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THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN IRAN: STATE, SOCIETY, AND DIPLOMACY

Teacher responsible: Dr. Roham Alvandi, Room E310, <r.alvandi@lse.ac.uk>. Office hours will be posted at the beginning of each term. Course Description: This course examines the emergence of modern Iran against the backdrop of Irans political, social and diplomatic history from the 19th century to 2005. It covers three inter-related topics: the history of the modern Iranian state; the interaction between state and society in modern Iran; and Irans diplomatic history in the 19th and 20th centuries. The course is divided into three sections. The first section examines the emergence of modern Iran from the remnants of the Persian Empire under the Qajars, with a particular focus on reform, revolution and Irans encounter with European imperialism. The second section deals with the Pahlavi era and the attempts by both Pahlavi monarchs to strengthen the Iranian state while confronting social resistance at home and asserting Irans power abroad. The third section deals with the origins of the Iranian revolution of 1978/79 and the transformation of the Iranian state under the Islamic Republic. Here we consider how war and peace shaped the domestic politics and foreign policy of revolutionary Iran, with a particular focus on US-Iran relations and the rise and fall of the reform movement. Finally, the course draws some broad conclusions about continuity and change in Iranian history with reference to the major theories and debates in the historiography of modern Iran. Course Objectives: (i) (ii) (iii) to provide students with an understanding of the history of modern Iran, within its political, social and diplomatic context. to allow students to understand and critically engage with major controversies, debates and theories in the historiography of modern Iran. to help students locate the history of modern Iran in the international history of the twentieth century.

Teaching Arrangements: Twenty seminars of two hours. Students are expected to keep up with readings for the weekly meetings and to participate in the seminar discussions. Students are required to produce two essays during the year. Final Course Assessment: A three-hour unseen written examination in June. The final exam will count for 100% of the final course assessment. Course Evaluation: Throughout the academic year, students are required to write two essays. There will also be a mock exam (a one-hour timed essay) in the first of the two revision classes in the summer term. Essay marks and class participation are noted in each students termly report. The essays do not form part of the final assessment for the course, but as part of the course requirements their completion is a condition for entering for the examination. Two essays have to be submitted at these times, or beforehand: 1) Wednesday, Week 7 of Michaelmas Term;

2) Wednesday, Week 7 of Lent Term; Any student encountering problems with meeting these deadlines (for any reason) should contact their class teacher ahead of the deadline to request an extension. Essay questions must be taken from previous exam papers. Students are not permitted to invent their own essay questions. Your essay should be up to 3,000 words in length. On the title page you should write your name and the question you are answering. Your essay should clearly state your approach to the topic at the beginning, develop a coherent argument with references to the assigned reading for that topic, and finish with a conclusion. More details are given in the Department's notes on essay writing, available from the public folders. If you quote from a source, you must footnote (or endnote) this. You should also provide a bibliography of your reading at the end of the essay (this should contain at least 4-6 titles). Essay Submission All essays should be handed to the class teacher at the beginning of the seminar on the day of the deadline. You should also submit your essay electronically to ih.essays@lse.ac.uk.

READING LIST 1. Reference Works Library classmarks have been indicated in bold face type. [cc] = Course Collection. Abrahamian, Ervand, Iran: between two revolutions (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982). [cc] DS316.6 A15 Abrahamian, Ervand, A History of Modern Iran (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008). [cc] DS316.3 A15. Also available as an e-book on Moodle. Ansari, Ali, Modern Iran since 1921: the Pahlavis and after (Harlow: Longman, 2003). DS266 A61 Avery, Peter, Gavin R. G. Hambly and Charles Melville (eds.), The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 7: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991). DS272 C17. Also available as an e-book on Moodle. Katouzian, Homa, The Persians: ancient, mediaeval and modern Iran (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009). [cc] DS272 K11 Keddie, Nikki R., Modern Iran: roots and results of revolution, New Edition (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2006). DS316.3 K21 Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.), Encyclopedia Iranica. Available online at: <http://www.iranica.com>. 2. Primary Sources Students should consult the following documents and oral histories, all available on-line in English and Persian, especially for their essays: The Oral History Collection of the Foundation for Iranian Studies, available on-line at: <http://www.fis-iran.org/en/oralhistory>. The Harvard Iranian Oral History Project, available on-line at: <http://ted.lib.harvard.edu/ted/deliver/home?_collection=iohp> The Foreign Relations of the United States series published by the U.S. Department of State, available both on-line and in hard copy: <http://uwdc.library.wisc.edu/collections/FRUS> (1861-1960) <http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/> (1960-1976) 3. Video Documentaries Students should consult the following video documentaries, all available on-line, for film and images of major events in the history of modern Iran and interviews with major historical personalities. Iran and the West, a three-part series produced by Norma Percy, which aired on BBC 2 in February 2009. Showdown with Tehran, written, produced and directed by Greg Barker, which aired on 23 October 2007 on the Frontline program of the PBS television network in the United States. Britain and Iran, narrated by Christopher de Bellaigue, which aired on BBC 4 on 14 February 2009.

4. Summary of Seminars Michaelmas Term Week 1: Introduction to HY440 Week 2. The Iranians Week 3. Qajar Iran Week 4. The Constitutional Revolution Week 5. The Rise and Fall of Reza Shah Week 6. Iran and the Origins of the Cold War Week 7. Musaddiq, Iranian Oil, and the 1953 Coup Week 8. Autocracy and Reform under Mohammad Reza Shah Week 9. The Foreign Relations of Pahlavi Iran Week 10. The Origins of Irans Nuclear Program Lent Term Week 1. The Opposition to the Shah Week 2. The Iranian Revolution of 1978/79 Week 3. The Western Intelligence Failure in Iran Week 4. Khomeini and the Islamic Republic Week 5. The Islamic Republic at War, 1980-1988 Week 6. The Islamic Republic at Peace, 1989-1997 Week 7. The Reform Movement, 1997-2005 Week 8. Khatamis Dtente with the United States Week 9. Irans Conservative Revival Week 10. The Historiography of Modern Iran Summer Term Week 1. Mock Exam Week 2. Revision Class

MICHAELMAS TERM
Week 2. The Iranians (i) Who are the Iranians?

Required Reading: Katouzian, Homa, The Persians: ancient, mediaeval and modern Iran (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), Introduction and Chapters 1-5. [cc] DS272 K11 Additional Reading: Avery, Peter, Balancing Factors in Irano-Islamic Politics and Society, Middle East Journal, 50/2 (1996), pp. 177-189. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle de Bellaigue, Christopher, The Persian Difference, New York Review of Books, 15 December 2005, pp.16-20. DS318.9 D27 Fazel, Mohammad K., The Politics of Passions: Growing up Shia, Iranian Studies, 21/3 (1988), pp. 37-51. Available electronically on Moodle Week 3. Qajar Iran (i) (ii) (iii) Who were the Qajars and how did they govern Iran? What was the impact of British and Russian imperialism on Qajar Iran? How can we account for the downfall of Amir Kabir?

Required Reading: Abrahamian, Ervand, Oriental Despotism: the case of Qajar Iran, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 5/1 (1974), pp. 3-31. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & Available electronically on Moodle Amanat, Abbas, Russian Intrusion into the Guarded Domain: reflections of a Qajar statesman on European expansion, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 113/1 (1993), pp. 35-56. Available electronically on Moodle Amanat, Abbas, The Downfall of Mirza Taqi Khan Amir Kabir and the Problem of Ministerial Authority in Qajar Iran, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 23/4 (1991), pp. 577-599. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Katouzian, Homa, The Persians: ancient, mediaeval and modern Iran (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), Introduction and Chapters 6-7. [cc] DS272 K11 Additional Reading: Abrahamian, Ervand, A History of Modern Iran (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), Chapter 1. [cc] DS316.3 A15. Also available as an e-book on Moodle. Ansari, Ali M., Iran to 1919, in Frances Robinson (ed.), The New Cambridge History of Islam, Volume 5, The Islamic World in the Age of Western Dominance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. pp. 154-179. Available electronically on Moodle

Amanat, Abbas, Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al Din Shah and the Iranian monarchy, 1831-1896 (Berkley: University of California Press, 1997). DS307.N38 A48 Bosworth, C. Edmund and Carole Hillenbrand (eds.), Qajar Iran: political, social and cultural change 1800-1925 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1983). [cc] DS298 Q1 Farmanfarmaian, Roxane (ed.), War and Peace in Qajar Persia: implications past and present (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008). [cc] DS299 W25 Greaves, Rose, Iranian Relations with Great Britain and British India, 1798-1921, in The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 7, Chapter 11. Available electronically on Moodle Kashani-Sabet, Firoozeh, Fragile Frontiers: the diminishing domains of Qajar Iran, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 29/2 (1997), pp. 205-234. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Kazemzadeh, Firuz, Iranian Relations with Russia and the Soviet Union, to 1921, in The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 7, Chapter 9. Available electronically on Moodle Lambton, Anne K. S., Qajar Persia: eleven studies (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1988). DS298 L22 Meredith, Colin, Early Qajar Administration: an analysis of its development and functions, Iranian Studies, 4 (1971), pp. 59-84. Available electronically on Moodle Sheikholeslami, A. Reza, The Patrimonial Structure of Iranian bureaucracy in the Late Nineteenth Century, Iranian Studies, 11 (1978), pp. 199-258. Available electronically on Moodle Week 4. The Constitutional Revolution (i) (ii) (iii) What were the causes of the Constitutional Revolution? Who opposed the Constitutional Revolution and why? What is the legacy of the Constitutional Revolution?

