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Advance Networking (N+)

Introduction to networking A network is a group of interconnected systems that share services and interact through a communications link. So, for a network to exist there must be two or more individual systems with something to share, like data. And, in order for these individual systems to share, they must be connected through some type of physical pathway or transmission medium. Benefit of Networking Time saving Cost effective Sharing resources and information Networking Requirements A. Cables TP (twisted pairs) :- A type of communications transmission cable in which two individually insulated wires are twisted around each other to reduce induction (thus interference) from one wire to the other. The pair may be surrounded by a shield, insulating jacket or additional pairs of wires.

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Co-axial:- It is a cable consisting of an inner conductor, surrounded by a tubular insulating layer typically made from a flexible material with a high dielectric constant, all of which is then surrounded by another conductive layer (typically of fine woven wire for flexibility, or of a thin metallic foil), and then finally covered again with a thin insulating layer on the outside. The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer shield sharing the same geometric axis. Coaxial cables are often used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals

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Optical fiber:- An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optical fibers. The optical fiber elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed. B. Adaptors Network interface card (NIC):- A network interface card (NIC) is a computer circuit board or card that is installed in a computer so that it can be connected to a network. Personal computers and workstations on a local area network (LAN) typically contain a network interface card specifically designed for the LAN transmission technology, such as Ethernet or Token Ring. Network interface cards provide a dedicated, full-time connection to a network. Most home and portable computers connect to the Internet through as-needed dial-up connection. The modem provides the connection interface to the Internet service provider. L AN Adaptor LAN card Hardware card C. Protocols TCP/IP

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Apple talk Net BEUT IPX/SPN D. Services Types of network A) LAN (Local Area Network) B) WAN (Wide Area Network) Category of Network A) Peer to Peer (Network Group) B) Client / Server (Domain and Work Group) Peer to Peer: Peer to Peer is that type of Networking in which all the computers are in the equal power. There is no dedicated server and no hierarchical structure. Work Group: - It is the logical grouping of the Network computers that share resources such as files, printers folders etc. Client server:- It is the standard model of Networking which contain hierarchical structure, It works in Domain environment Domain:- It is also a logical grouping of Network computers that share the central directory, Data base, User accounts, and security information for the Domain Networking Devices Switch: - On an Ethernet local area network (LAN), a switch determines from the physical device (Media Access Control or MAC) address in each incoming message frame which output port to forward it to and out of. In a wide area packet-switched network such as the Internet, a switch determines from the IP address in each packet which output port to use for the next part of its trip to the intended destination.

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Hub: - A hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets. Modem:- A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital device to analog signals for a conventional copper twisted pair telephone line and demodulates the incoming analog signal and converts it to a digital signal for the digital device. Router:- Router is the device which is used to facilitate communication between different networks. It examines the packet to travel. A router knows the entire path to all of the segments on the network by accessing information stored in the routing table. Network interface card (NIC): It is the expansion card which is fitted on the motherboard of the PC and used for the internet or network connectivity.

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Advance Networking (N+)

Network Topology What is a Topology? The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. Physical topology should not be confused with logical topology which is the method used to pass information between workstations

Main Types of Physical Topologies The following sections discuss the physical topologies used in networks and other related topics. 1. Linear Bus A linear bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a terminator at each end (See fig. 1). All nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are connected to the linear cable. Ethernet and Local Talk networks use a linear bus topology.

Fig. 1. Linear Bus topology


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Advantages of a Linear Bus Topology Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus. Requires less cable length than a star topology.

Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology 2. Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable. Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable. Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down. Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building. Star

A star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub or concentrator Data on a star network passes through the hub or concentrator before continuing to its destination. The hub or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow. This configuration is common with twisted pair cable; however, it can also be used with coaxial cable or fiber optic cable.

Fig. 2. Star topology Advantages of a Star Topology


Easy to install and wire. No disruptions to the network then connecting or removing devices. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.

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Disadvantages of a Star Topology


Requires more cable length than a linear topology. If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled. More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the concentrators.

The protocols used with star configurations are usually Ethernet or Local Talk. Token Ring uses a similar topology, called the star-wired ring.

3. Tree A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable (See fig. 3). Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network, and enable schools to configure a network to meet their needs.

Fig. 3. Tree topology Advantages of a Tree Topology


Point-to-point wiring for individual segments. Supported by several hardware and software venders.

