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Chap 9: Reasons for Variations in Development Historical reasons 1) Colonialism Domination of more powerful country over another country.

Dominated country: colony; more powerful country: colonial power. Not main reason for uneven dvlpt, CP more developed than colonies. (DCs like UK were colonial powers). Reason for colonialism: colonial powers obtain valuable RM not present in their own ctrs, E.g. Portugal colonised Angola exploit the physical conditions,availability of labour by setting up plantations of cash crops, climate, soil suit to grow cotton, cocoa, fetch high price in Europe, export there for sale. Tech adv, CP add value to RM convert to useful prod, sell at profit, achieve DC status. Colonies, dvlpt slow, CP develop infra but education, not dvlp. Disparity continue widen as DCs con dvlp tech, industrialise, colonies export low-value RM earn little. Physical reasons 2) Presence of raw materials Countries plenty of RM usually develop faster than countries with no raw materials. $ earned by RM spent on dvlpt projects (improve infra like roads, housing) E.g. Norways HDI 1st in 2003, abundant natural resources including timber and crude oil BUT not guaranteed E.g. Nigeria discover crude oil in 1950s, sold overseas for $, but majority of rural people remain poor. $ spent to develop urban areas instead of the rural areas, oil spillages and pollution cause environmental issues- consequently its SOL remains low.

3) Climate Influence type of nat veg that grows E.g. cool and moist climate in Canada and USA can grow wheat,oat on large scales, sold locally or exported overseas. This may partly explain why the top DCs are found in temperate regions. Limitations in climate can overcome w tech. E.g. growing crops in greenhouses. But, not all countries have modern tech esp for LDCs. Ethiopia, droughts cause insufficient water for agricultural activities which is an income source. Floods also affect dvlpt. LDCs more vulnerable lack sufficient money for flood control,takes longer for it to recover.E.g. Yellow/Yangtze River in China floods yearly,2005, >1000killed, US $12.6bil worth of losses, affects mainly rural poor- homes, farms destroyed Netherlands, flood-prone country overcome through tech- Zuider Zee project, involves land reclaimation, extra 166000 ha land create for farming, ssmts

Economic reasons 4) Cumulative causation Process of how movement of people and resources from the periphery increases the wealth of the core. Development of new industry (core),More employment created: periphery workers are attracted into the core(backwash effect),Increase in demand for goods and services (more people in core),Creation and expansion of business,Increase in general wealth of people Expansion of infrastructure to meet peoples increasing needs

Result in uneven dvlpt, areas with better potential to develop will attract investment and labour. E.g Spore attract workers from periphery countries like Bangladesh and Philippines, resulting in the backwash effect. The backwash effect refers to labour and RM from the periphery to the core, causing periphery disadvantaged. Spread effects, spread wealth, knowledge to periphery from core, opp of backwash effects. E.g. dvlpt of automobile industry in Thailand has aided its growth. Japanese car manufacturing companies invested in setting up factories in Thailand. While the Japanese car manufacturers benefitted from the cheaper labour costs, the Thais were offered employment and its economy has grown.

Social reasons 5) Education A higher literacy rate more competent workforce, work in secondary and tertiary sectors. The country earns a higher GDP to spend on dvlpt projects for higher SOL. Little education investment, lack teachers, civil wars, farms, children work support family

6) Population growth rate Countrys pop inc quickly (LDCs like Ethiopia), lack of resources, affect SOL. Countries w low population growth usually DCs. Married couples fewer children, more time and energy on career, economy grow.

Political reasons

7) Political conflict Political conflict hinder the dvlpt of a country.

Civil war, Cambodias economy suffer greatly due to disruption of businesses, tourists avoid deters investors set up businesses due to political instability. Further hinders economic dvlpt. Sierra Leone, 2005, HDI 2nd from bottom, poorest, least dvlp Switzerland, rank 7,GDP $30552, politically stable and peaceful, confidence of foreign investors to set up businesses, local businesses prosper.