Required Reading: Abrahamian, Ervand, The Causes of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 10/3 (1979), pp. 381-414. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Katouzian, Homa, The Persians: ancient, mediaeval and modern Iran (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), Chapter 8. [cc] DS272 K11 Martin, Vanessa, The Anti-Constitutionalist Arguments of Shaikh Fazlallah Nuri, Middle Eastern Studies, 22/2 (1986), pp. 181-196. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Additional Reading: Abrahamian, Ervand, A History of Modern Iran (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), Chapter 2. [cc] DS316.3 A15. Also available as an e-book on Moodle. Afary, Janet, The Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1906-1911: grassroots democracy, social democracy, & the origins of feminism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996). [cc] JQ1782 A25 & Introduction on Moodle Bayat, Mangol, Irans First Revolution: Shiism and the constitutional revolution of 1905 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991). DS313 B35

Bonakdarian, Mansour, The Persia Committee and the Constitutional Revolution in Iran, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 18/2 (1991), pp. 186-207. Available electronically on Moodle Browne, Edward Granville, The Persian Revolution of 1905-1909 (Cambridge: The University Press, 1910). DS313 B86 Keddie, Nikki R. (ed.), Religion and Politics in Iran: Shiism from quietism to revolution (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983). [cc] BP192.7.I6 R38 Martin, Vanessa, Islam and Modernism: the Iranian revolution of 1906 (London: I.B. Tauris, 1989). DS313 M38 Week 5. The Rise and Fall of Reza Shah (i) (ii) (iii) What role did Britain play in Reza Khans rise to power? What were the major policies and institutions of the Pahlavi state? Was Reza Shah a brutal dictator or a patriotic reformer?

Required Reading: Ghani, Cyrus, Iran and the Rise of Reza Shah: from Qajar collapse to Pahlavi rule (London: I. B. Tauris, 1998), Chapter 7, pp. 161-198. DS317 G41 & available electronically on Moodle Katouzian, Homa, The Persians: ancient, mediaeval and modern Iran (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), Chapter 9. [cc] DS272 K11 Matthee, Rudi, Transforming Dangerous Nomads into Useful Artisans, Technicians, Agriculturists: education in the Reza Shah period, Iranian Studies, 26/3 (1993), pp. 313-336. Available electronically on Moodle Zirinsky, Michael P., Imperial Power and Dictatorship: Britain and the rise of Reza Shah, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 24/4 (1992), pp. 639-663. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Additional Reading: Abrahamian, Ervand, A History of Modern Iran (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), Chapter 3. [cc] DS316.3 A15. Also available as an e-book on Moodle. Atabaki, Touraj and Erik J. Zrcher, Men of Order: authoritarian modernization under Atatrk and Reza Shah (London: I.B. Tauris, 2004). DS63 A86 Banani, Amin, The Modernization of Iran, 1921-1941 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1961). DS317 B21 Chehabi, Houchang, Staging the Emperors New Clothes: dress codes and nationbuilding under Reza Shah, Iranian Studies, 24/3 (1993), pp. 209-233. Available electronically on Moodle Cronin, Stephanie, The Army and the Creation of the Pahlavi State in Iran, 1921-1926 (London: I. B. Tauris, 1997). DS316.3 C94 Cronin, Stephanie (ed.), The Making of the Modern Iran: state and society under Riza Shah, 1921-41 (London: Routledge, 2003). DS317 M23 Faghfoory, Mohammad H., The Impact of Modernization on the Ulama in Iran, 19251941, Iranian Studies, 26/3 (1993), pp. 277-312. Available electronically on Moodle Katouzian, Homa, State and Society in Iran: the eclipse of the Qajars and the emergence of the Pahlavis (London: I.B. Tauris, 2000). [cc] DS316.6 K11

Kia, Mehrdad, Persian Nationalism and the Campaign for Language Purification, Middle Eastern Studies, 34/2 (1998), pp. 9-36. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Martin, Vanessa, Mudarris, Republicanism, and the Rise to Power of Riza Khan, Sardar-i Sipah, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 21/2 (1994), pp. 199210. Available electronically on Moodle Rezun, Miron, Reza Shahs Court Minister: Teymourtash, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 12/2 (1980), pp. 119-137. Available electronically on Moodle Week 6. Iran and the Origins of the Cold War (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What were the causes of the Allied invasion of Iran in August 1941? What were Stalins goals during the 1946 Azerbaijan Crisis? Compare and contrast British and American policies towards Iran during the 1946 Azerbaijan Crisis. Why did Soviet troops withdraw from Iran in 1946?

Required Reading: Fawcett, Louise L., Iran and the Cold War: the Azerbaijan crisis of 1946 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), Chapter 6. DS318 F27. Available electronically on Moodle Katouzian, Homa, The Persians: ancient, mediaeval and modern Iran (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), Chapter 10. [cc] DS272 K11 Kozhanov, Nikolay A., The Pretexts and Reasons for the Allied Invasion of Iran in 1941, Iranian Studies, 45/4 (2012), pp. 479-497. Available electronically on Moodle McFarland, Steven L., A Peripheral View of the Origins of the Cold War: The Crises in Iran, 1941-47, Diplomatic History, 4/4 (1980), pp. 333-352. Periodicals Collection, E183.7 & available electronically on Moodle Raine, F. S., Stalin and the Creation of the Azerbaijan Democratic Party in Iran, 1945, Cold War History, 2/1 (2001), pp. 1-38. Available electronically on Moodle Additional Reading: Abrahamian, Ervand, A History of Modern Iran (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), Chapter 4. [cc] DS316.3 A15. Also available as an e-book on Moodle. Azimi, Fakhreddin, Iran: the crisis of democracy (London: I. B. Tauris, 1989). DS318 A99 Blake, Kristen, The U.S.-Soviet Confrontation in Iran: a case in the annals of the cold war (Lanham: University Press of America, 2009). E183.8.S65 B63 Doenecke, Justus D., Irans Role in Cold War Revisionism, Iranian Studies, 5/2 (1972), pp. 96-111. Available electronically on Moodle Eshraghi, F., Anglo-Soviet Occupation of Iran in August 1941, Middle Eastern Studies, 20/1 (1984), pp. 27-52. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Eshraghi, F., The Immediate Aftermath of Anglo-Soviet Occupation of Iran in August 1941, Middle Eastern Studies, 20/3 (1984), pp. 324-351. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Goode, James F., The United States and Iran, 1946-51: the diplomacy of neglect (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989). E183.8.I7 G68

