanceofRa asthecircuitinputimpedance(Zi).

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25 DisconnectRa,reconnectthesignalgenerator,andadjustthesignalleveltothatmea suredinProcedure16onceagain. 26 Temporarily disconnect the load resistor (RL) and substitute a 2.7 k resistor (Rb) forRL. 27 Observe the amplitude of the circuit ac output voltage. Change the resistance of Rb as necessary to give an output amplitude which is half of that measured in Proce dure16.RecordtheresistanceofRb asthecircuitoutputimpedance(Zo). Procedure 3 Common-Drain Circuit (Source Follower)

31 Modify the circuit to convert it into commondrain configuration as shown in Fig. 153. (RD is replaced with a short circuit, and the output is taken at the JFET sourceterminal.)

R1 5.6M C1

VDD 25 V


Q1 C3

0.02 F

vs

R2 1M

RS 2.7k 0.15 F


RL 120k Signalgenerator


To oscilloscope


To oscilloscope


R1

C3

C1

D S Q G 1

VDD

(a) Commondraintestcircuit

R2

RS

RL

Circuitboard (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 15-3

JFET common-drain circuit and test equipment.

32 SwitchonthepowersupplyandcheckthatitsoutputgivesVDD 33 RepeatProcedures15and16.

25V.

Procedure 4

Common-Gate Circuit

41 Convertthecommondraincircuitintoacommongatecircuitbymakingthemodi ficationsshowninFig.154. 42 SwitchonthepowersupplyandcheckthatitsoutputgivesVDD 25V. 43 RepeatProcedures15and16.

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VDD 25 V R1 5.6M RD 2.7k


Q1

C3

0.15 F

To oscilloscope RL 120k

To oscilloscope

C2 10 F

vs

C1 0.02 F

R2 1M

RS 2.7k

R1 RD

C3

C2 (a) Commongatetestcircuit Signalgenerator

D S Q1 G

VDD

C1

R2

RS RL

Circuitboard (b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 15-4

JFET common-gate circuit and test equipment.

Analysis 1 From the results of Procedure 13, plot the dc and ac load lines for the CS circuit andshowthemaximumoutputvoltageswing. 2 CalculatetheCScircuitvoltagegainfromtheresultsofProcedure16. 3 Analyze the CS circuit to determine Av, Zi, and Zo. Compare the calculated and measuredvalues.Commentonthephaserelationshipbetweentheinputandoutput waveforms. 4 FromtheresultsofProcedure33,calculatetheCDvoltagegain.Analyzethecircuit todetermineAv andcomparetothemeasuredAv. 5 FromtheresultsofProcedure43,calculatetheCGvoltagegain(Av).Analyzethe circuit to determine Av and compare to the measured Av. Comment on the phase relationshipbetweentheinputandoutputwaveforms.

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Record Sheet L15-1


Record Sheet 1 Lab. # 15 Procedure 1-3 Date Basic JFET Circuits VDD VG VS VD

Procedure 1-6 Vi(pk) = Vo(pk) = Av =

Input wavefor m Output wavefor m

Procedure 2-4 Procedure 2-7 Procedure 3-3 Vi(pk) = Vo(pk) = Av =

Zi = Zo = Input wavefor m Output wavefor m

Procedure 4-3 Vi(pk) = Vo(pk) = Av =

Input wavefor m Output wavefor m

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 12 Capacitor-Coupled BJT Amplifier


Introduction A BJT capacitorcoupled commonemitter amplifier circuit consisting of two identical stagesisconstructedandtestedfordcandacperformance.Eachstageisfirsttestedfordc conditions and ac voltage gain (Av).The circuit overall voltage gain, frequency response, andinputandoutputimpedancesarealsoinvestigated.

Equipment DCpowersupply(0to25V) DCvoltmeter(0to25V) Oscilloscope Signalgenerator; 1V,(50Hzto5kHz) 0.25Wresistors120k ,2 (3.9k ,12k ,39k ,120k ) 25Vcapacitors0.12 F,2 (10 F,150 F) 2lowcurrentgeneralpurposenpnBJTs(e.g.,2N3904) Circuitboard

Procedure 1 DC Conditions 11 Construct the circuit in Fig. 161. (This is the circuit in Fig. 1218 in the textbook.) Leavethesignalgeneratorandoscilloscopeunconnected. 12 SwitchonthepowersupplyandadjustitsoutputforVCC 24V. 13 Measure VB, VE, and VC for each stage and record the voltages on the laboratory recordsheet.

Procedure 2

AC Measurements

21 ConnectthesignalgeneratorandoscilloscopetothecircuitasillustratedinFig.161. 22 Set the signal generator frequency to 3 kHz and adjust the signal amplitude to give a ; 1VoutputatthecollectorterminalofQ2.(Notethatitmaybenecessarytousea resistiveattenuator(typically560 and560k )toreducethesignalamplitude.)

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VCC 24 V R1 120k

R3 12k

R5 C3120k

R7 12k

C5

C1

Q1

vs rs 600 10 F R2 39k R4 3.9k

2N 10 F 3904

Q2 R6 39k

2N 0.12 F 3904

C2 150 F

R8 3.9k

C4

RL 120k

150 F

(a) Capacitorcoupledtwostageamplifier

To oscilloscope

To oscilloscope

Power supply

R7 R1 R3 R5 RL C5
C B Q2 E

Signalgenerator

C1

C3

R2 C2 R4

C B Q1 E

R6 R8

C4

(b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 16-1

Two-stage capacitor-coupled BJT amplifier.

23 Sketchtheinputandoutputwaveformsforeachstageonthelaboratoryrecordsheet andrecordthepeakvoltages. 24 Adjust the signal frequency in steps as listed on the laboratory record sheet, taking care to keep the signal amplitude constant. Record the output voltage amplitude at eachsignalfrequency.

Procedure 3

Input and Output Impedances

31 SetthesignalgeneratorasinProcedure22. 32 Temporarilydisconnectthesignalgeneratorandconnecta1.5k resistor(Ra)inseries withthesignalgeneratorandthecircuitinput. 33 Check that the signal voltage amplitude applied toRa isthesame as that measured inProcedure22.

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34 Observe the amplitude of the circuit ac output voltage. Change the resistance of Ra as necessary to give an output amplitude which is half of that measured in Proce dure22.RecordtheresistanceofRa asthecircuitinputimpedance(Zi). 35 Disconnect Ra, reconnect the signal generator, and adjust the signal level to that measuredinProcedure22onceagain. 36 Temporarilydisconnecttheloadresistor(RL)andsubstitutea12k resistor(Rb)forRL. 37 Observe the amplitude of the circuit ac output voltage. Change the resistance of Rb as necessary to give an output amplitude which is half of that measured in Proce dure23.RecordtheresistanceofRb asthecircuitoutputimpedance(Zo).

Analysis 1 Compare the dc voltages for each stage of the amplifier to the design levels in Example122inthetextbook.Explainanydifferences. 2 From the results of Procedure 23 calculate the voltage gain of each stage and the overallvoltagegain. 3 Analyzethecircuittodeterminetheacvoltagegainforeachstageandtheoverall acvoltagegain.Comparethecalculatedandmeasuredquantities. 4 FromtheresultsofProcedure24,plotthe(lowerend)frequencyresponseforthe amplifier,and estimate the circuit lower cutoff frequency (f1). Compare the mea suredf1 tothedesignvalueusedinExample126. 5 DiscussthecircuitinputandoutputimpedancesasmeasuredforProcedure3.

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Record Sheet L16-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 16 Capacitor-Coupled BJT Amplifier Procedure 1-3 VCC VB1 VE1 VC1 VB2 Date

VE2

VC2

Procedure 2-3 Vi(pk) = Vo1(pk) = Vo2(pk) = Av 1 = Av 2 = Av =

Q1 input wavefor m Q1 output wavefor m Q2 output waveform

Procedure 2-4 f (Hz) 30 Vo (V) Av 50 70 100 150 200 300

f (Hz) 400 600 800 Vo (V) Av Procedures 3-4 and 3-7 Zi = Zo =

1k

2k

5k

10 k

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Log Graph Paper


3 4

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LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 13 Direct-Coupled BJT Amplifier


Introduction ABJTdirectcoupledtwostagecommonemitteramplifiercircuitisconstructedandtested fordcandacperformance.Thedcconditionsthroughthecircuitarefirstchecked;thenthe ac voltage gain (Av) is investigated for each stage. The circuit overall voltage gain and frequencyresponsearealsoinvestigated.

Equipment DCpowersupply(0to25V) DCvoltmeter(0to25V) Oscilloscope Signalgenerator 0.25Wresistors68k ,47k ,39k ,5.6k ,4.7k ,(2 3.9k ) 25Vcapacitors(2 150 F),15 F,0.47 F LowcurrentgeneralpurposenpnandpnpBJTs(2N3904and2N3906) Circuitboard

Procedure 1 DC Conditions 11 Construct the circuit in Fig. 171. (This is the circuit in Fig. 1222 in the textbook.) Leavethesignalgeneratorandoscilloscopeunconnectedatthistime. 12 SwitchonthepowersupplyandadjustitsoutputforVCC 14V. 13 Measure VB, VE, and VC foreach stage and record the voltage levels on the labora toryrecordsheet.

