Sie sind auf Seite 1von 46

1

WORK, ENERGY & POWER


Syllabus : Kinetic and potential energy; Work and Power, Conservation of mechanical energy, work energy principle.

WORK

When a force is applied at a point and the point gains some energy. Then the work is said to be
done by the force.
The work W done by a constant force

F when its point of application undergoes a displacement

S is measured as
W =

F .

S = |

F | |

S | cosu
Where u is the angle between

F and

S . Work is a scalar quantity and its SI unit is N-m or joule (J).


Only the component (Fcosu) of the force F which is along the displacement contributes to the
work done. If

F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k and

S = Ax i + Ay j + Az k then W =

F .

S = Fx Ax+FyAy+Fz Az
Positive and Negative work : The work is said to be positive if the angle u is acute (u < 90
0
) and
negative if the angle u is obtuse (u > 90
0
). If the angle between

F and

S is 90
0
then work done by the
force is zero.
If the force is variable then the work done by the variable force is given by dW =

F .

dS or
W =
}

2
1
S
S
dS . F
Work depends on frame of reference. With change of frame of reference inertial force does not
change while displacement may change, so the work done by a force will be different in different frames.

Illustration 1 :
A particle of mass 2 kg moves under the action of a constant force

F = ( ) j i 2 5 N. If its displacement
is 6 j m. What is the work done by the force

F ?

Solution :
The work done

F .

x



2
= ( ) j i 2 5 . j 6 = - 12 Joule


Illustration 2 :
A load of mass m = 3000 kg is lifted by a rope with an acceleration a = 2 m/s
2
. Find the work done
during the first one and a half seconds from the beginning of motion.

Solution :
The height to which the body is lifted during the first 't' second is h =
2
1
at
2
tension in the rope T =
mg + ma
Work done = T.h = m(g +a)
|
.
|

\
|
2
2
1
at = 3000 (10 + 2) ( )
(

2
5 1 2
2
1
. x x
= 81 KJ

WORK DONE BY A SPRING FORCE :

Whenever a spring is stretched or compressed, the spring force always tend to restore it to the
equilibrium position. If x be the displacement of the free end of the spring from its equilibrium position
then, the magnitude of the spring force is FS = - kx
The negative sign indicates that the force is restoring.
The work done by the spring force for a displacement from xi to xf is given by
Ws =
}

f
x
i
x
kxdx Ws = ( )
2 2
2
1
i f
x x k

WORK DONE BY FRICTION :

Work done by friction may be zero, positive or negative depending upon the situations:
When a block is pulled by a force F and the block does not move, the work done by
friction is zero.
When a block is pulled on a stationary surface, the work done by the kinetic friction is
negative.
When one block is placed on another block and is pulled by a force then friction force does
negative work on top block and positive work on the lower block



3

WORK DONE BY GRAVITY :

Here the force of gravity is Fg = - mg j and the displacement is given by

S = Ax i + Ay j + Az k
Work done by gravity is Wg =
g

F .

S = - mg Ay
Ay = yf - yI = - h
Wg = + mgh
If the block moves in the upward direction, then the work done by gravity is negative and is
given by Wg = - mgh.

DEPENDENCE OF WORK ON FRAME OF REFERENCE :

Work depends upon the frame of reference from where it is calculated. As the displacement as
well as force, depends upon the deferent frames of reference. Therefore, the work also changes. For
example, if you calculate work from a non inertial frame work due to pseudo force has to be included.
Again displacement from the inertial frame of reference will be different from ground frame.

CONSERVATIVE AND NON CONSERVATIVE FORCES :
In Conservative force field the work done by the force is independent on path followed and
depends only on initial and final co-ordinates. Such forces are known as Conservative forces.
Examples are gravitational, electrostatic forces.
If the work done depends on path followed. Such forces are called non- Conservative
forces. Example is frictional force.



4

Illustration 3 :
A train is moving with a constant speed "v". A box is pushed by a worker applying a force "F" on the
box in the train slowly by distance "d" on the train for time "t". Find the work done by "F" from the train
frame as well as from the ground frame.

Solution :
As the box is seen from the train frame the displacement is only 'd' if the force direction is same
as the direction of motion of the box.
Then the work done = F.d = Fdcos0
0
= Fd
= Fdcos180
0
= -Fd
(if the displacement on the train is opposite to 'F')
As the box is seen from ground frame,
the displacement of the box = vt + d (if the displacement is along the
direction of motion of the train )
= d - vt (if the displacement is opposite to
direction of motion of the train)
then work done = F. (vt + d) = Fvt + Fd OR = F.(d-vt) = Fd - Fvt

Illustration 4 :
A block is (mass m) placed on the rough surface of a plank (mass m) of coefficient of
friction "" which in turn is placed on a smooth surface. The block is given a velocity
v0 with respect to the plank which comes to rest with respect to the plank. Find the
a) The total work done by friction in the plank frame.
b) The work done by friction on the smaller block in the plank frame.
c) Find the final velocity of the plank


Solution :
The acceleration of the plank = Friction force applied by the block on the plank / mass of the
plank.
g
m
mg
a
p
=

=
(a) Pseudo force acting on the block = g (back wards)
m
m
0
v



5
Force of friction is mg ( acting backwards)
From the plank frame time needed to stop the block is given by
O = at V +
0
( ) g a = 2
t =
g
V
2
0

Velocity of the plank during this time is t a u V
p p p
+ =
=
2 2
0 0
V
g
V
g =


Displacement of the block = S =
g
V
a
V
V

=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

8
3
2
2
2
0
2
0 2
0

Work done by friction on the block = ( ) 1
8
3
2
0

= t
g
V
. mg cos . S . F =
2
0
8
3
mv

(b) From the Plank frame
Work done by friction on smaller block = -mgl

g 2
V 0
2
0

=
2
mV
g
2
0
=
work done by friction from the Plank frame =
2
mV
2
0

(c) Final velocity of the block
= Velocity of the plank =
2
0
V

WORK ENERGY THEOREM :

Now we have to study which physical quantity changes when work is done on a particle. If a
constant force F acts through a displacement x, it does work W = Fx

2 2
i f
v v = + 2 ax
W =
( )
2
2 2
i f
m v v
=
2
1
m
2
f
v -
2
1
m
2
i
v
mg
p
ma
m



6
The quantity k =
2
1
m v
2
is a scalar and is called the kinetic energy of the particle. It is the
energy posses by the particle by virtue of its motion.
Thus the equation takes the form K K K W
i f
A = =
The work done by a force changes the kinetic energy of the particle. This is called the work -
Energy Theorem.

Illustration 5 :
The velocity of an 800 gm object changes from

0
v = 3 i - 4 j to

f
v = -6 j + 2 k m/s. What is the
change in K.E of the body?

Solution :
Here m = 800gm = 0.8 kg

o
v = ( )
2 2
4 3 + = 5 ( ) ( )
2 2
2 6 + =

f
v = 40
change in K.E =
2
1
x 0.8
|
|
|
.
|

\
|


2
0
2
v v
f
= ( ) J x . x 6 25 40 8 0
2
1
=
Illustration 6 :
The coefficient of sliding friction between a 900 kg car and pavement is 0.8. If the car is moving at
25 m/s along level pavement, when it begins to skid to a stop, how far will it go before stopping?

Solution :
Here m = 900kg = 0.8, v = 25 m/s S =?
K.E = work done against friction
2
2
1
mv = F.s = N.s = mgs
s =
g
v
2
2
=
( )
10 8 0 2
25
2
x . x
~ 39 m

Illustration 7 :
An object of mass 10kg falls from rest through a vertical distance of 20m and acquires a velocity of 10
m/s. How much work is done by the push of air on the object ? (g = 10 m/s
2
)




7
Solution :
Let upward push of air be F
The resultant downward force = mg - F
As work done = gain in K.E
(mg - F) x S =
2
2
1
mv
(10 x 10 - F) x 20 =
2
1
x 10 x (10)
2
F = 75 N
Work done by push of air = 75 x 20 = 15 Joule
This work done is negative.

