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INFANTRY 1792-1815
Published in 1984 by
Osprey Publishing Ltd
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Copyright 1984 Osprey Publishing ltd
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Horschrbcr, Peter
Prussian Line Inrantry 1792-1815- - (.\
series; 152)
I. Prussia. Amite Inrant!"y - Equipment History
I. Title II. Series
356'.11'0943 UD375G4
Filmset in Creat Britain
Printed in Hong Kong
Author's Dote:
Erralum - Prussian Light Infantry t792-18t5, ~ l A A
No. 149, colour plate H'2: gold :'\CO TTtSU should
not appear around the top edge or the collar, but
around the front and bottom edges only.
Prussiall LilleIIl/allfIJ' 1792-1815
Historiml Developme/lt
At the beginning ofour period, the battalions of the
Prussian Line usually fought in a linear formation
three ranks deep, their tactical objective being to
overwhelm the enemy with their superior rate of fire
before deciding the issue by a well-timed bayonet
attack. By the end of !his period, the preferred
formation for the Line baualions was the column,
twO half-companies wide and between ci In and 12
ranks deep. The responsibility for conducting [he
fire-fight to wear down the enemy was now given to
the skirmish elements and the artillery; the function
oCthe formed battalions was to prO\;cle suppon for
the fire line. and to conduct the decisive bayonet
A number of historians sec such a change as a
revolution in warfare, but it could be argued that
this is something of an exaggeration. Essentially,
therc was little difference between the battles of
1806 and thosc of ,8'3. In 1806, a fire-fight and
artillery bombardment wcrc used to soften up the
enemy in preparation for the decisive bayonet
charge by the formed troops, and in 1813 battles
consisted of the same phases. The major and most
significant difference was not so much in the face of
battle, but rather in the scale of warfare.
Frederiek the Great's system of warfare worked
well with armies of 25,000 men; but at Auerstaedt
thc Duke of Brunswick had problems controlling
and co-ordinating 50,000 men deployed largely in
linear formations, and the armies of 1813/15 were
often several times that size. Forming them up in
three-deep lines and co-ordinating their tactics
would have produced a staff officer's nightmare.
The increasing size ofarmies called for morc flexible
formations to be adopted by thc Line tToopS,
namely a mixture of lines and columns; and this
change was morc one of practical necessity than the
unwilling adoption ora 'new' system of warfare by a
conservative officer corps.

and NCO of Prussian

units, 1806. For ClIlmpaign see Plales C
and D. This illustration ;5 from 'Die preussisc:he
Annee "'on der Zeit des Grossen Kurfers.en bis tum Jahre
1806' (1820).
From I June 1787. an infantry regiment was to
consist of onc Grenadier Baualion and two of
.Musketeers, each of four companies. A company
consisted of 1'2 NCOs, 140 men and three
drummers. The ;'vi uskclcer Battalions carried twO
colours each. Each rcgimclll consisted of 55 officers
(colonel, licutcnalllcoionel, four majors, six full
captains, sixjunior captains, three adjutants and 34
subalterns); 144 NCOs (48 sergeants including 12
sergeant-majors, 36 senior corporals, 60 junior
corporals); three arLillcry NCOs and 5' gunners; 39
drummers (including the regimental and twO
battalion drummers) and six oboists; '4 lance
corporals; 1,320 privates, and 120 reserves. Each
company also had len SchUClzen (sec Prussioll Light
l'!fll1ltry 1792-1815, MAA No. 149).
At the beginning of the RcvolUlionary \Vars in
[792, the Line infantry was at the following
Guard and 52 Linc Regiments [12>539 mcn
52 Depot Battalions 34,164 men
In [794 two ncw infantry regiments werc raiscd;
onc more in 1797; onc in 1803) and onc in 1804.
From 1June 1799) each regimcl1l was to consist
of twO Musketeer Battalions off1ve companies each;
and two companies of Grenadiers, which were
joined with those of another regimel1l to form a full
The wartime strength of a :'''1 usketecr Battalion
was 22 officers; 60 NCOs; an arLiliery :'\CO and 17
gunners; a battalion or regimental drummer, 14
other drummers, and a bugler; 50 Schuetzen: 600
privates. 50 reserves and ten sappers. Each of the ten
platoons was made up of 20 files.
A Grenadier Batlalion had 18 officers; 56 KeOs:
an artillery NCO, and 17 gunners; a battalion
drummer) [I other drummers, a bugler and eight
fifers; 40 Schuetzen; 600 privates) 40 reserves and
eight sappers. Each of the eight platoons was made
up of 25 files.
In addition to the above, each regimcl1l had a
depot battalion which from sJanuary 1796 became
known as the '3rd. Musketeer Battalion', On
mobilisation, these wcre brought up to full strength.
A Cabinct Order of 5 July [B06 laid down the
orgalllsauon of an infantry regiment at three
o .
___-JJ'l. ,IJ
Privale and officer of Regimenl NO.12, from Ramm's
'Tabellarische Nachweisung vop allen Regimenler und Korps
der preussischen Armee' (Berlin, 1800). The
positiopipg of the toops and officer's lace on Ihese parade
uniforms is fairly clear.
battalions each of four companies, and two
companies ofgrenadiers. Only after the war of 1806
could this new organisation be achie\"Cd, and the
third battalion consisted of light infantry.
On the outbreak of war in 1806) the army
consisted of:
4 battalions Gliards-6 companies each
28 battalions Grenadicrs-4 companies each
I 12 battalions companies each
The regiments were named after their colonels-
in-chief, and at the outbreak of war) the following
Grenadier Battalions
No.24/35 Gaudi
No,28/so Borck
1\0.29/32 Hahn
:'\0.31/46 Jung-Braun
1\0.3347 Sack
1\0.37/57 Schack
:'\0.38,49 Loslhin
:'\0.39 KolJin
Graf Dohna
NO.45 Herwanh
1'0.48/59 Krafft
No.s2/58 Brauchitsch
NO.53/55 Crel)'
Private a.nd offieer in the 1800 parade dress of Regiment
Arnim (No.13)--from Ramm. Note the officer's white
No. 4/5+ Yieregg
5 '20 Hanstein
i'\o. 7/30 Schlieffcn
f\o. 8,42
:\"0. 94-t Hallmalln
X'0.IO'41 Borstell
1"\0.12,34 Huclsen
1':0.14 16 Fabecky
1':0. '7/51 Schmeling
No.18'27 Rabid
NO.19'25 Knebel
No.'23/26 Rcinbaben
NO.51 KaurIberg
:'\0.37 Tschepe
:\0.38 Pelchrzim
:'\0.39 Zastrow
NO.42 Ploetz
:'\0.31 Kropff
:\"0.32 Fuerst Hohcnlohe
X'0.3+ Prinz Ferdinand
:\"035 Prinz Heinrich
X'0.36 Puttkamer
)\0.43 Strachwitz
:'\0.44 Hagkcn
);0.45 Zweiffel
:'\0.46 Thile
;\0.47 Grawert
;";0.48 K urfucrst von
.\'0.50 Sanilz
XO.52 Reinhan
NO53 Jung-Larisch
Graf Tauentzicn
;\0S8 Courbicre
:'\0.59 Grar
:'\0.60 Chlcbowsky
Infantry Regiments
:'\0. I Graf Kunheim
2 Rucche1
;";0. 3 Renouard
4- Kalckreuth
5 Kleist
;";0. 6 Grenadier-
;";0. 7 Owslien
8 Ruets
9 chenck
:'\0.10 Wedell
:'\0.1 I Schoening
Herzog \'on
:"\0.13 Arnim
XO,I5 Garde
XO.16 Diericke
:'\0.17 Trcskow
Regiment des
Xo.19 Prinz \'on
Prinz Louis-
);0,21 Herzog von
NO.22 Pirch
NO.23 Winning
NO.24 Zenge

NO.26 AltLarisch
:\"0.27 Tschammer
The Grenadier Battalions, named aner their
commanding officers. were usually drawn from 1WO
regiments, hence the double number. At the
outbreak of war in 1806. the following existed:
No. 1/13 Prinz August
von Preusscn
No, 2/11
No. 3/21
The collapse of lhe army, the dispersal of its
personnel, and lhe dismemberment of lhe stale
from Stuucrheim
(previously 'vacant
from Diercke
from Hamberger
from Courbiere
see above
from Pommeranians
from 'vacant Ruets'
see above
N-V'"./ . J:.,''Y/yH; "'"H t ~ ~ N J.,
Crown Prince of Prussia's Regiment (No.r8j, 1797-from
Tbuemen. The private on guard duty is at the 'presellt arms',
which is acknowledged by the officer raising his hat. Note' thai
the officer wears the Pour It m/rilt. hanging much lower thao was
later common. His batman trails behind him, carrying his
coat. Colour Plate E shows the later uniforms of this regiment.
following the war of 1806/7 made it necessary to
completely fe-organise the army. from I January
1808, an infamry regiment was to consist of (wo
Grenadier companies, two Musketeer Battalions
and a Light (Fusilier) Battalion.
The six Prussian regiments-'vacant Ruechel'
(No.2), Prince Henry (No.1 I), 'vacant Besser"
(No.14), Dierieke (No.16), Hamberger (No.52)
and Courbierc (No.s8)-received six light bat
talions of the 1St and 2nd East Prussian Fusilier
Brigades, along with men from various srd
Musketeer Battalions to make up their strengths.
A Silesian Infantry Baualion was formed from
various Silesian and South Prussian troops, a Light
Battalion Schuler and Ruehle and the Fusilier
Battalion Danielewicz was re-formed into twO
companies. These troops were sent to Silesia.
In Pommerania, the Regiment 'vacalll Ruets'
(No.8) was joined with the Grenadier Baualion
''\'angenheim and the 1st Neumark Reserve
Two regiments were formed from the famous
garrison of Colberg \",hich, under Gneisenau's
leadership, had successfully withstood the French.
These were the Life Jnfantry Regiment and the
Colberg Infantry Rcgiment. Each received two
companies from the Grenadier Battalion "Yalden
fels. The Life Regimcnt also received the 2nd
Pommeranian and srd Ncumark Reserve Bat
talions and thc Light Battalion von Schill; and the
Colberg received the srd Musketeer Battalions of
the Regimellls Owstien (No,7) and 'vacalll Borcke'
(No'30), as well as Fusilier Battalion Moeller.
The remnants of the Potsdam garrison formed
the Battalion of Foot Guards.
At this time, there were:
612 officers and 20, I 78 men in Prussia,
222 officers and 8,201 men in Pommerania,
242 officers and 8,31S men in Silesia.
It was planned to organise the army intO six
divisions each containing four infantry regimentsj
therefore, from September 1808, they received
provincial names instead ofthe custOmary system of
names taken from their colonels-inchief. The
following infantry rcgimellls were founded:
1st East Prussian from 'vacant Ruechcl'
2nd East Prussian from Prince Henry
Prince Henry
3rd East Prussian
4th East Prussian
1st "Yest Prussian
2nd \Vest Prussian
2nd Brandenburg
lSI Pommeranian
Silesian Infantry
Howcver, the Convention of Paris of8 Scptember
1808 restricted the size of the army to a total of
42,000 men of which 22,000 were infantry. The
planned six divisions were instead reduced to six
brigades, and the 2nd Brandenburg Regiment was
In November 1808 the Silesian infantry were
organised into regiments as follows:
lSt Silesian bifallll)l Regiment from two companies of
lhe Grenadier Battalion Losthin (raised during the
previous war): the Silesian Infantry Battalion; the
halfstrength Fusilier Battalion Danielewicz; the
Xational Battalions Hahn (from June 1808,
"Dreslcr') and Falkenstein from October 1808,
"Count Hertzberg': and the 3rd
Battalion of Regiment Sanitz XO.iO" The light
battalion was fonned from the Battalion Schuler
and two companies of the ':\"ationaIJaeger Corps'.
21Id Silesian Infantry Regiment from the other two
companies of Losthin; the 3rd, 4th and ith
Battalions of Alvcnslcbcn (No.33); the 3rd Bat
talion of Pelchrzim (No.38); the 3rd and 4th
Battalions of Grawen (No'47); and the National
Battalion Glan. The light battalion was formed
from the ten remaining companies oflight infantry.
The six peacetime brigades were organised as
East Pruss;an Bngade
1st East Prussian Grenadier Battalion
1st East Prussian Infantry Regiment (No.1)
2nd East Prussian Infantry Regiment (No.3)
East Prussian Cuirassier Regimelll (No.2)
Lithuanian Dragoon Regiment (No.3)
1St Life Hussar Regiment (1'\0.1)
IloeSl Prussian Brigade
2nd East Prussian Grenadier Battalion
3rd East Prussian Infantry Regiment 1\0.4
4th East Prussian Infantry Regiment
2nd \Vest Prussian Dragoon Regiment NO.4
2nd Life Hussar Regiment (No.2)
1st Uhlan Regiment
Pommeranian Brigade
Pommeranian Grenadier Battalion
1st Pommeranian Infantry Regiment No.2
Colberg Infantry Regiment (No.lo
Queens Dragoon Regiment :"J"o. I
Brandenburg Dragoon Regiment :\0.5
Pommeranian Hussar Regiment NO.5)
Brandenburg Brigade
Foot Guard Regiment (No.8)
Guard Jaeger Battalion
Life Grenadier Battalion
Life Infantry Regiment (Ko.g)
Regiment Garde du Corps
Life Uhlan Squadron
Brandenburg Cuirassier Regiment (:"10.4
1st Brandenburg Hussar Regiment (NO.3
A Prussian aLrtride bo..: of aboul 1800, with a bran plale on
the flap bearin& a fairly crudely .Iamped eagle relief.
2nd Brandenburg Hussar Regiment (No.7)
Lower Silesian Brigade
West Prussian Grenadier Battalion
1St West Prussian Infantry Regiment (No.6)
2nd \\'est Prussian Infantry Regiment (1'o.7)
East Prussian Jaeger Battalion
1st \rest Prussian Dragoon Regiment (1'\0.2)
;'\;eumark Dragoon Regiment (No.6)
2nd hlan Regiment
Upper Silesian Brigade
Silesian Grenadier Battalion
1st Silesian Infantry Regiment (No.1 I )
2nd Silesian Infantry Regiment (No.1 2)
Silesian Schuetzen Baualion
Silesian Cuirassier Regiment (No. I)
1St Silesian Hussar Regiment (NO.4)
2nd Silesian Hussar Regiment (:"10.6)
The numbers given in brackets after the regiments
tended not to be used in practice: usc of the
provincial name alone was preferred. The fact that
a number of regiments appear in brigades other
than those of their province was due to the
organisalion caused by the Treaty of Paris.
Russia 18]2-13
Some 14,000 infantry went wilh the Auxiliary
Corps of the Grande Armee to Russia in 1812. This
consisted of ad hoc regimentS, assembled out of

