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Arundeep singh Gcad/09/110 Town Planning - The Science and Arts Involved

Planning is surely both. Both aspects are required to plan urban developments. It is the confinements of science that keep our communities orderly, and Im not saying the row upon row of housing developments or the transportation grid pattern style of order. I mean order in a simpler context such as just functioning at an acceptable level. Yet if all artistic sense is forgotten in planning we start to build places that lack culture. Sure we can add an institution that may bring culture to that area, but the area itself lacks its own identity. If we didnt have one balancing out the other we would have strict expressionless order or meandering urban undergrowth. So either on their own can not produce great development, though they can create development. This issue should, instead, be focused on whether you as a planner are more the scientific planner or more the artist planner. If that is the issue youll be able to tell a lot about your planning style. The scientific planners will focus their understanding (and therefore their rendering of planning) in a much more mechanistic setting. Because of this strong scientific/mechanistic view point you will express the need to have, as was stated above, the documentable and quantifiable results to guide your actions. This view point, to date, leaves little to no room for the issue of a value of life within the built environment of a building, a neighborhood, a community, town, region, etc. These are the subconscious but strong realizations one makes about such places. Whether you liked or disliked an area or felt welcomed, agitated, pressured things like that. If you come from the artist side of the spectrum you will find it much easier to grasp and hopefully ever reproduce that myriad of tangled connections that a single building has with its surroundings. In knowing this you will be able to control how a building functions, to a large extent, then be able to build developments with life and vibrancy feelings of welcoming, comfort, - home. But this ability without the scientific view point will lack the order necessary to function properly.

Growth of town
One of the most, if not the most, spectacular changes experienced in Britain during the nineteenth century was the growth of towns and cities. Whereas the population was overwhelmingly rural at the end of the eighteenth century, the 1851 census showed that, for the first time, the majority of Britons lived in towns. By 1901 this figure had reached 77%. Around 40% lived in one of the seven great conurbations: Greater London, the West Midlands, South-East Lancashire, West Yorkshire, Merseyside, Tyneside and Clydeside. London's population in 1901 was 6.6 million, Greater Manchester's was 2.1 million and Tyneside's was almost 700,000.

The industrial revolution spawned the growth of many new towns, especially in the cotton districts of Lancashire: it was here, for example, that Blackburn grew into a large manufacturing town, to be depicted as 'Coketown' by Charles Dickens in Hard Times. Other towns which experienced spectacular growth during the nineteenth century include the iron-making town of Middlesbrough, the railway towns of Crewe and Swindon, and the brewing town of Burton-upon Trent. These have been characterised by John Stevenson as 'frontier towns' of the industrial revolution (Stevenson), undergoing spectacular and often unregulated growth, which frequently resulted in insanitary physical surroundings and severe overcrowding.

Growth of established towns

Urbanisation, did not occur only in the conurbations and in new manufacturing districts. Other, older towns grew substantially in this period. The population of the Roman and medieval city of York, for example, expanded from 16,846 in 1801 to 77,793 in 1901 (Rowntree), partly due to its status as an important railway centre; and the population of the cities of Norwich and Oxford tripled and quintupled respectively in the same period (Freeman). Although the expansion of these and other provincial towns was less spectacular than the growth of Blackburn, Middlesbrough or Crewe, it was often accompanied by the same environmental problems that beset the 'frontier towns'.

Widening influence of urban life

Urban expansion did not just affect those who lived in towns. The economic influence of towns, and the cultural influence of urban areas and urban life, spread to every corner of the nation. Country people consumed mass-produced goods, were exposed to the influence of urban popular culture, and increasingly met with more town-dwellers. Richard Jefferies lamented in 1880 that the songs he heard sung in English villages were often the same as those sung by London 'street-arabs' (Jefferies). The acceleration of rural depopulation in the later nineteenth century ensured yet more contact between country and town.

The flight of the middle classes

One way in which country and town interacted - and in many cases clashed - in the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was in the process of suburbanisation. The flight of the middle classes from industrial cities began in the early nineteenth century. Improvement in transport which facilitated commuting to work, together with the expansion of middle-class occupations, led to the establishment of new suburbs and the colonisation by 'villa-dwellers'

of many former villages and small towns. These were turned into dormitory suburbs of London and other large cities. Exploration 1: The impact of urbanisation on the countryside Exploration 2: Seebohm Rowntree and social conditions in York
There are several elements that are taken into application while planning a town. 1.Aesthetics: To ensure a accurate and clutter-less city-limits with able arrangements, segmentations and zoning. 2.Safety: Planning should be advised to abstain abrasion from furies of attributes or accidents. 3.Slums: Planning needs to abode the affair of hole development. 4.Urban decay: Preventing burghal adulteration should be a allotment of planning. 5.Reconstruction: Face-lifting of barrio and about-face of burghal adulteration is important. 6.Transport: Keeping accoutrement for a absolute transportations arrangement with highways, roads, and railways is of absolute affair in planning. 7.Sub-urbanization: Leaving allowance for sub-urbanization action to yield abode as the city-limits grows.