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7.

1 SERIES R-L CIRCUIT TRANSIENTS


R L i(t)
Circuit breaker

e(t ) = 2V sin(t + )

SW

t=0

The closing of SW at t=0 represents to a first approximation a threephase short circuit at the terminals of an unloaded synchronous machine. For simplicity, assume zero fault impedance; that is, the short circuit is a solid or bolted fault.

The current is assumed to be zero before SW closes, and the source angle determines the source voltage at t=0. Writing a KVL equation for the circuit,

Ldi(t) + Ri(t) = 2 Vsin( t+ ) dt


The solution to (7.1.1) is

t0

(7.1.1)

t 2V i(t) = i ac (t) + i dc (t) = [sin(t + ) sin( )e T ] Z

(7.1.2)

2V i ac (t) = sin(t + ) Z
t 2V i dc (t) = sin( )e T Z

(7.1.3)

(7.1.4)

e(t) i(t) i ac(t) i dc(t)

i(t) = i ac (t) + i dc (t)


i ac (t) =

Asymmetrical fault current ac fault current (symmetrical or steady-state fault current) Dc offset current

2V sin(t + ) Z

t 2V i dc (t) = sin( )e T Z

Z = R + (L) = R + X
2 2 2

L 1 X = tan = tan R R
1

L X X T= = = R R 2fR

RMS ac fault current is I ac =


When = i dc (t) = 0

V Z

i ac (t) =

2V sin(t + ) Z

When = ( ) i dc (t) = 2Iac 2

t 2V i dc (t) = sin( )e T Z

A short circuit can happen at any instant during a cycle of ac source. that is can have any value. The largest fault current occurs when = ( ) 2

Then

t 2V i(t) = [sin(t + ) sin( )e T ] Z

becomes

t i(t) = 2Iac [sin(t ) + e T ] 2

(7.1.8)

when

= ( ) 2

where

V Iac = Z

RMS value of i(t) should found:

The RMS asymmetrical fault Irms(t) with maximum dc offset is

I rms (t) = I rms (t) =

[ Iac ] + [ Idc (t)]


2

[ Iac ]

+ 2Iace
2t T

I rms (t) = Iac 1 + 2e

(7.1.10)

It is convenient to use T=X/(2f R) and t=/f , where is time in cycles, and write (7.1.10) as

I rms () = K()Iac A
where

(7.1.11)
4 (X / R )

K() = 1 + 2e

pu

(7.1.12)

I rms () = K()Iac

K() = 1 + 2e

(X / R )

per unit

I rms () decreases from 3Iac to Iac

when =0

when is large

Higher X / R ratios give higer values of I rms ()

TABLE 7.1 Component Symmetrical (ac) Instantaneous Current (A) rms Current (A)

i ac (t) =

2V sin(t + ) Z

V Iac = Z

dc offset

t 2V i dc (t) = sin( )e T Z

Asymmetrical (total)

i(t) = i ac (t) + i dc (t)

2 I rms (t) = Iac + i dc (t) 2

with maximum dc offset

I rms () = K()Iac

EXAMPLE 7.1

Fault currents: R-L circuit with ac source

A bolted short circuit occurs in the series R-L circuit of Figure 7.1 with V=20 kV, X=8 , R=0.8 , and with maximum dc offset. The circuit breaker opens 3 cycles after fault inception. Determine (a) the rms ac fault current, (b) the rms momentary current at =0.5 cycle, which phases through the breaker before it opens, and (c) the rms asymmetrical fault current that the breaker interrupts. SOLUTION a. From (7.1.9),

20 103 Iac = = = 2.488 kA 2 2 8.040 (8) + (0.8)

20 103

b. From (7.1.11) and (7.1.12) with (X/R) = 8/(0.8) =10 and = 0.5 cycle,

K(0.5cycle) = 1 + 2e 4 (0.5) /10 = 1.438


Imomentary=K(0.5cycle)Iac=(1.438)(2.488)=3.576 kA c. From (7.1.11) and (7.1.12) with (X/R) =10 and = 3 cycles,

K(3cycle) = 1 + 2e 4 (3) /10 = 1.023


Irms(3cycles)=(1.023)(2.488)=2.544 kA

7.2 Three-phase Short Circuit-Unloaded Synchronous Machine


iac(t)

2 I

2I
t

Ac fault current in one phase of an unloaded synchronous machine during a three-phase short circuit (the dc-offset current is removed)

Ac fault current in a synchronous machine can be modeled by the series R-L circuit of Figure 7.1 if a time-varying inductance L(t) or reactance X(t)=L(t) is used. In standard machine theory texts, the following reactances are defined :

X d = direct axis subtransient reactance

X d = direct axis transient reactance

X d = direct axis synchronous reactance

X d < Xd < Xd
The subscript d refers to the direct axis. If the armature resistance is small, the quadrate axis reactances do not significantly affect the short-circuit current.