Procedure 2

AC Measurements

21 ConnectthesignalgeneratorandoscilloscopetothecircuitasillustratedinFig.171. 22 Setthesignalgeneratorfrequencyto3kHzandadjustthesignalamplitudetogive a; 1VoutputatthecollectorterminalofQ2.

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VCC 14 V

R1 68k C1

R3 5.6k

R5 3.9k

C3 150 F

Q1 2N 3904 Q2 2N 3906 C4 0.47 F R4 4.7k C2 150 F R6 3.9k RL 39k

vs rs 600

15 F R2 47k

(a) Directcoupledtwostageamplifier To oscilloscope

(vi) (vo1)

Power supply


R1 R3 R5 C3
E B Q2 C

Signalgenerator C1

C2 R4

To oscilloscope

C B Q1 E

C4 RL

R2

R6

(vo2)

(b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 17-1 Two-stage direct-coupled BJT amplifier.

23 Sketch the input and output waveforms for each stage on the laboratory record sheet,andrecordthepeakvoltagelevels. 24 Adjust the signal frequency in steps as listed on the laboratory record sheet, taking care to keep the signal amplitude constant. Record the output voltage amplitude at eachsignalfrequency.

Procedure 3

Input and Output Impedances resistor(Ra)inseries

31 SetthesignalgeneratorasinProcedure22. 32 Temporarilydisconnectthesignalgeneratorandconnecta1k withthesignalgeneratorandthecircuitinput.

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33 CheckthatthesignalvoltageamplitudeappliedtoRa isthesameasthatmeasured inProcedure22. 34 Observe the amplitude of the circuit ac output voltage. Change the resistance of Ra asnecessarytogiveanoutputamplitudewhichishalfofthatmeasuredinProce dure22.RecordtheresistanceofRa asthecircuitinputimpedance(Zi). 35 DisconnectRa,reconnectthesignalgenerator,andadjustthesignalleveltothatmea suredinProcedure22onceagain. 36 Temporarily disconnect the load resistor (RL) and substitute a 3.9 k resistor (R b) forRL. 37 Observe the amplitude of the circuit ac output voltage. Change the resistance of Rb as necessary to give an output amplitude which is half of that measured in Proce dure23.RecordtheresistanceofRb asthecircuitoutputimpedance(Zo).

Analysis 1 FromtheresultsofProcedure13,calculatethecurrentlevelsthroughoutthecircuit. 2 Analyze the circuit to determine the dc conditions, and compare to the measured dcvoltageandcurrentlevels. 3 From the results of Procedure 23 calculate the voltage gain of each stage and the overallvoltagegain. 4 Analyzethecircuittodeterminetheacvoltagegainforeachstageandtheoverall acvoltagegain.Comparethecalculatedandmeasuredquantities. 5 FromtheresultsofProcedure24,plotthe(lowerend)frequencyresponseforthe amplifierandestimatethecircuitlowercutofffrequency. 6 Analyzethecircuittodeterminethelowercutofffrequencyforstage1andthecircuit lowercutofffrequency.Comparethecalculatedandmeasuredcutofffrequencies. 7 DiscussthecircuitinputandoutputimpedancesasmeasuredforProcedure3.

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Record Sheet L17-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 17 Procedure 1-3 Date Direct-Coupled BJT Amplifier VCC VB1 VE1 VC1 VB2 VE2 VC2

Procedure 2-3 Vi(pk) = Vo1(pk) = Vo2(pk) = Av 1 = Av2 = Av =

Q1 input wavefor m Q1 output waveform Q2 output waveform

Procedure 2-4 f (Hz) 30 Vo(V) Av 50 70 100 150 200 300

f (Hz) 400 600 800 Vo(V) Av Procedures 3-4 and 3-7 Zi = Zo =

1k

2k

5k

10 k

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Log Graph Paper


3 4

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3 4 5 6 7 891

3 4 5 6 7 891

David A. Bell

Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 14 SCR Characteristics and 90 Phase Control


Introduction The characteristics of an SCR are first determined by applying a constant anode voltage (VA) and increasing the gatecathode voltage (VGK) until the SCR switches on. The gate currentandvoltagearenotedattheswitchoninstant,andVAK ismeasuredafterswitchon. TheprocessisrepeatedwithdifferentlevelsofVA.AnSCR90phasecontrolcircuitisnext constructedandtestedbymonitoringtheacsupplyandloadwaveformsforvariouscontrol elementsettings.

Equipment Twodcpowersupplies ;(0to20V) Twodcvoltmeters(0to20V) DCammeter(0to100mA) DCammeter(0to20 A) Oscilloscope 115V,60Hzvariablevoltagetransformer(variac) 115V,60Hz,1:1isolatingtransformer 0.25Wresistors120 ,270 ,(2 1k ),1.5k ,2.2k 0.5Wpotentiometer1.5k 3Wresistor100 LowcurrentSCR2N5064 Lowcurrentdiode1N914 Circuitboard

Procedure 1 SCR Forward Characteristics 11 Construct the SCR circuit in Fig. 391a according to the connection diagram in Fig.391b. 12 Setbothpowersupplyvoltagestozero;thenswitchonandadjustVA to5V.Atthis timeVGK, IG,andIA shouldallbezero.

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A R4 1 k SCR1 R1 R3 1 k R2 270 V VGK

IA

A IG

V VAK V A

1.5k VG

(a)Circuit

Voltmeter(VGK) Ammeter(IG)

KG A

Bottomview 2N5064 Voltmeter(VAK)


A


Ammeter(IA)

A V COM A

V COM

Power supply(VG)

R4
A A G K

V COM A

V COM

R 1

R3 R2

SCR1


(b) Connectiondiagram

Power supply(VA)

Figure 39-1

Circuit for investigating SCR characteristics.

13 SlowlyincreaseVG untiltheSCRfires(IA suddenlyincreases).RecordthelevelsofIG andVGK at(orjustbefore)theinstantIA increases.(Itmaybenecessarytorepeatthe processseveraltimestogetaccuratemeasurements.Todoso,VGshouldbereduced tozero,andVA shouldbeswitchedoffandthenonagain.) 14 RecordVAK andIA whentheSCRison. 15 Reduce VGto zero; then switch VAoff and on, and again note the levels of VAK and IA. 16 AdjustVAto10V. 17 Slowly increase VG until the SCR fires again. Record IG and VGK as explained in Procedure13.RecordVAK andIA withtheSCRon.

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18 ReduceVGtozero,andthenswitchVA offandonagain. 19 AdjustVAtogiveVAK equalto15V. 110 Slowly increase VG until the SCR fires again. Record the IG and VGK once again as explainedinProcedure13.RecordVAK andIA withtheSCRononceagain. 111 Reduce VG to zero and reconnect the VGK voltmeter to measure VA. Then progres sivelyadjustVAto4V,3V,and2V,recordingVAK andIA ateachstep. 112 DisconnectthevoltmetermeasuringVAK;then,observingIA,slowlyreduceVAfrom 3Vtozero.NotethelowestlevelofIA thattheSCRconductsat(theholdingcurrent) beforeitswitchesoff.

Procedure 2

SCR 90 Phase Control Circuit

21 ConstructthephasecontrolcircuitshowninFig.392,keepingtheacsupplyoffand the variac set for zero output. (This is the circuit designed in Example 202 in the textbook.)

115 V 60 Hz

Isolating Variac transformer

R1 2.2k

SCR1 D1

R2 1.5k R3 120 (a)Circuit

RL 100

Variac Isolating transformer

R1

R2


D1

Vi To oscilloscope

SCR1
A G K


R3

VL

RL


(b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 39-2

SCR 90 control circuit.

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22 AdjustpotentiometerR2 forminimumgatecathodevoltage(VGK). 23 SwitchontheacsupplyandadjustthevariactogiveVi 30Vpeakasmonitoredon theoscilloscope. 24 Investigate the waveform (VL) developed across RL forvarious settings of R2.Note therelationshipbetweenVi andVL, andsketcheachwaveformontherecordsheet.

Analysis 1 PlottheSCRcharacteristicsfromtheresultsofProcedures13through110. 2 DiscusstherelationshipbetweentheSCRanodecathodevoltageandthegatecur rentrequiredtofiretheSCR. 3 ExplaintheresultsofProcedures111and112. 4 Notethemeasuredforwardonvoltage(VTM), thegatetriggeringcurrent(IG),and theholdingcurrent(IH),andcomparethemtothespecifiedquantitiesfortheSCR used. 5 Discuss the load waveform produced by the 90 control circuit and the effect of adjusting R2.Compare the range of waveform adjustment with that specifiedfor Example202inthetextbook.