. . ? ~ /NYI / ~ ~ " / " / I / I /

(. f"//,, /h'7' I',oN /
Tile Commoll Soldier
One feature of cvcry bailie fought by the Prussian
Army in the Rc\"olutionary and Napoleonic \\'ars
was the determined and bloody naLUre of the
fighting. The fighting spirit and ability of the
infantry remained consistcl1lly high throughout this
period. Yet a number ofhislOrians divide the army
into two periods: that of 1806 and earlier they
describe as a 'mercenary army', while that of 1813 is
seen as a 'national army". Although there were
indeed somc dirrerences between the twO, they were
not as great or as radical as some would have us
Berg Infantry Regiments
German Legion, formerly the
RussoGerman Legion
-from men of the Elbe, Westphalian
and Saxon militia. Thc Saxons in
this regimenl mutinied and so il
was broken up and reformed in
November 1815.
r\0.28 }



2 foot Guard RegimentS}. 1 f 8
. . In a lota 0 1
2 GrenadIer RegIments b' d
R' ngaes
32 lIle eglments
This was accomplished as follows:
On 14 October 1814, the six Grenadier Ballalions
were organised into two regiments named after the
King of Prussia's allies, Czar Alexander of Russia
and Emperor Francis of Austria. The 'Kaiser
Alexander' Grenadier Regiment was formed from
Ihe Life and ISl and 2nd East Prussian battalions;
the 'Kaiser franz' from the Pommeranian. \Vest
Prussian and Silesian.
The new infantry regiments were formed as
:'\os.13 to 24-Rcser\"e Infantry Regiments I to
Luctzow's Infantry
-Elbc Infantry Regiment
Reiche's Jaeger, Hcllwig's In-
fantry, Reserve Battalion of the
Elbe Regiment, jth Replacement
banalions combined from the Line regtments as
I-I I II SI Easl Prussian. I h2lld East Prussian.
Fus/lst East Prussian
:\'0.2-I'3rd East Prussian. I & Fus 4th East
II 1st Pommeranian, I Colberg, Fus,. lSI
XO.4-Life Regiment
.\"0.5-1 1St \rest Prussian. 1 & Fus/2nd \\'est
1St Silesian, II & Fus/2nd Silesian
NB: I:z: 1St Batallion. II = 2nd Battalion,
Fus = Fusilier Light Battalion
Each Battalion consisted of jS8 officers
and men; each Fusilier Battalion, 762.
The gala uniform of Regiment No.t8-now the King's
Regimenl-in 180,;. in another plate by Thuemen. Note the
different 'prese.nt arms' positions adopted by the officer, the
NCO(left background, with ,ponloon) and the privates, and cf.
Plate E.
On mobilisalion in spring 1813. the Line battalions
wcre brought up to a strength of 801 officers and
men, the grenadiers to 805. A number of reserve
battalions were formed based around the cadres of
trained men builL up using the 'Kruemper' system.
The restrictions of the 'Canton' system of recruit
ment were lifted on 9 February 1813 and, in errect,
universal conscription was introduced. A militia
was founded on 17 March. The Prussian Army had
thus become a 'mass conscript army'.
During the Armisticc ofPlaeswitz in the summer
of 18 I 3 the Foot Guard Rcgiment was removed
from the Line, causing thc regimcJ1ls below it to be
re-numbered, and allowing a new Brandenburg
Infantry Regiment (NO.12 to be formed from the
first two reservc battalions of the Life Regiment and
the 3rd Battalion of the 1St \Vest Prussians. Asecond
regimelll of Foot Guards was raised from the
'Normal' Infantry Battalion a drill demonstralion
unit raised in 1811 ,the 1St Battalion ofthe Colberg
and the Fusilier Battalion ofthc Life Regiment. The
latter t\\'o battalions were replaced from various
reserve Units.
After the downfall of :\apolcon Bonaparte in
1814, the army underwent a major re-organisation.
The planned strcngth of the infantry was to be:
There were indeed a number of so-called
'foreigners' in the army, especially prior to 1806;
but what should be borne in mind is that every non-
Prussian German was a 'foreigner', whereas every
conscript from the newly-acquired Polish provinces
was a 'native'. Moreover, the recruitment of
'foreigners' was often a great boon to the Prussian
army, and a number of them wcre amongst its most
famous leaders-e.g. Bluecher, Scharnhorst and
Gneisenau. Another point to consider is that
throughout this entire period the Prussian army,
consisting mainly of Germans and Poles, was much
more of a 'national' army than Francc's Grande
Armee with its Frenchmen, Hollanders, Germans,
Poles, Italians, Illyrians, and so on. Even in 1806
the Prussian soldiers had more of a 'national cause'
to fight for than Napoleon's troops.
Although there certainly was a spirit of national
uprising in Prussia in 1813, this did not result in a
radical alteration in the outlook of the common
soldier. As Yorck said: 'What is said about the "old"
army of 1806 is not well thought out, but rather a
miserable rehash of an old song which places the
misfortune of the state in the formation of the army.
The evil was at quite another level. The foreigners
were nOt as bad as the learned gentlemen believe,
and I very much doubt that the Rhineland or Posen
militia would evcr be better.'
Tile Officer Corps
Some writers tend to draw a sharp line ofdistinction
between the officer corps of 1806 and that of 1813,
lamenting the old age and conservatism of the
former and praising the reforming spirit of the
latter. There was in fact very little difference
between the officer corps of 1806 and that of 1813.
All thc officers holding the rank of captain and
above in 1813 had served in 1806, as had most of the
Some reforms had been made in the wake ofJena
and Auerstaedt, notably improved access to the
officer corps for the middle classes by means of
examination. It took several decades to make any
noticeable changes to the fabric of the officer corps.
which remained dominated by the nobility.
The age of the officer corps is also an issue which
is generally misunderstood. The advanced age of
the Prussian generals is usually seen as a major cause
ofdefeat in 1806, and their ages are often contrasted
with a more youthful French marshalate. It is true
that :"Japoleon's 37 )'ears made him a stripling in
comparison with the septagenarian Duke of
Brunswick: but that is far from the entire picture.
The youngest senior commander on either side was
a Prussian, Prince Louis Ferdinand. Of the I I
senior commanders in 1806, three died during the
campaign,just onc was pensioned off, and four held
commands at a later date. The scnior commanders
of 18 I 3 were not much younger than in 1806 and in
some cases, such as Bluecher and Tauentzien, they
were older. The main problem with aged officers
was not faced by the field army, but rather by the
fortress garrisons. A number of their commanders
were bordering on senility, and surrendered to
small French forces without offering resistance.
It should also be pointed out that other than the
youthful marshalate unique in Europe, the French
officers were themselves no striplings. In 1805 the
average age of French colonels was 39, captains
likewise 39, lieutenants 37 and sOlls-lieu/manls 32.
The contrast between the officer corps of the French
Army and that of the Prussians was not as great as
some would appear to think, and was hardly
enough to show up tactically.
Drillalit! Tactics
The basic documents which governed infalllry drill
and tactics in the period 179'2 to 1815 were the Drill
Regulations of I 788 and 1812. Bet ween these dates a
number of additional instructions were issued. The
essemial difference between the earlier and later
regulations was that the former emphasised the
deployment of a battalion in a linear formation
whereas the lauer favoured the column, although
not exclusively.
The elementary evolutions-wheeling, turning,
arms drill, etc.-remained virtually unchanged
throughout this period. The rate of march generally
used was 108 paces per minute, although 75 was
used on certai n occasions.
Until 1806, emphasis was placed on lhe rale of
fire, and the Prussian infantry was reputed to have a
, f : . e n ~ ; : ~ ~ ~ . :f6'ukul'/t-''''
It. Tb"edlen plate showins the Grenadier Guard BattaliOD
(No.6) in 1806: offir, NCO and private. The NCO has Ulra
lace on the front of hi. 11lftie, and the usual cane hangs from a
hutton. The private is at the 'shoulder anns'.
rate offire three times that of the French thanks to a
suitably designed weapon and special training. As
well as volleys, battalions could also engage in so-
called 'battle fire', i.e. independent fire by file with
the first and second rank alternating. The order to
cease fire was given by means of a long drum roll
and a bugle calL In defence against cavalry: cvery
Officer, NCO and privale oflhe Fool Guard Hallalion, 11kry, in
parade dress-from Thuemen. A slriking change in unifonn
styles is evident when one compares this with Ihe plate of the
Grenadier Guard BallalioD in the pre,ious year. S ~ Plale F.
two platoons alternated their fire. The front rank
would kneel, presenting their bayonets, while the
rear two ranks fired. Prior to the introduction of the
new rcgulations volleys wcre fired by all three ranks,
with the front rank kneeling. Thereafter. only the
front twO ranks were to fire, both standing. The
third rank. when not deployed for special use, did
not participate in volley firing.
Before lBog the favoured grand tactical for
mation, that is for brigades and divisions, was the
deployment of the battalions in echelon. As the
. ~ / t ' l / i III . 4-0'1
Front, inside, and rear views ofa surviving Prussian shako of
1808 13: one of,ery few which fnay niJI be ellam.ined. It lacks
rhe replatioD while band round lhe lOp, and t.he polDpon.
Alt.hougb probably a Fusilier shako, il could h.,'e bf'f'n WOrD by
almOSI anybod,-wartilDe conditions crealed lDany anom
alies. A pull-cord adjulilf'd the nel liaer 10 fillbe head, and in
t.he rear viewean be seen lhe buckled strap which adjuSlf'd lhe
OUlfiide circulDference. (Bluecher MU5f'UID, Kaub).
three-deep line was the formation used almost
exclusively on the field of battle, deploying an entire
brigade or division with all the battalions drawn up
next to each other would ha\'c produced one long
line which would havc been difficult to manoeU\Te
and keep aligned. It was thus far easier to deploy the
twO battalions ofa regiment next to each other. and
then havc the remaining regiments form up thus
either to the left or right and to the frollt or rcar. It
was standard praClice to secure both Aanks either
with ca,-alry and artillery or with a natural obstacle
such as a wood or village. See the accompanying
diagrams for examples of echelon altacks,
The main disadvantage with the echelon
formation was that ifits conStituelll battalions were
not properly co-ordinated, then it was likely that
they would be defeated in detail. One of the lessons
of the double defeat of Jena and ,\uerstaeclt in
October 1806 was that the command structure at
brigade and divisional le\'eI did not function well.
This \\'as due largely to the relative inexperience of
the responsible officers. By way of illustration. it
would be convenient to refer to the relcvant section
of a report made by an officer present, Col. von
Elsner, commander of the Duke of Bruns\\ick's
Regiment al Aucrstaedt:
'. , . \\'e knew nothing about the disposilion of the
enemy or lhe terrain. Gaping holes appeared
between the battalions and regiments, I dealt with
thedcplo)ment of the 2nd Battalion to the len of the
yillage of Rchhausen. and then had to hand it owr
to itS commander SO that I could bring up the 1st
Battalion_ I advanced into the abo,"C yillage--to the
front of me, a deep, sunken road and had to elller
the village with a right turn OIllO a footpath,
Deploying to either side of a ridge. the battalion,
when I last saw the enemy's position, had to make a
quarter turn to the teft to get an enemy square to its
front. I moved to the left against batlalions partly
already forced back and partly still advancing: and
undertook a number of unfortunately isolated and
totally umupported attacks, which \\ere point!
and unco-ordinatcd and, as a consequence.
unsuccessful. The whole banalion was burning with
eagerness to get stuck into the enemy. but on no
single advance was it supported by any of the
neighbouring banalions. It undertook se\'eral
Normal Inraalry Baualioa, 1811: aD NCO, privates. aDd aD
all On Note the way that ra..ak.
attacks like this; bUl, at the point of making lhe
bayonct chargc, lacking any support at all, it had to
fall back. This was always accomplished calmly and
in good order, although accompanied by a
murderous fire.'
It can be seen from this report how time and
again Elsncr stresses thal he was left out on a limb