X q , Xq , Xq

The instantaneous ac fault current is

1 1 t / Td 1 1 t / Td 1 )e +( )e + i ac (t) = 2E g ( sin(t + ) Xd X Xd Xd 2 d d X

Td

Direct axis short-circuit subtransient time constant

(7.2.1)

Td
Eg Iac (0) = = I X d

Direct axis short-circuit transient time constant

The rms subtransient fault current

(7.2.2) (7.2.3)

Eg I = X d
Iac () = Eg Xd =I

The rms transient fault current

The rms steady-state fault current

(7.2.4)

The maximum dc offset in any one phase, which occurs when =0 in (7.2.1), is

2E g t / TA i dc max (t) = e = 2Ie t / TA X d


TA
armature time constant

(7.2.5)

TABLE 7.2 Component Symmetrical (ac) Instantaneous Current (A) (7.2.1) rms Current (A)

1 t / Td 1 ( )e X X d d Iac (t) = E g 1 t / Td 1 1 ( + X X )e Xd d d

Subtransient Transient Steady-state Maximum dc offset Asymmetrical (total) i dc (t) = 2Ie t / TA


i(t) = i ac (t) + i dc (t)

I = E g / X d
I = E g / X d
I = Eg / Xd

I rms (t) = Iac (t) 2 + i dc (t) 2


with maximum dc offset

I rms (t) = Iac (t) 2 + [ 2Ie t / TA ]2

EXAMPLE 7.2

Three-phase short-circuit currents, unloaded synchronous generator

A 500-MVA 20-kV, 60-Hz synchronous generator with reactances

X d = 0.15 pu
and time constants

Xd = 0.24 pu

X d = 1.1 pu
TA = 0.20 s

= 0.035 s Td

= 2.0 s Td

is connected to a circuit breaker. The generator is operating at %5 above rated voltage and at no-load when a bolted three-phase short circuit occurs on the load side of the breaker. The breaker interrupts the fault 3 cycles after fault inception. Determine (a) the sub transient fault current in per-unit and kA rms; (b) maximum dc offset as a function of time; and (c) rms asymmetrical fault current, which the breaker interrupts, assuming maximum dc offset.

SOLUTION

a. The no-load voltage before the fault occurs is Eg=1.05 pu. From (7.2.2), the subtransient fault current that occurs in each of the three phases is

I =

1.05 = 7.0 pu 0.15


Srated 500 = = 14.43 kA 3Vrated ( 3)(20)

The generator base current is

I base =

The rms subtransient fault current in kA is

I actual = I pu I base = 7.0 (14.43) = 101.0 kA

b. From (7.2.5), the maximum dc offset that may occur in any one phase is

i dc max (t) = 2(101.0)e t / 0.20 = 142.9e t / 0.20 kA


c. From (7.2.1), the rms ac fault current at t = 3 cycles = 0.05 s is

1 1 0.05/ 0.035 ( )e 0.15 0.24 Iac (0.05s) = 1.05 +( 1 1 )e 0.05 / 2.0 + 1 1.1 0.24 1.1 = 4.920 pu =(4.920)(14.43)=71.01 kA

Modifying (7.1.10) to account for the time-varying symmetrical component of fault current, we obtain

I rms (0.05) =

[ Iac (0.05)]

+ 2I e

t / TA

I 2t / Ta = Iac (0.05) 1 + 2 e Iac (0.05) 101 2(0.05) / 0.20 = (71.01) 1 + 2 e 71.01 = (71.01)(1.8585) = 132 kA
2

7.3 POWER SYSTEM THREE-PHASE SHORT CIRCUITS


In order to calculate the subtransient fault current for a three-phase short circuit in a power system, we make the following assumptions: 1. Transformers are represented by their leakage reactances. Winding resistances, shunt admittances, and -Y phase shifts are neglected.

2. Transmission lines are represented by their equivalent series reactance. Series resistances and shunt admittances are neglected.

3. Synchronous machines are represented by constant-voltage sources behind subtransient reactances. Armature resistance, saliency, and saturation are neglected.

4. All nonrotating impedance loads are neglected. 5. Induction motors are either neglected (especially for small motors rated less than 50 hp) or represented in the same manner as synchronous machines.