Disadvantages of a Tree Topology

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Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used. If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down. More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.

Considerations When Choosing a Topology: Money. A linear bus network may be the least expensive way to install a network; you do not have to purchase concentrators. Length of cable needed. The linear bus network uses shorter lengths of cable. Future growth. With a star topology, expanding a network is easily done by adding another concentrator. Cable type. The most common cable in schools is unshielded twisted pair, which is most often used with star topologies.

Summary Chart: Physical Topology Linear Bus Star Common Cable Twisted Pair, Coaxial, Fiber Twisted Pair, Fiber Common Protocol Ethernet Talk Ethernet Talk Token Ring Ethernet Local Local

Star-Wired Ring Twisted Pair Tree Twisted Pair, Coaxial, Fiber

TCP/IP utilities

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IP address:IP address is an unique address on the network which facilitate communication between different machine over network. It is important that no two machines on the same network have same IP. Subnet mask:It is the physical segment of the network which determine how many host and how many network ID are there in the IP address. Gateway:A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. On the Internet, a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-point) node. Both the computers of Internet users and the computers that serve pages to users are host nodes. The computers that control traffic within your company's network or at your local Internet service provider (ISP) are gateway nodes.

Static and dynamic IP setting Static IP:- It is the process of assigning the IP address to the client manually going on each computers on the network. If there are say 100 computers in a network then in static IP addressing method it is required for the system administrator to manually configure the IP address on all the machines without duplication Advantages of static IP addressing No need of much effective skilled manpower Cost effective for small network Disadvantages of static IP addressing More chances of duplication of IP address Time consuming Administrator have to remember all the IP address on each machine How to assign static IP ?

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Go in Run Type command ncpa.cpl and the click ok Click the properties of Local Area Connection

In general Tab select Internet protocol(TCP/IP)and then click the properties

Put the check on put the following IP address

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Give IP, Subnet mask, Default gateway, DNS name and Alternate DNS name click on ok and ok OR Double click on network icon on the task bar In general Tab click on properties In general Tab select Internet protocol(TCP/IP)and then click the properties Put the check on put the following IP address Give IP, Subnet mask, Default gateway, DNS name and Alternate DNS name click on ok and ok DHCP:- "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an IP standard designed to reduce the complexity of administering IP address configurations." - Microsoft's definition. A DHCP server would be set up with the appropriate settings for a given network. Such settings would include a set of fundamental parameters such as the gateway, DNS, subnet masks, and a range of IP addresses. Using DHCP on a network means administrators don't need to configure these settings individually for each client on the network. The DHCP would automatically distribute them to the clients itself. .

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The above diagram displays a simple structure consisting of a DHCP server and a number of client computers on a network. The DHCP Server itself contains an IP Address Database which holds all the IP addresses available for distribution. If the client (a member of the network with a Windows 2000 Professional/XP operating system, for example) has "obtain an IP address automatically" enabled in TCP/IP settings, then it is able to receive an IP address from the DHCP server. Advantages of DHCP It prevents duplication of IP address since the Ip are assigned automatically by DHCP server. It is not necessary to record the IP addresses that are assigned to the systems. It is easy to assign the IP address to all the clients in a large network since the administrative head is low. How to create DHCP server? Go in Run and type appwizcpl and press Enter Click on Add/Remove windows components Select Networking services

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Click on Detail Put the check on DHCP Click ok -ok -Next- finish Again go in Run type dhcpmgmt.msc and press enter Right click on fully Qualified Domain Name Click on New scope

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Click on Next

Give any name Click on Next Give IP range (start and end)

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Length (By default length is of 8 days but we can make it up to 999 days) Click on Next Give exclusion range (That can be used for reservation)

Click on Next Specify the lease duration like Time ( Hours, Minutes)

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Click on Next We should choose "Yes" in two conditions 1. When we have Router, because Router IP should go in the default gateway option 2. When we want to give default gateway, IP, alternate DNS IP to the client 3. We should choose "NO" when we want to give only IP and subnet mask to client Give your computer IP

Click on Add Click on Next


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Again give your computer IP

Click on add Click on Next Click on Yes

Click on Next Click Finished

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Again double click on fully qualified Domain name and authorized Refresh it (Refresh is must)

How to get Automatic IP from DHCP server? For Windows XP: Click on the Start button. Click on Control Panel. Click on the Network Connections icon. Right click on the Local Area Connection icon. Select Properties from the menu.