POTENTIAL ENERGY :

Potential energy of any body is the energy possessed by the body by virtue of its position or the
state of deformation. With every potential energy there is an associated conservative force. The
potential energy is measured as the magnitude of work done against the associated conservative force
du = - r d . F



For Example :
(i) If an object is placed at any point in gravitational field work is to be done against gravitational
field force. The magnitude of this work done against the gravitational force gives the measure of
gravitational potential energy of the body at that position which is U = mgh. Here h is the height
of the object from the reference level.
ii) The magnitude of work done against the spring force to compress it gives the measure of elastic
potential energy, which is U =
2
1
k x
2

iii) A charged body in any electrostatic field will have electrostatic potential energy. The change in
potential energy of a system associated with conservative internal force as U2-U1= - W=
}

2
1
F . dr
CONSERVATION OF MECHANICAL ENERGY :
Change in potential energy AU = - WC where WC is the work done by conservative forces. From
work energy theorem
Wnet = Ak



8
Where Wnet is the sum of work done by all the forces acting on the mass. If the system is
subjected to only conservative forces then Wnet = WC = Ak
A U = - Ak AU + Ak = 0
The above equation tells us that the total change in potential energy plus the total change in
kinetic energy is zero, if only conservative forces are acting on the system.
A(k+U) = 0 or AE = 0 where E = k + U
When only conservative forces act, the change in total mechanical energy of a system is zero.
i.e if only conservative forces perform work on and within a system, the total mechanical energy of the
system is conserved.
kf + Uf - (ki + Ui) = 0
kf + Uf = ki + Ui
AE = 0, integrating both sides E = constant.

Illustration 8 :
A projectile is fired from the top of a 40m. high cliff with an initial speed of 50 m/s at an unknown
angle. Find its speed when it hits the ground.

Solution :
Taking ground as the reference level we can conserve the mechanical energy between the points
A and B
A(K + U) = 0 Ki + Ui = Kf + Uf

2
1
mv
2
+ mgH =
2
1
mv'
2
+ 0

2
1
(50)
2
+ 40 x 10 =
2
1
v'
2

(1250 + 400) x 2 = v'
2

v'
2
= 3300
v' ~ 58 m/s



POWER

Power is defined as the rate at which work is done. If an amount of work AW is done in a time
interval At, then average power is defined to be
' v
H
A
u
v
B



9
Pav =
t
W
A
A

The S.I. unit of power is J/S or watt (W). Thus 1 W = 1 J/S
The instantaneous power is the limiting value of Pav as At 0 that is P =
dt
dW

Instantaneous power may also be written as P =

= v . F
dt
dW
Since work and energy are
closely related, a more general definition of power is the rate of energy transfer from one body to
another, or the rate at which energy is transformed from one form to another, i.e. P =
dt
dE
.
Illustration 9 :
A car of mass 500 kg moving with a speed 36km/hr in a straight road unidirectionally doubles its speed
in 1 minute. Find the average power delivered by the engine.

Solution :
Its initial speed V1 = 10 m/s then V2 = 20 m/s
Ak =
2
1
m
2
1
2
2
2
1
mv v
Power delivered by the engine
P =
( )
t
v v m
t
K
A

=
A
A
2
1
2
2
2
1

=
( )
60
10 20 500
2
1
2 2
x

= 1250 W.

MOTION IN A VERTICAL CIRCLE :

A particle of mass 'm' is attached to a light and inextensible
string. The other end of the sting is fixed at O and the particle moves
in vertical circle of radius 'r' equal to the length of the string as shown
in the fig. At the point P, net radial force on the particle is T-mg cosu.
T - mg cosu =
r
mv
2

O
T
P
u
u cos mg
u sin mg



10
T = mg cosu +
r
mv
2

The particle will complete the circle if the string does not slack even at the highest point (u = t).
Thus, tension in the string should be greater than or equal to zero (T > 0) at u = t for critical situation
T = 0 and u = t
mg =
R
mv
min
2

2
min
v = gR

min
v = gR
Now conserving energy between the lowest and the highest point

2
1
( ) R mg mv mu
min min
2
2
1
2 2
+ =
gR gR gR u
min
5 4
2
= + =
gR u
min
5 =
If gR u
min
5 > the particle will complete the circle. At u = gR 5 , velocity at highest point is
v = gR and tension in the string is zero.
If u < gR 5 , the tension in the string become zero before reaching the highest point and at that point
the particle will leave the circular path. After leaving the circle the particle will follow a parabolic path.
Above conditions are applicable even if a particle moves inside a smooth spherical shell of radius
R. The only difference is that the tension is replaced by the normal reaction N.

Illustration 10 :
A heavy particle hanging from a fixed point by a light inextensible string of length l is projected
horizontally with speed g . Find the speed of the particle and the inclination of the string to the
vertical at the instant of the motion when the tension in the string is equal to the weight of the
particle.

Solution :

Let T = mg at an angle u as shown in figure
h = l (1 - cosu)
Conserving mechanical energy between
u
A
g u =
u cos mg
u sin mg
B
h
-
-
-



11
A and B
2
1
mu
2
=
2
1
mv
2
+ mgh
u
2
= v
2
+ 2gh v
2
= u
2
- 2gh . (i)
T - mg cosu =

2
mv
T= mg cosu +

2
mv

mg = mg cos u +

2
mv

v
2
= g

l (1- cosu) . (ii)

From (i) and (ii) u
2
- 2gl (1 - cosu) = gl (1 - cosu)
cosu =
3
2
u = cos
-1

|
.
|

\
|
3
2

putting the value of cosu in equation (ii)
v
2
= gl
|
.
|

\
|

3
2
1 =
3
g
v =
3
g

Equilibrium : As we have studied earlier a body is said to be in translational equilibrium if net
force acting on the body is Zero.

Fnet = 0
If the forces are Conservative F = -
dr
dU


0
dr
dU
=
At Equilibrium slope of U and r graph is Zero (or) Potential energy either maximum or
minimum or constant at that position.

At the stable equilibrium position P.E is minimum
At the unstable equilibrium position P.E is maximum

Illustration 11:
The P.E of a Conservative system is given as U = 10 + (x-2)
2
. Find the equilibrium
position and discuss type of equilibrium.



12

Solution: For Equilibrium F = 0
F = - 0 ) 2 x ( 2
dx
dU
= =
x = 2
and 0
dx
U d
2
2
<
it is Stable equilibrium position at x= 2 and P.E at that position is 20 units.


* * * * *



13

WORKED OUT OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS

EXAMPLE : 01
A particle moves with a velocity 5 i - 3 j + 6 k m/s under the influence of a constant force

F = ( ) k j i 20 10 10 + + N. The instantaneous power applied to the particle is


A) 200 J/S B) 40 J/S C) 140 J/S D) 170 J/S

Solution :
P =

F .

V = (5 i - j 3 +6 k ) . (10 i + 10 j +20 k )
= 50 - 30 + 120 = 140 J/S

EXAMPLE : 02

A 15 gm ball is shot from a spring gun whose spring has a force constant of 600 N/m. The spring is
compressed by 5 cm. The greatest possible horizontal range of the ball for this compression is
(g = 10 m/s
2
)
A) 6.0 m B) 12.0 m C) 10.0 m D) 8.0 m

Solution :
R max =
g
u
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
mg
mu
2
2
1
2
=
mg
kx
mg
kx
2
2
2
2
1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
2 2
kx
2
1
mu
2
1

=
( )
m
x .
.
10
10 015 0
05 0 600
2
= .
[ Note : The actual value of 'u' will be less than the calculated value as some part of 1/2kx
2
is used up in
doing work against gravity when the spring regains its length]

EXAMPLE : 03
Force acting on a particle is (2 i + 3 j ) N. work done by this force is zero, when a particle is moved on
the line 3y + kx = 5 Here value of k is
A) 3 B) 2 C) 1 D) 4
Solution :
Force is parallel to the line y = 3/2 x + c
and the given line can be written as y =
3
5
3
+ x
k




14
as the work done is zero force is perpendicular to the displacement

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
3 2
3 k
= - 1
k = 2
EXAMPLE : 04
Power supplied to a particle of mass 2 kg varies with time as p =
2
3
2
t
watt. Here 't' is in second. If
velocity of particle at t = 0 is v = 0. The velocity of particle at time t = 2 second will be
A) 1 m/s B) 4 m/s C) 2 m/s D) 2 2 m/s
Solution :
kf - ki =
}
2
0
dt P
2
1
mv
2
=
}
2
0
2
3
t
2
dt v
2
=
2
0
3
2
(
(

t

m = 2 kg v = 2 m/s

EXAMPLE : 05
A particle of mass 'm' is projected with velocity 'u' at an angle u with horizontal. During the period
when the particle descends from highest point to the position where its velocity vector makes an
angle u/2 with horizontal, work done by the gravity force is
A) 1/2 mu
2
tan
2
u/2 B) 1/2 mu
2
tan
2
u
C) 1/2 mu
2
cos
2
u tan
2
u/2 D) 1/2 mu
2
cos
2
u/2 sin
2
u

Solution :
As horizontal component of velocity does not change v cos u/2 = ucos u
v =
2
u
u
cos
cos u

Wgravity = A K =
2
1
mv
2
-
2
1
m (u cosu)
2

=
2
1
mu
2
cos
2
u tan
2

2
u


EXAMPLE : 06

A body of mass 1 kg thrown upwards with a velocity of 10 m/s comes to rest (momentarily) after
moving up 4 m. The work done by air drag in this process is (g = 10 m/s
2
)
u
2 / u
u cos u
V
u