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Record Sheet L39-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 39 Date SCR Characteristics and 90 Phase Control

Procedure 1-3 and 1-4 IG (VA = 5 V) Procedure 1-5

VGK

VAK

IA

VAK

IA

Procedure 1-7 (VA = 10 V) Procedure 1-10 (VA = 15 V) Procedure 1-11

IG

VGK

VAK

IA

IG

VGK

VAK

IA

VA VAK 4 V (V) IA (mA) IH =

3V

2V

Procedure 1-12

Procedure 2-4 R2(min) Vi

R2(max)

VL

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LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 15 SCR and TRIAC Control Circuits


Introduction AnSCR180phasecontrolcircuitis constructed,anditsoutput(load)waveformis com paredtotheacsourcewaveform.Thecontrolelementisadjustedtodeterminethemaximum and minimum angles of the output wave. The waveform developed across the capacitor inthecontrolcircuitisalsoinvestigated.ATRIAC180phasecontrolcircuitisconstructed andtestedinasimilarwaytotheSCRcircuit.

Equipment Oscilloscope 115V,60Hzvariablevoltagetransformer(variac) 115V,60Hz,1:1isolatingtransformer 0.25Wresistors1.5k ,2.7k 10Wresistor500 0.5Wpotentiometers10k ,25k 150Vcapacitors0.82 F,3 F Lowcurrentdiodes(2 1N914) LowcurrentSCRe.g.,2N5064 LowcurrentTRIACe.g.,2N6436 LowcurrentDIACe.g.,HS10 Circuitboard

Procedure 1 SCR 180 Phase Control Circuit 11 Construct the SCR 180 phase control circuit in Fig. 401, keeping the ac supply off andthe variac set for zero output. (This is the circuit designed for Practice Problem202.2inthetextbook.) 12 AdjustpotentiometerR1 formaximumresistance. 13 SwitchontheacsupplyandadjustthevariactogiveVi 70Vpeak. 14 Investigatetheloadwaveform(VL) developedacrossRL forvarioussettingsofR1 as listed on the laboratory record sheet. Note the relationship between Vi andVL, and sketcheachwaveformontherecordsheet.

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Isolating transformer 115 V 60 Hz

R1 10k

D1 R2

SCR1 2N5064 D2 RL 500 10 W

Bottom G A K view 2N5064

1.5 k C1 0.82 F VC1

Variac

(a)Circuit


Variac

Isolating transformer

R1

D1 R2 C1 D2

To oscilloscope

Vi

A G K

SCR1 To oscilloscope VL RL

(b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 40-1

SCR 180 phase control circuit.

15 Investigatethecapacitorwaveform(VC) developedacrossC1 forvarioussettingsof R1.NotetherelationshipbetweenVC andVL, andsketchthecapacitorwaveformon therecordsheet.

Procedure 2

TRIAC Phase Control Circuit

21 Construct the TRIAC phase control circuit shown in Fig. 402, keeping the ac supply off andthe variac set for zero output. (This is the circuit in Example 204 in the textbook.) 22 AdjustvariableresistorR1 formaximumresistance. 23 SwitchontheacsupplyandadjustthevariactogiveVi 115Vrms. 24 Investigate the waveform (VL) developed across RL for various settings of R1 as listed on the laboratory record sheet. Note the relationship between Vi andVL, and sketcheachwaveformontherecordsheet.

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RL 500

10W

R1 25k

R2 acvoltage 2.7 k source C1 3 F (a)Circuit

Q1 D1

2N6346

MT1MT2G

Bottomview 2N6346

HS10

RL

Variac Isolating transformer R1

To oscilloscope VL

R 2 D1 C1 Q1

To oscilloscope Vi

(b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 40-2 TRIAC phase control circuit.

Analysis 1 DiscusstheloadwaveformproducedbytheSCR180controlcircuit,anddiscuss theeffectproducedbyadjustingR1. 2 Compare the range of load waveform phase adjustment (in the SCR 180 control circuit)withthatspecifiedforPracticeProblem202.2inthetextbook. 3 Discussthecapacitorwaveform(intheSCR180controlcircuit)andexplainhow itisaffectedbyadjustingR1. 4 Discuss the load waveform for the TRIAC 180 control circuit and the effect that R1 adjustmenthasonthewaveform. 5 Compare the range of load waveform phase adjustment (in the TRIAC control circuit)withthatcalculatedinExample204inthetextbook.

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Record Sheet L40-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 40 Procedure 1-4 R1(min) Vi Date SCR and TRIAC Control Circuits

R1(max)

VL

Procedure 1-5 R1(min) VC

R1(max)

VL

Procedure 2-4 R1(min) Vi

R1(max)

VL

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LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 16 UJT and PUT Circuits


Introduction The characteristics of a unijunction transistor (UJT) are investigated by the process of setting the VB1B2 voltage at a fixed level and measuring the emitter voltage for various emittercurrentlevels.TheprocessisrepeatedforseveraldifferentVB1B2 levelstoobtaina family of characteristics. Two relaxation oscillators are constructed and tested, one using aUJTandtheotherusingaprogrammableunijunctiontransistors(PUT).

Equipment Oscilloscope Twopowersupplies(0to30V) Twodcvoltmeters(0to30V) DCammeter(0to5mA) 0.25Wresistors470 ,3.9k ,6.8k ,18k ,33k ,150k 0.5Wpotentiometers10k 30Vcapacitors0.05 F,1 F UJTe.g.,2N4949 PUTe.g.,2N6027 Circuitboard

Procedure 1 UJT Characteristics ConstructtheUJTcircuitshowninFig.411. Switchonthebaseterminalsupply(VBB) andadjustitto5V. Switchontheemittersupply(VE) andadjustittogiveIE 4mA. Measure the level of VEB1 when IE 4 mA and record it on the laboratory record sheet. 15 Keeping VBB constant, carefully reduce IE to each of the current levels listed on the recordsheetandrecordthecorrespondingVEB1 levels.(Itmaynotbepossibletoreduce IE to0.5mA.Inthiscasereduceittothelowestpossiblelevelgreaterthanzero.) 16 ResetVBB to10VandreadjustIE to4mA. 11 12 13 14

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R1 3.9k VS

IE A E

B2 UJT

VBB V

V VEB1 (a)Circuit

B1

Voltmeter (VEB1) Ammeter (IE) B2

E B1

Bottom view 2N4949 Voltmeter (VBB)

V A COM A

V COM

Power supply(VS)

UJT R1
B2 E B1

COM


(b) Connectiondiagram

Power supply(VBB) Figure 41-1 Circuit for determining UJT characteristics

17 RepeatProcedures14and15withVBB 10V. 18 ResetVBB to15VandreadjustIE to4mA. 19 RepeatProcedures14and15withVBB 15V. 110 ResetVBB to5VandreadjustIE tozero. 111 Slowly increase VEB1 tothe point where IE increases rapidly. Record VEB1 (the peakpointvoltage,VP, atthispoint.) 112 RepeatProcedures110and111withVBB 10V. 113 RepeatProcedures110and111withVBB 15V.

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Procedure 2

UJT Relaxation Oscillator

21 Construct the UJT relaxation oscillator in Fig. 412. (This is the circuit in Exam ple209inthetextbook.)

To oscilloscope VBB 25 V

R1 18k

R3 470

R2 R3 UJT
B2 E B1


C1 1 F

Q1

C1

Power supply(VBB)

(a) Circuit

(b) Connectiondiagram

Figure 41-2

UJT relaxation oscillator.

22 Switch VBB on and use the oscilloscope to monitor the circuit waveforms at the emitterandoutputterminals. 23 Sketchthewaveformsonthelaboratoryrecordsheetandnotethefrequencies.

Procedure 3

PUT Relaxation Oscillator

31 Construct the PUT relaxation oscillator in Fig. 413 using, 10:1 probes for the oscillo scope.(ThiscircuitissimilartothePUTcircuitusedinthebatterychargerinFig.2049 inthetextbook.) 32 Adjust the moving contact of potentiometer R4 approximately to the centre of its adjustmentrange. 33 Switch VBB on and monitor the capacitor waveform (at the PUT anode). Sketch the waveformonthelaboratoryrecordsheetandnotetheupperandlowerpeaklevels. 34 Adjust potentiometer R4 to each extreme of its range and measure the peak anode voltage at each position of R4.Record the peak voltage levels and sketch the wave formsonthelaboratoryrecordsheet.

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To oscilloscope

A G K

Bottomview 2N6027


C1 0.05 F R2 150k Q1 R3 6.8k R4 10k R5 33k VBB 12 V

R2R

C1
A G K

R4

Q1 R5

(a) Circuit

Power supply(VBB) (b)Connectiondiagram

Figure 41-3

PUT relaxation oscillator.

Analysis 1 PlottheUJTcharacteristicsfromtheresultsofProcedure1. 2 Calculatetheintrinsicstandoffratio( )fromtheresultsofProcedures111 through113.UseEquation209inthetextbook. 3 Comparethecalculatedvalueof withthespecifiedvaluefortheUJT. 4 Discuss the waveforms obtained for the UJT relaxation oscillator investigated in Procedure2.ComparetheoperatingfrequencywiththatcalculatedinExample209 inthetextbook. 5 Discuss the waveforms obtained for the PUT relaxation oscillator investigated in Procedure3.Comparethemeasuredpeakanodevoltageswiththemaximumand minimumpeakvoltagescalculatedinExample2010inthetextbook.