when coordinated actions could well have brought

about a sllccessful attack. It can also be seen from
this report that the major problem this officer had
was not caused by the linear formation as such, but
by a failure of the command structure.
The lessons of the 1806 campaign were
considered and analysed by the Re-
organisation Committee; and on 17 July 180g, for
the first time ever, an Instruction on tactics for
brigades was issued. (I'\ot to be forgotten here is that
by this time, a Prussian brigade was the equivalent
of a division in mOst armies.) This was later
incorporated into the 1812 Regulations. The echelon
of battalions in line was abandoned in favour of a
'chequer-board' formation of battalions in column
and line. A Prussian brigade from 180g to 181S
consisted of three main battle elements, namely the
skirmish line, the main battle line and the reserve.
The wartime brigades of 1812 to 1815 varied in
strength and composition according to circum-
stances and conditions, but their tactical deploy-
ment followed the principles of the 180g Instruction
and the 181'2 Regulations.
The four brigades of which an army corps tended
to consist were used in a similar fashion, that is as a
colours ofLbe FOOl Guards in tbe courcyard
of palace in Koenigsberg, l808-by Richard Sf,e
also F.
feilll, a main attack and a reserve. This is explained
in the Instruction of I 0 August 18'3. One brigade was
to attack the enemy's flank to draw his attention.
The reserve artillery would be concentrated at the
point of the main auack, which would be made by
one or two brigades. The fouflh would be the
reserve, and was used where necessary.
The formations adopted by the battalions within
a brigade depended largely on the role the brigade
was to play in the attack. The feint would be
required to attract the enemy's attention and hold it
until the main anack got under way. To do so it
would need to maintain a sustained fire-fight, and
thus deployed a disproportionately large number of
skirmishers. Initially the Fusilier Battalions would
deploy illlo line and send their skirmishers forward
to start the fire-fight. Other battalions from the
brigade would SUppOrl and replace them as
required, depending on the duration and ferocity of
the fire-fight.
The brigades involved in the main attack would
I -
deploy their light baltalions in skirmish order, but
would tend to keep the remainder formed in close
order column so that they could be used for bayonet
charges once the enemy showed signs of wavering.
Should a larger skirmish element be required, then
the skirmish platoons of the Third Rank of me Line
baltalions were expected to provide it. for a fuller
explanation of Prussian skirmisher tactics, see i\IAA
No. 149. Pmssian Light bifontry /792-/8/5.)
The reserve would tend to usc most ifnot all ofits
battalions in column, as its function was
usually to close the battle and drive home the
successful main attack.
A number of diagrams are reproduced here, to
explain graphically the tactics used in the latter part
of the :'\apoleonic \\'ars.
The tactics used at brigade and corps level from
180g were clearly a major advance over the
confused manoeuvres of 1806. However, some
historians, notably the Freiherr von der Goltz in his
work Rossbach Imd Jena, express the view that too
great an emphasis was placed on the banalion
column from 1808, and that many of the
advantages of the line, notably its greater firepower,
were forgonen. Perhaps he is right when he argues
that what was really needed was to integrate the
skirmishers with the close-order troops. and that
this could have been done without abandoning the
linear formation. To fa\our the column and
skirmisher tactics may well have been to 'throw out
the baby with the bathwater'.
Frederick the Great was succeeded on the throne in
1786 by Frederick William II, who started to
institute a number ofchanges in the uniforms of the
From 1788, the tricorn worn by the ),[usketeers
and the mitre.cap of the Grenadiers were replaced
bya hat with twO flaps known as the 'casquet'. The
flaps were edged with a narrow white wool trim and
fastened by cords to a button on top of the hat, and
thus could be lowered in bad weather, although this
was not often done. On the front flap was a brass or
silver badge, depcndingon button colour. known as
the 'HulSchilc!' . That of the Grenadiers
FOOl Guard Resiment, 1812: officer in undress, officer in full
dre55, privale5 and NCO in parade dre55-from Thuemen .se.e
.bo Ptale F.
was in the form ofa grenade, that ofthe
the royal monogram 'F\\'R II' . There was also a
small plume on the hat, although, as a distinction,
the Grenadiers had a white plume of artificial
fealhers instead.
Hairstyles also changed. The queue was shor-
tened and now only reached lO lhe middle of the
back. The practice of powdering the hair fell inlO
disuse except for parades.
Officers retained their tricoms, and from
December 1794 started to wear black cockades on
them. From 1795 they had mixed silver-
black cords.
The dark blue tunics were cut in a more
comfortable r.'1shion, and had narrow lapels which
could be butloned over for extra warmth in cold
weather by means of six buttons. A scventh closed
the lapel at the neck. regiments had
'Brandenburg' cuffs, i.e. with a "crtical patch and
three buttons; but the term 'Brandenburg cuff' was
nOt officially in use umil 1808. There was only one,
narrow shoulder strap, sewn just behind and below
the lOp of the left shoulder. It was known as the
'dragoon', and was in the regimental colour see
chart below.
The waistcoat and trousers were white except in
the Grenadier Guard Battalion which incidentally
did retain its mitre cap and old uniform), and in the
Duke of Brunswick's Regiment (No.2 1), both of
which had theirs in pale straw colour. Ncckstocks
were black except in Regiment :'\0-46, where the
men \,'ore red ones but the officers had black.
Regimental distinctions were complex, and for
space reasons it is only possible here lO quote a
selection of representative examples. in the accom-
panying Table A. Xote that facings normally
comprised the tunic collar, lapels, culTs and
shoulder strap, while tail turnbacks were
A large black leather cartridge box cOlltaining60
rounds was canied on a broad white strap over the
left shoulder to the right hip. There was a large brass
badge on the centre of the flap: this varied in size
and design from regiment to regiment, but was
usually either the Prussian Eagle or Royal
),Ionogram. regimental badges dated from

,Y;Ntf .. ~ I ' ) / I I " ? I / .t//, /;.

Table A: Representative distinctions, 1792-97
Reg/. No. Colour offacings Buttons
pale blue white
10 pale blue white
II carmllle white
orange while
21 red yellow
28 chamois while
carmine yellow
1 dark pink yellow
2 chamois yellow
red white
6 white white
red while
chamois yellow
0 dark pink white
orange white
black yellow
carmllle yellow
orange white
pale blue white
chamois white
pale blue yellow
the reign of Frederick the Greal and bore his
monogram. The Grenadier Guards had a tombak
grenade in each corner of the flap as well as a central
badge. The Guard (IR No.1 5) had silver-pialed
badges, and their Flank Grenadiers also had
'Go:HS "ill! 22 loops usuall} had 1-1 on Ihe tape1. four belo" Ihe chC"S1.
and four on Ih(' ,1c('\"('S, 1R ;'\0,19 had <,ix on Ihe ,Iee\cs. fOUT on Ihe'
pOck('IS and nOI1(' IX'low lh('('h('SI, 1R NO.21 had _ix on Ihe s l c ~ \ ' ~ . ,wo
on Ihe bad.
Other distinctions
22 white round loops; officers, 24 in gold.
22 white round loops; officers, 24 in silver.
22 white round loops; officers, 24 in silver.
24 while loops, pointed al both ends with tassels;
officers, 26 silver embroidered bUltonholes.
26 white loops with two red stripes, pointed at
each end with white tassels; officers, 30 gold
Officers had no shoulder strap.
22 white round loops interwovcn with crimson;
officers, 24 gold loops.
Dark blue collars and cuffs piped in dark pink.
Dark blue collars and cuffs; officers, 18 silver
embroidered buttonholes, narrow hal lace, no
shoulder strap.
Dark blue collar and cuffs with white piping.
White piping also on the flaps and all seams.
Dark blue collar and cuns.
Dark blue collar and culTs; officers, 34 silver
Dark blue collar, 22 white/orange round loops:
officers' distinctions in velvet, 2{ gold loops.
Dark blue shoulder straps, 22 white loops
pointed at the rear; officers' distinctions in velvet,
24 gold loops.
Dark blue shoulder straps: officers. 24 silver
Officers. 4 silver loops.
Dark blue collars and culTs; officers, -I- silver
Officers, 4 gold loops.
grenades in each corner.
The sidearm was worn on a white waist belt. The
brown calfskin knapsack was worn on the left hip an
a white belt 3 to 4 em wide carried over the right
shoulder. This was issued only on campaign and
Musketeers of the 1St a.nd 2nd West Prussians (6th and 7th
Infantry Regiments) in 1813 campaign dress and personal
equipment. (Knoetel, reproduced by kind permission of the
Franck'sche Verlagshandlung, \Y. Spemann of Stultgart.