8) Leadership Countries progressing well in their overall development are run by efficient and competent governments. Norway has a stable and forward looking government, care for economic dvlpt, well-being. Wealth generated from petroleum industry shared among citizens. China, 1978, new leadership, build economy, imp SOL, ec reform open ecy to world, attract foreign trade and investment

Chap 8: Variations in Development in the World Development: ongoing process to imp peoples QOL, SOL. DC higher standard of living,advanced economy. Standard of living refers to the peoples living conditions in a country. Quality of life refers to the satisfaction level with ones living conditions and lifestyle, as well as non-material aspects like leisure. Core-periphery theory Core(higher ppl, wealth, SOL, employment) Periphery (few employment, agriculture, limited amenities, poor infra) Core-periphery relationship Core develops at the expense of periphery. E.g. The flow of skilled labour from the periphery into the core to seek better employment. This allows core to benefit from the additional talents in their workforce but causes the periphery to be drained of skilled labour. Flow of wealth out of periphery into the core. The core is involved in the manufacture of raw materials, which are imported from the periphery, into useful products. They are then sold back to the periphery for a profit. Therefore, the loss of labour and wealth in the periphery results in slow development. While the core continues to develop as profit increases. This results in an ever-increasing disparity in the level of development between them. HDI The HDI takes into consideration the economic well-being as well as the health and education standards of a country. Limitations of HDI Not completely accurate. Rural areas where data unavailable, estimates are used to calculate the income of the people which may affect its reliability. Fails to take into account the measurement of human rights and freedom. Time lag of 2 years btw time data collected and published. Hence, the latest report will reflect data collected 2 years ago. However, the world is constantly changing and thus the HDI will not be an accurate and reliable assessment of the countrys present development status. Should only serve as a general guide and not be used to determine conclusively the level of dvlpt of a country.

Comparison of DCs and LDCs (overall development) a) Economic well-being: Income per capita use GDP per capita, economic wealth of ctr measured in terms of total value of gds, services produced by each person, will tell us income earned by each person/ income per capita Employment structure - Countries with largest proportion of workforce in secondary & tertiary industries are wealthier and more developed. DCs, largest t-s-p, LDCs p-s-t. Primary industry does not generate much income due to act like extraction of RM, unlike sec, ter. Employment opportunities -DCs better job opportunities ,lower long-term unemployment rate. Good employment opportunities allow high SOL & QOL, growth of SI (e.g. higher manufacture of laptops) expansion of TI (e.g. higher demand for leisure & entertainment services). LDCs fewer employment opportunities,poorer. Lower demand for goods & services, little need for expansion of SI. Ppl move LDCSs to DCs for jobs, periphery drained, core benefit, more wealth. However since 1990s, employment opp in LDCs increase, more factories setting up in LDCs: cheaper to run; lower labour cost (e.g. Toyota factory in Thailand). Creates employment.

b) Health: Ppl living in DCs better health due to higher SOL. They are able to access and afford healthcare facilities better than people in LDCs. Life expectancy The average no. of years a person born in a country is expected to live. -Countries with a higher life expectancy are usually the more developed ones. DCs usually have higher SOL and wealth: sufficient food, better hygiene and access to healthcare. This allows people to live longer. E.g. Japan is a DC with high life expectancy due to its high SOL. It has one of the worlds leading medical services and a mandatory health insurance policy. E.g. in Ethiopia, people live shorter due to lower SOL and wealth: insufficient food & water, poorer hygiene leading to more diseases and cannot afford/lack of healthcare facilities. Poor health limit productivity of workforce, affect prod of G&S, GDP. w/o income, gov limited resources set up public health care system, trap cycle prev them from helping themselves imp health conditions

Infant mortality rate No. of deaths of less than 1 year of age, per 1000 live births in a year. DCs lower infant mortality rate, proper healthcare amenities: clinics, hospitals and medical research facilities. DCs like Norway and USA have a lower infant mortality rate than LDCs like Cambodia. Reflects higher SOL and better QOL in DCs than in LDCs. Access to water supply Provision of clean & portable water for people in a country. DCs like Norway and Japan have access to clean water supply as part of their well-built infrastructure. Clean water which has been treated is supplied by pipes to homes, water treated at water treatment plants remove bacteria. LDCs like Ethiopia lack access. They walk long distances to collect water from a well: cannot afford for water to be piped to homes. People prone to water-borne diseases like cholera, polio caused by drinking contaminated water. Lack of access reflects poor SOL and QOL. Access to sanitation facilities DCs have proper sanitation: toilets with flushing; waste disposal systems. Switzerland and Austria have modern sewage systems to dispose waste from homes properly. In LDCs no proper sanitation facilities, lack tech, funds to build necessary infra, waste not properly disposed. Leads to environmental and water contamination. Causes widespread diseases like dysentery, poses health risk. c) Education: The standard of education affects the countrys future economic development. It reflects the SOL to some extent. Literacy rate is used to assess the level of education in a country. (% of adults (15 yrs) in a country who can read and write) The more developed the country is, the higher the literacy rate. - It is important for people to be literate so that they can be efficient in using technology like computers. This ensures that the country can develop to achieve a higher SOL. Being literate also allows the appreciation of literature and fine arts, which contributes to better QOL. More schools and qualified teachers EG. Italy high literacy rate, fosters dvlpt. Educated workforce equipped w knowledge and skills, competent to be employed in the tertiary sector, higher GDP, higher SOL and QOL can be achieved.

