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EQUIPMENT & PIPING LAYOUT

N.Todkar

It is very appropriate to say that the Equipment and Piping layout design is an ART and not a SCIENCE. There is not a single formula available for the design of Equipment and Piping layout. The equipment layout design can be as rational as the mathematics of fluid flow but with the language of projective geometry. Mathematics is abstract; geometry is visual. All engineering courses have mathematics; few have the subject of projective geometry but none has layout design

However, systematic methods and procedures can be developed from engineering principles, specifications, practical engineering know-how, and just SIMPLE COMMON SENSE. During the planning stages, the Piping Engineer could meet with simple ideas that can effect substantial cost savings. Let us take a practical example to it.

Fig.1.1a

Fig. 1.1b

The design must take constructibility, economics, safety, quality and operation into account. All these should be achieved within the shortest schedule and will demonstrate the technical capacity along with creative talent and common sense approach to problem solving. Although the tools to achieve these goals have changed from pencil and paper to computer graphics, the responsibilities of the Piping Engineer remains the same.

Design for Constructibility Ten Commandments:


Keep It Straight and Simple Keep Its Structures Simple Keep Its Specification Simple Keep It Shop Standard Keep Its Standard Simple Keep It Same Size Keep It Square and Squatty Keep Its Support Simple Keep Its Schedule Sacred Keep Its Site Suitable

The mechanical design and development of the plant has three major steps viz. 2.1 Equipment layout design 2.2 Conceptual layout design 2.3 Piping layout design
The plant layout can be the biggest cost saver in chemical plant design next to the Process and Equipment design. Money wasted or saved can be substantial between alternate layouts. In addition to capital cost, the plant layout also influences the operating and maintenance cost. These are long term benefits that affect profitability.

Incorrectly established plant layouts can have serious impact on safety and operability. If the layout do not have enough room, the plant will be overcrowded, and unsafe and difficult to operate and maintain. On the other hand, an overly generous layout results in unnecessary high capital investment.

F E D

UP UP UP LIFT ROOM

3000 2500

R-1402

C-4201 T-4213 R-4202 R-4201


UP

ECP/15

6500
6000 6500

T-4104 T-4104 C-4101


T-4107

TERRACE

C-4102
C-4203

H-4212 T-4216 R-4206


UP
T-4114
ECP/15

T-4116

3500 1 2

5000

5000

OPEN SPACE P-4008 UP H-4212 F-4211 H-4211 R-4109 R-4126 DUCT T-4211 UP LIFT T-4122 T-4125 T-4123 T-4124 T-4121 C-4103 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 4500 4500 2200
UP 5

10
N

11

12

13

SECOND MEZZ. FLOOR PLAN AT EL. 19.20.40M.

Equipment layout is an extension of the conceptual layout in more detailed manner. In the same way as the P&I diagrams are the basic documents of chemical engineering design, equipment layout is the basic document of mechanical engineering design. This is a composite mechanical engineering design, coordinating the design information to produce construction drawings.

The essential data required for the preparation of an Equipment Layout is as follows:
1. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS PIPING AND INSTRUMENT DIAGRAMS (P &ID) PROJECT DESIGN DATA EQUIPMENT SIZES AND BUILINGS (PFD)/

2. 3.

TYPES OF LAYOUTS :

Inline Layout
Similar equipment grouping Functional equipment grouping

ARRGT-1 :: VERTICAL THERMOSYPHON REBOILER WITH FIXED TUBESHEETS

BOTTOM TRAY OF COLUMN

VAPOUR RETURN CONNECTION

TOP TUBESHEET SUPPORT LUG

COLUMN

SHELLSIDE INLET

SUPPORT BRACKET

SHELL BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT


REBOILER SHELL

LIQUID LEG
SHELLSIDE OUTLET

BOTTOM TUBESHEET

ARRGT-1 :: VERTICAL THERMOSYPHON REBOILER WITH FIXED TUBESHEETS

BOTTOM TRAY OF COLUMN

VAPOUR RETURN CONNECTION

TOP TUBESHEET

COLUMN

SHELLSIDE INLET

COLUMN SHELL

SUPPORT LUG REBOILER SHELL

BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT

SHELLSIDE OUTLET

BOTTOM TUBESHEET

c
SUPPORT BRACKET

ARRGT-3 :: VERTICAL FIXED TUBERSHEET REBOILER WITH INDEPEDENT SUPPORT STRUCTURE.

VAPOUR RETURN TOP HEAD TOP TUBESHEET SUPPORT LUG

COLUMN

SPRING SUPPORT

REBOILER SUPPORT STRUCTURE

BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT

BOTTAM TUBESHEET

BOTTAM HEAD

SKIRT LIQUID LEG

The following guidelines and cautions are helpful in improving the accuracy comparisons. i) Make comparison to as similar a plant as possible. ii) Use similar assumptions in analyzing both existing facilities and new design. iii) For outdoor installation, where volume has less relevance than in and enclosed structure, rely on the area comparison alone. iv) For tank farm, general guidelines dictated for fire safety reasons or statutory requirements govern.