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Double click on the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) entry. Configure as Follows:

Click Obtain an IP address automatically Click Obtain DNS server address automatically How to check weather the IP is static or automatic? Click on the Start button. Click on Control Panel. Click on the Network Connections icon. Right click on the Local Area Connection icon. Select Properties from the menu. Double click on the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) entry. Advanced... in the bottom right corner

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1. IP Settings tab You should see DHCP Enabled below the IP address column and blank below on Default Gateways. 2. DNS tab

In "DNS server addresses, in order to use:" you should see blank in the white box The following lines should be marked or checked: Append primary and connection specific DNS suffixes Append parent suffixes of the primary DNS suffix 3. WINS tab Below in WINS addresses, in order of use:, it should be a white box The following lines should be checked or marked: Enable LMHOSTS lookup Use NetBIOS setting from the DHCP server 4. Options tab Under Optional settings, Click on IP security and then click on Properties Make sure does not use IPSEC is marked then click OK Click on TCP/IP filtering and then click on Properties Make sure Enable TCP/IP Filtering (All adapters) is NOT marked and Permit All is marked on 3 columns. Then click OK.
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Requirements for installing Windows 2003 Server Enterprise Edition Component Computer and processor Memory Requirement 133-MHz or faster processor for x86-based PCs; 733MHz for Itanium-based PCs; up to eight processors supported on either the 32-bit or the 64-bit version 128 MB of RAM minimum required; maximum: 32 GB for x86-based PCs with the 32-bit version and 64 GB for Itanium-based PCs with the 64-bit version 1.5 GB of available hard-disk space for x86-based PCs; 2 GB for Itanium-based PCs; additional space is required if installing over a network CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive VGA or hardware that supports console redirection required Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, 64-bit

Hard disk

Drive Display

Other

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Component

Requirement version is compatible only with 64-bit Intel Itaniumbased systems and cannot install on 32-bit systems How to install windows 2003 server?

Insert windows 2003 server CD in CD-ROM drive and restart your computer Press F2 and del for BIOS setup Go to boot option Select CD-ROM as first boot device Press F10

Pres any key when it is asked Press A to install Windows 2003 Server Enterprise Edition Press Enter for Installation Press F8 to Accept agreement If it contain Windows before, It will show this message 1. Press Esc to install new Windows 2. Press R to repair the exiting Windows Press Esc to install new Windows Press C to create new partition Format the created partition NTFS Quick format Press Enter on the new created partition and follow the instructions.

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Requirements for creating Domain Server Windows NTFS Partition TCP/IP address Adequate Disk space for the directory (1 GB recommended) How to create Domain? Go in Run Type dcpromo

Click on Ok Press Next Press Next Select 1st option

Click on Next

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Put check on Domain in a new forest

Give Domain name like Ashok.com

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Press Next Press Next Press Next Select 2nd option

Press Next Press Next

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Don't give password because it is the Active Directory password it means when you restore Your Active Directory Back up then it will ask for password Press Next

(At this time it will ask CD to configure DNS, when you insert CD into CD-ROM it will configure DNS forward look up Zone)

Wait till the process finished. After the process finished restart you computer.

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How to Remove Domain? Go in Run Type dcpromo and press Enter

Press Next Press OK Put the Check Press Next How to Create Member?

Give IP of Server in DNS of Client Press Windows + Pause Break key to go on my computer properties Click on Computer Name tab

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Click on Change Give Name of Domain like A.com Press Enter It will ask for user name and password then give name like Administrator and Administrator's password Click on ok Again click on ok Click yes to reboot. How to create user in Domain? Go in Run Type dsa.msc through this command Active Directory wizard will open Click on Domain name

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Right click on User container Click on New Click on User Give name of the user, you want to make

Press Next Give password

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This option will come when you create user


1. User must change password on next login : If you select this option then

user have to change password next time when he login 2. Password never expire: If you select this option then password will never expire
3. User cannot change password: If you select this option then use cannot

change his password


4. Account is disabled:

If you select this option then user cannot login. This option is selected when user is going out of station.

select any one or the required options. Press Next Press Next Click on Finished By default user can not login on the Domain controller but can login on the local computer. If you want user to login on Domain Controller then do this

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Click on Start Button Click on Programs Click on Domain Controller Security Policy Click on Local Policies Click on User Right Assignment Double click on Allow Logon on Locally Click on Add Click on Advance Click on Find Now Select User Click OK Click OK Click OK Close all wizard Go in Run Type gpupdate /force Group Account Group Account is the collection of user account. There are mainly two types of group Accounts Security Group:- On security Group you can assign permission to gain access to resource. Distribution Group:-It is created only at that time when we have to send mail to all the users in the group at a time.