15
A) 10 J B) - 10 J C) 40 J D) 50 J

Solution :
From work energy theorem Wgr + Wair drag = A k
- mgh + Wair drag = 0 -
2
1
mu
2

Wair drag = mgh -
2
1
mu
2
= (40 - 50) J = - 10 J
EXAMPLE : 07
The potential energy of particle of mass 'm' is given by U =
2
1
kx
2
for x < 0 and U = 0 for x > 0. If total
mechanical energy of the particle is E. Then its speed at x =
k
E 2
is
A) zero B)
M
E 2
C)
m
E
D)
m
E
2

Solution :
Potential energy of particle at x =
k
E 2
is zero K.E = E

2
1
mv
2
= E or v =
m
E 2

EXAMPLE : 08

A block is suspended by an ideal spring of force constant k. If the block is pulled down by applying
a constant Force 'F' and if maximum displacement of block from its initial position of rest is o then
A)
K
F
< o <
K
F 2

B) o =
K
F 2

C) Work done by force F is equal to Fo
D) Increases in energy stored in spring is
2
1
ko
2

Solution :
If the mass of the hanging block be 'm' then elongation of spring is
k
mg
.
Due to the applied force the additional stretching is o



16
F o + mgo =
2
1
K
K
g m
K
mg
2
2 2
2
|
.
|

\
|
o +
=
2
1
K
K
g m
K
mg
K
g m
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2

|
|
.
|

\
|
o
+ o +
=
2
1
K o
2
+ mgo o =
K
F 2
.

EXAMPLE : 09

A stone is projected at time t = 0 with a speed V0 and an angle u with the horizontal in a uniform
gravitational field. The rate of work done (P) by the gravitational force plotted against time (t) will
be as

A) B) C) D)





Solution :
Rate of work done is the power associated with the force. It means rate of work done by the
gravitational force is the power associated with the gravitational force. Gravitational force acting
on the block is equal to its weight mg which acts vertically downwards.
Velocity of the particle (at time t) has two components,
(i) a horizontal component v cosu and
(ii) a vertically upward component (v sinu - gt)
Hence, the power associated with her weight mg will be equal to p = m

g .

v = -mg (v sinu - gt)


This shows that the curve between power & time will be straight line having positive slope but
negative intercept on Y-axis.
Hence (D) is correct.



P
O
t
P
O t
P
O t
t O
P



17
SINGLE ANSWER TYPE
LEVEL I
1. Two springs A and B(KA = 2KB) are stretched by applying forces of equal magnitudes at the four
ends. If the energy stored in A is E, that in B is
a) E/2 b) 2E c) E d) E/4
2. Two equal masses are attached to the two ends of a spring constant K. The masses are pulled out
symmetrically to stretch the spring by a length x over its natural length. The work done by the
spring on each mass is
a) Kx
2
b) -1/2 Kx
2
c) Kx
2
d) -1/4 Kx
2

3. The negative of the work done by the conservative internal forces on a system equals the change in
a) total energy b) kinetic energy c) potential energy d) none of these
4. The work done by the external forces on a system equals the change in
a) total energy b) kinetic energy c) potential energy d) none of these
5. The work done by all the forces (external and internal) on a system equals the change in
a) total energy b) kinetic energy c) potential energy d) none of these
6. ________ of a two particle system depends only on the separation between the two particles. The
most appropriate choice for the blank space in the above sentence is
a) kinetic energy b) total mechanical energy c) potential energy
d) total energy
7. A small block of mass m is kept on a rough inclined surface of inclination u fixed in an elevator.
The elevator goes up with a uniform velocity v and the block does not slide on the wedge. The
work done by the force of friction on the block in time t will be
a) zero b) mgvt cos
2
u c) mgvt sin
2
u d) mgvt sin2u
8. A block of mass m slides down a smooth vertical circular track. During the motion, the block is in
a) vertical equilibrium b) horizontal equilibrium c) radial equilibrium d) none of these
9. A particle is rotated in a vertical circle by connecting it to a string of length l and keeping the other
end of the string fixed. The minimum speed of the particle when the string is horizontal for which
the particle will complete the circle is
a) gl b) gl 2 c) gl 3 d) gl 5
10. Consider two observers moving with respect to each other at a speed v along a straight line. They
observe a block of mass m moving a distance l on a rough surface. The following quantities will be
same as observed by the two observers
a) kinetic energy of the block at time t b) work done by friction



18
c) total work done on the block d) acceleration of the block
11. A particle of mass m is attached to a light string of length l, the other end of which is fixed.
Initially the string is kept horizontal and the particle is given an upward velocity v. The particle is
just able to complete a circle
a) the string becomes slack when the particle reaches its highest point
b) the velocity of the particle becomes zero at the highest point
c) the kinetic energy of the ball in initial position was mv
2
= mgl
d) the particle again passes through the initial position
12. The kinetic energy of a particle continuously increases with time
a) the resultant force on the particle must be parallel to the velocity at all instants
b) the resultant force on the particle must be at an angle less than 90
0
all the time
c) its height above the ground level must continuously decrease
d) the magnitude of its linear momentum is increasing continuously
13. One end of a light spring of spring constant k is fixed to a wall and the other end is tied to a block
placed on a smooth horizontal surface. In a displacement, the work done by the spring is kx
2
. The
possible cases are
a) the spring was initially compressed by a distance x and was finally in its natural length
b) it was initially stretched by a distance x and finally was in its natural length
c) it was initially in its natural length and finally in a compressed position
d) it was initially in its natural length and finally in a stretched position
14. A block of mass M is hanging over a smooth and light pulley through a light string. The other
end of the string is pulled by a constant force F. The kinetic energy of the block increases by 20J in
1s
a) the tension in the string is Mg b) the tension in the string is F
c) the work done by the tension on the block is 20J in the above is 1s
d) the work done by the force of gravity is 20J in the above 1s
15. A particle of mass 0.25kg moves under the influence of a force F = (2x-1). If the velocity of the
particle at x = 0 is 4m/s. its velocity at x = 2m will be
A) 4 2 m/s B) 2 2 m/s C) 8m/s D) 6m/s
16. Work done to accelerate a car from 10 to 20m/s compared with that required to accelerate it from
0 to 10m/s is
A) twice B) three times C) four times D) same
17. Two springs have their force constant as K1 and K2 (K1 > K2). When they are stretched by the
same force :



19
A) no work is done in case of both the springs B) equal work is done in case of both the springs
C) more work is done in case of second spring D) more work is done in case of first spring
18. The kinetic energy K of a particle moving in a straight line depends upon the distance s as K = as
2

where a is a constant. The force acting on the particle is
A) 2as B) 2mas C) 2a D)
2
as
19. A particle moves in a straight line with a retardation proportional to its displacement. Its loss of
kinetic energy for any displacement x is proportional to
A) x B) x
2
C) ln x D) e
x

20. A particle falls from rest under gravity. Its potential energy (PE) with respect to the ground and
its kinetic energy (KE) are plotted against time (t). Choose the correct graph.
A) B) C) D)
21. Choose the wrong option
A) If conservative forces are doing negative work then potential energy will increase and kinetic
energy will decrease.
B) If kinetic energy is constant it means work done by conservative forces is zero.
C) for change in potential energy only conservative forces are responsible, but for change in
kinetic energy other than conservative forces are responsible
D) all of the above are wrong
22. Instantaneous power of a constant force acting on a particle moving in a straight line under the
action of this force :
A) is constant B) increases linearly with time
C) decreases linearly with time D) either increases or decreases linearly with time.
23. Suppose y represents the work done and x the power, then dimensions of
2
2
dx
y d
will be :
A) | |
4 2 1
T L M

B) | |
2 3 2
T L M

C) | |
4 4 2
T L M

D) | |
6 3
T ML


24. Choose the correct statement Work done by a variable force
A) Is defined as S . F B) Is independent of path
C) Is always dependent on the initial and final positions D) None of these
25. Identify the correct statement for a non-conservative force
A) A force which is not conservative is called a non-conservative force



20
B) The work done by this force depends on the path followed
C) The word done by this force along a closed path is zero
D) The work done by this force is always negative
26. The figure shows a plot of potential energy function, u(x) = kx
2
where x is the
displacement and k is a constant. Identify the correct conservative force
function F(x)

27. A plot of velocity versus time is shown in figure. A single force acts on the body. Find correct
statement
A) In moving from C to D, work done by the force on the body is positive
B) In moving from B to C, work done by the force on the body is positive
C) In moving from A to B, the body does work on the system and is negative
D) In moving from O to A, work done by the body and is negative
28. The force acting on a body moving along x-axis varies with the position of the particle
as shown in the figure. The body is in stable equilibrium at
A) x = x1 B) x = x2
C) both x1 and x2 D) neither x1 and x2
29. Displacement time graph of a particle moving in a straight line is as shown in
figure. Select the correct alternative(s).
A) Work done by all the forces in region OA and BC is positive
B) Work done by all the forces in region AB is zero
C) Work done by all the forces in region BC is negative
D) Work done by all the forces in region OA is negative