T1

T2

1 G
100 MVA 13.8 kV X" = 0.15 Xline= 20 100 MVA 13.8 kV/138 kV X = 0.10

2 G
100 MVA 13.8 kV X" = 0.20

100 MVA 138 kV/13.8 kV X = 0.10

j XT1 j 0.1

j Xline j 0.1050

j XT2 j 0.1 j 0.20

j X"g

j 0.15 SW

j X"m

E "g

E "m

j XT1 j 0.1

j Xline j 0.1050

j XT2 j 0.1 j 0.20

I"g

1 I"F j 0.305

I"m

j X"g

j 0.15 SW

j X"m E "g

j 0.15 VF

j 0.20

E "g

E "m

VF

E "m

(a) Three-phase short circuit

(b) Short circuit represented by two opposing voltage sources

I"g1 j 0.15 I"F1 j 0.505

I"m1

I"g2 j 0.15

1 I"F2 VF j 0.505

I"m2

VF

E "g

E "m

(c) Application of superposition

I"g1 j 0.15 j 0.505 I"F1=I"F

I"m1

IL j 0.15 j 0.505

VF

E "g

E "m

(d) VF set equal to prefault voltage at fault

EXAMPLE 7.1

Three-phase short-circuit currents, power system

The synchronous generator in Figure 7.3 is operating at rated MVA, 0.95 p.f. lagging and at %5 above rated voltage when a bolted three-phase short circuit occurs at bus 1. Calculate the per-unit values of (a) subtransient fault current; (b) subtransient generator and motor currents, neglecting prefault current; and (c) subtransient generator and motor currents including prefault current. SOLUTION a) Using a 100-MVA base, the base impedance in the zone of the transmission line is

Zbase.line
and

(138) 2 = = 190.44 100

X line =

20 = 0.1050 per unit 190.44

The Thevenin impedance as viewed from the fault is


I"g1 j 0.15 j 0.505 I"F1=I"F I"m1

ZTh = jX Th = j

(0.15)(0.505) = j0.11565 pu (0.15 + 0.505)

VF

and the prefault voltage at the generator terminals is The subtransient fault current is then

VF = 1.05 0 pu

VF 1.05 0 I = = j9.079 pu F = ZTh j0.11565

b. Using current division in the circuit of Figure 7.4(d),

0.505 )I F = (0.7710)( j9.079) = j7.000 pu 0.505 + 0.15 0.15 = I ( )I m1 F = (0.2290)( j9.079) = j2.079 pu 0.505 + 0.15 I g1 = (
c. The generator base current is

I base.gen

100 = = 4.1837 kA ( 3)(13.8)

and the prefault generator current is

IL =

100 cos 1 0.95 = 3.9845 18.19 kA ( 3)(1.05 13.8)

3.9845 18.19 = = 0.9524 18.19 4.1837 = 0.9048 j0.2974 pu

The subtransient generator and motor currents, including prefault current, are then

I g = I g1 + I L = j7.000 + 0.9048 j0.2974 = 0.9048 j7.297 = 7.353 82.9 pu I m = I m1 I L = j2.079 0.9048 + j0.2974 = 0.9048 j1.782 = 1.999 243.1 pu

7.4 BUS IMPEDANCE MATRIX

Calculate subtransient fault currents for three-phase faults in an N-bus power system 1. Transformers and transmission lines are represented by their series reactances. 2. Synchronous machines are represented by constant-voltage sources behind subtransient reactances. 3. All resistances, shunt admittances, and all nonrotating impedance loads are neglected. 4. For simplicity, prefault currents are also neglected.

Consider a three-phase short circuit at any bus n Use superposition method We have 2 circuits to analyze In the first circuit, all machine-voltage sources are short-circuited, and the only source is due to the prefault voltage at the fault. Second circuit represents the prefault condition.

I"g1 j 0.15 j 0.505 I"F1=I"F VF

I"m
1

IL j 0.15 j 0.505

E "g

E "m

Writing nodal equations for the first circuit

Ybus E (1) = I(1)


where

(7.4.1) (7.4.2)

Zbus I(1) = E (1)


1 Zbus = Ybus

positive-sequence bus impedance matrix

Z11 Z 21 M Zn1 M Z N1

Z12 Z22

Z1n

L Z2n

Zn 2 L Znn Z N 2 L Z Nn

(1) Z1N 0 E1 0 (1) L Z2 N E2 M M M = L ZnN I Fn VF M M M (1) L Z NN 0 EN

(7.4.4)

The subtransient fault current is

VF I Fn = Znn

(7.4.5)

Also from (7.4.4) and (7.4.5), the voltage at any bus k in the first circuit is

(1) k

Zkn = Zkn (I VF Fn ) = Znn

(7.4.6)

The second circuit represents the prefault condition:


Neglecting prefault load current means all voltages in second circuit are equal to prefault voltage; that is, Ek(2) =VF for each bus k. Applying superposition,

Ek = E + E
(1) k

(2) k

Zkn Zkn = VF + VF = (1 )VF Znn Znn


k =1,2,.,N

(7.4.7)

EXAMPLE 7.4: Using Zbus to compute three-phase short-circuit currents in a power system Faults at bus 1 and 2 in Figure 7.3 are of interest. The prefault voltage is 1.05 per unit and prefault load current is neglected. (a) Determine the 2x2 positive-sequence bus impedance matrix. (b) For a bolted three-phase short circuit at the bus 1, use Zbus to calculate the subtransient fault current and the contribution to the fault current from the transmission line. (c) Repeat part (b) for a bolted three-phase short circuit at bus 2.
SOLUTION:

a) The circuit of Figure 7.4(a) is redrawn in Figure 7.5 showing perunit admittance rather than per-unit impedance values.