Hasanov, Jamal, At the Dawn of the Cold War: the Soviet-American crisis over Iranian Azerbaijan, 1941-1946 (Lanham: Rowan & Littlefield, 2006). DS324.A9 H34 Hess, Gary R., The Iranian Crisis of 1945-46 and the Cold War, Political Science Quarterly, 89/1 (1974), pp. 117-146. Periodicals Collection, JA1.A1 & available electronically on Moodle Kuniholm, Bruce R., The Origins of the Cold War in the Near East: great power conflict and diplomacy in Iran, Turkey and Greece (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980). [cc] DS63 K91 Lenczowski, George, Russia and the West in Iran, 1918-1948: a study in big-power rivalry (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1949). DS274.2.R9 L56 Lytle, Mark Hamilton, The Origins of the Iranian-American Alliance, 1941-1953 (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1987). E183.8.I55 L99 McFarland, Steven L., Anatomy of an Iranian Political Crowd: the Tehran bread riot of December 1942, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 17/1 (1985), pp. 51-65. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Pfau, Richard, Containment in Iran, 1946: The Shift to an Active Policy, Diplomatic History, 1/4 (1977), pp. 359-372. Available electronically on Moodle Rezun, Miron, The Soviet Union and Iran: Soviet policy in Iran from the beginnings of the Pahlavi dynasty until the Soviet invasion of 1941 (Alphen aan den Rijn: Sijthoff and Noordhoff International Publishers, 1981). DS317 R46 Samii, Kuross A., Truman Against Stalin in Iran: A Tale of Three Messages, Middle Eastern Studies, 23/1 (1987), pp. 95-107. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Seydi, Suleyman, Intelligence and Counter-Intelligence Activities in Iran during the Second World War, Middle Eastern Studies, 46/5 (2010), pp. 733-752. Available electronically on Moodle Yegorova, Natalia I., The Iran Crisis of 1945-46: A View from the Russian Archives, Working Paper No. 15, Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars, Washington, DC, May 1996. Available electronically on Moodle See also the three Soviet documents relating to the 1945-46 Iran Crisis, translated by the Cold War International History Project. Available electronically on Moodle. Week 7. Musaddiq, Iranian Oil, and the 1953 Coup (i) (ii) (iii) How did Britain respond to the nationalization of Iranian oil? Compare and contrast the policies of the Truman and Eisenhower administrations towards Iran. Was Musaddiq toppled because of his own intransigence?

Required Reading: Gasiorowski, Mark J. and Malcolm Byrne (eds.), Mohammad Mosaddeq and the 1953 Coup in Iran (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2004). [cc] DS316.6 M69 The CIAs Official History of Operation Ajax. Available electronically on Moodle Additional Reading: Azimi, Fakhreddin, Iran: The Crisis of Democracy, 1941-53 (London: I.B. Tauris, 1989),

Chapters 18-20. DS318 A99 Bayandor, Darioush, Iran and the CIA: the fall of Mosaddeq revisited (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010). DS316.6 B35 & available as an e-book on Moodle Bill, James A. & Wm. Roger Louis (eds.), Musaddiq, Iranian Nationalism & Oil, (London: I.B. Tauris, 1988). [cc] DS316.32 M98 Brands, H. W., The Cairo-Tehran Connection in Anglo-American Rivalry in the Middle East, 1951-1953, International History Review, 21/3 (1989), pp. 434-456. Periodicals Collection, D1 & available electronically on Moodle Elm, Mostafa, Oil, Power, and Principle: Irans oil nationalization and its aftermath (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1992). HD9576.I62 E41 Falle, Sir Sam, The Mussadiq era in Iran, 1951-1953: a contemporary diplomats view, in David W. Lesch (ed.), The Middle East and the United States: a historical and political reassessment (Boulder: Westview, 1996), pp. 79-87. [cc] DS63.2.U5 M62 Ferrier, R. W., The History of the British Petroleum Company, Volumes 1 and 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982) HD9571.9.B F39 Ferrier, R. W., The Iranian Oil Industry, in Peter Avery et. al. (eds.), The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 7, From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 639-701. [cc] DS272 C17 & Available electronically on Moodle Gasiorowski, Mark J., The 1953 Coup dtat in Iran, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 19/3 (1987), pp. 261-286. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Gasiorowski, Mark J., The CIA Looks Back at the 1953 Coup in Iran, Middle East Report, 216 (2000), pp. 4-5. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Gavin, Francis J., Politics, Power, and U.S. Policy in Iran, 1950-1953, Journal of Cold War Studies, 1/1 (1999), pp. 56-89. Available electronically on Moodle Ghasimi, Reza, Irans Oil Nationalization and Mossadeghs Involvement with the World Bank, Middle East Journal, 65/3 (2011), pp. 442-456. Available electronically on Moodle Heiss, Mary Ann, Empire and Nationhood: the United States, Great Britain, and Iranian Oil, 1950-1954 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997). [cc] HD 9576.I62 H47 Katouzian, Homa, Musaddiq and the Struggle for Power in Iran (London: I.B. Tauris, 1990). DS316.9 M91 Marsh, Steve, Continuity and Change: reinterpreting the policies of the Truman and Eisenhower administrations towards Iran, 1950-54, Journal of Cold War Studies, 7/3 (2005), pp. 79-123. Available electronically on Moodle Marsh, Steve, Anglo-American Relations and Cold War Oil: Crisis in Iran (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) E183.8.G7 M36 Marsh, Steve, HMG, AIOC and the Anglo-Iranian Oil Crisis: in defence of Anglo-Iranian, Diplomacy and Statecraft, 12/4 (2001), pp. 143-174. Available electronically on Moodle Painter, David, Oil and the American Century: the political economy of U.S. foreign oil policy, 1941-1954 (Baltimore, 1986) HD9566 P14 Painter, David, Oil, Resources, and the Cold War, 1945-1962, in Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad (eds.), The Cambridge History of the Cold War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 486-507. [cc] D842 C17 & available electronically on Moodle

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Roosevelt, Kermit, Countercoup: the struggle for the control of Iran (New York: McGrawHill, 1979). DS318 R78 Ruehsen, Moiara de Moraes, Operation AJAX revisted: Iran 1953, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 29, No. 3 (1993), pp. 467-486. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Yergin, Daniel, The Prize: the epic quest for oil, money and power (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991), Chapter 23, pp. 450-478. [cc] HD9560.6 Y41 Week 8. Autocracy and Reform under Mohammad Reza Shah (i) (ii) (iii) Why did the shah launch the White Revolution? What was the significance of the June 1963 demonstrations? Was the White Revolution a failure?

Required Reading: Abrahamian, Ervand, Tortured Confessions: prisons and public recantations in modern Iran (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), Chapter 2. HV8599 .I7 A45 & Chapter 2 on Moodle Goode, James F., Reforming Iran during the Kennedy Years, Diplomatic History, 15/1 (1991), pp. 13-29. Periodicals Collection, E183.7 & available electronically on Moodle Katouzian, Homa, The Persians: ancient, mediaeval and modern Iran (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), Chapter 11. [cc] DS272 K11 Milani, Abbas, The Shah (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), Chapter 15, pp. 279308. [cc] DS318 M63 & available electronically on Moodle [This was scanned for HY321] Additional Reading: Abrahamian, Ervand, A History of Modern Iran (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), Chapter 5. [cc] DS316.3 A15 & available as an e-book on Moodle. Afkhami, Gholam Reza, The Life and Times of the Shah (Berkley: University of California Press, 2009). DS318 A25 Alam, Asadollah, The Shah and I: the confidential diary of Irans royal court, 1969-1977 (London: Tauris, 1991). DS316.6 A31 Ansari, Ali M., The Myth of the White Revolution: Mohammad Reza Shah, modernization and the consolidation of power, Middle Eastern Studies, 37/3 (2001), pp. 1-24. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Bill, James, The Plasticity of Informal Politics: The Case of Iran, Middle East Journal, 27/2 (1973), pp. 131-51. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Binder, Leonard, The Cabinet of Iran: A Case Study in Institutional Adaptation, Middle East Journal, 16/1 (1962), pp. 29-47. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Binder, Leonard, Iran: political development in a changing society (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962). DS318 B61 Bostock, Frances, and Geoffrey Jones, Planning and Power in Iran: Ebtehaj and economic development under the Shah (London: Cass, 1989). HC475 B74

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Gasiorowski, Mark J., The Qarani Affair and Iranian Politics, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 25/4 (1993), pp. 625-644. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Hoogland, Eric J., Land and Revolution in Iran, 1960-1980 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982). HD1333.I6 H77 Lambton, Ann K. S., The Persian Land Reform, 1962-1966 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969). HD926 L22 Milani, Abbas, The Persian Sphinx: Amir Abbas Hoveyda and the riddle of the Iranian revolution (Washington, DC: Mage Publishers, 2000). [cc] DS316.9.H88 M63 Nasr, Vali, Politics within the Late-Pahlavi State: the Ministry of Economy and Industrial Policy, 1963-69, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 32/1 (2000), pp. 97-122. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Pahlavi, Mohammed Reza, Mission for my Country (London: Hutchinson, 1961). [cc] DS318 M69 Razavi, Hossein, and Firouz Vakil. The Political Environment of Economic Planning in Iran, 1971-1983: from monarchy to Islamic Republic (Boulder: Westview, 1984). HC475 R27 Zonis, Marvin, The Political Elite of Iran (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971). HN670.2 Z81 Week 9. The Foreign Relations of Pahlavi Iran (i) (ii) (iii) Compare and contrast the dynamics of US-Iran relations under Johnson and Nixon. What were the goals of Mohammad Reza Shahs independent national policy? Did he achieve them? Was Pahlavi Iran a revisionist power in the Middle East in the 1960s and 1970s?