KEY
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
B D C A B C C D C D AD BD AB B A
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29



21
B C A B B D B A C B B A B B

LEVEL - II
1. A particle of mass m is moving in a circular path of radius r under the influence of
centripetal force F C/r
2
. The total energy of the particle is
a)
r 2
C
b)
r 2
C
c) C x 2r d) Zero
Sol: Fcentipetal F =
2
2
r
C
r
mv
= ; v =
r
C
dr r C Fdr
2
= =
} }

o
; E1 = EK + v = C/2r C/r = -C/2r
2. Water from a stream is falling on the blades of a turbine at the rate of 100kg/sec. If the
height of the stream is 100m then the power delivered to the turbine is
a) 100 kw b) 100 w c) 10 kw d) 1 kw
Sol: P = w/1 = (m/g) gh = 100 x 10 x 100 = 10
5
w
3. A body is being moved along a straight line by a machine delivering a constant power. The
distance covered by the body in time t is proportional to
a) 1 b) t
3/2
c) t
3/4
d) t
2

Sol: P = Fv = constant or ma . at = constant or a
2
t = constant
S = 1/2at
2
or S o at
2
But a o 1/ t
S o t
2
/ t or S o t
3/2

4. A ball is dropped from a height of 10m. If 40% of its energy is lost un collision with the earth
then after collision the ball will rebound to a height of
a) 10m b) 8m c) 4m d) 6m
Sol:
2
2
1
2
1
h
10
60
100
or
h
h
u
u
= =
5. A particle moves under the influence of a force F = CX from X = 0 to X = X1. The work done
in this process will be
a)
2
CX
2
1
b)
2
1
CX c)
3
1
CX d) 0
Sol: W =
2
2
x
0
2
x
1
x
Cx
2
1
dx cx Fdx = =
} }




22
6. A uniform chain of mass M and length L lies on a horizontal table such that one third of its
length hangs from the edge of the table. The work done is pulling the hanging part on the
table will be
a)
3
MgL
b) MgL c)
9
MgL
d)
18
MgL

Sol: W = M/3 . g . 1/6
7. A body of mass 2kg moves under the influence of a force. Its position x changes with time
according to the relation x = t
3
/3 where x is in meter and t in seconds. The work done by
this force in first two seconds will be
a) 1600 Joule b) 160 Joule c) 16 Joule d) 1.6 Joule
Sol: W = mv2
2
mv1
2


8. A man and a child are holding a uniform rod of length L in the horizontal direction in such a
way that one fourth weight is supported by the child. If the child is at one end of the rod
then the distance of man from another end will be
a) 3L/4 b) L/4 c) L/3 d) 2L/3
Sol: |
.
|

\
|
x
2
L
4
w 3

9. An electric motor produces a tension of 4500N in a load lifting cable and rolls it at the rate of
2m/s. The power of the motor is
a) 9 kw b) 15 kw c) 225 kw d) 9 x 10
3
HP
Sol: P = Fv = 4500 x 2 = 9 kw
10. A body of mass m is accelerated to velocity v in time et1. The work done by the force as a
function of time t will be
a)
2
2 2
e 2
t mv
b)
2
2
t
t
mv
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
c)
2
t
t 2
mv
d)
t 2
mvt
2

Sol: Acceleration produced in a body a =
1
t
v
; W =
2
1
ma
2
t
2
=
2
2
1
2
t
t
mv
2
1

11. A motor of 100 HP is moving with a constant velocity of 72 km/hour. The forward force
exerted by the engine of the car is
a) 3.73 x 10
3
N b) 3.72 x 10
2
N c) 3.73 x 10
1
N d) None of the above
Sol: F = P/v



23
12. The kinetic energy of a man is half the kinetic energy of a boy of half of his mass. If the man
increases his speed by 1m/s, then his kinetic energy becomes equal to that of the boy. The
ratio of the velocity of the boy and that the man is
a) 2/1 b) 1/2 c) 3/4 d) 4/3
Sol: According to question |
.
|

\
|
=
2 2
U
2
M
2
1
x
2
1
Mv
2
1

13. A bomb of mass 9 kg explodes into 2 pieces of 3kg and 6kg. The velocity of 3 kg piece is 16
m/s. The kinetic energy of 6kg piece is
a) 768 Joule b) 786 Joule c) 192 Joule d) 687 Joule
Sol: m1v1 = m2v2;
2
2 2
2
K
v m
2
1
E =
14. The increase in the potential energy of a body of mass m, when it is carried from the surface
of earth upto a height equal to the radius of earth Re, will be
a) mgRe b) mgRe/2 c) mgRe/4 d) 2mgRe
Sol:
2
mgR
R 2
GMm
=
15. A person of mass 60kg carries a 15 kg body on the top of a building 10m high in 3 minutes.
His efficiency is
a) 40% b) 30% c) 20% d) 10%
Sol: M = 100 x
m M
m
+

16. A force F = (3x
2
+ 2x 7)N acts on a 2 kg body as a result of which the body gets displaced
form x = 0 to x = 5m. The work done by the force will be
a) 35 Joule b) 70 Joule c) 115 Joule d) 270 Joule
Sol: W = ( )dx 7 x 2 x 3 Fdx
s
0
2
2
x
1
x
} }
+ =
17. A 50 gm bullet moving with a velocity of 10 m/s gets embedded into a 950 gm stationary
body. The loss in kinetic energy of the system will be
a) 5% b) 50% c) 100% d) 95%
Sol: 100 x
m M
m
100 x
E
E
2 1
2
+
=
A




24
18. A crane lifts 300 kg weight from earths surface upto a height of 2m in 3 seconds. The
average power generated by it will be
a) 1960 watt b) 2205 watt c) 4410 watt d) 0 watt
Sol: P = w/t = mgh/t

19. A block of mass 16kg is moving on a frictionless horizontal surface with velocity 4m/s and
comes to rest after pressing a spring. If the force constant of the spring is 100 N/m then the
compression in the spring will be
a) 3.2 m b) 1.6 m c) 0.6 m d) 6.1 m
Sol: mv
2
= kx
2

20. The relation between time and displacement of a particle moving under the influence of a
force F is t = x +3 where x is in meter and t in second. The displacement of the particle
when its velocity is zero will be
a) 1 m b) 0 m c) 3 m d) 2 m
Sol: t = x + 3 or x = (t 3)
2
; v = dx/dt
21. A 0 kg satellite completes one revolution around the earth at a height of 100 km in 108
minutes. The work done by the gravitational force of earth will be
a) 108 x 100 x 10 Joule b)
100
10 x 108
Joule c) 0 Joule d)
108
10 x 100
Joule
Sol: W = Fd cosu = Fd cos 90
0
= 0
22. A particle moves in a potential region given by u = 8x
2
4x + 400 Joule. Its state of
equilibrium will be
a) x = 25 m b) x = 0.25 m c) x = 0.025 m d) x = 2.5 m
Sol: F = - du/dx
23. Two men with weights in the ratio 5 : 3 run up a stair case in time in the ratio 11 : 9. The
ratio of power of first to that of second is
a) 15/11 b) 11/15 c) 11/9 d) 9/11
Sol: P =
t
w
t
wh
t
mgh
o =
24. A moving particle of mass m collides head on with another stationary particle of mass 2m.
What fraction of its initial kinetic energy will m lose after the collision?
a) 9/8 b) 8/9 c) 19/18 d) 18/19



25
Sol: mu + 2m x 0 = (m + 2m)v;
9
8
E
9
E
E
E
E E
i
K
i
K
i
K
1
K
F
K
1
K
=


25. The potential energy function of a diatomic molecule is given as u(r) =
6 12
r
b
r
a
, where a and
b are positive constants and r is inter atomic distance. The equilibrium between two atoms
is
a)
6 / 1
a
b
|
.
|

\
|
b)
6 / 1
b
a
|
.
|

\
|
c)
6 / 1
a 2
b
|
.
|

\
|
d)
6 / 1
b
a 2
|
.
|

\
|

Sol: 0
r
b 6
r
a 12
dr
du
7 13
= + =
26. A pump pulls 1000 kg water per minute from a 15 m deep well and provides 4 m/s velocity
to it. The power of pump is (g = 10 m/s
2
)
a) 2.6 kw b) 2.6 w c) 0.6 w d) 0.6 kw
Sol:
t
mv 2 / 1 mgh
t
w
P
2
+
= =
27. A body weighing 80N is moved up a slope of angle 60
0
with the horizontal through a
displacement of 1m. The energy loss due to friction is 20%. The energy gained by the body
will be
a) 3 32 J b) 64 J c) 3 40 J d) 80 J
Sol: W = mg sin u d
28. For the path PQR in a conservator force field (figure) amounts work done in carrying a body
from P to Q and from Q to R are 5 Joule and 2 Joule respectively. The work done in carrying
the body from P to R will be
a) 7 Joule
b) 3 Joule
c) 21 Joule
d) Zero
Sol: WPR = WPQ + WQR
29. Two particles each of mass m and traveling with velocities u1 and u2 collide perfectly
inelastically. The loss of energy will be
a) m(u1 u2)
2
b) m(u1 u2)
2
c) m(u1 u2)
2
d) 2m(u1 u2)
2