T1

T2

1 G
100 MVA 13.8 kV X" = 0.15 Xline= 20 100 MVA 13.8 kV/138 kV X = 0.10

2 G
100 MVA 13.8 kV X" = 0.20

100 MVA 138 kV/13.8 kV X = 0.10

j XT1 j 0.1

j Xline j 0.1050

j XT2 j 0.1

I"g

1 j 0.305

I"m

j X"g

j 0.15

j 0.20

j X"m

j 0.15

j 0.20

E "g

E "m

E "g

E "m

Neglecting prefault load current, E = = = E V 1.05 0 pu g m F

From Figure 7.5, the positive- sequence bus admittance matrix is


-j 3.2787

-j 6.6667

-j 0.5

Ybus

9.9454 3.2787 pu = j 3.2787 8.2787

E "g

E "m

Per-unit admittance values

Inverting Ybus,

Zbus = Y

1 bus

0.11565 0.04580 pu = + j 0.04580 0.13893

b) Using (7.4.5) the subtransient fault current at bus 1 is

VF 1.05 0 I = = j9.079 pu F1 = Z11 j0.11565


Which agrees with the result in Example 7.3, part (a). The voltage at buses 1 and 2 during the fault are, form (7.4.7),

Z11 E1 = (1 )VF = 0 Z11


E 2 = (1 Z21 j0.04580 )VF = (1 )1.05 0 = 0.6342 0 Z11 j0.11565

The current to the fault from the transmission line is obtained from the voltage drop from bus 2 to 1 divided by the impedance of the line and transformers T1 and T2

I 21 =

E 2 E1 0.6342 0 = = j2.079 pu j(X line + X T1 + X T2 ) j0.3050

which agrees with the motor current calculated in Example 7.3, part (b), where prefault load current is neglected. c) Using (7.4.5), the subtransient fault current at bus 2 is

VF 1.05 0 I = = j7.558 pu F2 = Z22 j0.13893


and from (7.4.7),

E1 = (1

Z12 j0.04580 )VF = (1 )1.05 0 = 0.7039 0 Z22 j0.13893

E 2 = (1

Z22 )VF = 0 Z22

The current to the fault from the transmission line is

I12 =

E1 E 2 0.7039 0 = = j2.308 pu j(X line + X T1 + X T 2 ) j0.3050

Figure shows a bus impedance equivalent circuit that represents the short circuit currents in an N-bus system.
0

rake equivalent
VF
r

Z12 Z1n Z11 I1


1

Z2n

ZnN

Z11 I2
2

...
In

Znn

...
IN

ZNN

E1

E2

SW

En

EN

Using Zbus, the fault currents in Figure 7.6 are given by


Z11 Z 21 M Zn1 M Z N1 Z12 Z22 Zn 2 L Z1n L Z2n L Znn L Z1N I1 VF E1 I V E L Z2N 2 2 F M M M = L ZnN I n VF E n M M M I V E L Z NN N F N

Z N 2 L Z Nn

where I1, I2, . are the branch current and (VF-E1), (VF-E2) . are the voltages across the branches.

7.5 CIRCUIT BREAKER AND FUSE SELECTION

AC circuit breakers

Capable of interrupting fault currents and reclosing An arc forms while contacts are separating Passing through zero crossing two times help to extinguish the arc Power circuit breakers > 1500 V Low-voltage circuit breakers < 1500 V Air Oil SF6 gas vacuum

Classified into 2 groups


Types of circuit breakers depend on the medium


7.5 CIRCUIT BREAKER AND FUSE SELECTION

In EHV systems, reclose operation only happens once.


Takes 15 to 30 cycles Second time it locks out Magnetic instantaneous trip capability for large fault currents above a specified threshold, and Thermal trip with time delay for smaller fault currents

For low voltage types dual capability is employed

Circuit breakers are generally selected based on the calculated symmetrical short circuit current values If X/R value < 15,

a breaker with a symmetrical interrupting capability equal to or above the calculated current is satisfactory dc offset is included in selection

If X/R value > 15,

Preferred ratings for outdoor circuit breakers (symmetrical current basis of rating)

EXAMPLE 7.4: Circuit breaker selection

The calculated symmetrical fault current is 17 kA at a three-phase bus where the operating voltage is 64 kV. The X/R ratio at the bus is unknown. Select a circuit breaker from Table 7.10 for this bus.
SOLUTION

The calculated symmetrical fault current