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Record Sheet L41-1


Record Sheet 1 Lab. # 41 Date UJT and PUT Circuits

Procedures 1-4 and 1-5 IE (mA) 4 VBB = 5 V VEB1 (V ) Procedures 1-6 and 1-7 IE (mA) 4 VBB = 10 V VEB1 (V) Procedures 1-8 and 1-9 IE (mA) 4 VBB = 15 V VEB1 (V) Procedures 1-11 to 1-13 VBB (V) 5 Vp (V ) Procedure 2-3

0.5

0.5

0.5

10

15

f=

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Record Sheet L41-2


Record Sheet 2 Lab. # 41 Procedure 3-3

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LABORAT ORY INVESTIGATION 17 Photoconductive Cell, LED, and Solar Cell


Introduction Aphotoconductive cell is connected to an ohmmeter and covered so that its dark resistance canbemeasured.Thecellisilluminated,andtheresistanceismonitoredasthelightlevelis varied.Inthiswaytheilluminationcharacteristicofthephotoconductivecellisinvestigated. Acircuit in which the light level on a photoconductive cell controls the current in a light emittingdiode(LED)isconstructedandtestedwithvariousilluminationintensities.Asolar cellisilluminated,anditsoutputvoltageismeasuredatvariousloadcurrents.Theprocess isrepeatedtoproducethesolarcellcharacteristicsfortwolevelsof illumination.

Equipment 2powersupplies(0to12V),(0to6V) DCvoltmeter(0to10V) 0.25Wresistors(2 10k ),270 Decaderesistanceboxorpotentiometer1M Photoconductivecelle.g.,CL5M2 Lowcurrentsolarcell 6.3Vlampandlampholder 60W,115Vlampandlampholder Lightemittingdiodee.g.,4300F 115V,60Hzvariablevoltagetransformer(variac) 115V,60Hz1:1Isolatingtransformer Circuitboard

Procedure 1 Photoconductive Cell Characteristic 11 Connect anohmmeter to measure the resistance of a photoconductive cell, as illus tratedinFig.421. 12 Switchtheroomlightsoffandcoverthephotocell.Measurethedarkresistanceofthe photocell,andnotetheresistancevalueonthelaboratoryrecordsheet.

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6.3 V lamp

Ohmmeter

(a) Circuitdiagram

Ohmmeter


Power supply(VS)

Photo 6.3 V conductive lamp cell


V COM

(b) Connectionarrangement

Figure 42-1

Investigation of photoconductive cell characteristics.

13 Connecta6.3Vlamptoapowersupply,switchon,andadjusttheappliedvoltage to6V. 14 Placethelampascloseaspossibletothephotoconductivecell.Recordtheresistance (RC)oftheilluminatedphotoconductivecellwith6Vappliedtothelamp. 15 Adjust the lamp voltage (VL) in turn to each of the levels listed on the record sheet andnotethephotoconductivecellresistanceateachvoltage.

Procedure 2 21 22 23 24

LED Current Control by Photoconductive Cell

ConstructthephotoconductivecellLEDcircuitshowninFig.422. SwitchVCC onandadjustitto12V. Switchtheroomlightsoff andcoverthephotoconductivecell. Monitorthetransistoremittervoltage(VE) andobservethelevel(brightness)ofthe lightproducedbytheLED.MeasuretheLEDforwardvoltagedrop(VF). 25 CalculatetheLEDforwardcurrentfromthemeasuredemittervoltage(IF VE/R3). RecordIF andnotetheLEDbrightnessasmaximum. 26 Connect the 6.3 V lamp to the power supply once again (as in Fig. 401b) and switchon.

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Power supply


R1 10k

VCC 12V D1


Circuitboard

R1 D1


C B Q2 E

Q2

2N3904 R3 270

Photo conductive cell Q1

R2 R3

Q1

R2 10k

V COM

(a) Circuit

(b) Connectiondiagram Figure 42-2 Photoconductive cell control of LED current.

Voltmeter (VE)

27 Place the lamp as close as possible to the photoconductive cell and determine the LEDcurrentlevelwith6Vappliedtothelamp.ObservetheLEDlightlevel.Record IF andyourimpressionoftherelativebrightnessoftheLED. 28 Adjust the lamp voltage (VL) in turn to each of the levels listed on the record sheet.DeterminetheLEDcurrentlevelateachlampvoltageandobservetheLED brightness.

Procedure 3

Solar Cell

31 ConstructthesolarcellandlampcircuitsillustratedinFig.423. 32 Adjust R1 to 1 M , switch the lamp on, adjust it to normal brightness, and bring it closetothesolarcell. 33 Switchtheroomlightsoff ;thenrecordthesolarcelloutputvoltage(VC). 34 AdjustR1 togiveconvenientvoltagesforVC,(0.5V,0.4,V,etc.,)tothelowestpossible outputvoltage.RecordVCandR1 ateachstepandcalculatetheIC levels. 35 Adjusttheacsupplytoreducethelamptoapproximatelyhalfitsnormalbrightness andreturnR1 to1M . 36 RepeatProcedure34toobtainthecorrespondingVC andIC levelsforthesolarcell withreducedillumination.

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Isolating transformer 115 V 60 Hz


Variac

115 V, 60 W lamp


V R1


Decade box


(a)Circuit


R1


Voltmeter (VC)

Variac

Isolatingtransformer

115V, 60W lamp

Solar cell
V

A V COM

(b) Connectiondiagram Figure 42-3 Investigation of solar cell characteristics.

Analysis 1 From the results of Procedure 1, plot an approximation of the photoconductive cellilluminationcharacteristics.Comparethedarkresistanceofthecelltotheresis tancewithmaximumillumination. 2 Comment on the LED forward current levels determined in Procedure 2 at maxi mumbrightnessandatminimumbrightness. 3 Using the VE measurements made in Procedure 2, calculate the photoconductive cellresistanceateachilluminationlevel. 4 Plotthesolarcellcharacteristicsfortwolevelsofilluminationfromthedataobtained inProcedure3.

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Record Sheet L42-1


Record Sheet Lab. # 42 Procedure 1-2 Procedure 1-5 VL(V) RC( ) 6 5 4 3 Date Photoconductive Cell, LED, and Solar Cell Dark resistance =

Procedure 2-4 and 2-5 VE

VF

IF

LED brightness maximum

Procedure 2-7 and 2-8 VL(V) 6 VE(V) IF(mA) LED brightness

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Laboratory Investigation 18
SERIES RESISTIVE CIRCUIT
Introduction Three measured resistors are connected in series, their total resistance is determined, and the circuit is then connected to a power supply. The voltage drop across each resistor is investigated and the current flowing is monitored at several points in the circuit. Shortcircuits and open-circuits are created to study the effects. A 1.5 V battery is connected alternatively series-aiding and series-opposing with the power supply to observe its effect upon the circuit current. Finally, a two-resistor voltage divider and a potentiometer are investigated. Equipment DC Power Supply(9 V, 50 mA) DC Ammeter DC Voltmeter Ohmmeter Resistors: R1 = 2.2 k, R2 = 1.5 k, R3 = 470 Potentiometer: 5 k Voltage cell: 1.5 V Circuit board Procedure 1 Resistors in Series 1-1 Using the ohmmeter, carefully measure the resistance of the three resistors: R1, R2 and R3. Record the measured value of each component along with the color coded value.

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Fig. L3-1 Three resistors connected in series.

1-2 Connect the resistors in series as shown in Fig. L3-1 1-3 Use the ohmmeter to measure the total resistance. Record the measured total resistance and the total resistance as determined from the color code. 1-4 Connect the power supply, voltmeter, ammeter and resistors as in Fig. L3-2.

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Fig. L3-2 Circuit diagram and connection diagram for series resistor circuit.

1-5 Adjust the power supply to give E = 9 V. 1-6 Use the voltmeter to measure the voltages V1, V2 and V3, [see Fig. L3-3(a)]. Record each measured voltage. 1-7 Successively connect the ammeter directly in series with each resistor in turn, [as illustrated in Fig. L3-3(b)]. For each ammeter position, carefully observe and record the measured current level.

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Fig L3-3 Voltmeter and ammeter connections for measuring resistor voltage and current.

Fig. L3-4 Power supply and voltage cell connected series-aiding.

1-8 With the ammeter connected to monitor the power supply current, temporarily short-circuit R3. Observe and record the new level of current indicated on the ammeter. 1-9 Open-circuit the connection between R2 and R3, and connect the voltmeter across the open-circuit. Record the measured voltage level. Also, observe and record the new current level indicated on the ammeter. - 90 -

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1-10 Remove the voltmeter and reconnect the components as shown in Fig. L3-2. 1-11 Connect a 1.5 V voltage cell in series with the power supply and resistors; first in series-aiding, then in series-opposing, (see Fig. L3-4). In each case carefully note the indicated current level. Procedure 2 Voltage Dividers 2-1 Connect resistors R1 and R2 as a voltage divider, as shown in Fig. L3-5. Again use the power supply to provide E = 9 V.

Fig. L3-5 Voltage divider circuit.