26
Sol: AE = ( )
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
u u
m M
m m
2
1

+

30. Two protons are situated at a distance of 100 fermi from each other. The potential energy of
this system will be in ev
a) 44 b) 1.44 x 10
3
c) 1.44 x 10
2
d) 1.44 x 10
4

Sol: U = kq
2
/r
31. In order to reduce the kinetic energy of a body to half its initial value, its speed will have to
be changed by the following factor, of its initial speed
a) 1/ 2 times b) 2 times c) 1/2 times d) 2 times
Sol: E = mv
2
; v = F
32. A body of mass M and moving with velocity u makes a head on elastic collision with
another stationary body of m. If A = m/M, then the ratio (f) of the loss of energy of M to its
initial energy will be
a) f = A(A + 1)
2
b) f =
( )
2
1 A
A
+
c) f =
( )
2
1 A
uA
+
d) f =
( )
2
1 A
A 4
+

Sol: f =
( ) ( )
2 2
A 1
A 4
m M
Mm 4
+
=
+

33. Two masses m1 = 2kg and m2 = 5kg are moving on a frictionless surface with velocities 10
m/s and 3 m/s respectively. m2 is ahead of m1. An ideal spring of spring constant k = 1120
N/m is attached on the backside of m2. The maximum compression of the spring will be, if
on collision the two bodies stick together.
a) 0.51 m b) 0.062 m
c) 0.25 m d) 0.72 m
Sol: AE = ( )
2 2
2 1
2 1
2 1
kx
2
1
u u
m m
m m
2
1
=
+

34. A body at rest explodes all of a sudden in three equal parts. The moments of two parts are
Pi and 2Pj and their kinetic energies are k1 and k2. If
3
P and k3 are the momentum and
kinetic energy respectively of the third part then the ratio k2/k3 will be
a) 2/5 b) 3/5 c) 4/5 d) 1/5
Sol: Conceptual



27
35. A block falls down from a table 0.5m high. It falls on an ideal vertical spring of constant 4 x
10
2
N/m. Initially the spring is 25 cm long and its length becomes 10 cm after compression.
The mass of the block is (g = 10m/s
2
)
a) 0.5 kg b) 2 kg c) 1.2 kg d) 0.9 kg
Sol: mgh = kx
2

36. The mass of a bucket full of water is 15 kg. It is being pulled up from a 15m deep well. Due
to a hole in the bucket 6 kg water flows out of the bucket. The work done in drawing the
bucket out of the well will be
a) 900 joule b) 1500 joule c) 1800 joule d) 2100 joule
Sol: W = mgh = kg 12
2
9 15
=
+

37. A spring of force constant k is first stretched by a lens x and then again by a further length x.
The work done in the first case is w1 and in the second case w2, then
a) w2 = w1 b) w2 = 2w1 c) w2 = 3w1 d) w2 = 4w1
Sol: w1 = kx
2
, w3 = k(2x
2
)
38. A 2k body is projected, at an angle of 30
0
with the horizontal, with a velocity of 10m/s. The
kinetic energy of the body after 1 second will be
a) 10 joule b) 50 joule c) 100 joule d) 200 joule
Sol: v = u + sin ugt 2 t g u
2 2 2

39. A 10 kg block is pulled in the vertical plane along a frictionless surface in
the form of an arc of a circle of radius 10m. The applied force is of 200N
as shown in the figure. If the block started from rest to A, the velocity at
B would be
a) 1.732 m/s b) 17.32 m/s
c) 173.2 m/s d) none of these
Sol: mx
2
= 200 cos 30
0
x 3 5
40. A block of mass m is pushed towards a movable wedge of mass |m and height h with a
velocity u. All surfaces are smooth. When the block collides with the wedge, the velocity of
centre of mass of block wedge system will be
a) u b)
| + 1
u




28
c) u(1 + |) d) 0
Sol: mu = (m + |m)v cm
41. In the above problem, the minimum value of u for which the block will reach the top of the
wedge, will be
a)
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
+
1
1 gh 2 b) gh 2 | c) gh 2 d)
|
|
.
|

\
|
|

1
1 gh 2
Sol: mu
2
= mgh + (m + |m)V
2
cm
42. A liquid in a U tube is changed from position (a) to position (b) with the help of a pump.
The density of liquid is d and area of cross section of the tube is a. The work done in
pumping the liquid will be
a) dgha
b) dgh
2
a
c) 2gdh
2
a
d) 4dgh
2
a
Sol: W = 2ahdgh 2(ahdg h/2) = dgh
2
a
43. The human heart discharges 75cc of block through the arteries at each beat against an
average pressure of 10cm of mercury. The pulse frequency of the heart is 72 per minute.
The rate of working of heart is
a) 2.35 w b) 3.29 w c) 1.19 w d) 9.11 w
Sol: P = hdg
dt
dv

44. A block of mass 1kg is pulled up on an incline of angle 30
0
with the horizontal. The block
moves with an acceleration of 1 m/s
2
. The power delivered by the pulling force at t = 4s will
be
a) 12 w b) 36 w c) 24 w d) 48 w
Sol: F mg sin u = ma or F = mg sin u + ma
45. A particle of mass m is moving in a circular path of constant radius r. The centripetal
acceleration of the particle (ac) is varying with time t according to following relation ac = k
2
n
2

where k is a constant. The power delivered to the particle by the forces acting on it will be
a) mk
2
r
2
t
2
b) m
2
k
2
r
2
t
2
c) m
2
k
2
rt d) mk
2
r
2
t
Sol: ac = v
2
/r = k
2
n
2
; w = mv 2/2 mv1
2
= m k
2
r
2
t
2
= 0; P = dw/dt



29
46. A block of mass 2kg is released from A on a track that is a on quadrant of a circle of radius
1m. It slides down the track and reaches B with a speed of 4m/s and finally stops at C at a
distance of 3m from B. The work done against the force of friction is
a) 2 joule b) 5 joule
c) 10 joule d) 20 joule
Sol: W =
(

+
(


2
C
2
B
2
B
mv
2
1
mv
2
1
mv
2
1
mgh
47. A man pulls a bucket full of water from a h metre deep well. If the mass of the rope is m and
mass of bucket full of water is M, then the work done by the man is
a) gh m
2
M
(

+ b) gh
2
m M
(

+
c) gh
2
m
M
(

+ d) (M + m) gh
Sol: w gh
2
m
M = |
.
|

\
|
+
48. A particle has shifted along some trajectory in the x y plane from point j

2 i

r
1
= to another
point j

3 i

2 r
2
+ = . During that time, the particle experiences the action of two forces
k

2 j

7 i

2 F and j

4 i

3 F
2 i
+ = + = . The work done by the forces on the particle will be
a) 5 joule b) -5 joule c) 10 joule d) -10 joule
Sol:
2 1
F F F + =
49. A 2kg body is dropped from height of 1m on to a spring of spring
constant 800 kg/m as shown in the figure. A frictional force
equivalent to 0.4 kg wt acts on the body. The speed of the body just
before striking the spring will be
a) 1 m/s b) 2 m/s
c) 3 m/s d) 4 m/s
Sol: mgh = mv
2
+ Ffr h
50. A shell is fired from a cannon with a velocity v and at an angle u from the horizontal to hit a
target at a horizontal distance R. It splits in two equal parts at the highest point of its path.
One part refracts its path and reaches back upto the cannon. The velocity of the second part
just after the explosion will be
a) 3/2 v cos u b) 2 v cos u c) 3 v cos u d) 3 /2 v cos u
Sol: mv cos u = m/2 v cosu + m/2 v



30
51. A block of mass 10 kg moving on a smooth surface with a speed of 30 m/s bursts into two
equal parts. Both parts continue to move in the seme direction. If one of the parts moves at
40 m/s, the energy produce in the process is
a) 200 J b) 500 J c) 700 J d) J
Sol: mv = m1 v1 + m2 v2; E = m1v1
2
+ m2 v2
2
mv
2