; .'
llu....... i .. ro"
,'ml 1. lIn'l 2 Infal1Lel'ie-Rf'O"inll'nl
.... :1
Kaiser Alexander-Grenadier-Regiment.
... ~ ( -
........... -
' ..

manoeuvres. A grey linen breadbag fixed on eilher
a leather or a linen strap was also carried. hanging
below the knapsack. On campaign, a number of
men were required to carry field canleens and items
of camping equipment.
The men of the depot ballalions had collars and
cuffs in lhe regimental colours. but had no shoulder
straps, loops or trim. The regimental number was
stamped on the bUllons. The Guards ( ~ 0 . 6 and
No.15) and Ballalion Troschkc (No.50) did nOt
have depot battalions. Hats were as for the
),Iuskcteers; \,'aistcoat and trousers were whitc.
They wore black neckstocks red for rR :'\0.29 ;
black t\\'ill gaiters; and no badge on the cartridge
box. They had no sidearms or sword knots. just the
bayonet carried in the crossbelt. except for the
depot ballalions of IRs :'\044. 45 and 48.
A Cabinet Ordcr of31 August I i93 regulated the
colouring of the s\\'ord knots worn on the sidearm.
The 12 companies of an infantry regiment wcre to
wear, in numerical order: white, black, dark blue,
Grenadier and officers of the Kaiser Ale"ander Grenadiers,
1815: an e"cellent illustration of the new uniforms issued
toward. the end of the Napoleonic W..... Note the sbakos,
epauJenes, trouser. with foot lap, and the way the rolled
s",.tcoat is worn UDder the knapsack. (KnMtd, Fra.nck'scbe
Though slightly marred by the orisinal fold, this reproduction
of Carl RO.hling's painting of the battle of Gross-Goer.che.n
on \I May 18t] Sive. a Sond Unpresliion of how Prussian attack
columns operated in conjunction with skirmishers.
light blue, green, dark rcd,light red, orange, yellow,
brown, ashgrey and \;ole1. Such knOls were to be
introduced from I June 1794, and had to be carried
by every company within two years.
Frederick William III came LO the throne in t 797.
The early part of his reign was marked by numerous
changes-both major and minor-in uniform, so
the following can only be taken as an outline. Full
details of these uniforms can be found in Volume 1
ofKling's work, available from some large reference
libraries and reccmly reprinted: see Bibliography of
my Prussian Light bifantry 1792-18151 ~ I A A No. 149.
The infantry now received tunics cur closely in a
frocked style. The lapels and turnbacks were now
scwn down, and lhus could no longer be buttoned
over. The collar was higher and wider bUI slill not
stiffened. The white linen waistcoats werc with
drawn, and instead a false waistcoat was sewn into
the tunic. On 4 Xovembcr 1801 it was ordered that
the lapels should no longer run at an angle to the
Impression oran attack column, wilh the Third Rank formed
into platoons ror skirmishing. (Richard Riehn, reproduced by
kind pern,i!ision or The Courier Publishing Co.)
hips, but rather straight down and hooked together
at the lower edge. Only the tails werc lined in red;
the lining inside the tunic was twill, and after 180+
made from a coarser cloth. The regiments wearing
black neckslOcks reccivcd a whitc tic-band, as
already seen on the red ncckslOcks. \\"hat is clear
from the above is that the infantry lUnics wcrc
generally cheaper in quality and inferior in cut.
They proved very unpopular, and allempts wcrc
later made to improyc the uniform.
The tricorn was re-introduced, although its
shape was somewhat different to that worn in lhe
days of Frederick the Great. The Plume and cords
wcre in regimental colours. The queue was
shortened toJUSt below the collar. and the sidc locks
wcre abolished. Thc hair was now powdered only
for parades. :'\COs, Schuetzen and Grenadiers
wore moustaches: .\ Iuskctccrs did not.
The Grenadiers received caps of a new style
,,'hich had a black lacquered leather plate trimmed
with a wreath of rumed black wool. The leather
peak was trimmed with white lace. and above it was
a brass badge \\ ith the black eagle below a grenade.
The back ofthe plate \\as paintro in the r ~ m c n t a l
colour; regiments with white facings painted theirs
light blue. The lower head pan was made of black
felt and had a four-Finger-wide band in the
regimental colour. trimmed in white on the upper
and lower edges, or in light blue for regiments wilh
\\ hite facings. On lhe left was the white plume, no\\'
made of short goose fcathers.
A deptoyed i.n ecbeton by regiment to the teft, with
ClI""alry on the lert flank and a natural obstruction on the right.
A brigade deplo)'ed in echelon by regiment to lhe right, with
thl" flanks co\"eR'd b)' cavalr)' and a natural obstruction.
The wearing of twill overalls over the white linen
knee breeches and black gaiters was becoming
increasingly common. A Cabinet Order of 24
August 180 I slated that on mobilisation. all the
infantry should have these o\eralls, and this appears
to have been the case in 1805 and 1806, although
regiments of the Potsdam garrison had long white
linen trousers.
On '27 September 1806 the king ordered that the
infantry should be supplied with greatcoats by
public donation; and although this appeal came too
late for the bulk of the army, many of the men
imokcd in the winter campaigns in E.ast Prussia
and Silcsia were supplied with them.
It was intended to introduce a ne\\ uniform from
1807. but the outbreak of war in 1806 prc\cntcd
this. Briefly, a Russian-style shako was to be
introduced, along wilh a new tunic which could be
buttoned onr. The ne\\' uniform introduced after
the Peace of Paris was similar, although not
from 1799. officers of the Grenadier Battalions
wore white feather plumes with a black base on
their hats: black knee-boots; and were armed with
an epee instead ofille spontoon. An order dated 10
:'\O\cmbcr 1801 instructed officers to wear the
undress coat, i.e. withoul the usual embroidery, in
normal service and in the field. Its lapels could be
buttoned over. The broad silver/black waislsash
(cont. Oil p. 25)
The battalion attack column, the top of the diagram being the
direction orthe enemy. Large numbers indicate the platoons,
50 that each company is, in effect, drawn up in six ranks, 5 and
6 form one company, 7 and 8 another, etc. Key: C alptain;
S skirm.ish captain; I, II, J., 4 Lieutenants, by se:n..iority;
o banalion d.rummer. are show1I in the ntre of
the cohnnn; the battalion com.mander and adjutant, 10 the
right, on horseback. H the skirm.ish captaiu's hone he.ld by
his groom; when skirm.ish platoons are formed by pullin! out
the Third Rank of each platoon, the skirmish captain nlounts
his horse. For details orthe. use ofthe Third Rank, .1 MAA No.
1490 Prllllla'f 1.1(/r1 In{al/tn liff.! /8/')_
:or 0
lSI S :9 lSI lSI lSI lSI S
0 []
lSI lSI lSI 19 lSI 19 lSI 19 lSI
[j] 111111 I II 11111
0 GIl [j]

!ill 19 151
!ill 19 19
0 []
Table 8: R..l!iim....lal ..".;o...;., 1806
......, ....,... ,.....
-_...... _-
..... ........--...-

.. --. .....
"""---- ..
...... ,-" ..-

._.. -.....
...-- -
hb<l._ .....
.. __.....
----a .....
.. __..l ...."
.. _-....
.. __.-
.. _.-...... l ....
-,.. ,.,...
,,, ....... _...-.........

'" "'- .....
..... 1' ...........
..II", ".... ,.. ,...
.n<! '.polo
- -
..._-- ...
...... ,,_....
.....__ .........'P
..- ..... __ .....
, _.....,,... .....
. ".-
....- ..... -
-- .-

-.- ._-
.. ..... ..hoi
... ,.... ........


_ c.Il. h,,_
_ ......po
n 1.'1'1"I .....1 ......
1_ I.l"...,..... '. ,.............. , __"" 1 ... "'

.... " .J _ .....-.., _ ...
1_,.. , l.. ,.._
,; -.... b
.... 1 _ , __ ..
1" .10-", .......



I.... ..... " ..""
.............. --
......... l
............. _-
.. "."'"

.... -- ..-
,-......- ...
loA< bl#l Uoto- ..,.
...... ......--
....-.. ,............
Il.oo __
_ l ... UoIo
.. _._.._
.... '

....I ... ....... ,_'I"

..... .-...
........ ..
' ... ..........
.............. ,f;
... ............ 1 ..... ...
...._ .. _ u
-....,.... , ,."..a.,.n
....._.._ -
.. ...-..
.... .. __..
..........., -
.... _ 1 ..
............... I'"
..... ,._...... , -
...- -"-_loy.- .
--.... , .
_.... , -.100. __
,. Iwo-t ...... l ......, ......
.......... _..
........... 'I"
............. --
.................... .-
....... _...,....-

1'- ..- ....
.... _ ....
...... - ..-,...-
...._- '.'PO"".
... __....,-d .....
-w......... .-......
......,-.."f""I .....
..... <-h
, .._.."" .. "....-



.... ,... ......
1."" .... --

.luI ....
- --
" -
s.. c.llo. no"'."

... ---
- .-
.. --
'1 .._ '1 _
Infantry Regiment HolsteinBeck (No.ll), 1794:
1: Grenadier, parade dress
2: Musketeer, campaign dress
3: Officer, service dress
Infantry Regiment Wartensleben (No. 59), 1803-06:
1.2: Officers
3: Private. service dress
Infantry Regiment Ruechel(No. 2), 1806:
1: Officer, campaign dress
2, 3: Privates, campaign dress
1: Grenadier, Inf. Regt. Winning (No. 23); parade dre8s, 1806
2: Grenadier, Int, RegL Courbiere (No. 58); campaign dre8s, 1806
3: Grenadier NCO, In!. Regt. Kroptr(No. 31): campaign <Ire.., 1806
Wantry Regiment de. Koenigs (No. 18); parade dress, 1805:
1: Officer
2: Drummer
3: Private

Foot Guards Regiment, 1808-13:
1: Officer, undress, 1808
2: Officer, service dress, 1808
3: Grenadier, parade dress, 1813
12th Infantry Regiment (2nd Silesian), 1808-13:
1: Soldier. camp drell
2: Musketeer. campaign dress., 1812
3: NCO, winter parade drell
1: Musketeer, 8th Inf. Regt. (Life Regt.), 1815
2,3: Grenadienl, 1&t Foot Guards Regt., 1815
was worn over the coat with thc tassels hanging
behind the epec. officers also adopted
knee-boots: only those of the Guards w'ere allowed
to wear gaiters. and then only on occasions when
the men wore them also. From 18 February 1805
the broad hat lace was replaced by a narrO\\'er type.
The officers' hats and their plumes were very tall
and made their wearers conspicuous targets for
enemy snipers in 1806 especially in the Grena-
diers, where the men wore an entirely different
headdress. It was not unknown for officers to co\-er
their hals wilh waterproof material when on
campaign. The wearing of long, buttoned riding
overalls, usually blue, was also common. Blue
double-breasted overcoats with coloured collars
and curfs were also worn, and blue greatcoats with
folded collars were sometimes seen.
The accompanying Table B lists all regimental
distinctions applying in 1806.
From 1808. there were some fundamental changes
in the uniforms of the entire army. Frederick
William Ill's dose comacLS \\'ith the Russian Army
from the end of 1806 influenced his choice ofcut and
styl the double-breasted tunic and the shako.
The old showy uniforms disappeared, due to the
great poverty of the state. Brandenburg-Prussia had
not been a weahhy state prior to the catastrophe of
1806, and now Prussia had to pay a massive
indemnity to the French and support a large French
army of occupation wilhin greatly reduced
lerritorial boundaries; there were hardly the funds
available for new uniforms and equipment, and Ihe
style was very sombre indeed. That is not to say,
however, that lhere were not certain
llnprovements-bener quality cloth for the tunics.
the introduction of greatcoats, ele. the
regimental clothing manufacturers were gradually
placed under the supen-ision of soldiers who had
been tailors by trade_
The shako was made of black felt and was seven
inches high, \\'ith a circumference of 22 inches
around Ihe upper edge_ Around the lower edge it
was reinforced with black leather; the upper edge
was trimmed with a while band for privates, gold
for NCOs and officers. The black leather chinstrap
was j inch wide. A black and white (officers, black
and silver) woollen pompon was worn at the top of
the shako. Grenadiers had a brass flying eagle
badge on lhe front of Ihe shako, l\ IIIsketeers the
Royal F\\"R. The officers had no
badge at first, but instead a black and while
cockade with a brass clasp. Later on, however, the)
received the appropriate badge instead_ On each
side of the officer's shako was a small gold heraldic
holding a double gold chain which ran
around the shako. On parade, Ihe Grenadiers fixed
a \\ hite plume to their shakos, Ihe :'\COs' version
having a black tip, the musicians' a red tip and the
officers' a black base. In february 1810 the entire
Life Regiment was issued with plumcs to be worn
on parade: Ihese were shon, broad and made of
hair. Privates and musicians had black plumes,
NCOs a white base, oboists while wilh a red base.
Officer!! received a black feather plume with a while
spot on the top_ From 1810 the Grenadiers
were supplied with the same plullles except for the
oboists, who wore the :'\CO pattern. On normal
service, and on campaign, the shako was worn with
a black oilskin COH'r.
From 1814 a new type of shako was introduced.
It \\as only 6t inches high and more belled, 22!
inches in circumference: at the top it had black
leather side che\Tons, no trim, an elliptical pompon.
and brass ehinscales attached by rosettes. On
parade cords and tassels \\ ere \\ orn, hanging to the
right shoulder and fastened 10 the second bUHon.
Those oflhe privates were while, lhose ofthe :\COs
black and white, while officers had silver and black.
The badges worn on previous shakos were retained.
The new regiments, from No.13 onwards, formed
from the Reserve Battalions, had the cockade and
brass clasp instead of a badge_
The shakos worn by the 1st FOOL Guards were
broadly similar to those worn by the Line except
that the officers' and :,\COs' trim was silver; the
badg-e was a sih-er star, and for officers had an
enamelled centre. From 1807 the plume was 13
inches high and 7 to 9 inches in circumference. II
was made of \\'hite goose feathers for pri\-ates, with a
black tip for :'\COs, a red tip for drummers, and a
black base for officers. On Ihe entry march into
Berlin on :23 December lBog, plumes of goat's hair
were worn by the twO Grenadier Baualions of the
Guard \\ hite for privales, with a black lip for
NCOs; red plumes for musicians, while-over-red for
oboists; and large white flowing feather plumes with
a black base for officers. The eagles and chains on
Foot Guards officers' shakos were silver. The new
style shakos were worn by the 1St Foot Guards from
December 1813. On parade all ranks added tall,
thin, horsehair plumes. i\COs had black with a
white tip, musicians a red plume, oboists a red
plume with a white tip, and officers and men plain
Brigade tactics (sligbtly distorted by tbe fold in the original)
from the 11/12 R'l!.lflnl/VGJ. Fig. I at /v/111'j1 sbows a brigade fully
deployed, the baualions in line. Fig. 2 at IH>Uflm /tji sbows the
atlack formation. Fig. 3 atl"p llJ!hI shows the formation used for
bayonet auacks, the skirmish line rejoins its pareln battalions
which then fall back on the second ....-ave, inlo
column. Fig... at lulllf>m ngkl shows the formation to be used
against cavalry' tbe chequerboard formation of infantry
battalions in square provide mutual assistance while the
cavalry move up in rel;erve on the flanks. AU dil;tance_
dotted line_re shown here in paces. \"'here no artillery is
sho....n, this is because it has to deploy according to terrai.n and
From 1807 the hair was no longer queued. and
li'om 1811, the practice of powdering il for parade
was abolished.
Dark blue tunics wilh a high,
open collar were introduced in 1808. The collar and
'Brandenburg' cuffs were in lhe provincial colour,
lhe culT-patches dark blue, lail wrnbacks poppy.
red, and bUllons brass. The colour of the shoulder
straps indicated the seniority orthe regiment within
the province and were, in descending order: white,
poppyrcd, ycllow and lightblue. The (1st) Foot
Guards had popp)'-red coUars, 'Swedish' culTs wilh
1\\'0 bars of white lace ,silver for officers), while
shoulder straps and bUllons. had lace in the
buuon colour around lhc top of the cuff and along
the front and lower edge of the collar. From 1814 a
Plan J1g II.
. (/II'" od", hit,,, (,":1' ,I.
/-.1:, ..
,-' T..",.
, II. ,. II.. OJ,
,_ II ,.
I _. ,,,,