Uneven Development on International Scale International Cooperation Diff ctrs work tgt to achieve common objective, through the provision of financial or technical aid, int org formed. International agreements made(long term plans: > 5 years) International organisations a) World Bank Provides monetary or technological aid to LDCs, to assist them in developing economically and socially. Consist of 184 member countries. Provides loans for LDCs at little or no interest for development projects like improving sanitation and for immunisation programmes. E.g. Kecamatan Development Programme (KDP) -aid to 25 villages in 1998, extend over 34000 villages by 2006, over US $890million funds supplied World Bank offers monetary grants directly to Indonesian villages for development projects. Indonesian village severe lack of water, Sleepy Tirtomoyo, was able to dig an underground well and install a piping network. Access to a reliable clean water supply and their SOL has improved. b) Asian Development Bank (ADB) Reduce poverty and improve the QOL of people in Asians. Consists of 64 member countries provided with monetary and technical aid. ADB lends millions of dollars to LDCs like Bangladesh to support its economic growth. E.g. Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge Project Build a bridge across the Jamuna River connecting the less developed and more developed regions. Improved countrys transport infra, ease traffic congestion,promote economic growth through the connection of the two regions, leading to increased accessibility. Easier for farmers transport produce to markets at the commercial centre where there is greater demand leading to increased profits. Limits: LDCs able to replay loans? Aid does not reach ppl that need it, some end up in corrupt officials, lack of funds from int org limit no of villages/ppl? International agreements a) United Nations Millennium Development Goals A long-term plan aimed at alleviating uneven development by helping LDCs achieve greater development and escape poverty. Comprises 8 goals to be achieved by 2015.

First goal, eradicate extreme global poverty and hunger. Vietnam, strategies adopted include equipping poorer people with necessary skills for employment, increasing access to basic social services for the poor to improve SOL. Its proportion of poor households has decreased from 1993s 58.1% to 2004s 24.1%. The second goal achieve pri education for everyone in the world. Progress promising,India. The highest increase of primary school enrolment is in SEA where 1999s 72% rose to 2004s 89%. b) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Established by more than 160 countries, controlling usage of resources in the worlds seas and oceans, ensure sustainable usage of resources to prevent depletion. Concerns Fish stock depleting in popular fishing grounds like the North Sea as fishing boats now can travel further to fish, advanced tech. Ships and oil tanks release harmful mat cause pollution and threaten aquatic life and coastal resources. Measures: Exclusive Economic Zone (EZZ) Under the UNCLOS, coastal states have the exclusive right to use resources like fish and oil within their EEZ, a boundary 200 nautical miles from their shore. Prevent exploitation by foreign fishermen. Beneficial to coastal LDCs like Peru, dependent on fishing industry. It prevents DCs from using advanced fishing equipment to fish in Perus seas, which will put the Perus at a disadvantage as the large fishing boats of DCs enables its fishermen to spot underwater fishes easily. It therefore protects the fishing rights of fishermen from LDCs so that they can maintain their livelihood. Strategies to promote national development National dvlpt refers to inc in countrys wealth resulting in higher SOL. Highly dependent on the strategies its government adopts, which would be feasible in bringing about national development. The core-periphery theory may be applied to understand uneven development on a national scale. a) Improving water supply and sanitation in LD regions An adequate infrastructure including clean water supply and well-develop sanitation is essential for achieving development. India has adopted such a development strategy to ensure that basic needs for citizens are met. Case of Ahmedabad, India Despite being a major commercial and industrial centre, 41% of its population live in slums and squatter settlements; 25% without toilet facilities. Extreme poverty is widespread Measures Parivartan Slum Networking Programme. Local authorities, business institutions came together to improve their living conditions and provide a better QOL, funded by local banks. Slum dwellers