52. Two identical 5 kg blocks are moving with same speed of 2 m/s towards each other along a
frictionless horizontal surface. The two blocks collide, stick together and come to rest. The
work done by the external forces is
a) 0 b) 10 J c) 20 J d) none of these
Sol: As Fext = 0; Wext = 0 S . F
ext
=
53. In the above problem, the work done by the inertial forces is
a) 0 b) 10 J c) 20 J d) none of these
Sol: Wint = mv
2
+ mv
2

54. The force-displacement curve for a body moving on a smooth surface
under the influence of foce F acting along the direction of
displacement s has been shown in fig. If the initial kinetic energy of the
body is 2.5J. its kinetic energy at s = 6m is
A) 7J B) 4.5J C) 2.25J D) 9J
55. A bullet, moving with a speed of 150m/s, strikes a wooden plank. After passing through the
plank its speed becomes 125m/s. Another bullet of the same mass and size strikes the plank with
a speed of 90m/s. It speed after passing through the plank would be
A) 25m/s B) 35m/s C) 50m/s D) 70m/s
56. A man of mass 60kg climbs a staircase inclined at 45
0
and having 10steps. Each step is 20cm high.
He takes 2 seconds for the first five steps and 3 seconds for the remaining five steps. The average
power of the man is
A) 245W B) 245 2 W C) 235 2 W D) 235W
57. The potential energy of a particle moving in x-y plane is given by U = x
2
+ 2y. The force acting on
the particle at (2, 1) is
A) 6N B) 20 N C) 12 N D) 0
58. Water is flowing in a river at 20m/s. The river is 50m wide and has an average depth of 5m. The
power available from the current in the river is
A) 0.5MW B) 1.0MW C) 1.5MW D) 2.0MW



31
59. A 5kg brick of dimensions 20cm x 10cm x 8cm is lying on the largest base. It is now made to stand
with length vertical. If g = 10m/s
2
, then the amount of work done is
A) 3J B) 5J C) 7J D) 9J
60. The displacement x of a particle moving in one dimension, under the action of a constant force is
related to time t by the equation t = x +3, where x is in metres and t in seconds. The work done
by the force in first 6 seconds is
A) 9J B) 6J C) 0J D) 3J
61. A body of mass m was slowly pulled up the hill by a force F which at
each point was directed along the tangent of the trajectory. All surfaces
are smooth. Find the work performed by this force
A) mg B) -mg
C) mgh D) zero
62. A rope ladder with a length l carrying a man of mass m at its end, is attached to the basket of a
balloon of mass M. The entire system is in equilibrium in air. As the man climbs up the ladder
into the balloon, the balloon descends by height h. Then the potential energy of man
A) increases by mg l B) increases by mg (l -h)
C) increases by mgh D) increases by mg (2 l -h)
63. Two springs s1 and s2 have negligible masses and the spring constant of s1 is one-third
that of s2. When a block is hung from the springs as shown, the springs came to the
equilibrium again. The ratio of work done is stretching s1 to s2 is
A) 1/9
B) 1/3
C) 1
D) 3

64. A light spring of length l and spring constant 'k' it is placed vertically. A small ball of mass m falls
from a height h as measured from the bottom of the spring. The ball attaining to maximum
velocity when the height of the ball from the bottom of the spring is
A) mg/k B) l-mg/k C) l + mg/k D) l - k/mg
65. A block of mass 1kg is permanently attached with a spring of spring constant k = 100N/m. The
spring is compressed 0.20m and placed on a horizontal smooth surface. When the block is
released, it moves to a point 0.4m beyond the point when the spring is at its natural length. The
work done by the spring in changing from compressed state to the stretched state is
A) 10J B) -6J C) -8J D) 18J



32
66. A chain of length l and mass m lies on the surface of a smooth sphere of radius R with one end
tied on the top of the sphere. If = tR/2, then the potential energy of the chain with reference
level at the centre of sphere is give by
A) m R g B) 2m R g C) 2/t m R g D) 1/t m R g
67. If the force acting on a particle is given by F = 2i + xyj + xz
2
k, how much work is done when the
particle moves parallel to Z-axis from the point (2, 3, 1) to (2, 3, 4) ?
A) 42J B) 48J C) 84J D) 36J
68. A uniform chain of length ' ' and mass m is placed on a smooth table with one-fourth of its
length hanging over the edge. The work that has to be done to pull the whole chain back onto the
table is
A)
4
1
mgl B)
8
1
mgl C)
16
1
mgl D)
32
1
mgl
69. A spring, which is initially in its unstretched condition, is first stretched by a length x and then
again by a further length x. The work done in the first case is W1 and in the second case is W2
A) W2 = W1 B) W2 = 2W1 C) W2 = 3W1 D) W2 = 4W1
70. A particle of mass m is fixed to one end of a light rigid rod of length ' ' and rotated in a vertical
circular path about its other end. The minimum speed of the particle at its highest point must be
1) zero B) l g C) l g 5 . 1 D) l g 2
71. A force F acting on a body depends on its displacement x as Fo x
n
. The power delivered by F will
be independent of x if n is
A) 1/3 B) -1/3 C) 1/2 D) -1/2
72. A particle is moving in a conservative force field from point A to B. UA and UB are the potential
energies of the particle at points A and B and Wc is the work done in the process of taking the
particle from A to B.
A) Wc = UB - UA B) Wc = UA - UB C) UA > UB D) UB > UA
73. A force is given by Mv
2
/r when the mass moves with speed v in a circle of radius r. The work
done by this force in moving the body over upper half circle along the circumference is
A) zero B) C) Mv
2
D) Mv
2
t/2
74. A moving railway compartment has a spring of constant 'k' fixed to its front wall. A boy in the
compartment stretches this spring by distance x and in the mean time the compartment moves by
a distance s. The work done by boy w.r.t earth is
A)
2
kx
2
1
B)
2
1
(kx) (s+x) C) kxs
2
1
D) ( ) s x s kx
2
1
+ +
75. Force acting on a block moving along x-axis is given by :



33
F = N
2 x
4
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

The block is displaced from x=-2m to x=+4m, the work done will be
A) positive B) negative
C) zero D) may be positive or negative
75. The system is released from rest with both the springs in unstretched positions. Mass of each
block is 1 kg and force constant of each springs is 10 N/m. Extension of horizontal spring in
equilibrium is:
A) 0.2m B) 0.4m C) 0.6m D) 0.8m
77. In a projectile motion, if we plot a graph between power of the force acting on the projectile and
time then it would be like :
A) B) C) D)
78. A golfer rolls a small ball with speed u along the floor from point A. If x = 3R, determine the
required
speed u so that the ball returns to A after rolling on the circular
surface in the vertical plane from B to C and becoming a
projectile at C. (Neglect friction)
A) gR
5
2
B) gR
2
5

C) gR
7
5
D) none of these
79. A wind-powered generator converts wind energy into electrical energy. Assume that the
generator converts a fixed fraction of the wind energy intercepted by its blades into electrical. For
wind speed v, the electrical power output will be proportional to
A) v B) v
2
C) v
3
D) v
4

KEY
54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68
A B D B B A C C B D B B C A D
69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79
C A B B A A B B B B C



34


LEVEL III
1. A block m is pulled by applying a force F as shown in fig. If the block has
moved up through a distance 'h', the work done by the force F is
A) 0 2) Fh
C) 2Fh D)
2
1
Fh
2. A body of mass m, having momentum p is moving on a rough horizontal surface. If it is stopped
in a distance x, the coefficient of friction between the body and the surface is given by
A) = p/(2mg x) B) = p
2
/ (2mg s) C) = p
2
/ (2g m
2
s) D) = p
2
(2g m
2
s
2
)
3. A body of mass m moves from rest, along a straight line, by an engine delivering constant power
P. the velocity of the body after time t will be
A)
m
Pt 2
B)
m
Pt 2
C)
m 2
Pt
D)
m 2
Pt

4. The spring shown in fig has a force constant k and the mass of block is m. Initially,
the spring is unstretched when the block is released. The maximum elongation of the
spring on the releasing the mass will be
A)
k
mg
B)
2
1
k
mg
C) 2
k
mg
D) 4
k
mg




35
5. A skier starts from rest at point A and slides down the hill,
without turning or braking. The friction coefficient is . When
he stops at point B, his horizontal displacement in S. The height
difference h between points A and B is
A) h = S/ B) h = S
C) h = S
2
D) h = S/
2


6. A small block of mass m is kept on a rough inclined surface of inclination u fixed in an elevator.
The elevator goes up with a uniform velocity v and the block does not slide on the wedge. The
work done by the force of friction on the block in time t will be
A) zero B) mg vt cos
2
u C) mg vt sin
2
u D) mg vt sin2u
7. A block of mass m starts at rest at height h on a frictionless
inclined plane. The block slides down the plane travels a total
distance d across a rough horizontal surface with coefficient of
kinetic friction k and compresses a spring with force constant
k, a distance x before momentarily coming to rest. The spring then extends and the block travels
back across the rough surface, sliding up the plane. The maximum height h' that the block
reaches on its return is
A) h' = h - 2d B) h' = h - 2d -
2
1
kx
2