,. ,
,I ,_
.' .
.J:,mli-""1 i'" . If/r'
,..' .
" ....

f J.t:' l.
1'." .......
, .. Ii

/, "
( Ili,1'" t., 11.,.

Obverse: of the later .8'4 pallern medal; the reverse was liS che
.8'3 "4 medal. (Author's eoJlection)
The Grenadier Battalions had the dislinctions of
lheir parent regiments. so each two companies had
diflhenl coloured shoulder straps except for the
Life RegL's full battalion of grenadiers.
In 1815 a number of r e ~ e f \ e . foreign and
volunteer formations were incorporated into Ihe
line as regimcnts :\os. 13 to 32. Xlost had not
receiHd their ne\\ uniforms b) the \\'aterloo
Campaign. although officers tended to wear the
nc\\ unifonn. Distinctions wcre:
dull orange
29, 14, 21
8. 12. 20, 24
E. Prussia
Collar/cuff' Shoulder
3rd E. Prussian
dull orange yello\\
4th E. Prussian
dull orange light blue
1St \\-. Prussian
carmine white
2nd \\'. Prussian carmine
Life Rcgiment
poPPl -red whitc
Colb{'fg Regiment \\ hite
2nd Brandenburg
poPPl -red poppy-red
Silesian Inf. Batt. pink white
1St Silesian )'ello\\ white
2nd Silt-sian
yello\\ poppy-red
newslyle ofcollar was introduced: it was lower. and
closed by hooks and eyes. The :'\CO lace ran
around the front and top edges.
In 1808, the distinctions \,ere as follows:
Obverse and reverse of the Prussian campaign medal for
veterans of 1813 14: the dates on the obverse are badly worn
here. The inscription round the edge of the re"erse reads 'Gott
war mit uns, Ihm sei die Ehre!' ('God was with us, to be
the honour'). In the centre. below the royal monogram, is the
inscription 'Preussens tapfern Kriegern' ('To Prussia's bra"e
..... rrior.). The medals we:re: made of cannon bronze: meJtw
down from capture:d fre:nch artillery. (Author's collection)
1st E. Prussian
1st Pommeranian
2nd E. Prussian
dull orange
dull orange
The same system ofshoulder strap colouring was
Officers wore tunics similar to those of the men
but with longer mils and with officers' distinctions
on the shoulder straps. From '23 October 1808 Line
infantry officers wore shoulder straps in the
regimental colour, and rank was indicated by silver
and black lace t inch wide. Lieutenants had one
strip of lace along the centre of the strap; captains,
one strip along the t\\o long sides of the strap; staff
officers, lace on all four sides.
From 18.June 18121ieUlenants wcre ordered to
wcar the stylc ofslrap that captains had worn, and
captains were ordered to wear those of the staff
officer. On 27 August 1813 stan' officers were
ordered to wear epauleltes. The slider had silver
edging and the middle was in button colour. The
field was in the regimental colour and the crescent
in the button colour.
In 1814 officers' shoulder straps were abolished
and epaulcltes issucd to all ranks. Rank was
distinguished as follows: lieutenants, lace on each
edge of the slider; captains and staff officers, lace on
each edge and the top of the slider, as well as silver
crescents and fringes, irrespective of button colour.
The six Grenadier Battalions were formed into
Province Regiments Collar/cuffs
\ \'. Prussia
6, 7, 16, 17 carOl me
Silesia 10, II, 13, 15
26,27,31,32 light blue
\ "estphalia 18, 19,28, 29
2'2, 23, 25, 30
madder red
Lock 'new' Prussian musket ofl8ocl9. as al
Neisse i.n Upper Silesi. Note the shield around the pan,
protecting the priming from the weather, and the firer's race
from the Rare of the priming.
Lock of the IBog musket as manufactured at Potsdam.
Lock of the IBog muskel as manufactured al Saarn in the

~ .