2-2 Measure and record the levels of voltages V1 and V2. 2-3 Using the ohmmeter, measure the resistance of the 5 k potentiometer between its two outer terminals. Record the measured resistance. 2-4 Measure the resistance from the center (moving contact) terminal of the potentiometer to one of the outer terminals. Adjust the potentiometer to its extreme clockwise position, and then to its extreme counter-clockwise position. Record the measured resistance values in each case. 2-5 Connect the potentiometer to the power supply as illustrated in Fig. L3-6(a). Set E = 9 V and connect the voltmeter to monitor Vo. 2-6 Carefully adjust the potentiometer to its extreme clockwise position, then to its extreme counter-clockwise position. Observe and record the maximum and minimum values of Vo. 2-7 Connect the resistor R1 in series with the potentiometer [as in Fig. L3-6(b)], and again apply E = 9 V. Repeat Procedure 2-6.

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Fig. L3-6 Potentiometer investigation.

Analysis 1 Analyze the three-resistor series circuit to determine total resistance, circuit current, resistor voltages, power dissipated in each resistor, and total circuit power. Record the calculated quantities together with the measured quantities.

2 Calculate the value of circuit current that flows when resistor R3 is short-circuited. Record this calculated value together with the current level measured in procedure 18. Briefly explain. 3 Discuss the voltage and current levels measured for the open-circuit condition in Procedure 1-9. 4 Determine the levels of current that should flow when the 1.5 V cell is connected in series-aiding and series-opposing, as in Procedure 1-11. Also, determine the voltage drop across each resistor for each of the two cases. Relate the voltage drop in each case to Kirchhoff's voltage law.

5 Calculate the voltage levels V1 and V2 for the voltage divider and potentiometer circuits investigated in Procedure 2. Compare the calculated and measured voltages. Calculate the power dissipated in each component.

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Laboratory Investigation 19
PARALLEL RESISTIVE CIRCUITS
Introduction Four measured resistors are connected in parallel, and the parallel circuit resistance is determined. The four (parallel-connected) resistors are then connected to the terminals of a power supply. The terminal voltage of each resistor, the supply current, and the current flowing in each resistor are all measured. An open-circuit is created to observe its effect upon the supply current. Finally a two-resistor current divider circuit is investigated. Equipment DC Power Supply (0 to 24 V, 50 mA) DC Ammeter DC Voltmeter Ohmmeter Resistors: R1 = 2.2 k, R2 = 5.6 k, R3 = 3.3 k, R4 = 4.7 k Circuit Board Procedure 1 Resistors in Parallel 1-1 Use the ohmmeter to measure the resistance R1, R2, R3, and R4. Record the measured value along with the color coded value of each component.

Fig. L4-1 Four resistors connected in parallel.

1-2 Connect the four resistors in parallel as shown in Fig. L4-1. Do not connect any battery or power supply at this time.

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1-3 Use the ohmmeter to measure the resistance of the four resistors in parallel. Record the measured resistance, and calculate the parallel equivalent resistance using the color-coded values.

Fig. L4-2 Circuit diagram and connection diagram for parallel-connected resistors.

1-4 Connect the instruments and resistors as shown in Fig. L4-2. 1-5 Adjust the power supply to give E = 24 V. 1-6 Use the voltmeter to measure the terminal voltage of each resistor, [see Fig. L43(a)]. Record each measured voltage. 1-7 Record the level of supply current indicated by the ammeter, then successively connect the ammeter in series with each resistor in turn to measure I1, I2, I3, and I4, [see Fig. L4-3(b)]. Record all current levels. 1-8 Reconnect the ammeter to measure the supply current once again. Open-circuit resistor R1, and carefully observe and record the new level of supply current.

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Fig. L4-3 Voltmeter and ammeter connections for measuring V4 and I4.

Procedure 2 Current Dividers 2-1 Connect the resistors R1 and R2 in parallel as shown in Fig. L4-4 and adjust the power supply to give E = 9 V. 2-2 Successively connect the ammeter to measure I, I1, and I2 in turn. Record each current level.

Fig. L4-4 Current divider circuit

Analysis 1 Analyze the four-resistor circuit to determine the parallel equivalent resistance, each resistor current, the power dissipation in each resistor, and the total circuit power. Record the measured and calculated quantities. Relate the measured current levels to Kirchhoff's current law. Convert each resistor to a conductance, then repeat the analysis of the four-resistor circuit to determine all current levels.

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Calculate the level of supply current that flows when R1 is open-circuited. Record the measured and calculated current levels.

4 Analyze the two-resistor parallel circuit to determine the total supply current, then use the current divider equation to calculate each resistor current. Tabulate the calculated and measured current levels.

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

Laboratory Investigation 20
SERIES-PARALLEL CIRCUITS
Introduction Five resistors are measured and then connected to form a series-parallel circuit. Each resistor terminal voltage and current level is carefully measured. The supply current is monitored, and the effect of open-circuiting and short-circuiting one resistor is investigated. Equipment DC Power Supply(15 V, 50 mA) DC Ammeter DC Voltmeter Ohmmeter Resistors: R1 = 4.7 k, R2 = 39 k, R3 = 27 k, R4 = 5.6 k, R5 = 22 k Circuit Board Procedure 1 Use the ohmmeter to measure the resistance value of each resistor. Record the measured and color-coded resistances. 2 Connect the components as shown in Fig. L5-1. Do not connect any battery or power supply at this time.

Fig. L5-1 Series-parallel resistor circuit.

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Use the ohmmeter to measure the total circuit resistance. Record the measured value.

Fig. L5-2 Circuit diagram and connection diagram for series-parallel resistor circuit.

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Connect a power supply, voltmeter, and ammeter to the circuit, as in Fig. L5-2.

5 Adjust the power supply to give E = 15 V. 6 Measure and record the terminal voltage of each resistor, [see Fig. L5-3(a)]. 7 Record the level of the current drawn from the power supply, then successively connect the ammeter in series with each resistor to determine the currents I1, I2, I3, I4 and I5, [see Fig. L5-3(b)]. Record all measured current levels.

8 Once again connect the Ammeter to monitor the supply current. Open-circuit resistor R3 and note the effect on the supply current. Short-circuit R3 and again note the effect on the supply current.

Fig. L5-3 Voltmeter and ammeter connections for measuring V2 and I4.

Analysis 1 2 Compare the measured values of current, voltage and total circuit resistance to those calculated for Problems 7-4, 7-10, and 7-16 in the text book. Calculate the level of power supply current that flows when R3 is open-circuited, and when R3 is short-circuited. Compare the calculated values to the measured current levels.

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

Laboratory Investigation 21
RESISTIVE NETWORKS
Introduction Three decade resistance boxes and two power supplies are connected together to form the network shown in Fig. 8-12 in the text book. Voltage and current levels are measured throughout the circuit. A power supply and decade box are connected to simulate a voltage source, and then to form a current source. In both cases, load resistors are connected to the source output terminals, and the output current and voltage are measured. Three decade resistance boxes are connected to alternatively form and Y networks. In each case the resistances between pairs of terminals are measured. Equipment Two DC Power Supplies(0 to 30 V, 100 mA) DC Ammeter DC Voltmeter Ohmmeter Three Decade Resistance Boxes(0 to 10 k, 20 mA) Procedure 1 Resistor Network 1-1 Identify the three decade resistance boxes as R1, R2, and R3, and set the resistance values to 120 , 240 , and 200 , as in Fig. 8-12 in the text book. 1-2 Identify the two power supplies as E1 and E2, adjust the voltages to 6 V and 12 V respectively, and connect up the circuit as in Fig. L6-1. 1-3 Using a voltmeter carefully check voltages E1 and E2 and adjust if necessary. 1-4 Measure voltage V3 and record it on the record sheet provided. 1-5 Use an ammeter to measure I1, I2, and I3. Record each current level. Procedure 2 Voltage Sources and Current Sources

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2-1 Adjust a power supply to give E = 1 V and connect a resistor RS = 100 in series with it to represent a voltage source, as in Fig. L6-2.

Fig. L6-1 Circuit diagram and connection diagram for resistive network measurements.

2-2 Connect a resistor RL = 10 k across the output terminals of the voltage source. Carefully measure and record VL and IL. 2-3 Calculate the values of IS and RS for the equivalent current source. 2-4 Connect the current source together with RL = 10 k as in Fig. L6-3. For the constant current generator use a 30 V power supply with an ammeter and a 2.7 k resistor connected in series with its output terminals. Adjust the power supply voltage to give the calculated current level.

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

2-5 Carefully measure and record the levels VL and IL.

Fig. L6-2 Voltage source and load resistor.

Fig. L6-3 Current source and load resistor.

Procedure 3 -Y transformation 3-1 Using three decade resistance boxes set at the appropriate resistance values, construct the delta network in Fig. L6-4, using the resistance valued from Example 8-6 in the text book (Rab = 500 , Rac = 400 , Rbc = 300 ).

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

3-2 With an Ohmmeter carefully measure the resistances between terminals A and B, A and C, B and C. 3-3 Reconstruct the circuit in the form of the Y network in Fig. L6-5. Set each decade box to the Ra, Rb, and Rc values calculated in Example 8-10. 3-4 Once again measure the resistances at terminals A and B, A and C, B and C.

Fig. L6-4 Resistor network.

Fig. L6-5 Resistor Y network.

Analysis

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

1 2

Compare the measured voltage and current levels from Procedure 1 to the values calculated in Example 8-3 in the text book. Compare the load current and load voltage measurements made on the voltage source to those made on the current source, as investigated in Procedure 2.