C) h' = h - 2d + kx
2
D) h' = h - 2d - kx
2

8. A chain of length 3 and mass m lies at the top of smooth prism such
that its length is one side and 2 is on the other side of the vertex.
The angle of prism is 120
0
and the prism is not free to move. If the
chain is released. What will be its velocity when the right end of the
chain is just crossing the top-most point?
A) l g 2 B) l g
3
2
C) l g
3
1
D) l g
2
1

9. If a constant power P is applied in a vehicle, then its acceleration increases with time according to
the relation
A) a = t
m 2
P
|
|
.
|

\
|
B) a =
2 / 3
t
m 2
P
|
|
.
|

\
|
C) a = t / 1
m 2
P
|
|
.
|

\
|
D) a =
mt 2
P




36
10. A body of mass m slides downward along a plane inclined at an angle o. The coefficient of
friction is . The rate at which kinetic energy plus gravitational potential energy dissipates
expressed as a function of time is
A) mtg
2
cos o B) mtg
2
cos o (sin o - cos o)
C) mtg
2
sin o D) mtg
2
sin o (sin o - cos o)
11. The potential energy for a force field F is given by U(x, y) = sin (x + y). The force acting on the
particle of mass m at (0, t/4) is
A) 1 B) 2 C) 1/ 2 D) 0
12. A uniform rope of length ' ' and mass m hangs over a horizontal table with two third part on the
table. The coefficient of friction between the table and the chain is . The work done by the
friction during the period the chain slips completely off the table is
A) 2/9 mgl B) 2/3 mgl C) 1/3 mgl D) 1/9 mgl
13. A particle is moving in a force field given by potential U = - (x + y + z) from the point (1, 1, 1) to
(2, 3, 4). The work done in the process is
A) 3 B) 1.5 C) 6 D) 12



37
14. A compressed spring of spring constant k releases a ball of mass m.
If the height of spring is h and the spring is compressed through a
distance x, the horizontal distance covered by ball to reach ground is
A) x
mg
kh
B)
mg
xkh

C) x
mg
kh 2
D)
kh x
mg

15. A block of mass m = 2kg is moving with velocity vo
towards a massless unstretched spring of force constant
K = 10 N/m. Coefficient of friction between the block
and the ground is = 1/5. Find maximum value of vo so
that after pressing the spring the block does not return back but stops there permanently.
A) 6 m/s B) 12m/s C) 8m/s D) 10m/s
16. Potential energy of a particle moving along x-axis under the action of only conservative forces is
given as : U = 10 + 4 sin(4tx). Here U is in Joule and x in meters. Total mechanical energy of the
particle is 16J. Choose the correct option.
A) At x = 1.25m, particle is at equilibrium position. C) both A and B are correct
B) Maximum kinetic energy of the particle is 20J D) both A and B are wrong.
17. A system shown in figure is released from rest. Pulley and spring is massless
and friction is absent everywhere. The speed of 5 kg block when 2 kg block
leaves the contact with ground is (Take force constant of spring k = 40 N/m and
g = 10 m/s
2
)
A) 2 m/s` B) 2 2 m/s
C) 2m/s D) 4 2 m/s
18. Two blocks of masses m1 = 1 kg and m2 = 2 kg are connected by a
non-deformed light spring. They are lying on a rough horizontal surface. The coefficient of
friction between the blocks and the surface is 0.4 what minimum constant force F has to be
applied in horizontal direction to the block of mass m1 in order to shift the other block? (g = 10
m/s
2
)
A) 8 N B) 15 N C) 10 N D) 25 N
19. A block of mass m is attached with a massless spring of force constant k.
The block is placed over a rough inclined surface for which the coefficient of
friction is = . The minimum value of M required to move the block up



38
the plane is (Neglect mass of string and pulley and friction in pulley).

A) 3/5m B) 4/5m C) 6/5m D) 3/2m
20. A particle of mass m is moving in a circular path of constant radius r such that its centripetal
acceleration ac is varying with time t as, ac = k
2
r t
2
where k is a constant. What is the power
delivered to the particle by the forces acting on it?
A) 2 pmk
2
r
2
t B) mk
2
r
2
t C)
3
) t r mk (
s 2 4
D) zero
21. A particle, which is constrained to move along the x- axis, is subjected to a force in the same
direction which varies with the distance x of the particle from the origin as
F(x) = -kx + ax
2
. Here k and a are positive constant. For x >0, the function form of the potential
energy u(x) of the particle is




KEY
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
C C A C B C A B D B A
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
A C C D A B A A B

MULTIPLE ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. The potential energy U for a force field F

is such that U = - kxy, where k is a constant


A) j

kx i

ky F + =

B) j

ky i

kx F + =


C) The force F

is a conservative force D) The force F

is a non-conservative force
2. A sledge moving over a smooth horizontal surface of ice at a velocity v0 drives out on a
horizontal road and comes to a halt as shown. The
sledge has a length l, mass m and friction between
runners and road is
A) No work is done by the friction to switch the sledge
from ice to the road
A)
B) c)
D)



39
B) A work of
2
1
mgl is done against friction while sledge switches completely on to road
C) The distance covered by the sledge on the road is
|
|
.
|

\
|

2 g 2
v
2
0
l

D) Total distance moved by the sledge before stopping is
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2 g 2
v
2
0
l

3. A strip of wood of mass M and length l is placed on a smooth horizontal surface. An insect of
mass m starts at one end of the strip and walks to the other end in time t, moving with a constant
speed
A) The speed of the insect as seen from the ground is <
t
1

B) The speed of the strip as seen from the ground is
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ m M
M
t
1

C) The speed of the strip as seen from the ground is
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ m M
m
t
1

D) The total kinetic energy of the system is
2
1
(m + M)
2
t
1
|
.
|

\
|


4. Two blocks A and B each of mass m are connected by a
light spring of natural length L and spring constant k.
The blocks are initially resting on a smooth horizontal
floor with the spring at its natural length, as shown. A
third identical block C, also of mass m, moves on the floor with a speed v along the line joining A
to B and collides with A. Then
A) the kinetic energy of the A-B system at maximum compression of the spring is zero
B) the kinetic energy of the A-B system at maximum compression of the spring is
|
|
.
|

\
|
4
mv
2

C) the maximum compression of the spring is
|
|
.
|

\
|
k
m
v
D) the maximum compression of the spring is
|
|
.
|

\
|
k 2
m
v
5. Suppose a car is modeled as a cylinder moving with a speed v. If A is the area of cross section of
the car and is the density of air then



40
A) Power loss due to air resistance is
2
1
Av
3
B) power loss due to air resistance is Av
3

C) drag force is
2
1
Av
2
D) drag force is Av
2

6. A heavy mass M resting on the ground is connected to a lighter mass m through a light
inextensible string passing over a light, frictionless pulley as shown in the figure.
The string connected to mass M is loose. Let lighter mass m be allowed to fall
freely through a height h such that the string becomes taut. If t is the time from
this instant onwards when the heavier mass again makes contact with the ground
and AE is the change in kinetic then
A) t =
g
h 2
m M
m 2
+
B) t =
g
h 2
m M
m 2

C) AE = -
2
v
m M
Mm
2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
D) AE = -
2
Mv
2
1

7. The kinetic energy of a body moving along a straight line varies directly with time t. If the
velocity of the body is v at time t, then the force F acting on the body is such that
A) F t
1/2
B) F t
-1/2
C) F v D) F v
-1

8. A car of mass m is moving on a level road at a constant speed vmax while facing a resistive force R.
If the car slows down to vmax/3, then assuming the engine to be
working at the same power, what force F is developing and what is
the acceleration a of the car ?
A) F = 3R B) F = 2R
C) a = 3P/m vmax D) a = 2 P/m vmax
9. The net interacting force F between two particles is related to the
distance x between them, as shown in figure. Then
A) potential energy of the system decreases from x1 to x2
B) potential energy of the system increases from x2 to x3
C) potential energy of the system decreases from x3 to x4
D) kinetic energy increases from x1 to x2
10. The potential energy of a particle of mass 1 kg moving in xy plane is given by U = 10 - 4x - 3y
The particle is at rest at (2, 1) at t = 0. Then
A) velocity of particle at t = 1 is 5 m/s B) the particle is at (10m, 7m) at t = 2s
C) work done during t = 1s to t = 2s is 75J
D) the magnitude of force acting on particle is 5N
11. The figure shows a potential energy function. In the region 0 s r s R,
U(r) is parabolic. In the region r > R, U(r) is an inversely proportional



41
function.
Identify the correct conservative force function F(r) plot.