( .
two regimcllls in 1814, the Czar of Russia being
coloncl-ill-chief of one, the Emperor of Austria of
the other. The Grenadier Regiments had poppy-
red collars and 'Brandenburg' cuffs, the laucr willl
a dark blue patch. The Kaiser Alexander
Grenadier Regiment had white shoulder straps
with their colonel-inchiefs monogram in red; the
Kaiser Franz Grenadier Regiment, red shoulder
straps \\;th a yellow monogram. BultDns were
The 'l\ormal-Infanteric-Bataillon' had poppy-
red collars and cuffs, the former with white Guard
lace, the laucr with a blue patch. When the 2nd
FOOl Guard Regiment was formed in the summer of
1813 it received the uniform of the 'Xormal-
I nfanteric'.
Ncckstocks were black for all ranks and
regiments. The standard issue trousers for privates
and i'\COs wcre grey, with three buttons at the
bottom. A strap which passed under the shoe was
allached lO each leg. Black gaiters were worn, and
General arrangement drawing of the 1809 Dluskel. L e n ~ t h , 143
em; barrelo4Cfn. (Reproduced by kind pennissioD ofBiblio
Verlag, O!l1nabrueek, Germany)
some units wore black knee-length boots. from
January 1814 boots and gaiters were no longer
issued. Instead, long trousers with a foot lap and
poppy-red piping were worn. Contemporary
pictorial records show that there wcre several
variations orJcg\'vear. Gaiters continued to be worn
arter January 18141 over or under the trousers, and
there were non-regulation patterns in use. More-
over, shortage ofsupplies meant that the white linen
trousers issued for summer wear were also worn on
Officers' legwear consisted of black/grey flecked
long trousers with 18 brass or German siker buttons
one inch apart along the scam. The edge which" as
bunoned over was piped in red. The trousers were
worn over the boots in peace time, but on campaign
it was permitted to lUck them into the boots. In
A Prussian lihako of 181s. now in the Brussels Army Museum.
This surviving piece reminds us of the indifferent quality of
manufacture, and of the fact that in wartime conditions
u.niforn\ items often bore lillIe resemblance to the regulation
181S a new paltern was introduced: it did nOt have
the side buttons, and had two one-inch-wide
poppy-red stripes each side of the piping. In
summer officers wore plain white close-fitting
trousers exccpt when on mounted duty, when the
usual grey trousers were worn.
When onduty, all in[1.ntry officers wore a bicorn
made of black fell, decorated with a clasp, black
cockade, yellow melal bulton, silver/black cords
and a feather plume. Grenadier officers wore white
plumes, others wore black. From 18 14 officers of the
two Grenadier Regimcnts had whilC plumes.
Officers' waist sashes were silver with two black silk
stripes worked into them. The silver tassels which
hung on the left hip were Reeked with black.
Black canridge boxes were worn on the right hip
on a two-inch-wide while belt which ran over the
left shoulder. NCOs' and privates' boxes had a
round brass badge bearing an eagle and trophies on
the flap. The (1St) Foot Guards had a star badge,
until 1814 in German silver, thereafter in brass. The
'Normal-Infanterie had the standard-issue in-
fantry badge, the 2nd Foot Guards a brass Guard
Privates, musicians and NCOs (except sergeant-
majors and ensigns) were supposed to carry the
shan infantry sabre, but supplies wefe shon in 1808
and only a few units-or NCOs and selected men
only-had them. All were issued Wilh the white
sword belt, but where they had no sword, they
carried their bayonel. Only gradually was the 'new'
Prussian sabre issued, !l had a brass hilt, a brown
leather scabbard and brass fittings. Until OCLOber
1810 the sword was carried on a waist belt. From
then, a new belt d inches wide was issued, This
could be worn either over the shoulder or around
the waist: on parade and garrison duty it was worn
around the waist; on campaign and whenever the
backpack was worn, it was slung over the shoulder.
The Foot Guards continued to be issued with the
'old' Prussian infantry sabre. Sword knols were
worn around the hilt of the sabre sword, and
indicated the company of the wearer as follows:
Company Slider Body Ring
1st ), Iusketeer white white white
white while yellow
whitc white blue
white white red
green white green
yellow white yellow
blue white blue
red white red
tst Light green green green
yellow yellow yellow
blue bluc blue
red red red
lSl Grenadier white white black
black & white black &
white white
In all cases, the strap and fringe were white.
\ \'hen the Grenadier Battalions were co'mbined into
twO regiments, they received straps according to the
three-battalion system.
Musketeer and Grenadier officers carried an epee
on a white waist belt, in a brown scabbard with
brass fittings. The sword knot was silver worked
with black.
Knapsacks were made of light brown calfskin,
and until 180g were carried over the left shoulder on
a one-inchwide white strap. From 30 August 180g,
they were carried on two straps, one ovcr cach
shoulder. From December 1810 an adjustable I ~
in. chest strap with a brass buckle was added, and
from 1814 this strap was fixed. On the lefl side ofLhe
pack were LWO calfskin loops for holding the sabre
when on the march. A field canLeen was strapped
onto the back of the pack. It had a grey cover for
normal duties, white for parade. A grey linen bread
bag was issued, slung on a leather strap.
From 20 August 180g unmounted officers, i.e.
company commanders and belo\\'. were also
required to \\'ear a knapsack. Itwas of black leadler
and had whiLe belts. Some officers, especially in Lhe
Grenadiers, covered the flap with seal skin.
A Cabinet Order of 6 Novcmber 1807 re-
imroduced the greatcoat. This originally reached
nearly to Lhe ankle, but from 1814 it was shorLened.
CoaLs were made of dark grey cloth and the collars
were in the provincial colour, Lhose of Lhe Guard
having no lace. At first they had only one, left-hand
shoulder strap; when two straps were subsequently
introduced on the knapsacks, it was necessary to
have two shoulder straps on the greatcoat as well.
From 18 October 1813, collars were grey with
Provincial-coloured patches. The greatcoat had six
metal buttons in the same colour as those on the
tunic. When not in use the greatcoat was worn 'en
bandolier' over the left shoulder and pack; on
parade, it was worn rolled and strapped on top of
Lhe pack.
Officers' overcoats were dark grey, and came
down tOjust abovc the knee. Collars were high and
opcn until 1814. There werc twO rows of flat
buttons. This was a notably popular garment: but
officers could also wear a blue-grey greatCOaL with a
single row of six domed buttons, and a dark-blue-
lined collar in the provincial colour which could
either be folded down or fixed up by a gold chain.
Its cape reached down below the arms to CO\'er the
In the Russian campaign of 1812, the Prussian
contingent put a black and white badge on their
shako covers. Those units involved in the Russian
campaign Lended 10 retain Lhisdistinction in 1813.
In the 1813-14 campaign Lhe Allied troops wore
MUl!iician of Ihe 2nd Foot Guard", 18ls-from Genty. This
regimenl fonned pari of the occupation forces in France after
the Hundred Days.
green leaves on their headdress, and a whiLe band
on the left arm.
ArtnaDlent and weapon training
A numbcrofdiffcrcnt pattcrnsofmuskcl were in usc
by Lhe Prussian Line infantry at anyone Lime in the
period in qucstion. Those of Prussian manufacture
I The 1 i82 Pattern, sometimes known as the 1780
Pa1Lern. This was the standard infantry musket in
Lhe 1792 and 1806 campaigns. It was also used in
the Wars of Liberation, but with a modified bUll for
IX"tl('r aiming.
'2 The 1801 Pattern, also known as the 1805
Pattern or NothardL muskct. It was originally
inLended that this musket should replace Lhe 1782
Pattern. By Lhe outbreak of war in 1806 a total of
scven banalions had been issued with it. It was an
admirable weapon, one of the few infantry muskets
of the time to ha\'e both a front and a rear sight.
Captured stocks were issued by the French to allied
states, and produClion of the weapon ceased in 1806
as its small calibre prc\"cnted it from firing
ammunition made for other weapons. Ho\\ever,
that is not to say that the Prussians stopped using
the weapon entirely; in January 1811 the two
Grenadier Battalions of the Foot Guards were
armed with them, and it is probable that more were
used in the Wars of Liberation.
3 The lBog Pattern, more commonly known as
the 'new' Prussian musket. This weapon was one of
the best-designed flintlock muskets ever made. The
barrel was attached to the stock by means of three
brass rings which greatly eased its remo\"al and
cleaning. The pan was made of brass. so did not rust
and was thus much easier to keep clean. To protect
the firer and his comrades from the flash there was a
around the pan. The touchhole was conical,
like prc\"ious Prussian models; so there was no need
to prime the pan separately, as this was accom-
plished from the illsidt when ramming the charge
home. The bayonet was fixed by a spring-loaded
clip and thus, unlike many of its contemporaries,
could not accidentally fall off, Finally, the calibre
was large enough to use virtually any available
musket ammunition captured or made for other
The foreign weapons in use included the French
177711802 Panern or Charleville. Some were in
use prior to t813. In the Army Historical :\Iuseum
in Rastatt there is one Charle\'ille which has been
connned to the Pru ian system \\;th a conical
touch-hole and pan guard. The first large delivcry
of Frcnch weapons was inJanuary 1813, when the
Russians handed o\"er 1.),000 captured weapons.
Evcr-increasing numbers fell into Prussian hands
thecampaignsofl813 to 181.). By 181.),
it would not be far wrong tosay that one-third of the
army was armed with them.
In the spring of 1813 the Austrian government,
which had yet to declarc war on France. secretly
supplied 20,000 muskets to the Prussians.
During 1813 the British supplied thousands of
'Brown Besscs' to Prussia, About 1.),000 are
reckoned to ha\'c been used in the field by October
1813. These are said to ha\"e had a larger bore than
normal. which ma) indicate that the weapons were
already w'ell worn before being supplied to the
Various Swedish, Ru ian and Dutch wcapons
were also used. and hybrids wcre made from parts
salvaged from damaged weapons. There was no
question of uniformity of annament cven at thc
Private of the 8th Infantry Regiment (Life Regiment), 1815-
from Genty. A good illustration of the DeW uni.form issued
from ISI1; note the with cords; the dosed
cqllar; and the foot lap and red litripe of the trousers. See atso
Plate H,
beginning of the period in question, and by 1813 the
then underdeveloped Prussian economy had
suffered the effects of years of warfare, defeat and
constant drain on limited resources, so the variation
In weaponry was enormous.
Prussia's elllry into the war with Russia in alliance
with France caused deep, bitter divisions within
governmental circles, the officer corps and the
nation as a whole. Almost without exception,
Frederick William's officers were against the
alliance; but for most, loyalty to the crown proved
stronger than patriotic sentiment. For some,
hmvever, the interests of the nation were para-
mount, and they were unwilling to fight for France,
the country they saw as the enslaver ofGermany. A
small but significant group of officers, including
Clausewilz, quit Prussian service and joined the
Russian army. Frederick William took this as a
personal anront and never really forgave the
offenders, although he later re-admitted them into
his service. These rebels thought that their king
lacked the courage to stand up to lhe demands of
Napoleonic imperialism. However. his apparent
acquiescence was based on a carefully thouglH-out
Frederick William went to war against Russia
only with great reluctance and because he had lillie
choice in the matter. Furtive attempts had been
made to secure an alliance with Russia against
France; but as much of Prussia was under French
occupation, Frederick \'Villiam needed to be sure
that military assistance from Russia was prompt
and effective enough to ensure Prussia's security.
The Russians were unable to guarantee this, and
Frederick \Villiam had not forgotten how long it
had taken them to assist him in 1806. Prussia started
making clandestine preparations for an uprising in
181 t-fortifications were improved, and more
soldiers were kept on active service than the Treaty
of Paris allowed. (This was the peace treaty between
Prussia and France, signed in 1808, which restricted
the Prussian army to a maximum of 42,000 men.)
Plans were made for calling up and arming the
NCO of the Prince of Orange's Regiment (No.lg), l806--fronl
Henschel. This is an e1l:ample of the new uMonn issued to
some units on a trial basis in that year. It was intended that the
entire a.rmy receive it in 1807, but events overtook these plans.
reservists. However, Prussia could not hope to stand
alone, and the aspiralions built up in 181 I were
dashed in T812. The king's decision not to go it
alone but to play along with the French for the lime
being may well have been unpopular in Prussia, but
it remained the sensible course of action in the
Grawert, a divisional commander at Jena, was
given command of the Prussian Auxiliary Corps of
21,000 men. Yorck was appointed his deputy, and
as Grawert fell ill during the course of the
campaign, Yorck soon succeeded him. The
Prussians were, on the whole, unwilling allies, but
determined to impress the French with their
professionalism. There were a number of clashes
between Prussian and French troops; and in
Musketeer Qr Arnim (No.13). dress,
l806--rrom tlenschel. For equivalent campaign
when inspecting troops of
which Ihe Prussians were a pan, :\apoleon was
shocked by the stony silence with which the
Prussian comingcnt greeted him-Ihe French.
Italians, Poles and Confederation troops had all
shouted 'Vive I"Empercur!'
On crossing the Russian border, '{orck instructed
his men to treal the Russians and their property
with respect. The Prussians formed a division in
MacDonald's Corps. and he described them as
being a fine army. but suspected them of ill will.
Despite this. the Prussians always showed their
professionaJism and determination when it came to
a fight with the Russians. During the operations
connected with the siege of Riga there was some
particularly hard and bloody fighting. Droysen
relates: 'At Latschenkrug, there was some heavy
fighting going oni the East Prussian Musketeers and
Silesian Fusilier<; competed wilh b:lyonet attacks;
when, finally. yet another Finnish Jaeger regiment
increased the already superior numbers against
them, they would have been done lor iflhe Silesian
Hussars had nOt smashed into the Jaegers' flank,
rolled them up and wiped them out. And again. as
they wcre riding back with about 800 prisoners in
front of them. enemy Cossacks and dragoons
unexpectedly broke out oflhe undergrowth in front
oflhem. and lhey all would have been lost had il nOt
been for the bold haste of the skirmishers of two
battalions rushing up o\"er open terrain, hiding
behind a fence, and gi"ing the enemy ca\"alry such
close and effective fire that alllhe survivors of these
squadrons could do was gallop away. I t was with
determination and confidence lhat all arms co-
operated in their attacks, each at the right place and
right time, with its total energy. After this battlc at
LalSchcnkrug-thc enemy lost 1,200 prisoners
alone----I:>Olh Russian corps could only now think of
falling back.' In these live days ofoperations around
Riga at the end of September and beginning of
October 1812. the Russians lost an estimated 5.000
men including 2,500 prisoncrs. The Prussians lost
1,080 dead. wounded and missing.
The conduct and performance of the Prussian
Auxiliary Corps earned it praise even in Napoleon's
headquarters: and it was this fine body of fighting
men whose defection to the Russians by the
Convention of Tauroggen on 30 December 1812
precipitated Ihe uprising in Germany which
became known as lhe 'Wars of Liberation'.
The order-of-balllc of this Corps was as follows:
xxvn Division of the Grand Armee
Commanding general: Gen. von Grawert
Chief of the general Stan': Col. von Roeder
Second commanding general: Lt.Gcn. von Yorck
1st Brigade: Col. von Below
Infantry Regiment von Sjoeholm I
Infantry Regiment No.2: von Sjoehohn
East Prussian Jaeger: \'on Clausewilz
2nd Brigade: Lt.Col. \"on Horn
Infantry Regiment NO.3: :\Iaj. von Steinmetz
Infantry Regiment 1\0.4: von
3rd Brigade: Col. von Raumer
Infantry Regiment :"io.5: :\1aj. von Schmalen-
infantry Regiment 1\0.6: :vIaj. von Carnal
Fusilier Banal ion :"l'0.7: Maj. von Funk
Cavaby--LLGen. von :Ylassenbach
I st Brigade:
Dragoon Regiment No.1: Maj. von Treskow
Dragoon Regiment NO.2: Col. von Juergass
2nd Brigade: Col. von Jeanneret
Hussar Regiment NO.J: Maj. von Eike
von Schmidt
Four batteries of6pdrs., t baltery of 12pdrs., three
horse bat teries.
Norc that Hussar Regiment 1\0.1 was attached to
VII Division of MacDonald's Corps, and that
Hussar Regimclll NO.2 and the Uhlan Regiment
werc attached to Murat's Cavalry Reserve.
GcrhardJohann David von Scharnhorst, one of the
great military geniuses of this period, was born on
12 November 1755 in Hanover. The son ofa farmer,
he enrolled at the age of 17 at the Military Academy
of COUIll ''''illiam of Schaumburg-Lippe, himself
one of the most influential military lhinkers in
Europe at thal time. At the age of 22, Scharnhorst
joined Estorff's Hanoverian Dragoons as an ensign.
In 1783 he transferred to the artillery, and put up a
distinguished performance as a battery commander
in the Netherlands campaign of '793--94' In 1801
he joined lhe Prussian service, and began his career
as a teacher and reformer of the Prussian army. He
was wounded at Auerstaedt, and taken prisoner
with Bluecher's corps at Luebeck. Later he was
exchanged, and fought at Eylau as chief-of-staff of
L'EstOcq's Corps. The bold and successful in
tervention of this corps in the battle is regarded by
some as an important lUrning-point in Prussia's
military history.
After the Peace ofTilsit in 1807 he became the
king's Adjutant-General until I8to, when he was
appointed Director of the 'Val' Department.
Holding such senior positions within the Prussian
military hierarchy enabled Scharnhorst, despite
bitter opposition and hostility from conservative
circles, to institute a number of major military
reforms, and to prepare Prussia for the day when
she would be able to throw off the yoke of
Napoleonic imperialism. Among these reforms were
the opening of the officer corps to all who could pass
an entrance examination, thereby increasing
opportunities for the middle classes; the formation
of a reserve to the standing army through the
'Kruemper System'; and the formation of a militia,
the 'Landwehr'. It was Scharnhorst who organised
Prussia's preparations for an uprising against
France in 181 I.
in 18 I3 he was Bluccher's chief-of-staff, and on 2
May he was wounded at the battle of Gross-
Goerschcn. Almost immediately afterwards he wenl
to Austria to try to speed up lhcircntry into the war.
However, the wound became infected, and he died
from it in Prague on 28 June 1813. Scharnhorst
never saw the fruits of his labours; had he lived to
the end of the Napoleonic Wars, there is little doubt
Rear view of Musketeer, Prince of Orange's Regiment (NO.19),
parade dress, Henschel.
Officer of tbe Regimenl Amirn (No"13}, par:ade dress, 1806-
from Henschel.
that he would have achieved further fame on the
field of battle. Although Gneiscnau was an
admirable substitute, he perhaps lacked some of the
charisma and genius of Scharnhorst. Some his-
torians e,"en rate Scharnhorst's military talent as
highly as that ofNapolcon Bonaparte: and it should
not be forgotten that Scharnhorst's teachings,
passed down through his pupil Clausewitz, still
influence military thought today.
Lehmann, Scharnhorst's biographer, givcs us an
example of his sharp military perception when
describing the advance of L'EslOcq's Corps 10
intervene in the Battle of Eylau:
'It was an exceedingly great stroke ofluck which
selected this little band to wrench away again the
viclOry that the French Emperor had in his hands.
From daybreak this battle, the most gruesome for
half a century. had rag:ed with undescribablc
violence. The right flank and centre of the Russians
had held. and at times had even achie\"ed successes.
But right from the beginning of the battle ~ a p o l c o n
had threatened the Russians' right flank through
.\'ey. and their left flank through Davout: and when
the first of these out.flanking mo\,ements was foiled
thanks to the Prussian Corps, then the second was
all the more successful. Davout smashed the
Russians' left flank tOtally, and bem their cemrc so
that their position was no longer a line but rather
like a square open at the rear. From position to
position. from village to village he pursued them,
finally enn taking the village of Kutschittcn which
lay to the north of the road running to Domnau and
AlIcnburg. The shortest line ofcommunication with
home was thus cut, and their defeat seemed cenain.
It was at that moment that Scharnhorst
appeared on the field of battle with his 5,000 men.
Of course, Bcnnigsen did nOt place them on the
right flank as he had imcndcd that morning, but
rather ordered them to come to the aid of the
mortally threatened left. But even here there was
still a choice of several points to attack; wilh firm
resoke, Scharnhorst chose the one which offered the
most shining success. .\s he looked o,"er the
balliefieid from the heights at Althoff it did nOt
escape his allemion that Da\'out, in his effons to
outflank the Russians. had exposed his own flank: il
was against the Rank of the Rank. against
Kutschitten, that Scharnhorst directed the attack.'
Lehmann continues by describing the results of
this attack: 'While Regiment Schoening cut off the
French garrison of the village (51St Regiment and
four companies of the lo8th from their compatriots
positioned further to the south. the Towarczys
lancers, joined by several hundred Cossacks,
chased left around the "illagc and Cllt down what
Regiments \\'yburg and RucchcJ drove towards
them: the cagle of one of the two French regiments
was captured here:
In addition to those works lisLCd in the relevant
section army Prussian Light Infantry /792-/8/5, ).lAA
No. 149, the follo\\'ing works have been consulted in
the preparation of this volume:
Scharnhorst by :\Iax Lehmann (2 vols, Leipzig,
1886-1887 this is the standard biography orlhat
noted Prussian general and military reformer.
Jutr dit bifanltrit drr h"otnig!ich
Preussischm Armtt Berlin, 181'2 ; and Reg/miffl/fU"
die ItOt1/iglich PrnJJs;scht InJan/trit Bielefeld. 1788 .
These last two works are the two main sets of drill
regulations in force during the period examined.
Rossbach und JtnO by Colmar Frcihcrr \'on def
Goltz Berlin, 1883 contains an imcrestinganalysis
oCthe deyelopment oflaclics and the reforms in the
anny prior to Jcna.
E/udu Toctiquu sur /0 Campagne de 1&6 by Pascal
Bressonnct Paris, 1909 is a very well written study
of the taClics used by the French and Prussian
armies in the 1806
Die c..:niformm drr Prtlmischm Garden l-'<HI ihrer
Ents/elllmg I i04 bis 18]6 by Thucmen provided the
inspiration for several of lhe colour plates.
Tile Plates
A: Irifan/Y)' Regiment Hols/ein-Beck (So. II ). /794
AI: Grenadier. parade dress
At this time lhe grenadiers were distinguished
their white plumcs: the distinctive cap was
introduced later. On parade and garrison duties the
lapels were worn buttoned back, displaying the
regimental facings. The grenadier companies of this
unit were part of the garrison of Koenigsberg in
East Prussia.
A2: .\ f uske/e". campaign dress
\\'hen on campaign the lapels were \,'orn buttoned
across. This extra warmth was needed greatcoats
were not issued until the winter of 1806. Later
patterns oftunic, which did not bulton across. were
unpopular for this reason. The musketeer battalions
of this regiment fought in lhe warof 1794 in Poland,
and at Pianki took prisoner the Polish General
Grabowski and 1,500 of his men.
As: Officer. service dress
Since it was stationed in the cast of Brandenburg-
Prussia this regiment survivcd the worst of the
catastrophe of 1806, and fought through much of
the 1807 campaign: it was present at Eylau. It was
later redesignated the 3rd Infamry Regiment (2nd
East Prussian : and entered the First \\'orld \\'ar as
the 3rd Grenadier Regiment. All ligures after
Grenadier NCO of Resiment Ah.Larisch in Banalion Rh,rio-
bablen (No.2J 26), at the 'presenl anns' in par2de uniIonn,
HeDljcbd. See also Plate D.
B: bifantry Regiment Wartensleben (\'o.j9). /80]-06
B/. B2: Ofjicers
Onc of the newest rcgiments of thc 'old' Prussian
army, this unit worc the new style of uniforms from
its foundation in 1803: officers of otlter regiments
only began to display these from 1805. Xote also
that officers of Wanenslebcn wore tlte knee-boot,
and no longer carried the spontoon.
Grenadier NCO fron> the other component of Saltalion
Rheinbaben, Winning Henschel.
Apin, see Plate D,
B3-' sen'iu dress
The official history of this regiment is emitled:
'Founded in 1803 at E!fun. Wiped Out in 1806 at
Auerstaedt. Brandenburg-Prussia received the
fortress of Erfun at the end of 1802, and this
regiment was raised to garrison it. Those elements
which were nOI destroyed at Auerstaedt, their first
and only battle, capitulated at E.rfun two days
later. All figures aner Fritz Kersten,
C: bifantry Regiment Ruechel (No.2), /806
CI: Ofjicer in 'Ueberrock'. campaign dress
Officers tended to leave their finely embroidered
uniforms behind in time of war; they ,,'ent on
campaign wearing the o\'ercoat illustrated here,
o\'er undress tunic and riding o\'eralls.
C2. C3: Pril:ates. rampaign dress
These figures illustrate clearly the equipment
carried by the Prussian Line in the 1806 campaign,
and lhe overalls generally issued. The latter varied
in colour from grey to brown. Also pan of the
Koenigsberg garrison, this regiment did not see
action ulllil the end of 1806, It fought at Eylau, In
the subsequent re-organisation it became the 1st
I nfantr} Regimclll 1st East Prussian . entering the
First' \'orld \\' ar as the 1st Grenadier Regiment. .\11
figures after Kling,
DJ.' Grenadier. b!fantry Regiment Il'inning (So.23);
parade dress. 1806
forming part of the Berlin garrison, these
grenadiers were combined with those ofAltLarisch
in the battalion commanded by Rhein-
babel1. They fought at Auerstaedl. and remnants
capitulated al Erfun and Luebeck. After Henschel.
D2: Grenadier. Infantf)' Rtgiment Courbiert (-,"0.58);
campaign drus, 1806
This regiment took part in the defence of Danzig,
which lasted well into ,80]. One of the newest
regiments of the 'old' army, it became in 1808 the
]lh I nfantry Regiment (2nd West Prussian), and its
grenadiers later formed part of lhe Kaiser Franz
DJ: Grtnadi" _'CO. lafantry R,gimtnl Kropff(.'O.JI );
campaign drus. 1806
.\5 this regimelH formed pan of the garrison of
Warsaw. which was ceded to the Grand Duch\ in
18071 it was not re-raised subsequently: this.. de"pite
its successful participation in the defence of ilesia in
1806-07. Figures D2 and 03 after
: InfantT)' Regiment du Kot1ligs f. \ruB : parade dUlL
1: Olfiar
2: Drummer
3: Pril'ate
The King's Regiment, which formed part of the
Potsdam garrison, combined splendid uniforms
with a history of bravery in action_ Among its many
battles were Malplaquct (1709 , Hohenfriedberg
('745), LobosilZ ('756), and Lcuthcn ('757)
Although forced lO retire at Aucrstacdt in 1806,
clements of the regiment fought on with Bluecher
until he was finally forced to capitulalc at Lucbeck.
It was not re-raised.
(Xote the lace on the drummer's tunic: such
distinctions were later abandoned in fa\'our of the
'swallowsnest shoulder ornament. The private is
in the 'present arms' position. All figures aner
F: Foot Guards Regimen/. 1808-1]
FI. 1-2: Olfiurs. /808
The relative simplicity of FI's undress uniform
contrasts with the service dress of his comrade, F2.
White overalls were worn in summer_ The regiment
was pan of the Potsdam garrison and the Royal
Fj.' Grel/adier. parade dress, /8/3
The regiment fought at GrossGocrschen in the
spring of 181g. but thereafter remained in resen'e
until the final attack on Paris in 18q. When
on campaign the plume was removed, the shako
covered with oilskin, and a greatcoat worn en
bandolier. After Thuemen and Kersten.
G: 12th "1an/T)' Regiment (2nd Siluian). /808-/]
G/: Soldier in camp dress
This forage cap and jacket were worn by Prussian
infantry until 1814, when a differenl cap was issued.
Yellow was the provincial distinction of Silesian
Grenadier of Regiment AhLarisch (No.:z6) in .806 parade
dre._from Hen.chel.
G2: .\fuskt/ter. campaign dress, /8/2
Once the winter of 1812 had set in, most Prussian
infal1lry would ha'-e resembled this greatcoatcd
Their appearance in France in early 1814
would have been "imilar. except that ankle length
coah were issued.
G3: .\"CO. u1nter parade dress
White trousers were substituted in summer. After
I-II: .\/uske/eer. 8th Infantr.J Rfglmmt (Life Regiment).
This typical example of the uniforms in which lhe
Prussian LiJ1C finished the Napolconic Wars
presents a fine CQntra<;t with those shown on Plate A.
The Leib-Regimellt served in von Borde's brigade of
Thielemann'5 I II Corps in BIuecher's Army of lhe
Lower Rhine in 1815, In reserve at the beginning of
Ligny, they came forward to ,\llont-Polriaux on lhe
Prussian left centre later in the afternoon of 16J une.
Notes sur les planches en couleur
A. ,\ (.... ,td"u.I" lro"'l'lurn"" bl"',cbn. la >sfI..
d"linc'l\( n.. fu. d;"lrib",.. qu" un... ddt" "h"ri(U1T Puur In...nlcaolTKldl.ln
....,' d.. b lUniqu... N:utnl hoUl(tnlll'S ... n "mert. pr"",m:ltll I..., roukurl d..
p;rr rn..m <iu ,.... Io:; A2 Trrm.. tI.. "'""1).11(11'\ Irs UJll>t.... Will dlll;'" dap-n
rAoll', n, .3 "n ...... "n l'tU.... nn"",al.. , ....."gin,..n,<:ip:o p'"
a". pllft me.mtnt> filmb:m d... r806 II cc,mb3tri' n r8oi; "I fill plU\ uld
r"I.1pll'" Inbnrt'..... Ratm'.. m "r,j J' .." d. 1' ,
81,82 Otlleicn If IM"".... U)t\trd'umfoml<' rn rC'glln<nl
dfJ"'" '" f(trm,l1lnn (0 If\o:J. l..n off";<T1 d" tNl:mlt'1U ..brn I_lar"nl dn
OOtleo "rri,,,nt au IJ.. rlQll, rt nt' po.\lu... nr plu.. L:a dnnr'p'q"" 83 L'uul"nc.. tkcc fur d.. counc dur..... ; ,I fut (o"'l'lr.m,,,m "ettUll. crr 18oli. c..
fUI ,,,,r df"o If'" r", UII"'" qui IlOr I.. no",r1 u'lifom\t en lBr""'i'
CI En C'lIml''. "'" offici,," , .. lie ....1'01(. un.. ,umqu"
d.. 5('nit"C' llmlll .. el dn ftrr ....rtb d. ,h..\aI. C2., Cll ..n"" d.. r"mp.ltn... :t,('C
o:quillt'menl d.. CollllMr ... ruw.:rrt!\ h,ulu vr<i:irnnll comi>Ofllfl" E, ILU.
iI fUl I"rd r.. h:tp'''''lnf.Ull ........ Kel{,,,....,1l :'\r.r ,n l'ruS>I..n d( l"nl
01 1.<:' de r"'ll",,,,m CI:l,ent I{r(H' .... ",<'(' ...", du rn;.rn"uI \h
Lui"..-h :-: .. & d..... I.. s..uaill..n Rhcinlhabm, Iltcumrntl';l(,h D2
Ildemeu. dr Ilant;'l' cn (c,,"e dC';alttlc. fau:rDr COnlr.a.>r.. ;1\ .... 1:1 r..""... d"
p:""d.. d.. l'il1u'''.lion p.....roC'nt(. C... r<1l;;rncn fUI 1"I"nl""C"
R..g,,,,..,rt:-:r. 7 J'l'ru<Utll d.. OJ Qt/6Iqu' I wmb.:>tm 1l"'1l cn "trlnl"c"
r806 OJ. n-l"r'!Orncrn Il.. fut p;a) tnom,.. apln I.. COl"l'lUo'I" Ik ... 'lllrd... t niso;"l,
\"lINmi... p;ar I.. l'nloK'''' t:11 Itkn
E" E2, E3 T"IIl'" p;ondc port..... poor , ... ,..,tim'nl d..lll.. , ed"hr" lM,ur "'u
clril.. ncc '13 b"l\ou.(. :-':mn Id dorallOfl .... lM.....m..'" d... L:a 'umqu.. <I"
t ..mhou mlllllctT ,ard p;r.r In uflIemnm "I>prl.... ",.h
FI, F2 , ... )lItlpli..i,.. d" I'urrifom'" d......"IC.....n (Olllr...IC' l'unif(H'lIl"
....,. plul.iClmpuel1St'"",..m cui"-lrd_ bl3rlCt ...\","'( 1""'"
"n (oJe, Ge, unu(o r""o;;Iil p;am.. d.. b. ck Pttod"m F] Ell cdmpagn... la
Ie' .h:alo rr<:OUU'" d... ""l,, (uet' et ur... CitJlOI .. eUII PI"t"".
roulet' .... )Ct(.. IU.. Ie CNf
G. L.c ,"CSt.. potl(,ijU>q""'" r8'-t,dal( alaqudk un fM)lI, .... u bon,...1
fUI d"r tibu.... L.cpu"............ I.. co"k"r mw"en\'C' d... l:a Sil"'Ie, G2 \'pC'C' 1\ f"'l.....
d.. l'rnfam..n.. pru\:>l.. ntl<" en I(nu... de c.lmp.ll;'''''' d'Iu,et d"nnl I.... d""",""",,
c;a"'I''''l/''<'I m.poln>mc"n . En r6'<4, tit'll "'poln pi"" lQl'l(u", a
tu.. disrribuN'$. G3 ill""... ti(ln pl6ocnr... I", ,enuc.t1I"",'r. d... p"m.llcm
blano el",,,nl ponel en 'IC.
HI l'nifonn... c:omp"I1:"" I\JRqur d.. L:a lin dc II p<'riode napoln",/('nl\('. en
co"lr..rt' fnr'I","r ", n I. II' Ic prCtidem 1"':"'111" p;r' 1"t1lullrlllk}fl" H2, II]
I>..u.\ 11ll1>tr.1I<ml d.. l'''I'' 1'"""'.11I....1 ponT 31. fin d( .. pnmd(
On 18/19 June dUs corps was at Wavre, facing
Grouchy. After Genty,
fl2. "3: Grenadiers, lsI Foot Guards Regiment, /8/5
Two anglcson the uniform and personal equipment
worn at the \'cry end of the Napoleonic Wars, After
A.\1. \Iut:'f{hcn d,C' G....nad,.,... n dr..,...", lettpulll, ..."... r .....""";ch; "IrlC ... " urdecnt ""ehhe...tIll:dulrtl.l.ur
I'ar:.d.. lInd ..onlKhr" Dleml ""rd-., di. 8ru>lUapP'"" .l"fvdd"l'pl
d.un" mati di.. R..r;jmenl.\f.t..bc' k"nm... 1\2 Il.cim WUrth'1I
oli" Rllnllbpp"" Schuu I{"I!"" ", .. Ir.. ub.. ..l"...pfl \!.mrd "",<I.." '"'''
,3"b ",.hl 1\3 I" o.,pt"USK'n 'tdu"' k:rm din(':> Rt')l:imcn,
mrhl tum ..11t, n k.ampl'" ..n. ,mJ.. r807. 1808 Inl,lIuenc-R"'IlHnent
" .. 3 JI"
B., 82 Off",..,.. in <lcrnnrcn lmf"ml. \'011 K<1l;irmnl 801
11' ".ItC'" II" fill". '" ,,"', R(";(irn"nr W,lnm.l,hrn 1f"1("" \tir!d une fuhn.n
' ht B3 l)ir<.n RCl(imnlt nut kUr'"i" 1.....11. eo ""rde
11lo',Ij h..i \,,,.,,, .....h HtflifhrC'l. dit' KC'-!I... \;.;apllul,/"rte" in bfurt
C. 1m 1rid d,1' Oflit;e,.. <If! dit>..- Pbrrn..-l Ubt'l lllt"rillll,r..... k und
Rnlh"...n Ca., C3 G, .. u" ,,(kr br.",,,, L'h...ho><n ,1lt'7
l"m"frt d.... Rt"ill' b.. i L, 'w'il r803 Inf"nr..ri ... Kt'\l;,lIt'nt :'\rl rt ...