3 For the results of Procedure 3 compare the terminal resistance values for the and Y networks.

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

Laboratory Investigation 22
NETWORK THEOREMS
Introduction Three network theorems are investigated: Superposition theorem, Thevenin's theorem, and the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. In each case, resistances and power supplies are connected into the appropriate configurations corresponding to circuits shown in the text book. The voltage and current levels throughout each circuit are carefully measured for comparison to the values calculated in the book examples. Equipment Two DC Power Supplies(0 to 30 V, 100 mA) DC Ammeter DC Voltmeter Three Decade Resistance Boxes(0 to 10 k, 20 mA) Resistors: 330 , 560 , 680 , 820 Procedure 1 Superposition Theorem 1-1 Identify the three decade resistance boxes as R1, R2, and R3, and set them to the resistance values shown in Fig. 9-1 in the text book; 120 , 240 , and 200 respectively. 1-2 Identify the two Power Supplies as E1 and E2, adjust the voltages to 6 V and 12 V respectively, and connect up the circuit as shown in Fig. L7-1. Note that the ammeter is connected in series with R3. 1-3 Check the voltage levels of E1 and E2 and adjust if necessary, then carefully observe and record the level of current I3. 1-4 Disconnect voltage E2 and replace it with a short circuit [as in Fig. 9-1(b) in the text book]. Observe and record the level of current Ia. 1-5 Remove the short-circuit, and reconnect the voltage E2. Disconnect voltage E1, and replace it with a short-circuit [as in Fig. 9-1(c) in the book]. Observe and record current Ib.

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

Fig. L7-1 Circuit and connection diagram for Network Theorems investigation.

Procedure 2 Thevenin's Theorem 2-1 Reconstruct the circuit of Fig. L7-1 once again. 2-2 Connect a voltmeter and a load resistor RL = 330 across R3, as in Fig. L7-2. 2-3 Measure and record the level of the load voltage VL1. - 111 Copyright Oxford University Press, 2010

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

2-4 Remove the 330 load resistor and successively connect RL2 = 560 , RL3 = 680 and RL4 = 820 . In each case record the levels of VL2, VL3, and VL4. 2-5 Construct the Thevenin equivalent circuit in Fig. L7-3 using a decade resistance box for RS = 57.1 . Carefully adjust Eth to 5.71 V. 2-6 Successively connect load resistors RL1 = 330 , RL2 = 560 , RL3 = 680 and RL4 = 820 . In each case measure and record VL1, VL2, VL3 and VL4.

Fig. L7-2 Voltmeter and load resistor connected across R3.

Fig. L7-3 Thevenin equivalent circuit with load resistor.

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

3-1 Using a dc power supply and two decade resistance boxes, construct a Thevenin equivalent circuit with a variable load, as in Fig. L7-4. Set the voltage to Eth = 10 V, and the source resistance to Rth = 500 . 3-2 Connect a voltmeter to monitor the load voltage VL. 3-3 Adjust the load resistor through: 50 , 100 , 250 , 500 , 1 k, 2.5 k, and 5 k. For each value of RL measure and record the level of VL.

Fig. L7-4 Thevenin equivalent circuit with adjustable load resistor.

Analysis 1 2 Compare the levels of I3, Ia, and Ib measured in Procedure 1 to the calculated values in Example 9-1 in the text book. Compare the voltages measured in Procedure 2-3 and 2-4 to the corresponding voltage values measured in Procedure 2-6. Also use VL1 to calculate IL, and compare it to the value of IL calculated in Example 9-4 in the text book. From the results of Procedure 3, calculate the values of IL and PL for each load resistance. Plot the graphs of VL, IL and PL approximately to a logarithmic base of RL, (see Fig. 9-10 in the text book).

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

Laboratory Investigation 23
DC RC CIRCUIT
Introduction A capacitor and a resistor are connected in series to the terminals of a dc power supply via a switch. Voltmeters are connected to monitor the supply voltage, the resistor voltage, and the capacitor voltage. The times required for the capacitor voltage to reach certain predetermined levels are measured. Similarly, the resistor voltage change is timed. In all cases, the measured times are related to the circuit time constant. Equipment DC Power Supply(0 to 10 V, 100 mA) DC Voltmeter(10 V) Two Electronic Voltmeters (Analog or Digital)(10 V) Single pole switch Two 100 F Capacitors 100 k resistor(1/4 watt or larger) Stop watch Procedure 1 2 3 Connect the dc power supply, switch, 100 k resistor, and 100 F capacitor as shown in Fig. L14-1. Ensure that the capacitor is connected with the correct polarity. Connect the two electronic voltmeters to monitor the voltage across R and C, and the other voltmeter to monitor the power supply voltage. Set each meter to its 10 V range. With S1 open, adjust the power supply output to 10 V, and prepare a stop watch to measure the time required to charge the capacitor. (If a stop watch is not available, an ordinary wrist watch with a seconds hand or a digital watch with a seconds read out can be used.)

4 Close S1 and measure the time for eC to grow from 0 to 6.3 V, and the time required for it to reach 9 V. Record these times on the record sheet provided. 5 Adjust the power supply voltage to zero, and when all three voltmeters indicate zero open S1.

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6 Set the power supply voltage to 10 V and close S1 again. This time observe er. Measure and record the time for er to arrive at 3.6 V and the time taken for it to arrive at approximately 1 V. 7 With the power supply output still at 10 V open S1. Record the levels of er and eC. 8 Reverse the polarity of the voltmeter monitoring er. Adjust the power supply output to zero then close S1. Observe the indications of er and ec, and record the time taken for the voltage levels to fall to zero.

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Fig. L14-1 Circuit and connection diagram for investigating capacitor charging.

Replace C with two 100 F capacitors connected in parallel.

10 Repeat Procedures 3, 4, and 5. 11 Disconnect the two parallel-connected 100 F capacitors, and reconnect them into the circuit in series. 12 Repeat Procedures 3, 4, and 5 once again. Analysis - 117 Copyright Oxford University Press, 2010

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Calculate the time constant for the circuit tested in Procedures 1 through 8. Relate the time constant to the time required for eC to reach 6.3 V, and to the time for eC to reach 9 V. Using the various levels of voltage measured across er explain how the capacitor charge and discharge currents behave. Using the results of Procedures 9 through 12, calculate the capacitance of the two capacitors when connected in parallel and when series-connected.

2 3

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

Laboratory Investigation 24
OSCILLOSCOPE
Introduction Two sinusoidal voltage waveforms are displayed on an oscilloscope, and the effects of the focus, brightness and trigger controls are investigated. The peak-to-peak amplitude and time period of each waveform is measured, and the v/div and time/div controls are investigated. Finally, two out-of-phase waveforms are displayed and their phase difference is measured. Equipment Dual-trace Oscilloscope Two Audio Signal Generators(Sine Wave) 0.1 F capacitor 3.3 k, 1/2 W resistor Procedure 1 Setting the Controls 1-1 Switch on the oscilloscope and allow it to warm up for a few minutes, then set the instrument controls as follows: Control NORMAL TV TRIG SOURCE BA-SWP TIME/DIV TRIGGER LEVEL Position NORMAL INT SWP 1 ms (center knob calibrated) AUT

Channel 1 & Channel 2 controls: ACDC AC VERTICAL DISPLAY A and B V/DIV 1 GND Buttons Released 1-2 Two horizontal lines should now be displayed on the screen. If they are not present, adjust the POSITION and INTENSITY controls as necessary. 1-3 Adjust the FOCUS controls to focus each display to a fine line. Also, alter the INTENSITY controls as necessary to give reasonable bright (but not too bright) displays, and refocus if required. - 120 -

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Procedure 2 Waveform Display 2-1 Connect one of the signal generators to the CHANNEL 1 input of the oscilloscope. 2-2 Switch the signal generator on and set its output to a frequency of 250 Hz. 2-3 Adjust the output amplitude of the signal generator to give a display that occupies approximately four vertical divisions on the oscilloscope screen (like the top waveform in Fig. 17-20 in the text book). 2-4 Connect the other signal generator to the CHANNEL 2 input of the oscilloscope. Set its frequency to 750 Hz and adjust its amplitude to occupy approximately one and a half vertical divisions on the oscilloscope screen. Sketch the two waveforms on the record sheet. Note that it will be necessary to carefully adjust the frequency of one signal generator to keep the displayed wave from 'sliding off' to one side. This will not be necessary if one of the Signal Generators is synchronized from the other. 2-5 Investigate the effect of adjusting the VERTICAL and HORIZONTAL position controls. Procedure 3 Waveform Measurement 3-1 Without further adjustment, estimate the time period of each input wave in horizontal divisions. Using the TIME/DIV setting, calculate each time period in ms and determine the two input frequencies. Note that for accurate time measurement the vernier knob of the TIME/DIV control must be in its CAL position. 3-2 Investigate the effect of adjusting the TIME/DIV control. 3-3 Investigate the effect of adjusting the vernier knob of the TIME/Div control, then return it to its correct (i.e. calibrated) position. 3-4 Adjust the POSITION, TIME/DIV and V/DIV controls to expand one of the waveforms until one cycle approximately fills the screen, as illustrated in Fig. 1721(a) in the text. 3-5 Carefully measure the time period and peak-to-peak amplitude of the wave, using the methods illustrated in Fig. 17-21 and explained in the text.