Required Reading: Alvandi, Roham, Nixon, Kissinger, and the Shah: The Origins of Iranian Primacy in the Persian Gulf, Diplomatic History, 36/2 (2012), pp. 337-372. Available electronically on Moodle Johns, Andrew L., The Johnson Administration, the Shah of Iran, and the Changing Pattern of U.S.-Iranian Relations, 1965-1967: tired of being treated like a schoolboy, Journal of Cold War Studies, 9/2 (2007), pp. 64-94. Available electronically on Moodle Parsi, Trita, Treacherous Alliance: the secret dealings of Israel, Iran, and the U.S. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007), Chapters 4-7, pp. 39-78. [cc] DS274.2.I75 P26 & available as an e-book on Moodle. Additional Reading: Alvandi, Roham, Muhammad Reza Pahlavi and the Bahrain Question, 1968-1970, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 37/2 (2010), pp. 159-177. Available electronically on Moodle Bill, James A., The Eagle and the Lion: the tragedy of American-Iranian relations (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988). E183.8.I6 B59 Chubin, Shahram. 'Iran,' in Yezid Sayigh and Avi Shlaim (eds.), The Cold War and the Middle East (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997), pp. 216-49. [cc] DS63.1 C68

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Chubin, Shahram, and Sepehr Zabih, The Foreign Relations of Iran: a developing state in a zone of great-power conflict (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974). DS318 C55 & Chapter 7 on Moodle Chubin, Shahram, 'Iran: between the Arab West and the Asian East', Survival, 16/4 (1974), pp. 172-182. Periodicals Collection, U162 Cottrell, Alvin J., and James E. Dougherty, Irans Quest for Security: U.S. arms transfers and the nuclear option (Cambridge: Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, 1977). UA853.I67 C85 Gasiorowski, Mark J., U.S. Foreign Policy and the Shah: building a client state in Iran (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991). E183.8.I55 G24 Nemchenok, Victor V., In Search of Stability Amid Chaos: US policy toward Iran, 196163, Cold War History, 10/3 (2010), pp. 341-369. Available electronically on Moodle Nemchenok, Victor V., The Ford Foundation and the Failure of Rural Development in Iran, 1953-64, Middle East Journal, 63/2 (2009), pp. 261-284. Pahlavi, Mohammed Reza, Mission for my Country (London: Hutchinson, 1961). [cc] DS318 M69 Popp, Roland, Benign Intervention? The Kennedy Administrations Push for Reform in Iran in Manfred Berg and Andreas Etges (eds.), John F. Kennedy and the Thousand Days: new perspectives on the foreign and domestic policies of the Kennedy administration (Heidelberg: Universitatsverlag Winter, 2007), pp. 197219. Available electronically on Moodle Popp, Roland, An Application of Modernization Theory during the Cold War? The Case of Pahlavi Iran, The International History Review, 30/1 (2008), pp. 76-98. Available electronically on Moodle Ramazani, Rouhollah K., 'Iran and the Arab-Israeli Conflict,' Middle East Journal, 32/4 (1978), pp. 413-28. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Ramazani, Rouhollah K., Irans Search for Regional Coperation, Middle East Journal, 30/2 (1976), pp. 173-186. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Ramazani, Rouhollah K., The Foreign Policy of Iran, 1941-1973: a study of foreign policy in modernizing nations (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1975). DS274 R16 Ramazani, Rouhollah K., The Persian Gulf: Iran's role (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1972). DS274.2.I55 R16 Rubin, Barry, Paved with Good Intentions: the American experience in Iran (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), Chapter 5. E183.8.I55 R89 & available electronically on Moodle Samii, Abbas William, 'The Shah's Lebanon Policy: the role of SAVAK,' Middle Eastern Studies, 33/1 (1997), pp. 66-91. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Summitt, April R., For A White Revolution: John F. Kennedy and the Shah of Iran, Middle East Journal, 58/4 (2004), pp. 560-575. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Week 10. The Origins of Irans Nuclear Program (i) (ii) (iii) What was the impact of the 1973 oil price rise on Iran? What were the goals of the shahs nuclear program? What was so controversial about Irans civilian nuclear program?

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(iv)

Compare and contrast the attitudes of the Nixon, Ford, and Carter administrations towards Irans nuclear program.

Required Reading: Afkhami, Gholam Reza, The Life and Times of the Shah (Berkley: University of California Press, 2009), Chapter 15. DS318 A25 & available electronically on Moodle Burr, William, A Brief History of U.S.-Iranian Nuclear Negotiations, Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, 65/1 (2009), pp. 21-34. Reserve Periodicals, QC770, & available electronically on Moodle Milani, Abbas, Akbar Etemad in his Eminent Persians: the men and women who made modern Iran, 1941-1979, Vol. I (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2008), pp. 134-138. DS316.85 M63, & available electronically on Moodle Milani, Abbas, The Persian Sphinx: Amir Abbas Hoveyda and the riddle of the Iranian revolution (Washington, DC: Mage Publishers, 2000), Chapter 13. [cc] DS316.9.H88 M63, & available electronically on Moodle Additional Reading: Gavin, Francis J., Nuclear Nixon: Ironies, Puzzles, and the Triumph of Realpolitik in Fredrik Logevall and Andrew Preston (eds.), Nixon in the World: American Foreign Relations, 1969-1977 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 139-140. [cc] E855 N73 & available electronically on Moodle Brenner, Michael J., Nuclear Power and Non-Proliferation: the remaking of U.S. policy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981). JX1974.73 B83 Cooper, Andrew Scott, Showdown at Doha: the secret oil deal that helped sink the Shah of Iran, Middle East Journal, 62/4 (2008), pp. 567-591. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Razavi, Hossein, and Firouz Vakil, The Political Environment of Economic Planning in Iran, 1971-1983: from monarchy to Islamic Republic (Boulder: Westview, 1984). HC475 R27 Walker, J. Samuel, Nuclear Power and Non-Proliferation: the controversy over nuclear exports, 1974-1980, Diplomatic History, 25/2 (2001), pp. 215-249. Periodicals Collection, E183.7 & available electronically on Moodle Electronic Briefing Book No. 268, National Security Archive, George Washington University, available electronically on Moodle

LENT TERM
Week 1. The Opposition to the Shah (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What role did the National Front and the Tudeh Party play in the opposition to the shah? Who was Ayatollah Khomeini and what was his critique of the Pahlavi state? Which Leftist groups were waging an armed struggle against the Pahlavi state and why? What was the influence of intellectuals like Ali Shariati and Jalal Al-e Ahmad on the opposition to the shah?

Required Reading:

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Abrahamian, Ervand, The Guerilla Movement in Iran, 1963-1977, MERIP Reports, 86 (1980), pp. 3-15. Available electronically on Moodle Abrahamian, Ervand, Iran in Revolution: The Opposition Forces, MERIP Reports, 75/76 (1979), pp. 3-8. Available electronically on Moodle Cronin, Stephanie, The Left in Iran: illusion and disillusion, Middle Eastern Studies, 36/3 (2000), pp. 231-243. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Hanson, Brad, Westoxication of Iran: Depictions and Reactions of Behrangi, al-e Ahmad, and Shariati, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 15/1 (1983), pp. 1-23. Available electronically on Moodle Katouzian, Homa, The Persians: ancient, mediaeval and modern Iran (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), Chapter 12. [cc] DS272 K11 Additional Reading: Abrahamian, Ervand, The Iranian Mojahedin (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989). DS318.825 A15 Akhavi, Shahrough, Religion and Politics in Contemporary Iran: clergy-state relations in the Pahlavi period (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1980). BP63.I68 A31 Behdad, Sohrab, Islamic Utopia in Pre-Revolutionary Iran: Navab Safavi and the Fadaian-e Eslam, Middle Eastern Studies, 33/1(1997), pp. 34-56. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Behrooz, Maziar, Rebels with a Cause: the failure of the Left in Iran (London: I. B. Tauris 1999). DS316.6 B41 & Chapter 2 on Moodle Boroujerdi, Mehrzad. Iranian Intellectuals and the West: the tormented triumph of nativism (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1996). DS316.4 B73 Chehabi, Houchang E., Iranian Politics and Religious Modernism: the Liberation Movement of Iran under the Shah and Khomeini (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990). DS318.825 C51 Cronin, Stephanie (ed.), Reformers and Revolutionaries in Modern Iran: new perspectives on the Iranian Left (London: Routledge, 2004). DS316.3 R33 Enayat, Hamid, Modern Islamic Political Thought (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982). [cc] BP173.7 E51 Kazemi, Farhad, The Fada'iyan-e Islam: fanaticism, politics, and terror in Said Amir Arjomand (ed.), From Nationalism to Revolutionary Islam (London: Macmillan, 1984), pp. 158-76. DS62.4 F93 Matin-Asghari, Afshin, Iranian Student Opposition to the Shah (Costa Mesa: Mazda, 2002). LA1353.7 M43 Moin, Baqer, Khomeini: the life of the Ayatollah (London: I.B. Tauris, 1999). [cc] DS318.84.K48 M65 Najmabadi, Afsaneh, Irans Turn to Islam: from modernism to moral order, Middle East Journal, 41/2 (1987), pp. 202-217. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Rahnema, Ali, An Islamic Utopian: a political biography of Ali Shari`ati (London: I. B. Tauris, 1998). BP80.S R14 Zabih, Sepehr, The Communist Movement in Iran (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966). HX417 Z11 Zabih, Sepehr, The Left in Contemporary Iran: ideology, organisation and the Soviet connection (London: Croom Helm, 1986). HX385.2.A6 Z11