EQUIPMENT LAYOUT DRAWING GUIDE LINES


The following are the guidelines generally followed while making an Equipment layout drawing. a) Equipment layout shall be drawn in 1:50 or 1:100 scale. b) A0 size drawing sheet should generally be used for equipment layout. If the area to be covered is small, A1 size can be used. c) Place north arrow at the top right hand corner of the sheet to indicate plant north. d) The area above title block to be kept free for general notes and reference drawings.

e) All equipments are marked with its equipment no. as appearing in Equipment list & dimensions (diameter, height/length etc.) f) All equipments center line are located in plant building w.r.t. the column grid. For layout of outdoor plant / offsite facility, the equipment shall be located by co-ordinates. g) Conceptual layout, P & ID, vendor/fabricated equipment drawings are to be used as basic document for preparing equipment layout drawing. h) Walkways, cutouts, piperacks, floor drains, gutter, trenches, ramp etc. if applicable should be clearly marked in the drawing.

For in house plant layout, the location of staircases, lift & other utility areas should be clearly shown. j) In equipment layout sectional drawing, for each equipment its top most or bottom most elevations should be marked. k) Orientation of equipment shall be clearly marked for all the equipments by orienting one of the major nozzles. l) In case of reactors / tanks, the location of manhole / handhole, SG/LG,LI etc. shall be at accessible position. m) Equipment lifting cutout shall be marked clearly in the drawing.

i)

n) Equipment planned to be installed in future shall be shown dotted. o) For heat exchangers, tube removal / cleaning space shall be marked. p)While locating the pumps care shall be taken to ensure that the NPSH requirement is met. q) General notes are written on one of the drawings (first) and shall not be repeated on all layouts but reference shall be given. r) Direction of north shall be maintained same for all the plans for the same plant / project.

s) If more than one drawing is required to cover a specified area, then the match line shall be indicated clearly with the reference drawings. t) One of the general notes should specify the absolute level of the area covered with respect to the plot. u) The equipment load, operating or test load whichever is maximum shall be considered for design and the layout should indicate this along with the dynamic factor wherever applicable. This could also be covered in table as well.

v) For reactors with agitators, lifting beam shall be provided for agitator removal. w) For vendor equipments maintenance space as recommended by them for maintenance shall be provided. x) Equipment layout shall also indicated the positions of utility stations, safety shower and eye wash. y) Equipment elevation shall be so arranged to ensure gravity flow where specified.

In terms of the equipment arrangement, the equipment layout (unit plot plan) can basically be divided into two configurations: a) The grade mounted horizontal arrangement as seen in the refineries and petrochemical plants, and b) The vertical arrangement found in many chemical process industries.

Irrespective of the type of arrangement, there are certain basic principles to be followed while locating the equipment.
Economic piping Process requirements Common Operation Underground facilities Climatic conditions

TYPICAL CROSS SECTION OF AN INDOOR PROCESS PLANT

Fig. 2.2.6a

TYPICAL CROSS SECTION OF INDOOR CHEMICAL PLANT

Fig. 2.2.6b

PHILOSOPHY OF IN-PLANT PIPING

o
o o o o o Value Location Electrical/Instrument Cable Trays Statuary requirements Miscellaneous

So, the first step in the development of pipe rack is the generation of a line routing diagram. A line routing diagram is a schematic representation of all process and utility piping systems drawn on a copy of plot plan or it could be planometric representation of the utility and process line diagrams. Although it disregards the exact locations, elevations or interferences, it locates the most congested area.

The pipe rack splits the plant area into convenient parts. The pipe rack takes various shapes such as straight, L, T, and C or U. This configuration is based on the overall arrangement and site conditions. Based on the incoming/outgoing lines and locations, the pipe rack is laid.

Fig. 2.3.1

Fig. 2.3.2

Fig. 2.3.3

Fig. 2.3.4

Fig. 2.3.5

Fig. 2.3.6

Fig. 2.3.7

The configuration of pipe rack is not determined while doing the plant layout. The arrangement results from an overall plant layout, site conditions, client requirements and above all plant economy. The width of the pipe rack is estimated as W = (f x n x s) + A + B f = Safety factor = 1.5 if pipes are counted from the PFD = 1.2 if pipes are counted from P & ID. n=Number of lines in the densest area upto the size of 450NB s = 300mm (estimated average spacing) = 225mm (if lines are smaller than 250 NB) A = Additional width for (1) Lines larger than 450 NB (2) For instrument cable tray/duct (3) For electrical cable tray B = Future provision = 20% of (f x n x s) + A

1.5 TO 2M

TYPE 1 5 TO 6M 1TO 1.2M

TYPE 2

Fig. 2.3.8

5 TO 6M

TYPE 3

The Headroom normally provided is as below. Sr. Description Headroom No. (mm) 1. Clear head room under 2200 Structures/pipe lines inside operating area. 2. Head room over rail 7000 (from top of rails) 3. Clear headroom above 7000 crest of road for crane movement. 4. Clear headroom above 600 crest of road for truck movement. 5. Clear headroom above 4500 crest of road between process units.

