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Aerodynamik

Astrid Herbst (Bombardier), Tomas Muld & Gunilla Efraimsson ( KTH)

Future demands Higher speeds and high capacity


Wide body trains with max speed > 250 km/h Aerodynamic challenges specific for wide body trains: head pressure pulse & slipstream

Slipstream
Safety issue for passengers on platform and trackside workers Measures on operation & train design

More value for environment and performance: Aerodynamic optimisation


Reduction of drag saves energy and traction power Drag and Cross-Wind Optimisation

More value for environment and performance: Aerodynamic optimisation starting section tangent between
of the nose height and length of the nose nose and car body upper part of the nose tip
starting section of the nose tangent between nose and car body upper part of the nose tip

Parameterized model defines the variables and boundary conditions

height and length of the nose

Computer optimisation by using the parameterized model Goal function is reduce drag while keeping the cross wind safety

size of the bogie fairing


size of the bogie fairing

chamfering
chamfering

lower part of the nose tip


lower part of the nose tip

upper curvature upper curvature of the of carbody the carbody

upper curvature of nose the nose of the tip

upper curvature tip

spoiler geometry

spoiler geometry

lateral tangent lateral at the nosetangent tip

at the nose tip

More value for environment and performance: Aerodynamic optimization


Thousands of virtual wind tunnel tests in the computer used to find the very best shape Main result shows 20 30 % lower drag and 10 15 % lower energy consumption Installed power can be reduced with lower cost
Low drag

Design Space

Pareto front

Lower energy cost for operators


Increasing stability

Slipstream Test Setup


Down Track Vsters Up Track USA 1 USA 2 LS 1 30.58 m 20 m 20 m HPP LS 2 Enkping USA 3
s r ste V

6m 5m

9m

Catenary Pole 1

9.42 m 60 m Road

13m
Catenary Pole 2 T-junction
p k En

Car

Legend USA : Ultra Sonic Anemometer HPP : Head Pressure Pulse Rake LS : Light Switch

Reference Pressure

g in

Measurements with fast 3D-ultrasonic anemometers (USA)

Train speed and positions measured with light switch


Light switch mounted to detect single rail passages

Measurement results
10 0,144

Impact of Bogie Skirts


7,5 0,108

Head Passage

0,072

uWind [m/s]

2,5

0,036

Tail Passage
0 Ensemble average overall Ensemble average Skirt leading Ensemble average Skirt trailing Maximum Axles 50 x [m] 100 150 0

-2,5

Intercar Gap

-0,036

-5 -50 0

-0,072 200

cu,Wind [ ]

Numerical simulations of slipstream performed at KTH

Slipstream
Slipstream= Induced velocity by the train

Regions 1) Head pressure pulse 2) Boundary Layer (Freight Trains) 3) Near wake (High-speed Train) 4) Far Wake

Train models

Aerodynamic Train Model (ATM)

Regina (CRH1)

Decomposition models
Full flow field

=
Mode 1

+
Mode 2,3

+
Mode 4,5

+
Mode 6+

Connection between modes


Phase portrait
Spiraling circles when the modes are connected Random patterns when not

Example of flow structure

Isosurface of V-velocity Mode 1+4+5

Decomposition models
Challenges
- Long computation times - Accurate results

Understanding of dominant energetic structures


Two methods
- Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) - Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD)

Comparing with Experiments


CFD by KTH

Water Towing Tank from Bombardier performed at DLR

Grid study

Small cells Medium cells Large cells

TSI-measurements

3m
1.2 m

Velocity for an observer standing on platform 0.07s (1s) time averaged velocity

Achievements
Showed that POD and DMD can be used with Detached Eddy Simulation flow fields. Identified dominant flow structures for two different trains. Used advanced models on applied geometries. Cooperation and exchange of knowledge with Bombardier. Fundament for efficient prediction to connect train geometry and slipstream.

Publications
Muld, T.W, Analysis of Flow Structures in Wake Flows for Train Aerodynamics, Licentiate Thesis in Mechanics, KTH Stockholm, ISBN 978-91-7415-651-5, 2010
Muld T.W, Efraimsson G., Henningson D. S, Flow structures around a high-speed train extracted using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Dynamic Mode Decomposition, Computer & Fluids, DOI: 10.1016/j.compfluid.2011.12.012 , 2012 Muld T.W, Efraimsson G., Henningson D. S, Mode decomposition on surface mounted cube, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, DOI: 10.1007/s10494-011-9355-y, 2011 Muld T.W, Efraimsson G., Henningson D. S, Mode Decomposition of Flow Structures in the wake of Two High-Speed Trains, The First International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintaince, April 16-18, Gran Canaria, Spain, 2012 Muld T. W., Efraimsson G., Henningson D. S., Herbst A. H. and Orellano A., Analysis of Flow Structures in the Wake of a High-Speed Train, Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains, September 12-17, 2010, Potsdam, Germany Muld T. W., Efraimsson G., Henningson D. S., Herbst A. H., Orellano A., Detached Eddy Simulation and Validation on the Aerodynamic Train Model, Euromech Colloquim 509, Vehicle Aerodynamics, Berlin Germany, March 24-25 2009 Muld T. W., Efraimsson G., Henningson D. S., Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of Flow Structures around a Surfacemounted Cube Computed with Detached-Eddy Simulation, SAE paper 09B-0170, 200915