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Week 2. The Iranian Revolution of 1978/79 (i) (ii) (iii) How did the shah and the Iranian military respond to the revolutionary upheaval? What role did class and economics play in the Iranian Revolution? Was the Iranian revolution an Islamic revolution?

Required Reading: Abrahamian, Ervand, Structural Causes of the Iranian Revolution, MERIP Reports, 87 (1980), pp. 21-26. Available electronically on Moodle Arjomand, Said Amir, The Turban for the Crown: the Islamic revolution in Iran (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), Chapters 5-7. DS316.6 A71 & available as an e-book on Moodle Halliday, Fred, The Genesis of the Iranian Revolution, Third World Quarterly, 1/4 (1979), pp. 1-16. Available electronically on Moodle Kazemi, Farhad, Models of Iranian Politics: the road to the Islamic revolution, and the challenge of civil society, World Politics, 47/4 (1995), pp. 555-574. Available electronically on Moodle Milani, Mohsen, The Making of Irans Islamic Revolution: from monarchy to Islamic Republic, Second Edition (Boulder: Westview Press, 1994), Chapter 6. [cc] DS318 M63 & available electronically on Moodle Additional Reading: Amuzegar, Jahangir. The Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution: the Pahlavis triumph and tragedy (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991). DS316.32 A52 Ashraf, Ahmad and Ali Banuazizi, The state, classes and modes of mobilization in the Iranian Revolution, State, Culture and Society, 1/3 (1983), pp. 3-39. Available electronically on Moodle Fischer, Michael M. J., Iran: from religious dispute to revolution (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2003). [cc] BP192.7.I68 F52 Katouzian, Homa, The Iranian Revolution at 30: The Dialectic of State and Society, Middle East Critique, 19/1 (2010), pp. 35-53. Available electronically on Moodle Katouzian, Homa, The Political Economy of Modern Iran: despotism and pseudomodernism, 1926-1979 (London: Macmillan, 1981). [cc] DS318 K11 Kazemi, Farhad, Poverty and Revolution in Iran (New York: New York University Press, 1980). HB2096.4 K21 Kurzman, Charles, The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004). DS318.8 K91 Looney, Robert, Economic Origins of the Iranian Revolution (New York: Pergamom Press, 1982). HC475 L86 Mazaheri, Nimah, State Repression in the Iranian Bazaar, 1975-1977: the antiprofiteering campaign and an impending revolution, Iranian Studies, 39/3 (2006), pp. 401-414. Available electronically on Moodle Moaddel, Mansoor, Class, Politics, and Ideology in the Iranian Revolution (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993). [cc] DS318.81 M28 Moin, Baqer, Khomeini: the life of the Ayatollah (London: I.B. Tauris, 1999). [cc] DS318.84.K48 M65

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Mottahedeh, Roy P., The Mantle of the Prophet: religion and politics in Iran (London: Chatto and Windus, 1986). [cc] DS266 M92 Nikazmerad, Nicholas M., A Chronological Survey of the Iranian Revolution, Iranian Studies, 13/1 (1980), pp. 327-368. Available electronically on Moodle Parsa, Misagh, Social Origins of the Iranian Revolution (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989). [cc] DS316.6 P26 Zonis, Marvin, Majestic Failure: the fall of the Shah (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991). DS318 Z81 Week 3. The Western Intelligence Failure in Iran (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Was there an American intelligence failure in Iran? If so, why? Was there a British intelligence failure in Iran? If so, why? At what point did the Carter administration begin to think the unthinkable? Did the Carter administration hasten the fall of the Shah? Was the Tehran hostage crisis a consequence of the American intelligence failure in Iran?

Required Reading: Bill, James A., The Eagle and the Lion: the tragedy of American-Iranian relations (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988), Chapter 7. E183.8.I6 B59 & available electronically on Moodle Browne, N. W., British Policy in Iran, 1974-1978, UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 1979. Available electronically on Moodle Cottam, Richard, Goodbye to Americas Shah, Foreign Policy, 34 (1979), pp. 3-14. Available electronically on Moodle Daugherty, William J., Behind the Intelligence Failure in Iran, International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 14/4 (2001), pp. 449-484. Available electronically on Moodle Additional Reading: Bakhash, Shaul, The Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic revolution (London: I. B. Tauris, 1985). [cc] DS318.8 B18 Bani-Sadr, Abol Hassan, My Turn to Speak: Iran, the revolution & secret deals with the US (Washington: Brasseys, 1991). DS318.85 B21 Bill, James A., The American Analysis of Iranian Politics, Iranian Studies, 10/3 (1977), pp. 164-195. Available electronically on Moodle Bowden, Mark, Guests of the Ayatollahs: the first battle in Americas war with militant Islam (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006). E183.8.I55 B78 Brzezinski, Zbigniew, Power and Principle: memoirs of the national security advisor 1977-1981 (New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983). E872 B91 Carter, Jimmy, Keeping the Faith: memoirs of a president (New York: Bantam Books, 1982). [cc] E873 C32 Christopher , Warren, et. al., American Hostages in Iran: the conduct of a crisis (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), Chapter 1. E183.8.I55 A51 Chubin, Shahram, Soviet Policy towards Iran and the Gulf, Adelphi Papers 157 (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1980). DK274 C55 Ebtekar, Massoumeh, Takeover in Tehran: the inside story of the U.S. embassy capture (Burnaby: Talonbooks, 2000). E183.8.I7 E11

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Farber, David R., Taken Hostage: the Iran hostage crisis and Americas first encounter with radical Islam (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005). E183.8.I55 F21 Houghton, David P., U.S. Foreign Policy and the Iran Hostage Crisis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), Chapter 3. E183.8.I55 H83 Huyser, Robert E., Mission to Tehran (London: Deutsch, 1986). DS318.8 H98 Jervis, Robert, Analysis of NFACs Performance On Irans Domestic Crisis, Mid-1977 7 November 1978, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 15 June 1979. Available electronically on Moodle Jervis, Robert, Why Intelligence Fails: lessons from the Iranian Revolution and the Iraq War (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2010). JK468.I6 J51 & available electronically on Moodle Parsons, Anthony, The Pride and the Fall: Iran 1974-1979 (London: Cape, 1984). DS318 P27 Sick, Gary, All Fall Down: Americas fateful encounter in Iran (London: Tauris, 1985). [cc] E185.8.I55 S56 Sullivan, William, Mission to Iran (New York: Norton, 1981). DS318 S95 Vance, Cyrus, Hard Choices: critical years in Americas foreign policy (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983). E872 V22 Week 4. Khomeini and the Islamic Republic (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What were the main counter-revolutionary threats to the newborn Islamic Republic? How did Khomeini deal with them? What were the major debates concerning the constitution of the Islamic Republic? What role did the Tudeh Party play in the consolidation of clerical rule? How can we account for the failure of the Bazargan government?