01 DiC' ( ......ud...... d'(>n Rt'\linll'nu mil tkn..n \('m R<1l;unt'nt
\11 I... n",h 'ir JII lin 8'''.1111<011 Rhrmb.:allt'r l..>lllP.'rtll
bet ,\uu"...... 02 "'"hlll.ln del' \ tOil Danlrll: leil Ore ..kulllform
1.,.-1 mil ri..r Pardu(unilorm all_ 'I aiel D, It'iehl \"n.:l.;..h...n Sru r8,,8
lnf.allt"n...Rrjl:lfnel':'\I. 7 \\ "'lprC'"..'loClrtl OJ Ob..-ohl d,.."... RC'ltrtll..m
,flOll 7 .uhm,t.1l and", y .. \un !<c:hlNen Iwmpf.",,, urde .....mfl/rl..... ,
"ril inc Gamil<lfl'l"dl \\;IN"h.u lAo; "n GI"OI<I",riOll;I"m alj(.... tlC'n
"onI "
E., E2, E:\ 1',Il,odruoifQrm d,....... Elir.,.F.inhcu -pr.1ehUII 1u.. doch
lapl.... rn' !.:"',npf Brrm".k"'Il,,,t'r1 ... ri". 1......-:nlJto!; "n dn- R(Jll (I ....
Tn>lurnl ...... :-:"...hhr, ah I.Ut....1di.. \pi ..lInll" nul' die
F., F.r Di" ....1.111\ nfa..h.. Imcnm.unif<)l1T I;u., sich mil de.. p.unhollct n
Diemmmform ,(rtel "hen. 1m ,tUg man "C'l.-_ H.....,n DOl> Rt"l\,rn ...
.. Tni d(r }'o!>damel' Gamllon F3 1m ,",uro.. d.... 8u.... h abrw>trtm.. ".
d....- rkh..ko mil \'aclutU("h hnlo:o.l' und d.... l!:n-nl.hc \lanerl ""l <;"" Lcih
GI rrldmul1C' undJaclr.... , IBll j"hn\' rn",n em....... u '\" rddmuu... ..-ill G2
\\ ;nlCTunifOtm dn P"'""","'hen Inf"mmllen til hC'1 1 1, d"r ..
,lh1 ""rd.." IMIl!l'l"C \lMlIel cmgcluhn.
H. '\Ill t;nd.. d.. ""t d,_ \It Fdduu;filttn dl< "rmlt
\ Si" dao: nur dn'....' aul rn-I \ H'l, H:) L:llifotu.. n uud
die :am lndr di,..,... Epuch.. tr.fiI((..n "or(!i-n _;nd
An unrivalled source of information on the uniforms, insignia and appearance of the world's fighting
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111 Owoese ArmIes
I09 Mddle wt
117 The Scytl'Mns 700-300 8.(
69 Greelc S. PtrSloln Wan. SOI)..l2) Be
148 Army ci AJeXlder the Great
111 Carthagnan
9J 2) Hadnan-Coostarlbne
129 's Enemoes:
'! GermarKs & DilCWIS
IS8 2, Galloc 8. BntJSh celts
175 3' P"rttH.lns & Sassarvds
180 $pan 218-19 BC
1-43 S} The Desert Frontier
1.7 Romano-Byuntwle ArmIes 4th-9th (
IS. ArtI'ur 8. Aneb-Sixon
ISS Armoes of the MusWn
115 Armes of hUm. 7th-11th C
ISO The Aif:. of
89 Byuntne: 886- I I 18
IS Sixon. 8. Nc:Im'IarI
111 Fretd1 1(0)...1)00
1$ Armoes of the
111 t!'le
ISS Kr.ahts 01 Clrtst
100 EI Cd 8. 1050- 492
105 The Mongols
lSI Armoes
SO European Ar1TIoes
151 Scots & Wef5h
9. The S....1SS I ISOO
136 Ita..arl Armoes 1 1SOO
166 GermarI Armoes I)()O.I SOO
195 I-Iu'Iary 8. E Europe
159 The MarrlkII<s 12so.lS17
140 Ottoman Turl<.s 1300-1774
110 Venetian Empore 1200-1670
III Crtq and POltlers
144 Mec:heval
I I 3 Anrnes of Aglnc.ourt
145 Wars d tile1I.oses
" Medteval Hef'aldry
156 The Ir1sh WMS
191 Henry VIII's Army