P & I diagram, equipment layout, piping specifications, equipment drawing and the vendor requirement for proprietary equipment form the basis of a piping layout. In areas where piping is critical, the equipment locations are fixed only after a piping study is made.

Fig. 2.3.9a

Fig. 2.3.10

Fig. 2.3.11

Fig. 2.3.13

Fig. 2.3.14

Fig. 2.3.15

Fig. 2.3.16

Fig. 2.3.17

Fig. 2.3.18

Fig 2.3.19

Fig 2.3.20

Fig 2.3.21a

Fig 2.3.21b

Fig 2.3.22

2.3.5 PIPING FOR INSTRUMENTS Instruments,when located on piping ,will need certain specific requirement for it to perform the duty for which it is provided. Piping Engineer should be aware of there requirement and should take care of the same while routing these pipe line. a) Flow measurement instrument need certain straight length upstream and downstream of the instrument.This is normally 15D on the upstream and 5D on the downstream.

b) The pipe lines in which flow meters such as magnetic flowmeters ,vortex meters ,turbinemeters etc are located should be routed in such a way that the line will be full with liquid all the time.The pipe line should be supported on both sides of meter.

c) Control valves are located at grade, at about 500mm height to provide convenient access for operation and maintenance. Block and bypass valve also form the same criteria. The standard arrangements followed are as per Fig 2.3.23. If pocketing the process line is unacceptable, then a permanent or mobile platform should be planned, as access is very important. Locating control values on the vertical line should be avoided.If is unavoidable; the should actuator should be supported properly.The bypass should be selected for easy operation. d) Isolation valves for level gauges and pressure gauges shall be made accessible. Access and space for the removal of level controllers temperature probes ,conductivity probes,bottom flags of the control values etc shall be provided. All primary and secondary indicators of pressure, temperature, flow, level, positioners etc. should be visible from the operating area.

e) Rotameters shall be placed on vertical line and the inlet should be from the bottom of the instrument. f) Thermowell shall be located on the pipe line of required size.Instrument hook up shall be reffered for the requirement. g) Enough operating and maintance occur shall be considered while locating any instrument.

Fig. 2.3.23

Fig. 2.3.24

The requirement as per the following shall be adhered to a) b) c) d) The Factories Act 1948. The Petroleum Act 1934 & The rules 1976. Petroleum

The Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels (unfired) Rules 1981. The Gas Cylinders Rules 1981.

e)
f)

The Indian Boiler Regulations 1951.


Development control rules by the State Industrial Development Corporation.

S T EAM T O PROCES S

BFW T ANK ECONOMIS ER

BFW MANIFOLD
MAIN S T EAM
S T

CONS UMER

S T

Y
T O AT MOS . (T Y P)

BFW LINE

PI

HP DOS ING BOILER FEED WAT ER PUMP

LG

LG

LG

LG

BLOW DOWN
DRAIN

DOS ING T ANK DOS ING PUMP


NOT E :PIPE LINES T HE PURVIEW OF IBR S HOWN WIT HT HICH LINES . IBR S COPE

BLOW DOWN T ANK

IBR S COPE

2.3.8 CRITICAL EXAMINATION TECHINIQUE

The quality of the equipment and piping layout can be established by the Critical Examination Technique where you ensure that all the following parameters are well addressed a) It is process adequate? b) It is operator friendly? c)It is construction clear? d)Has adequate maintenance access provided? e)How to evacuate in case of emergency? f)Has safe fire fighting access provided? g)Standard practices where applicable has been adopted? h)Is the piping arrangement aesthetic ? i)Is supporting arrangement adequate and aesthetic ? j) Is piping adequately flexible ?

Pumps rarely influences the plant layout except where a common standby for two services or multiple duty pumps might dictate the process equipment arrangement. But the pumps can never be treated as an independent entity, but to be treated as part of the piping system which affects the performance even if the basic selection is faultless.

The design of equipment and piping configuration affect the energy used and capital cost of pumps. Hence, economy of piping and structures along with ease of operation and maintenance are the principal aim while arranging the pumps.

The primary goal in locating the pump is to minimize the piping configuration while satisfying the performance and flexibility requirements as well as allowable loads that may be subjected to the nozzles.
Mechanical or Chemical Engineers can no longer consider the pump as an independent entity, but to be treated as a part of the Piping System.

Fig. 3.1.1a

Fig. 3.1.1b

Fig. 3.1.2

Fig. 3.1.3