Required Reading: Akhavi, Shahrough, Elite Factionalism in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Middle East Journal, 41/2 (1987), pp. 181-201. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Gasiorowski, Mark J., The Nuzhih Plot and Iranian Politics, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 34/4 (2002), pp. 645-666. Available electronically on Moodle Katouzian, Homa, The Persians: ancient, mediaeval and modern Iran (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), Chapter 13. [cc] DS272 K11 Milani, Mohsen, Harvest of Shame: Tudeh and the Bazargan Government, Middle Eastern Studies, 29/2 (1993), pp. 307-320. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Saffari, Said, The Legitimation of the Clergys Right to Rule in the Iranian Constitution of 1979, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 20/1 (1993), pp. 64-82. Available electronically on Moodle Additional Reading: Abrahamian, Ervand, A History of Modern Iran (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), Chapter 6. [cc] DS316.3 A15 & available as an e-book on Moodle. Abrahamian, Ervand, Tortured Confessions: prisons and public recantations in modern Iran (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999). HV8599 .I7 A45

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Arjomand, Said Amir, The Turban for the Crown: the Islamic revolution in Iran (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), Chapter 8. DS316.6 A71 & available as an e-book on Moodle Ashraf, Ahmad, Theocracy and Charisma: new men of power in Iran, International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 4/1 (1990), pp. 113-152. Periodicals Collection, HM1 Bakhash, Shaul, The Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic revolution (London: I. B. Tauris, 1985). [cc] DS318.8 B18 Barzin, Saeed, Constitutionalism and Democracy in the Religious Ideology of Mehdi Bazargan, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 21/1 (1994), pp. 85-101. Available electronically on Moodle Behrooz, Maziar, Factionalism in Iran under Khomeini, Middle Eastern Studies, 27/4 (1991), pp. 597-614. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Chehabi, H. E., Religion and Politics in Iran: How Theocratic is the Islamic Republic?, Daedalus, 120/3 (1991), pp. 69-91. Available electronically on Moodle Keddie, Nikki R., and Eric Hooglund (eds.), The Iranian Revolution and the Islamic Republic, New Edition (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1986). DS318.8 I61 Martin, Vanessa, Creating an Islamic State: Khomeini and the making of a new Iran, Second Edition (London: I.B. Tauris, 2003). DS313 M38 Milani, Mohsen, The Making of Irans Islamic Revolution: from monarchy to Islamic Republic, Second Edition (Boulder: Westview Press, 1994). [cc] DS318 M63 Moin, Baqer, Khomeini: the life of the Ayatollah (London: I.B. Tauris, 1999). [cc] DS318.84.K48 M65 Schirazi, Asghar, The Constitution of Iran: politics and the state in the Islamic Republic, John OKane (trans.) (London: I. B. Tauris, 1997). [cc] DS318.8 S33 Week 5. The Islamic Republic at War, 1980-1988 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What were Irans war aims? How did they change during the course of the war? What was the United States role in the Iran-Iraq War? How revolutionary was the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic in the 1980s? Why did Iran accept peace with Iraq in 1988?

Required Reading: Chehabi, Houchang, Distant Relations: Iran and Lebanon in the last 500 years (London: I. B. Tauris, 2006), Chapter 9. DS274.2.L4 C51 & available electronically on Moodle. Chubin, Shahram, The Last Phase of the Iran-Iraq War: from stalemate to ceasefire, Third World Quarterly, 11/1 (1989), pp. 1-14. Available electronically on Moodle Gieling, Saskia, Religion and War in Revolutionary Iran (London: I. B. Tauris, 1999), Chapter 6. [cc] BP63.I68 G45 & & available electronically on Moodle. Hooglund, Eric, The Islamic Republic at War and Peace, Middle East Report, 156 (1989), pp. 4-12. Available electronically on Moodle

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Parsi, Trita, Treacherous Alliance: the secret dealings of Israel, Iran, and the U.S. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007), Chapters 8-12, pp. 79-109. [cc] DS274.2.I75 P26 & available as an e-book on Moodle. Additional Reading: Ajami, Fouad, Iran: the impossible revolution, Foreign Affairs, 67/2 (1988), pp. 135-155. Available electronically on Moodle de Bellaigue, Christopher, In the Rose Garden of the Martyrs: a memoir of Iran (London: HarperCollins, 2004). DS259.2 D28 Chubin, Shahram and Charles Tripp, Iran and Iraq at War (London: I. B. Tauris, 1988). [cc] DS318.8 C55 Cordesman, Anthony H., The Iran-Iraq War and Western Security, 1984-1987: strategic implications and policy options (London: Janes, 1987). DS318.8 C79 Esposito, John L. (ed.), The Iranian Revolution: its global impact (Miami: Florida International University Press, 1990). [cc] DS35.74.I7 I61 Gause, F. Gregory, Iraqs Decisions to Go to War, 1980 and 1990, Middle East Journal, 56/1 (2002), pp. 47-70. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle. Hickman, William F., Ravaged and Reborn: the Iranian army, 1982 (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1982). Pamphlet Collection, UA853.I67 H62 Hiro, Dilip, The Longest War: the Iran-Iraq military conflict (London: Grafton, 1990). [cc] DS318.85 H66 Hume, Cameron R., The United Nations, Iran, and Iraq: how peacemaking changed (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994). JX1977.2.I7 U92 Hunter, Shireen T., Iran and the World: continuity in a revolutionary decade (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990). DS318.83 H94 Karsh, Ephraim, The Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988 (Oxford: Osprey, 2002). DS318.85 K11 Katzman, Kenneth, Warriors of Islam: Irans Revolutionary Guard (Boulder: Westview Press, 1992). UA853.I7 K11 Keddie, Nikki R. and Mark J. Gasiorowski (eds.), Neither East nor West: Iran, the Soviet Union and the United States (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990), Chapters 5, 8, and 10. JX1391 B52 Khadduri, Majid. The Gulf War: the origins and implications of the Iraq-Iran conflict (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988). DS318.85 K41 Kornbluh, Peter and Malcolm Byrne (eds.), The Iran-Contra Scandal: the declassified history (New York: The New Press, 1993). E876 I61 & access the related website on Moodle. Kuzichkin, Vladimir, Inside the KGB: myth and reality (London: Deutsch, 1990). HV8224 K91 McNaugher, Thomas L., Ballistic Missiles and Chemical Weapons: the legacy of the Iran-Iraq War, International Security, 15/2 (1990), 5-34. Available electronically on Moodle Parker, John W., Persian Dreams: Moscow and Tehran since the fall of the Shah (Washington: Potomac Books, 2009), Chapters 1-2. DK68.7.I7 P24 Parsons, Anthony, Iran and Western Europe, Middle East Journal, 43/2 (1989), pp. 218-229. Potter, Lawrence G., and Gary Sick (eds.), Iran, Iraq, and the Legacies of War (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004). DS318.85 I61 Rajaee, Farhang (ed.), Iranian Perspectives on the Iran-Iraq War (Gainseville: University Press of Florida, 1997). DS318 I61

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Ramazani, Rouhollah K., Iran's foreign policy: contending orientations, Middle East Journal, 43/2 (1989), pp. 202-217. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Rosen, Barry M. (ed.), Iran since the Revolution: internal dynamics, regional conflict, and the superpowers (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985). DS318.8 I61 Sick, Gary, Trial By Error: Reflections on the Iran-Iraq War, Middle East Journal, 43/2 (1989), pp. 230-245. Available electronically on Moodle. Ward, Steven R., Immortal: a military history of Iran and its armed forces (Washington: Georgetown University Press, 2009). DS273.3 W26 Yodfat, Aryeh J., The Soviet Union and Revolutionary Iran (London: Croom Helm, 1984). DK68.7.I55 Y61 Zabih, Sepehr, The Iranian Military in Revolution and War (London: Routledge, 1988). DS318.8 Z11 See also the collection of declassified American documents on the Iran-Iraq War put together by the Woodrow Wilson Centres Cold War International History Project (CWIHP), entitled The Origins, Conduct, and Impact of the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988. Available electronically on Moodle. Week 6. The Islamic Republic at Peace, 1989-1997 (i) (ii) (iii) Did Rafsanjanis presidency mark a second republic? How revolutionary was Irans foreign policy in the 1990s? Assess the United States response to Rafsanjanis dtente efforts.