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There are three types of group scope Global:(a) Member can come from only local domain (b) member can access resources in any domain Domain Local:- (a)member can come from any Domain (b) Member can access resources only on local domain Universal :(a) Member cane come from any domain (b) Member can access the resources in any domain How to create Group? Go in Run Type dsa.msc and press Enter Right click on uses name folder Click on new Click on group Give name of the group

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Choose the group type and scope Click on ok How to add a new user in group? Double click on group Click on member Click on add Click on Advance Click on find now Click on add user Click on Next Click on Next Click on finished

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After this run the command gpupdate /force Organizational Unit (OU) Organizational Unit is a container in which you can put user account, group account and other OU. You can also put group policies on OU.

How to create OU? Go in Run Type dsa.msc and press Enter Right click on domain name Click on new Click on organizational unit Give name click on ok

How to create user in OU? Right click on OU Click on New Click on user Provide information Click on next Provide password Click on next Click on finished
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Group policies:- Group policies is the collection of computer and user configuration settings that define how to program network system work for users and computers. We can do following things with group policies Configure user's desktop. Configure local security on the computer Install application Run start-up/shut-down or logon/logoff scripts Configure internet explorer settings Redirect special folders etc.

How to put group policies on OU? Right click on OU Click on Properties Click on group policies Click on new Select new group policies Click on edit If you want to put group policy on computer then choose computer configuration If you want to put group policy on the user then choose user configuration Click on Administrative template Double click on system
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Double click on security option and follow the instruction How to hide drive for user? Go on OU's properties Click on group policy tab Click on edit Double click on Administrative templates under user configuration Click on windows component Double click on window explorer Click on hide these drives Select restrict all drives Click on apply Click on ok Run the command gpupdate /force If you want to see the drive then go in run and enter the drive name. Do the same steps to prevent to access to the drive but double click on prevent access drives? If you hide the drive for user then user can access it through the run.

How to run calculator on user's logon time? Right click on OU Click on Properties

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Click on Group policy Click on new Click on edit Click on administrative templates Double Click on system Click on log on Select run these program of user log on Click on enable Click on show Click on add Type calc.exe Click on ok After this run the command gpupdate /force IIS (Internet information Service) It is the software service that support web site creation, configuration and management along with other internet function. IIS include Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP), File transfer Protocol (FTP) and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) NNTP: This protocol is used to distribute and post mail or message on the internet SMTP: This protocol is used to send mail over internet. POP: This protocol is used to down load mail How to Create IIS?

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Create a folder in "c" drive Run the command appwiz.cpl Click on add / remove windows components Click on application server Click on detail Click on IIS

Click on ok Click on ok Click on next Click on finished After this

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Click on start Click on administrative tools Click on IIS Right click on new web site folder Click on next Give name Click on next Give your own IP Select Folder which you have created earlier Put check on read, write and brows Click on next Click on finished How to Launch the HTML page? Create html page and paste it into http (web site) directory Open notepad <Html> <font color="Red" size=" +40"> <body bgcolour="black"> <marquee behavior="alternate"> HI SOFT-TECH BOYS! HOW R U? </marquee>

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</body> </html> Save it as A.html in the folder which you have created earlier in the "c" drive. How to Access the web site on a client side? Open internet explorer Type http:\\ (IP of the server or fully qualified domain name ) If you want to the site from the name then you should give the DNS address in the client site. Remote Desktop This is a process through which we can connect to multiple computers which are at remote places. How to access multiple desktop through remote desktop? Click on start click on Administrative tools click on Remote desktop Right click on Remote desktop Click on Add new connection Provide IP and open another desktop Click on new wizard from here Note: to access another pc Go to start> programs>administrative tools>remote desktop>action>new windows from here. How to enable remote desktop? Go on my computer properties
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Click on remote tab Put the check on allow remote assistance