(A) (B) (C) (D)
12. The potential energy function between two atoms in a diatomic molecule can be plotted as
shown in figure.
Mark the correct statement(s):
A) There is only one position of equilibrium
B) There is two position of equilibrium
C) There is only one position of stable equilibrium
D) Both the positions are of stable equilibrium
13. A block of mass m is gently placed on a vertical spring of stiffness k. Choose the correct
statement related to the mechanical energy E of the system.
A) It remains constant B) It decreases C) It increases D) Nothing can be said
14. A spring of stiffness k is pulled by two forces FA and FB as shown in
the figure so that the spring remains in equilibrium. Identify the
correct statement(s):
A) The work done by each force contributes into the increase in potential energy of the spring
B) The force undergoing larger displacement does positive work and the force undergoing
smaller displacement does negative work
C) Both the forces perform positive work
D) The net work done is equal to the increase in potential energy
15. A particle of mass m is released from a height H on a smooth curved
surface which ends into a vertical loop of radius R, as shown in figure.
If u is the instantaneous angle which the line joining the particle and the centre of the loop makes
with the vertical, the identify the correct statement(s) related to the normal reaction N between the block
and the surface.
A) The maximum value N occurs at u = 0 B) The minimum value of N occurs at N = t
C) The value of N becomes negative for t/2 < u <
2
3t

D) The value of N becomes zero only when u > t/2



42
16. An engine is pulling a train of mass m on a level track at a uniform speed v. The resistive force
offered per unit mass is f
A) Power produced by the engine is mfv
B) The extra power developed by the engine to maintain a speed v up a gradient of h in s is
s
mghv

C) The frictional force exerting on the train is mf on the level track
D) None of above is correct
17. A particle of mass 5 kg moving in the x-y plane has its potential energy given by U = (-7x + 24y) J,
where x and y are in metre. The particle is initially at origin and has a velocity
1
ms ) j

2 . 4 i

4 . 14 ( u

+ =


A) The particle has a speed of 25 ms
-1
at t = 4 s B) The particle has an acceleration of 5 ms
-2

C) The acceleration of the particle is perpendicular to its initial velocity
D) None of the above is correct
18. A particle is moving in a conservative force field from point A to point B. UA and UB are the
potential energies of the particle at points A and B and Wc is the work done in the process of
taking the particle from A to B
A) Wc = UB - UA B) Wc = UA - UB C) UA > UB D) UB > UA
19. At the position of stable equilibrium
A) =
dx
dU
0 only B)
dx
du
= 0 and
2
2
dx
U d
> 0 C) 0
dx
dU
= and 0
dx
U d
2
2
< D) None of these
20. Choose the correct statement(s) related to the conservative force and potential energy.
A) Potential energy decrease in the direction of conservative force
B) Potential energy increase in the direction of conservative force
C) Conservative force does work by lowering its potential energy
D) Conservative force does work by raising its potential energy
KEY
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
AC BCD AC BD AC BC BD AD ABD ABD
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
A BC B ACD ABD ABC ABC BC C BC

COMPREHENSION TYPE QUESTIONS
Passage I (Q.No: 1 to 7):



43
The potential energy of two atoms in a diatomic molecule is approximated by U(r) =
6 12
r
b
r
a
,
where r is the spacing between atoms and a and b are positive constants.
1. Find the force F(r) on one atom as a function of r:
A) 0 B)
7 13
r
b
r
a 12
+ C)
6 12
r
b 6
r
a 12
D)
7 13
r
b 6
r
a 12

2. Which is the most appropriate graph U(r) versus r:


3. Which is the most appropriate graph F(r) versus r:


4. Find the equilibrium distance between the two atoms:
A) 2a B) 2a/b C) 2a/5b D)
6 / 1
b
a 2
|
.
|

\
|

5. From the above conclusion can we predict about equilibrium state:
A) the equilibrium is stable B) the equilibrium is unstable
C) the equilibrium may be stable D) the equilibrium may be unstable
6. What minimum energy must be added to the molecule to dissociate it, if the distance between the
two atoms is equal to the equilibrium distance found in Q. 4 ?
A) b
2
/a B) 2b
2
/a C) b
2
/4a D) 2a/b
7. For the molecule CO, the equilibrium distance between the carbon and oxygen atoms is 1.13 x 10
-
10
m and the dissociation energy is 1.54 x 10
-18
J per molecule. Find the values of a and b:

A) a = 6.67 x 10
-138
J-m
12

b = 2.08 x 10
-60
J m
6

B) a = 6.41 x 10
-78
J-m
6

b = 6.67 x 10
-138
J-m
12

C) a = 6.67 x 10
-138
J-m
12
D) a = 0
A)
B)
C) D)
A)
B)
C) D)



44
b = 6.41 x 10
-78
J m
6
b = 6.41 x 10
-78
J m
6

Passage II (Q.No: 8 to 11) :
A cutting tool under microprocessor control has several forces acting on it. One force is
j

xy F
2
o =

, a force in the negative y-direction whose magnitude depend on the position of the
tool. The constant is o = 2.50 N. Consider the displacement of the tool from the origin to the
point x = 3.00 m, y = 3.00 m.
8. Calculate the work done on the tool by F

if this displacement is along the straight line y = x that


connects these two points ?
A) 2.50 J B) 500 J C) 50.6 J D) 2 J
9. Calculate the work done on the tool by F

if the tool is first moved out along the x-axis to the


point x = 3.00 m, y = 0 and then moved parallel to the y-axis to x = 3.00 m, y = 3.00 m.
A) 67.5 J B) 85 J C) 102 J D) 7.5 J
10. Compare the work done by F

along these two paths ?


A) Work done on x-axis is zero
B) Work done on y-axis is less than on y-axis
C) Work done on x-axis is more than on y-axis but not zero
D) Data insufficient
11. What can you predict about F

?
A) Force is non-conservative
B) Force is conservative
C) Force is neither conservative nor non-conservative
D) Data insufficient to conclude

Passage III (Q.No: 12 to 16):
A 1200 kg car is travelling at 7.5 m/s in a northerly direction on an icy road. It crashes into a 8000
kg truck moving in the same direction as the car with a velocity of 3.0 m/s before the collision.
The speed of the car after the collision is 3.0 m/s in its original direction.
12. Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between energy and momentum in the passage ?
A) The collision is not perfectly elastic, both momentum and energy are not conserved
B) The collision is inelastic, kinetic energy is conserved but momentum is not
C) The collision is not perfectly elastic, momentum is conserved but total energy is not
D) The collision is not perfectly elastic, momentum is conserved but kinetic energy is not



45
13. What is the velocity of the truck after the collision ?
A) 7.5 m/s B) 3.7 m/s C) 3.0 m/s D) 1.1 m/s
14. The car then proceeds to a garage. To get there, the driver turns off onto a smooth road with a
coefficient of friction = = 1/4. He then stops for a snack and then tries to drive off. what is the
value of frictional force when the force the car exerts is 300 N ?
A) 0 N B) 100 N C) 300 N D) 4000 N
15. After leaving the garage, the driver of the car follows the same road and eventually has to go up
a hill. How does the frictional force on the car now compare to the value when the car was
driving on level ground ?
A) No change B) It increased C) It decreased
D) The direction of change depends on the angle of elevation
16. If the car is moving up the hill at 5 m/s and the car is 40m up
the hill as shown in the diagram, how much potential energy
does the car possess at that point ? (g = 9.8 m/s
2
).
A) 2.40 x 10
5
J B) 2.40 x 10
4
J
C) 4.95 x 10
5
J D) 4.95 x 10
4
J

KEY
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
D A D D A A C C A A A

* * *




46
MULTIPLE MATCHING TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Match the following:
List - I List - II
a) Area under F - S e) Change in KE
b) Work energy theorem f) negative of work done to gravitational force
c) change in PE g) work done by F
d) conservative force
h)
}
dx . F

, where F is conservative force



i) gravitational force
2. Match the following:
List - I List - II
a) KE e) depends on frame of reference
b) work done f) defined for conservative force only
c) PE g) independent on frame of reference
d) spring PE h) same for either compression or elongation for same distance
3. Match the following:
List - I List - II
a) stable equilibrium e) PE in Max
b) unstable equilibrium f) Fnet = 0
c) 0
dx
dF
s
g) PE is Min
d) 0
dx
dF
>
h) slope of F-x graph is +ve
4. Match the following:
List - I List - II
a) work done by frictional force e) indepent of path
b) work done by electrostatic force f) non-conservative
c) work done by gravitational force for closed loop g) depends on path
d) for slowly moving body, wc + wn.c equal to h) define PE

i) zero
KEY
1 2 3 4
a-eg, b-e, c-fh, d-i a-e, b-e, c-ef, d-gh a-fg, b-efh, c-g, d-eh a-fg, b-eh, c-i, d-i
* * *