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Fig. L15-1 Circuit and connection diagram for phase measurement on an oscilloscope.

Procedure 4 Phase Measurement 4-1 Connect the 0.1 F capacitor and 3.3 k resistor in series across the terminals of one of a signal generator, as in Fig. L15-1. 4-2 Connect the CHANNEL 1 input of the oscilloscope to monitor the waveform at the signal generator terminals, and the CHANNEL 2 input to monitor the waveform of the voltage across the resistor. 4-3 Set the signal generator frequency to 1 kHz, and adjust its amplitude control to give a waveform which approximately fills the top half of the oscilloscope screen.

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4-4 Adjust the Channel 2 VERTICAL POSITION and V/DIV controls , to give a display which approximately fills the bottom half of the screen. 4-5 Set the TIME/DIV control to 0.1 ms. Measure the phase difference between the two waveforms as illustrated in Fig. 17-22 and explained in the text. Analysis 1 Discuss the results of Procedures 1, 2, 3 and 4 in turn. 2 Referring to the controls of the oscilloscope estimate the lowest and highest amplitude waveforms that may be displayed. Also estimate the lowest frequency and highest frequency that may be displayed.

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

Laboratory Investigation 25
RECTIFIER VOLTMETER
Introduction An analog ac voltmeter is constructed using a bridge rectifier and a permanent magnet moving coil instrument. The voltmeter is tested by comparing its scale readings with a parallel-connected commercial ac voltmeter. Equipment Isolating Transformer1:1, 115 V Autotransformer115 V AC Voltmeter50 V PMMC Instrument with FSD = 1 mA Decade Resistance Box(0 to 100 k), 1 mA Four Low Current Semiconductor Diodes(such as IN914) Procedure Note that because a 115 V supply is used, extra care should be taken to avoid shock. 1 Check the mechanical zero of the PMMC instrument, and the zero of the voltmeter if an analog voltmeter is used. Adjust as necessary, then connect the equipment as illustrated in Fig. L16-1. Before connecting the ac supply, set RS to its maximum resistance value, and adjust the autotransformer for zero output,.

3 Connect the ac supply, switch on , and adjust the autotransformer to give exactly 50 V on voltmeter V1. This voltmeter is to be used as a reference instrument to calibrate the rectifier voltmeter. 4 Reduce RS until the PMMC Instrument indicates exactly full scale deflection. Record the resistance of RS. 5 Reduce the autotransformer output voltage in 10 V steps as measured on V1. At each step record the PMMC meter indication. Taking the PMMC full scale as 50 V, convert the recorded indications into equivalent voltages. 6 Readjust the autotransformer to give exactly 30 V on V1.

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7 8

Reduce RS until the PMMC Instrument indicates full scale once again. Record the resistance of RS. Reduce the autotransformer output in 5 V steps. At each step record the indication on the PMMC Instrument. Taking the PMMC full scale as 30 V, convert the recorded indications into equivalent voltages.

Fig. L16-1 Circuit and connection diagram for rectifier voltmeter test.

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Analysis 1 Analyze the 50 V rectifier voltmeter investigated in Procedures 3 through 6 to determine the meter resistance Rm. (Refer to Example 17-8 in the text book.)

2 Using the calculated value of Rm, determine the required multiplier resistance RS to convert the rectifier voltmeter to 30 V FSD. Compare this to the RS value determined in Procedure 8.

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

Laboratory Investigation 26
AC RL CIRCUIT
Introduction A sinusoidal signal is applied to a series resistive-inductive circuit, and the voltages developed across the resistor and inductor are investigated for amplitude and phase relationship to the input. A square wave input is next applied, and the inductor and resistor voltages are again investigated. Equipment Dual-trace Oscilloscope Low Frequency Signal Generator(Sine and Square Waves) 4 H Inductor(winding resistance less than 500 ) 4.7 k Resistor(1/4 W or larger) Procedure 1 2 Connect the 4 H inductor and 4.7 k resistor to the signal generator as illustrated in Fig.L17-1. [This is the same as in Fig. 19-15(a) in the text book.] Connect the oscilloscope to monitor the input voltage (E) and the inductor voltage (VL). The two ground terminals of the oscilloscope inputs should be connected to lower terminal of the inductor in the circuit diagram; that is, to the L terminal connected to the signal generator. Switch on the signal generator and set it to give a sine wave output with a frequency of 250 Hz. Adjust the signal amplitude to give waveforms which approximately fill half the oscilloscope screen.

4 Set the oscilloscope to trigger positively on the input waveform, and adjust the time base to display approximately one cycle of each waveform. 5 Measure the waveform amplitudes and phase difference (as explained in Section 17-6 in the text book). Enter the measured quantities on the record sheet.

6 Reconnect the oscilloscope to monitor E and VR.This time connect the two ground terminals of the oscilloscope to the top of R in the circuit diagram. - 129 Copyright Oxford University Press, 2010

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Repeat Procedure 5.

Fig. L17-1 Circuit and connection diagram for RL circuit investigation.

8 9

Switch the signal generator output to square wave. Observe the waveforms of E and VR on the oscilloscope. Carefully measure the waveform amplitudes and note their phase relations. Record the measured quantities and sketch the waveforms on the record sheet.

10 Reconnect the oscilloscope to monitor E and VL once more. Again connect the grounded input terminals to the lower terminal of L in the circuit diagram. - 130 -

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11 Sketch the waveforms, and carefully measure and record the amplitude and phase relationships of E and VL . Analysis 1 Use the waveform amplitudes and phase relationships Laboratory Investigationally determined during Procedures 1 through 7 to sketch the waveforms of I, VR, VL and E in the form illustrated in Fig. 19-15(b) in the text book. Sketch a phasor diagram for the RL circuit, using the measured values of VL, E, VR, and .

3 Briefly explain the waveforms obtained in Procedures 9 and 11.

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

Laboratory Investigation 27
AC RC CIRCUIT
Introduction A sinusoidal signal is applied to a series resistive-capacitive circuit, and the voltages developed across the resistor and capacitor are investigated for amplitude and phase relationship to input. A square wave input is then applied, and the capacitor and resistor voltages are again investigated. Equipment Dual-trace Oscilloscope Low Frequency Signal Generator(Sine Wave and Square Wave) 0.1 F capacitor 4.7 k resistor(0.25 W or larger) Procedure 1 2 Connect the 0.1 F capacitor and 4.7 k resistor to the signal generator as illustrated in Fig. L18-1. [This is the same as in Fig. 19-21(a) in the text book.] Connect the oscilloscope to monitor the input voltage (E ) and capacitor voltage (VC). The two ground terminals of the oscilloscope input should be connected to the lower terminal of the capacitor in the circuit diagram; that is, to the capacitor terminal connected to the signal generator.

3 Switch on the signal generator and set it to give a sine wave output with a frequency of 250 Hz. Adjust the signal amplitude to give waveforms which each approximately fill half of the oscilloscope screen. 4 Set the oscilloscope to trigger positively on the input waveform, and adjust the time base to display one cycle of each waveform. 5 Measure the waveform amplitudes and phase differences as explained in Section 17-6 in the text book. Enter the measured quantities on the record sheet. 6 Reconnect the oscilloscope to measure E and VR.This time connect the two ground - 133 -

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terminals of the oscilloscope to the top of R in the circuit diagram. 7 Repeat Procedure 5.

Fig. L18-1 Circuit and connection diagram for RC circuit investigation.

8 9

Switch the signal generator output to square wave. Observe the waveforms of E and VR on the Oscilloscope. Carefully measure the waveform amplitudes and note their phase relationships. Record the measured quantities and sketch the waveforms on the record sheet.

10 Reconnect the oscilloscope to monitor E and VC once again. Again connect the grounded inputs to the lower terminal of C in the circuit diagram. 11 Carefully measure the amplitudes and phase relationships of E and VC, and sketch the waveforms. - 134 -

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Analysis

Use the waveform amplitudes and phase relationships determined during procedures 1 through 7 to sketch the waveforms of I, VR, VC and E in the form illustrated in Fig. 19-21(b) in the text book. Sketch a phasor diagram for the RC circuit using the measured values of VC, E, VR and . Briefly explain the waveforms obtained in Procedures 9 and 11.

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

Laboratory Investigation 28
SERIES AND PARALLEL IMPEDANCE CIRCUITS
Introduction A series impedance circuit is constructed and supplied from a signal generator. An oscilloscope is used to measure the voltage at various points in the circuit, and to determine the phase angle of each voltage with respect to the supply. A parallel impedance circuit is also constructed and supplied from a signal generator. The oscilloscope is used to monitor the voltage drop across the resistive component of each impedance, and to measure the phase angle of each voltage with respect to the supply. Equipment Dual-trace Oscilloscope Low Frequency Signal Generator(Sine Wave) Resistors: R1 = 1 k, R2 = 820 (0.25 W or larger) Inductor: L1 = 0.1 H Capacitor: C2 = 0.2 F Procedure 1 Voltage Divider 1-1 Using an Ohmmeter measure the winding resistance of inductor L1. Enter the measured value on the record sheet. 1-2 Connect the signal generator and components as illustrated in Fig. L19-1. 1-3 Connect the oscilloscope to monitor the input voltage (Vi) and the voltage across resistor R2 (VR2 at terminals A and D), as illustrated. 1-4 Adjust the signal generator to give Vi = 10 V peak-to-peak and f = 500 Hz. 1-5 Carefully measure and record the peak-to-peak value of VR2 and its phase angle (2) with respect to Vi. 1-6 Reconnect the CHANNEL 2 input of the oscilloscope to terminal C. Measure and record V2 and its phase angle (1) with respect to Vi.