Click on ok Click on apply Click on ok How to access desktop of other computer? Go in run Type mstsc Click on ok

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Provide the IP of that computer which you want to access. By default you cannot copy, paste from remote desktop connection but if you wan to copy and paste from remote desktop connection then do this Go in run Type mstsc Click on options

Click on local resourses Put the check on disk drives Click on connect
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Domain Name System (DNS) This DNS is the integral part of the of client server communication in IP network. DNS is distributed data base that is used in IP network to translate or to resolve name to IP and vice versa. There are two zones in DNS Forward lookup zone: It is the request to map the a name to IP address there is the most common type of lookup and is used to locate a server's IP address so that connection can be made. Reverse lookup zone: It is the request to map the IP address to name commonly used when you know the IP. How to create forward lookup zone? Go in run Type irrsmgmt.msc Right click n forward lookup Click on new zone Click on next Select Primary Click on next Click on next Give your domain name Click on next Click on next Click on next Click on next

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Click on finished After this Right click on new created zone Click on new host Give name of your computer Give IP of your computer Click on add host Click on ok Click on done How to test forward lookup zone? Go in run>type: ping (name of your computer) If it shows the IP then it is ok Note: By default when we create domain then it ask us to configure DNS then we insert CD and then DNS forward lookup zone is configured automatically

How to create reverse lookup zone? Go in run Type dnsmgmt.msc Right click on reverse lookup zone Click on New zone Click on primary Click on next

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Give your computer subnet Click on next Click on next Click on finished Right click on subnet Click on new Click on PTR Give your computer IP Click on brows Double click on computer name Double click on Reverse lookup zone Double click on Domain name folder Select your computer name Click on ok Click on apply Click on ok

How to test reverse lookup zone? Go in run>cmd>nslookup (your computer ip) If it shows your computer name then it is ok
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How to resolve name to IP of the other computer? Go in run Type dnsmgmt.msc Right click on domain name folder under forward lookup zone Click on new host Give name of the other computer Give IP of the other computer Click on add Click on close How to resolve IP to name of other computer? Go in run Type dnsmgmt.msc Right click on the subnet under reverse lookup zone Click on new Click on PTR Give IP of the other computer Click on brows Double click on computer name Double click on forward look up zone Double click on domain name folder Select other computer name

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Click on ok Click on apply Click on ok

Backup
Back up is the utilities thorough which we can recover the last data which was lost accidentally or by any other cause. There are five types of backup 1. Normal Backup: It takes the backup of all the files and folders regardless of the archive bit. The archive bit is always cleared to indicate that all files have to be taken backup all the times. 2. Copy backup: It is similar to normal back up which takes the backup of all files and folders but the archives is not cleared. 3. Differential backup: It creates the backup for all the files and folders that are changed since the last backup. 4. Incremental backup: It creates the backup of all the files and folders that are changed since the most recent backup. 5. Daily backup: This back up is made on modification date. If the file is modified that day it is taken backup.
Description full backup A complete set of all files you wish to back up. Think of this as your 'reference set'. You only need perform a full backup occasionally. A backup of those files which have changed since the last backup of any type. Pros Provides a complete copy of all your data; makes it easy to locate files which need restoring. Cons Takes a long time and the most space on backup media; redundant backups created, as most files remain static. Makes the job of restoring files fiddly, as you have to reinstall the last full backup

incremental backup

Uses the lease time and space as only those files changed since the last backup are copied; lets

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49 you back up multiple first, then all versions of the same subsequent file. incremental backups in the correct order; also makes it hard to locate a particular file in the backup set.

differential backup

A backup of those files which have changes since the last full backup. Should be performed at regular intervals.

Takes up less time and space than a full backup; provides for more efficient restoration than incremental backups.

Redundant information stored, because each backup stores much of the same information plus the latest information added or created since the last full backup. Subsequent differential backups take longer and longer as more files are changed.

How to take the backup? Click on start click on programs Click on accessories Click on system tools Click on backup Then the wizard below will open

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Click on the advance mode Then the new wizard will open

Click on backup wizard [advanced] Click on next

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Select any one out of three options Click on next

Select the files and folders for which you want to take backup Click on next Select the place where you want to save the backup Click on next Click on finished How to restore the backup? Click on run Type ntbackup Click on restore wizard [advance] Click on next

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Select the backup file as shown in the above figure Click on next Click on finished

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