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Experimental Designs ( Tutorials)

I. To test effect of 2 factors, pack design & price on sales of a toilet soap brand.a sample of 18 retail outlets was selected. They were exposed to three levels of pack designs blue, green and red and 3 price levels Rs8, Rs11 & Rs 14. The data collected is shown in Table 1 Table 1 Input Data for Experimental Design S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 The output of SPSS is shown in Table 2 Table 2 Source of Variation Main effects Pack design Price 2 Way interactions Pack Designx price Residual Total Sum of Squares 209305.556 12536.11 196769.444 9838.889 9838.889 34512.500 253656.944 DF 4 2 2 4 4 9 17 Mean Square 52326.389 6238.056 98384.722 2459.722 2459.722 3834.722 14920.997 F 13.645 1.635 25.656 .641 .641 Sig of F .001 .248 .000 .646 .646 Sales 500 440 360 300 280 250 200 150 250 600 450 510 400 350 300 250 275 220 Pack design 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Price 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3

Q1 Identify dependent and independent variables Q2 Identify the type of Design Q3 Formulate appropriate hypothesis Q4 Interpret the results? Solution Ans 1 1. 2. Dependent variable = Sales Independent variables = prices , pack designs

Ans 2 Factorial Design Ans 3 Hypothesis 1: The mean level of sales remains the same for all three levels of pack design (main effect 1) Hypothesis 2: The mean level of sales remain the same for all 3 levels of prices (main effect 2) Hypothesis 3: The mean level of sales remain the same for all combination of pack designs and price (interaction effect) Ans 4 We find significance of F values (P values) are as follows Pack design = .248 > 0.05, Price = .000 < .05 Pack design by price = .646 >.05

Accordingly price effect is statistically significant at 95% confidence level. Since P value is < .05, this means hypothesis No. 2 is rejected 2. Hypothesis 1 & 3 cannot be rejected as corresponding p values are greater than .05 3. We conclude that price alone has an impact as sales. Neither pack design nor combination of pack design with price has any significant impact on sales

II.

The Taj group hotel chain wants to test preference of the target customer (high income group) for 4 non vegetarian dishes. 28 customers were asked to give their opinion about the taste of the 4 common non veg dishes served to them on 10 point rating scale. The dishes were coded as follows CODE 1 2 3 4 DISH NAME CHICKEN PLATTER HONEY CHICKEN CHICKEN SPINACH TANDOORI CHICKEN

The data on rating given by 28 respondents is shown in Table 1 S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Dish Type 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Rating 6.00 7.00 8.00 5.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 8.00 8.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 6.00 6.00 5.00 7.00 7.00 5.00 6.00 6.00 7.00 6.00 8.00 7.00 6.00

The output of SPSS is shown in Table 2 Source of Variation Dish Type Error Total Sum of Squares 15.714 22.286 38.000 DF 3 24 27 Mean Square 5.238 .929 1.407 F 5.641 Sig of F .005

Q1 Identify dependent and independent variable Q2 Describe the type of Design Q3 Formulate the hypothesis Q4 Interpret the results

III. In the above example the location of the Taj Group Hotel was considered as an extraneous variable. Seven locations were used and coded as follows CODE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LOCATION CHENNAI BANGALORE MUMBAI NEW DELHI GOA KODAIKANAL JAIPUR

The data on rating, dishes & cities is given in Table 1 S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Dish Type 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Rating 6.00 7.00 8.00 5.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 8.00 8.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 6.00 6.00 5.00 7.00 7.00 5.00 6.00 6.00 7.00 6.00 8.00 7.00 6.00 Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The output of SPSS is given in Table 3

Table 3 Source of Variation Dish Type Location Error (Total)

SS 15.71 11.00 11.29 38.00

DF 3 6 18 27

MS 5.24 1.83 .63 1.41

F 8.35 2.92

Sig .001 .036

Q1 Identify the dependent, independent & extraneous variable Q2 Identify the type of design Q3 Formulate the hypothesis Q4 Interpret the results Ans 1 Dependent variable = rating , Independent variable = dish type, extraneous variable = location of the hotel Ans 2 Type of design randomized block design Ans 3 Hypothesis no 1 = The mean rating of the dish type is same for all 4 dishes Hypothesis no 2 = The mean rating of the dish type is same for all 7 blocks Ans4 Since P values of dish type(.001) as well as location(.036) are both less than0.05, we reject both the hypotheses & Conclude that i) Mean ratings given to 4 types of dishes are significantly different. ii) The locations have an impact on ratings.

IV) Analyse and interpret the following data concerning output of wheat for four varieties A, B, C & D obtained as a result of experiment conducted using a latin square design. Columns indicate four levels of moisture contents. Rows indicate four levels of soil fertility C A B D 25 19 19 17 B 23 D 19 A 14 C 20 The output of SPSS is shown in Table 1 Table 1 Source of Variation Between Columns Between Rows Between Varieties Residual or Error Total Sum of Squares 7.5 46.5 48.5 10.5 113.0 DF 3 3 3 6 15 Mean Square 2.50 15.50 16.17 1.75 F 1.43 8.85 9.24 Table value of F at 5% 4.76 4.76 4.76 A C D B 20 21 17 21 D B C A 20 18 20 15

Q1 Identify the dependent, independent & extraneous variable Q2 Identify the type of design Q3 Formulate the hypothesis Q4 Interpret the results