119 Aztec AfTnIe$

115 Wta"'lS Ac\oIpI'lus,'
161 Gusta"'lS Ac:\ojpt'us r2t Ct'lalry
14 CM W ArmIes
I 10 New""'odel Army I 5-60
103 l.clUIs s Army
97 __ """'
86 5arnInI Annes 1 161 S
Avec annotations Wi sur lei
pla.nches Wi cOl.deur.
Mit Aufteld'onun.en auf Deutsch liber den
1&4 PolIshAtmoes 1569.1696(1)
1a8 Poldtl Armoes 15691696 (2}
161 18th Century l-hgi"Wlders
160 Peter the Great's Army (I): Infarwy
I II jacoblte Rebelbons
136 Fredenck the Great 1')
140 Frederotk the Great 2)
148 Fredendt tile Great 3)
48 Wolfe's Army
118 Amencan Woodland Indlilf'lS
39 Bot Army n N Amenc:a
14-4 Frenr;t1 10 ArTIer, War Ind
257 Napoleon's Campargns If> Italy
79 Napoleon's Egyptian
87 Napoleon's Mars"lals
64 Nap's & Carabner1
55 f\Qp's 0rag00rlS & l..alxers
68 f\Qp's Chassan
13 Nap's Guard Ctva/fy
141 '\',,(:,"s Infantry
146 I.,Itrt In'anuy
153 Nap's GUard Infartry (I)
160 NIp's Guard Infantry (2}
44 Nap's Gennan Aioes [I
TrtJe 1m c:CWIfIIlUed 011 Itl$lde bod: c_