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1-7 Reconnect the CHANNEL 1, CHANNEL 2, and the ground connections of the oscilloscope to terminals A, C, and E as illustrated in Fig. L19-2. Measure and record the peak-to-peak value of R3 and its angle (3) with respect to Vi.

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Fig. L19-1 Circuit and connection diagram for series impedance circuit investigation.

1-8 Reconnect the oscilloscope CHANNEL 1 input to terminal B. Measure and record the peak-to-peak value value of VR1 and its phase angle (4) with respect to Vi.

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Fig. L19-2 Oscilloscope connections for measuring VR1 and V3.

Fig. L19-3 Circuit for ac current divider investigation.

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

Procedure 2 AC Current Divider 2-1 Reconnect R1, L1, R2, C2 and the signal generator as in Fig. L19-3 (and as illustrated in Fig. 20-10 in the text book). 2-2 Connect CHANNEL 1 of the oscilloscope to monitor supply voltage Vi, using terminal A as ground, (that is, ground the common point of R1 and R2). 2-3 Adjust the signal generator to give Vi = 10 V peak-to-peak and f = 500 Hz. 2-4 Using CHANNEL 2 of the oscilloscope, measure and record the peak-to-peak values of VR1 and VR2. Also measure and record the phase angles of VR1 and VR2 with respect to Vi. Analysis 1 For the AC voltage divider investigated in Procedure 1, calculate the current level from the measurement of VR2. Draw a phasor diagram for the circuit showing Vi, I, V1, V2 and the phase angles between them. For the AC current divider investigated in Procedure 2, calculate the values of i1 and i2. Draw a phasor diagram for the circuit showing Vi, i1, i2 and the phase angles between them. Mathematically analyze each circuit and compare to the experimentally determined results. Note that the resistance of L1 should be added to V1 to give the total value of resistance in series with inductor L1.

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Laboratory Investigation 29
SERIES RESONANCE
Introduction A series RLC circuit is constructed and supplied from a signal generator. An oscilloscope is used to monitor the supply voltage and the voltage across R, C and L in turn. The signal frequency is adjusted for resonance, and the component voltages are noted. The process is repeated at each of several signal frequencies to obtain a table of values from which graphs of VR, VC, and VL may be plotted versus frequency. Equipment Dual-trace Oscilloscope Sinusoidal Signal Generator200 kHz, 5 V output Inductor10 mH, winding resistance less than 30 Decade Capacitance(100 pF to 0.01 F), or precision 0.001 F capacitor Ohmmeter Resistor330 , 1/4 W or larger. Procedure 1 Use the Ohmmeter to measure the inductor winding resistance. Note this value on the record sheet.

2 Connect the resistor, inductor, capacitor, and signal generator as shown in Fig. L21-1. 3 Set the capacitor to 0.001 F, and the signal frequency to 50 kHz.

4 Connect the oscilloscope to monitor the signal generator voltage (V), and the resistor voltage (VR). For low oscilloscope input capacitance, a 10:1 probe should be used for the oscilloscope connection to R. Note that the two grounded input terminals of the oscilloscope must be connected to the bottom terminal in the circuit diagram; that is, to the common junction of the signal generator and R. 5 Adjust the signal generator voltage to exactly 5 V peak-to-peak, and then adjust the signal frequency (by small amounts) to give the largest obtainable voltage across R. Use the oscilloscope to determine the exact frequency (fr). Enter the measured frequency on the record sheet.

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Fig. L21-1 Circuit and connection diagram for series resonance investigation.

6 7

Check that V is exactly 5 V peak-to-peak, then measure and record the peak-to-peak value of VR. Without altering the supply voltage and frequency, interchange C and R. The Oscilloscope should remain connected so that it now monitors the input voltage and the capacitor voltage VC, and so that its grounded input terminals are connected to the common junction of the signal generator and capacitor.

8 Measure and record the peak-to-peak value of VC. 9 Without altering the supply voltage or frequency, interchange L and C. Once again, the Oscilloscope should remain connected so that it now monitors the input voltage - 144 -

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and inductor voltage, and so that its grounded input terminals are connected to the common junction of the signal generator and inductor. 10 Measure and record the peak-to-peak value of VL. 11 Set the Signal Generator to the following frequencies in turn: 0.25 fr, 0.5 fr, 0.8 fr, 1.25 fr, 2 fr, 4 fr. At each input frequency repeat Procedures 6 through 9. Record your results in tabular form on the record sheet. Analysis 1 Plot graphs of VR, VC, and VL versus frequency (as in Fig. 23-7 in the text book). Note that the frequency values 0.25 fr, 0.5 fr, fr, 2 fr, and 4 fr should be equally spaced on the horizontal axis to give a logarithmic base. From VR and R, calculate the current level for each frequency. Plot I to a logarithmic frequency base (to give a graph like that in Fig. 23-5 in the text book).

3 Calculate the resonance frequency for the circuit using the values of L and C. Compare this to the measured resonance frequency. 4 From the measured values of VL, VC, and VR at resonance, estimate the circuit Q. Also, calculate the circuit Q using Equations 23-8 and 23-9 in the text book.

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Electronic Circuits and Electronic Devices

Laboratory Investigation 30
PARALLEL RESONANCE
Introduction A parallel RLC circuit is constructed and supplied from a signal generator. The signal current and the inductor current are monitored on an oscilloscope, and the frequency is adjusted to obtain resonance. The effect of a damping resistance connected across the parallel resonant circuit is investigated. By setting the signal to several frequencies above and below resonance, a table is obtained for plotting a graph of current versus frequency. Equipment Dual-trace Oscilloscope Sinusoidal Signal Generator10 kHz to 400 kHz, 10 V output. Inductor10 mH, resistance < 100 Capacitor0.001 F, 20 V Ohmmeter Resistors100 , 1 k, 33 k, all 0.25 W. Procedure 1 2 Use the ohmmeter to measure the inductor winding resistance. Note the resistance value on the record sheet. Connect the equipment as illustrated in Fig. L22-1. The oscilloscope grounded input terminals should be connected to the common ground point as shown, and 10:1 probes should be used to give low oscilloscope input capacitance. Do not include the 33 k resistor at this time. Switch on the signal generator and adjust its output to give V = 8 V peak-to-peak and f 50 kHz on CHANNEL 1. Carefully adjust the frequency to obtain minimum voltage across R1. (Maximum impedance of the parallel LC circuit resulting in minimum supply current.) Measure the resonance frequency fr from the displayed waveform, and record the measured quantity. The signal generator amplitude control should be adjusted as necessary to maintain V = 8 V peak-to-peak.

3 4 5

6 Carefully measure and record the peak-to-peak level of voltage V1.

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Fig. L22-1 Circuit and connection diagram for parallel resonance investigation.

7 8 9

Temporarily short-circuit from R1, and reconnect the CHANNEL 2 input of the oscilloscope to monitor voltage V2. Carefully measure and record the peak-to-peak level of voltage V2. Remove the short-circuit from R1 and reconnect the CHANNEL 2 input to monitor voltage V1.

10 Connect the 33 k resistor in parallel with L and R2, as shown in Fig. L22-1(a). 11 Repeat Procedures 6 through 9.

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12 Remove the 33 k resistor and reconnect CHANNEL 2 of the oscilloscope to monitor V1 once again. 13 Set the signal frequency in turn to: 0.25 fr, 0.5 fr, 0.8 fr, fr, 1.25 fr, 2 fr, 4 fr. Measure and record the peak-to-peak level of V1 at each signal frequency. Analysis 1 Using the values of L and C, calculate the circuit resonance frequency and compare it to fr as measured in Procedure 5. 2 From V1 and V2 determined during Procedures 6 and 8, calculate the circuit current I and the inductor current IL; I = V1/R1, and IL = V2/R2. 3 4 5 Calculate the circuit Q from the levels of I and IL at resonance. Also, calculate the circuit Q using Equations 23-8 and 23-9 in the text book. Calculate the circuit impedance at resonance, using the values of supply voltage V and supply current I. Also, calculate the circuit impedance using equation 23-20 in the text book. From the results of Procedures 10 and 11, calculate the Q factor of the circuit when the 33 k damping resistor is employed. Also, calculate the circuit Q factor using Equation 23-25 in the text book. From each V1 level obtained in Procedure I3, calculate the supply current; I = V1/R1. Plot the graph of I versus frequency. The frequency values 0.25 fr, 0.5 fr, fr, 2 fr, and 4 fr should be equally spaced on the horizontal axis to give a logarithmic base.

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