Required Reading: Karshenas, Massoud and M. Hashem Pesaran, Economic Reform and the Reconstruction of the Iranian Economy, Middle East Journal, 49/1 (1995), pp. 89-111. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Katouzian, Homa, The Persians: ancient, mediaeval and modern Iran (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), Chapter 14. [cc] DS272 K11 Milani, Mohsen, The Evolution of the Iranian Presidency: From Bani Sadr to Rafsanjani, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 20/1 (1993), pp. 83-97. Available electronically on Moodle Parsi, Trita, Treacherous Alliance: the secret dealings of Israel, Iran, and the U.S. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007), Chapters 13-16, pp. 139-201. [cc] DS274.2.I75 P26 & available as an e-book on Moodle. Additional Reading: Afrasiabi, Kaveh, After Khomeini: new directions in Irans foreign policy (Boulder: Westview, 1994). DS318.83 A25 Amuzegar, Jahangir, Adjusting to Sanctions, Foreign Affairs, 76/3 (1997), pp. 31-41. Available electronically on Moodle Amuzegar, Jamshid, Irans Economy under the Islamic Republic (London: I. B. Tauris, 1993). HC473 A52 Baktiari, Bahman, Parliamentary Politics in Revolutionary Iran: the institutionalization of factional politics (Gainseville: University Press of Florida, 1996), Chapters 5-6. JQ1787.7 B16

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Chehabi, Houchang, Distant Relations: Iran and Lebanon in the last 500 years (London: I. B. Tauris, 2006). DS274.2.L4 C51 Chubin, Shahram, and Charles Tripp, Iran-Saudi Arabia Relations and Regional Order, Adelphi Papers 304 (Oxford: Oxford University Press for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1996). DS228.I7 C55 Ehteshami, Anoushiravan, After Khomeini: the Iranian second republic (London: Routledge, 1995), Chapters 2-7. [cc] DS318.825 E31 & available as an e-book on Moodle Gheissary, Ali and Vali Nasr, Democracy in Iran: history and the quest for liberty (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), Chapter 4. [cc] DS316.6 G41 & available as an e-book on Moodle Halliday, Fred, An Elusive Normalization: Western Europe and the Iranian Revolution, Middle East Journal, 48/2 (1994), pp. 309-326. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Hashim, Ahmed, The Crisis of the Iranian State: domestic, foreign, and security policies in post-Khomeini Iran (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1995). DS318.8 H34 Hunter, Shireen, Iran after Khomeini (New York: Praeger, 1992). DS318.8 H94 Maloney, Suzanne, Agents or Obstacles? Parastatal Foundations and the Challenges for Iranian Development in Parvin Alizadeh (ed.), The Economy of Iran: Dilemmas of an Islamic State (London: I. B. Tauris, 2001), pp. 145-176. HC475 E11 Moslem, Mehdi, Factional Politics in Post-Khomeini Iran (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2002), Chapters 4-5. [cc] DS318.825 M91 Ramazani, Rouhollah K., Address by Ali Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani, President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Middle East Journal, 44/3 (1990), pp. 458-466. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Sadjadpour, Karim, Reading Khamenei: the world view of Irans most powerful leader (Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2008). Available electronically on Moodle Sarabi, Farzin, The Post-Khomeini Era in Iran: the elections of the fourth Islamic Majlis, Middle East Journal, 48/1 (1994), pp. 89-107. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Siavoshi, Sussan, Factionalism and Iranian Politics: the post-Khomeini experience, Iranian Studies, 25/3 (1992), pp. 27-49. Available electronically on Moodle Vakili-Zad, Cyrus, Conflict Among the Ruling Revolutionary Elite in Iran, Middle Eastern Studies, 30/3 (1994), pp. 618-631. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Week 7. The Reform Movement 1997-2005 (i) (ii) (iii) Who are Irans reformist politicians and intellectuals and what ideas underpin their vision for the Islamic Republic? After their election to office, what attempts did the reformists make at social and political reform? Was the failure of the reform movement one of strategy, or ideology?

Required Reading: Arjomand, Said Amir, The Rise and Fall of President Khatami and the Reform Movement in Iran, Constellations, 12/4 (2005), pp. 502-520. Available

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electronically on Moodle Kamrava, Mehran, Irans Intellectual Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), Chapter 5. Available as an e-book on Moodle Moslem, Mehdi, Factional Politics in Post-Khomeini Iran (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2002), Chapter 6. [cc] DS318.825 M91 & available electronically on Moodle Tazmini, Ghoncheh, Khatamis Iran: the Islamic Republic and the turbulent path to reform (London: I. B. Tauris, 2009). Chapters 1, 3, 4, and 6. [cc] DS318.9 T19 & available as an e-book on Moodle Additional Reading: Amuzegar, Jahangir, Khatamis Legacy: Dashed Hopes, Middle East Journal, 60/1 (2006), pp. 57-74. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Arjomand, Said Amir, The Reform Movement and the Debate on Modernity and Tradition in Contemporary Iran, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 34/4 (2002), pp. 719-31. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle de Bellaigue, Christopher, The Struggle for Iran (New York: New York Review Books, 2007). DS318.9 D27 Brumberg, Daniel, Reinventing Khomeini: the struggle for reform in Iran (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001). DS318.8.B89 Buchta, Wilfried, Who Rules Iran? : the structure of power in the Islamic Republic (Washington, DC: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2000), Chapter 3. [cc] DS318.9 B92 & available electronically on Moodle Chubin, Shahram, Whither Iran? : reform, domestic politics and national security (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2002). Pamphlet Collection, COLL. P 13496 Gheissary, Ali and Vali Nasr, Democracy in Iran: history and the quest for liberty (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), Chapter 5. [cc] DS316.6 G41 & available as an e-book on Moodle Holliday, Shabnam, Khatamis Islamist-Iranian Discourse of National Identity: a discourse of resistance, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 37/1 (2010), pp.1-13. Mashayekhi, Mehrdad, The Revival of the Student Movement in Post-Revolutionary Iran, International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 15/2 (2001), pp. 283313. Available electronically on Moodle Matin-Asgari, Afshin, Abdolkarim Sorush and the Secularization of Islamic Thought in Iran, Iranian Studies, 30/1 (1997), pp. 95-115. Available electronically on Moodle Matsunaga, Yasayuki, Mohsen Kadivar: An Advocate of Postrevivalist Islam in Iran, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 34/3 (2007), pp. 317-29. Available electronically on Moodle Merat, Zarir, Pushing Back the Limits of the Possible: the press in Iran, Middle East Report, 212 (1999), 32-35. Available electronically on Moodle Mir-Hosseini, Ziba, The Conservative-Reformist Conflict over Womens Rights in Iran, International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, 16/1 (2002), pp. 37-53. Available electronically on Moodle Samii, A. William, Irans Guardian Council as an Obstacle to Democracy, Middle East Journal, 55/4 (2001), pp. 643-662. Periodicals Collection, DS41

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Shakibi, Zhand, Khatami and Gorbachev: politics of change in the Islamic Republic of Iran and the USSR (London: I. B. Tauris, 2009). [cc] DK68.7.I7 S52 Vahdat, Farzin, Religious Modernity in Iran: Dilemmas of Islamic Democracy in the Discourse of Mohammad Khatami, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, 25/3 (2005), pp. 650-64. Available electronically on Moodle Week 8. Khatamis Dtente with the United States (i) (ii) (iii) Why did Khatami seek dtente with the United States? How did he hope to achieve it? Why did the Clinton-Khatami dtente fail? What was the impact of September 11 on US-Iran relations?

Required Reading: Ansari, Ali M., Iran and the US in the Shadow of 9/11: Persia and the Persian question revisited, Iranian Studies, 39/2 (2006), pp. 155-170. Available electronically on Moodle Parsi, Trita, Treacherous Alliance: the secret dealings of Israel, Iran, and the United States (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007), Chapters 17-19. DS274.2.I75 P26 & available as an e-book on Moodle Tazmini, Ghoncheh, Khatamis Iran: the Islamic Republic and the turbulent path to reform (London: I. B. Tauris, 2009). Chapter 5. [cc] DS318.9 T19. Also available as an e-book on Moodle Additional Reading: Ansari, Ali M., Confronting Iran: the failure of American foreign policy and the next great crisis in the Middle East (London: Hurst & Company, 2006). E183.8.I55 A61 Dobbins, James, Negotiating with Iran: Reflections from Personal Experience, The Washington Quarterly, 33/1 (2010), pp. 149-162. Available electronically on Moodle Hoogland, Eric, Mythology Versus Reality: Irans political economy and the Clinton administration, Middle East Critique, 6/11 (1997), pp. 37-51. Available electronically on Moodle Lake, Anthony, Confronting Backlash State, Foreign Affairs, 73/2 (1994), pp. 45-55. Available electronically on Moodle Pollack. Kenneth, The Persian Puzzle: the conflict between Iran and America (New York: Random House, 2004). E183.8.I55 P77 Ramazani, Rouhollah K., The shifting premise of Irans foreign policy: towards a democratic peace?, Middle East Journal, 52/2 (1998), pp. 177-188. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Ray Takeyh, Guardians of the Revolution: Iran and the world in the age of the ayatollahs (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009). DS318.83 T13 Riedel, Bruce, America and Iran: flawed analysis, missed opportunities, and looming dangers, Brown Journal of World Affairs, 15/1 (2008), pp. 101-111. Available electronically on Moodle Slavin, Barbara, Bitter Friends, Bosom Enemies: Iran, the U.S., and the path to confrontation (New York: St. Martins Press, 2007). E183.8.I55 S63 Talwar, Puneet, Iran in the Balance, Foreign Affairs, 80/4 (2001), pp. 58-71. Available electronically on Moodle

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Week 9. Irans Conservative Revival (i) (ii) (iii) Who are Irans Conservative politicians and intellectuals and what ideas underpin their vision for the Islamic Republic? Why did Ahmadinejad win the 2005 presidential elections? Does the conservative revival represent a return to the values of the 1979 Iranian Revolution?