provided with basic infrastructure: clean water supply, underground sewerage and individual toilets. Reduces spread of diseases caused by bacteria in waste and contaminated water. Proper support was given during development phase: monthly monitoring meetings, future planning sessions. Training sessions for people on proper use of facilities. Success Within 5 years, it has benefitted 56000 people in > 40 slums. Expanded to include 59 more slums. Death rates declined from 6.9 per 1000 to 3.7 per 1000 people. Fewer people have also been falling ill, increased the SOL of people in Ahmedabad and aided development. b) Improving education standards in LD regions Education is the key for employment. Thailand, education was identified as the key factor for its dvlpt, LD regions including hill tribe communities, illiterate, low SOL compared to Bangkok. Measures The Hill Tribe Education Project, provide Education for all, promoting literacy, Maths and life skills taught. Volunteer teachers from cities teach them. Also educated on sustainable development. E.g. sustainable farming methods, which led to increased agricultural production. Success Improved agricultural production (educated sustainable farming methods), Gained employment in cities (education enhances employability), Generated income (through increased crops and being employed) Challenges Geographical isolation (dispersed settlements) inhibits government outreach, Communication barriers between volunteers and hill tribes

c) Population control in LD regions An overpopulation (experienced by LDCs like Africa) will cause the countrys limited resources to be strained leading to a shortage of jobs, housing and education. Overcrowding also poses environmental concerns. Case of Chinas One Child Policy Implemented to alleviate excessive population growth by reducing birth rate. Encouraged each couple to have only one child, by means of penalties and incentives. E.g. couples with more children had to pay higher taxes; those with only one child received housing and education subsidies. Assisted by local authorities- people encouraged to adhere to policy through: Recruiting volunteers to promote late marriage & contraception

Publicity :e.g. advertisements put up on streets to encourage the adhering of the policy

Effectiveness: Limitations Harder to be implemented in rural areas- Reasons for having more children Traditional preference for sons Being farmers, more children needed as farm labour

Devised methods to reach out to rurals May lead to social consequences

Effectiveness: Success Very successful: Chinas birth rates significantly reduced, prevented 400 million births over 30 years (government officials) With more manageable growth rate, the strain on the countrys resources is lessened. This allows its resources to be channelled to other areas of national development, like dealing with lack of healthcare facilities, thereby improving peoples SOL. Effective that it has been amended to ensure sufficient people to support elderly in future.

d) Job creation & financial assistance for people in LD regions Government plays key role in creating jobs for people. High unemployment rate indicates the inability of people to meet basic needs and a low SOL. Case of Philipines 4.3 million poor families, most of them lacked formal education or skills training. Increasing income gap between rich and poor.

It is difficult for the poor to gain employment in formal sector jobs, e.g. banking, due to lack of formal education- not equipped with knowledge and skills. Ended up working in informal sector which require low-skills, e.g. delivery services, cleaning services, selling hand-made products. Little attention given to help informal sector develop. E.g. small businesses rarely given loans to build and sustain their business. Many would fail due to lack of financing/proper skills needed for a business


Linking arms against poverty plan aims to improve SOL of the poor in Philippines, through increasing employment rate and their income. More attention and resources were given to the poor to help informal sector develop. E.g. Propoor policies were implemented to help more people establish and run small business, through microfinance. Government works with Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) to assess viability to business ventures before loans are offered. Interest free loans given to ultra-poor, many other private organisations also volunteered to help government in providing financial aid to the poor. Also provided training and advice to help their business run effectively and productively. E.g. villagers who wanted to set up their own business were given training courses on self-employment assistance orientation and developing skills.

Effectiveness: Success 600,000 agricultural jobs created in rural areas. Helped about 3 million people.

Government provided jobs, through job placement schemes, to about 1.7 million previously unemployed people. Poverty has reduced as more people now had incomes and were able to afford basic needs like food by being employed.

Effectiveness: Challenges More has to be done to narrow income gap between rich and poor.

The poor needs to increase their market access to get more people to purchase their goods and services. More volunteers needed in outreach programmes, e.g. providing training for the poor