Required Reading: Ahouie, Mahdi, Iranian Anti-Zionism and the Holocaust, Radical History Review, 105 (2009), pp. 58-78. Available electronically on Moodle Alamdari, Kazem, The Power Structure of the Islamic Republic of Iran: transition from populism to clientelism, and militarization of the government, Third World Quarterly, 26/8 (2005), pp. 1285-1301. Available electronically on Moodle de Bellaigue, Christopher, The Struggle for Iran (New York: New York Review Books, 2007), Chapter 8. DS318.9 D27 & available electronically on Moodle Kamrava, Mehran, Irans Intellectual Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), Chapter 4. Available as an e-book on Moodle Gheissari, Ali and Vali Nasr, The Conservative Consolidation in Iran, Survival, 47/2 (2005), pp. 175-190. Available electronically on Moodle Samii, A. William, Dissent in Iranian Elections: reasons and implication, Middle East Journal, 58/3 (2004), pp. 403-423. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Additional Reading: Ansari, Ali M., Iran under Ahmadinejad: the politics of confrontation (London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2007), Chapter 2. DS318.9 A61 Ehteshami, Anoushiravan and Mahjoob Zweiri, Iran and the Rise of its Neoconservatives: the politics of Tehrans silent revolution (London: I. B. Tauris, 2007). [cc] DS318.825 E31 Gheissari, Ali and Kave-Cyrus Sanandaji, New Conservative Politics and Electoral Behavior in Iran in Ali Gheissari (ed.), Contemporary Iran: economy, society, politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), Chapter 9. [cc] HN670.2.A8 C76 & available as an e-book on Moodle Kamrava, Mehran, Iranian National-Security Debates: factionalism and lost opportunities, Middle East Policy, 14/2 (2007), pp. 84-100. Available electronically on Moodle Khiabany, Gholam and Annabelle Sreberny, The Politics of/in Blogging in Iran, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 27/3 (2007), pp. 563-579. Available electronically on Moodle Hen-Tov, Elliot, Understanding Irans New Authoritarianism, The Washington Quarterly, 30/1 (2006), pp. 163-179. Available electronically on Moodle Mohammadi, Majid, Iranian University Students Politics in the Post-Reform Movement Era: a discourse analysis, Iranian Studies, 40/5 (2007), pp. 623-34. Available electronically on Moodle Nasr, Vali, The Conservative Wave Rolls On, Journal of Democracy, 16/4 (2005), pp. 922. Available electronically on Moodle

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Semati, Mehdi (ed.), Media, Culture and Society in Iran: living with globalization and the Islamic state (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008). HN670.2.Z9 M49 Sreberny, Annabelle and Gholam Khiabany, Becoming Intellectual: the blogestan and public political space in the Islamic Republic, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 34/3 (2007), pp. 267-86. Available electronically on Moodle Takeyh, Ray, Guardians of the Revolution: Iran and the world in the age of the ayatollahs (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), Chapter 10. DS318.83 T13 Wehrey, Frederic, et. al., The Rise of the Pasdaran: assessing the domestic roles of Irans Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (Arlington: RAND Corporation, 2009), Chapters 3, 5 and 6. Available electronically on Moodle Week 10. The Historiography of Modern Iran (i) (ii) (iii) What are the major debates and controversies in Qajar and Pahlavi historiography? What are the major debates and controversies in the historiography of the Islamic Republic? Are there any recurring patterns in the history of modern Iran?

Required Reading: Abrahamian, Ervand, Khomeinism: essays on the Islamic Republic (London: I. B. Tauris, 1993), Chapter 4. Available electronically on Moodle Amanat, Abbas, Historiography, viii. Qajar Period, ix. Pahlavi Period, Encyclopedia Iranica Online, 2009. Available electronically on Moodle Atabaki, Touraj (ed.), Iran in the 20th Century: historiography and political culture (London: I. B. Tauris, 2009). Chapters 2 and 9. [cc] DS316.25 I61 & available as an e-book on Moodle Katouzian, Homa, Arbitrary Rule: a comparative theory of state, politics and society in Iran, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 24/1 (1997), pp. 49-73. Available electronically on Moodle Katouzian, Homa, The Short-Term Society: a study in the problems of long-term political and economic development in Iran, Middle Eastern Studies, 40/1 (2004), pp. 122. Available electronically on Moodle Additional Reading: Abrahamian, Ervand, Kasravi: The Integrative Nationalist of Iran, Middle Eastern Studies, 9/3 (1973), pp. 271-95. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Adamiyat, Fereydoun, and Thomas M. Ricks (trans.), Problems in Iranian Historiography, Iranian Studies, 4/4 (1971), pp. 132-156. Available electronically on Moodle Afshari, M. Reza, The Historians of the Constitutional Movement and the Making of the Iranian Populist Tradition, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 25/3 (1993), pp. 477-94. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Amanat, Abbas, The Study of History in Post-Revolutionary Iran: nostalgia, illusion, or Historical Awareness?, Iranian Studies, 22/4 (1989), pp. 3-18. Available electronically on Moodle

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Ashraf, Ahmad, Conspiracy Theories, Encyclopedia Iranica Online, 2009. Available electronically on Moodle Boroujerdi, Mehrzad, Contesting Nationalist Constructions of Iranian Identity, Critique: Journal for Critical Studies of the Middle East, 7/12 (1998), pp. 43-55. Available electronically on Moodle Cronin, Stephanie, Writing the History of Modern Iran: a comment on approaches and sources, Iran, 36 (1998), pp. 175-184. Available electronically on Moodle Farmayan, Hafez F., Observations on Sources for the Study of Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Iranian History, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 5/1 (1974), pp. 32-49. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Gheissari, Ali, Truth and Method in Modern Iranian Historiography and Social Sciences, Middle East Critique, 4/6 (1995), pp. 39-56. Available electronically on Moodle Katouzian, Homa, Iranian History and Politics: the dialectic of state and society (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002), Chapters 1-6. DS315 K11 Kurzman, Charles, Historiography of the Iranian Revolutionary Movement, 1977-79, Iranian Studies, 28/1 (1995), pp. 25-38. Available electronically on Moodle Matin-Asgari, Afshin, The Intellectual Best-Sellers of Post-Revolutionary Iran: On Backwardness, Elite-Killing, and Western Rationality, Iranian Studies, 37/1 (2004), pp. 73-88. Available electronically on Moodle Najmabadi, Afsaneh, The Gender of Modernity: reflections from Iranian historiography, in Gershoni, Israel, Hakan Erdem and Ursula Wokck, Histories of the Modern Middle East: new directions (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002), Chapter 5. DS61.6 H67 Najmabadi, Afsaneh, Is Our Name Remembered? Writing the history of Iranian constitutionalism as if women and gender mattered, Iranian Studies, 29/1 (1996), pp. 85-109. Available electronically on Moodle Rajaee, Farhang, Islam, nationalism and Musaddiqs era: post-revolutionary historiography in Iran in James A. Bill and Wm. Roger Louis (eds.), Musaddiq, Iranian Nationalism, and Oil (London: I. B. Tauris, 1988), pp. 118-140. [cc] DS316.32 M98 Schayegh, Cyrus, Seeing Like a State: An Essay on the Historiography of Modern Iran, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 42/1 (2010), pp. 37-61. Periodicals Collection, DS41 & available electronically on Moodle Tavakoli-Targhi, Mohamad, Refashioning Iran: Orientalism, Occidentalism and Nationalist Historiography (New York: Palgrave, 2001), Chapter 6. DS271.5 T23 SUMMER TERM Week 1. Mock Exam Week 2. Revision Class

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