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STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITED

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MANAGEMENT TRAINING INSTITUTE

Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth

Chairmans Trophy for Young Managers, 2008-09

A COMPENDIUM OF SELECTED PAPERS

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MANAGEMENT TRAINING INSTITUTE

STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITED

Contents
Foreword Preface Introduction

winner
1. Durgapur Steel Plant

M. Chandrashekhar S. Sengupta Deepak Prakash

Jt. runnersup
2. Bhilai Steel Plant

38

N Bhaskar Abhishek Shrivastava Aniruddha Bhagwat

jt. runnersup
3. Rourkela Steel Plant

99

Debadutta Satpathy Ms Chaitali Das Jayanta Sarkar

special jury award


4. Raw Materials Division

144

B K Giri S K Sony R K Jena

finalist
5. Bokaro Steel Plant

179

Harishanker Singh Debabrata Chowdhury

finalist
6. Centre for Engineering & Technology

216

A Rituraj Ms Ruma Bharti Manish Kumar

finalist
7. IISCO Steel Plant

265

Sandip Biswas S Manoj Kumar Priya Ranjan

Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

winners
M. Chandrasekhar, Serior Manager, CEM S. Sengupta, Senior Manager, CEM Deepak Prakash, Senior Manager, WRS

Durgapur Steel Plant INTRODUCTION


Two sons work for their father on the family's farm. The younger brother had for some years been given more responsibility and reward, and one day the older brother asks his father to explain why.

he father says, "First, go to the Ghanshyams farm and see if they have any goats for sale - we need to add to our stock."

The brother soon returns with the answer, "Yes, they have five goats and they can sell to us." That father then says, "Good, please ask them the price." The son returns with the answer, "The goats are Rs. 500 each." The father says, "Good, now ask if they can deliver the goats tomorrow." And duly the son returns with the answer, "Yes, they can deliver the goats tomorrow." The father asks the older brother to wait and listen, and then calls the younger brother from a nearby field, "Go to the Dhanpat Ram's Farm and see if they have any goats for sale - we need to add to our stock." The younger brother soon returns with the answer, "Yes, they have five goats for Rs. 500 each or ten goats for Rs 400 each; and they can deliver them tomorrow - I asked them to deliver the five unless they heard otherwise from us in the next hour. And I agreed that if we want the extra five goats we could buy them at Rs 300 each." The father turned to the older son, who nodded his head in appreciation - he now realised why his brother was given more responsibility and reward.

He was just competent.


Competence, we believe, is that human attribute which underpins successful performance. It is the characteristic of a person that provides a competitive advantage to an organisation. Competence, therefore, lies in a combination of Capability, Ability, Skill, Fitness, Aptitude, Proficiency, Experience, Expertise and Know-how. The father and the two brothers in the story reflect the present state of our SAIL corporate family.


"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

We, as a team, in our quest for Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth, will endeavour to develop more such younger brothers (and sisters) in our SAIL family.

The Beacon Beckons


WE begin with the clarion call given by our Chairman Sri S K Roongta on 1st January 2008 to each one of us. If I havent been explicitly told no, then I can and must do it. There are things that we can, and must, strive for as an organisation. We must delegate and empower, yet pay attention to detail and take ownership; we must ensure that all our plans and priorities are clearly understood down the line. We must be firm and unambiguous in our decisions, reflecting a clear and consistent pattern of thought and action. And while we do these and more, we must yet challenge accepted wisdom and existing processes and encourage others to do the same ... We live in a time of unprecedented change; a time that places upon us the daily obligation to reinvent ourselves, to learn new skills, to do things differently, to assume new roles and responsibilities, to adapt to new situations and to cope with new challenges. The question for us today is not so much How well did I do my job?, as How much did I change it? As our team embarks on a fascinating discovery in the rough seas seeking answers to the theme of this years thesis the Chairmans pronouncement serves as a distant beacon atop a lighthouse. It is far away, yet visible. Directing us, guiding us, leading us to it, blowing a new wind in our SAIL. WE, at the outset, put to ourselves a few questions for warming up. 1. What are the challenges before us ( in terms of SAILs growth ) ? 2. How should we identify the competencies needed to meet these challenges ? 3. What should be our benchmarks for attaining the desired levels of competence ? 4. Competitive advantage does not lie in superior land or building or machinery. It has to be the people whose competence makes all the difference between the best and the also-rans. Therefore, if global competitiveness is the goal, then, where do we figure in a one-to-one comparison at all level of employees between a world class steel maker and SAIL ? 5. Do the best companies in the world think, speak and work the way we do ? 6. And; if the three of us were to own, run and expand SAIL, what will we do to transform our people into becoming world class ?


Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

OUR ROADMAP TO COMPETENCE BUILDING


Our team pondered over the task at hand armed with the Chairmans communiqu. We adopted a three - pronged approach to steer our ideas towards the goal of Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth

1. Theoretical Study
Basic Readings on Organisations, Growth and Competencies

2. Theoretical Research
PEST Analysis of the Steel Industry

3. Field Survey
Interviews

Questionnaire

Literature on Project Management

Michael Porters Five Forces Analysis

Data Analysis Case Study - I Project 119 by China

Knowledge sharing, exercises at CHRD, DSP

SWOT Analysis for competencies

Case Study - II Competence building in CEM, DSP

UNDERSTANDING THE TOPIC


In the process of understanding the topic of our thesis, we, as a team, learnt that
1. Growth is an economic imperative. Economic growth implies a positive change in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over a certain period of time. 2. Challenges of growth for our organisation pertain to three levels.

Challenges at the macro level

A A

Improving the delivery of core services Making growth more inclusive




"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

Sustaining growth by managing fiscal and trade deficits and accelerating the speed of growth Formulating multipronged strategies to sustain growth Meeting the aspiration of various stakeholders including employees Identifying skill gap and quickly bridging the gap Recruiting and retaining talent Ensuring continual improvements in organisational structures, system and processes Cultivating the culture of delegation and prompt decision making Adjusting to growth Changing the way of doing business Creating an environment of learning, creativity, innovation and mutual respect Developing trust in middle and front line team of management Challenging the status quo Maximizing the internal efficiency

Challenges at the organisational level (Meeting Growth Plan 2011-12)

Challenges at the managerial level

Our work is based on the fundamental premise that growth is directly linked to human capital and its productivity. Although growth, perse, is natural to an entitys existence, it does not just happen. Industries, as also biological organisms, have to put an effort to survive, let alone grow.

A similar venture 200 years ago


On completion of his voyage on the H.M.S. Beagle from1830 to 1836, Charles Robert Darwin, English naturalist, completed his book on natural selection On The Origin of Species. The basic question was: What makes organisms adapt, survive and grow ?

Some of the key observations and the inferences drawn from his theories are:
1. Individuals less suited to the environment are less likely to survive and less likely to reproduce, while individuals more suited to the environment are more likely to survive and more likely to reproduce. 2. The individuals that survive are most likely to leave their inheritable traits to future generations.


Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

3. This slowly effected process results in populations that adapt to the environment over time, and ultimately, after interminable generations, these variations accumulate to form new varieties, and ultimately, new species. Darwin did not live to see the 21st century. His theory still does - as much applicable to business organisations as it is to individuals. We shall now apply such an understanding to our task of building competencies to meet the challenges of growth for SAIL namely: 1. Managing Expansion to 25 MT by 2011-12 2. Recruiting, Retaining and Building people for driving the expansion process to completion 3. Timely stabilization of the new units 4. Sustaining market leadership We begin with the theoretical research as part of our Outside-In approach.

ANALYSIS OF THE INDIAN STEEL ENVIRONMENT


Industrial growth entails a phase of challenges as well as opportunities. Our focus, hereafter, will be on the Indian Steel Industry with specific attention to SAIL. To gather a definite understanding of the competitive market in which SAIL is a major player, we undertook an in-depth analysis of the steel industry. The objective was to zero-in from the external environment to the internal environment for SAIL. This outside - in approach would enable us to see each aspect of our work in its relevance to the larger perspective.

Our analysis of the external environment included:


Analysis of the macro environment (far environment). In our case, it is the steel industry in perspective. We have used the PEST analysis for evaluating the factors affecting and enabling growth of the steel industry in India. Analysis of the micro environment (near environment, or competitive environment). Here, we have used the 5 Forces Method of Michael E Porter to determine the nature and extent of the competition for SAIL.


"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Fig.1 : SAIL and the Indian Steel Environment

Steel Industry Macro Environment

Political
Bargaining Power of Suppliers Threat of New Entrants

SAIL'S External Environment


Bargaining Power of Buyers SAIL's Internal Environment Intensity of Rivalry

Technological

Social
Threat of Substitutes

Economic

The PEST Analysis


PEST analysis stands for "Political, Economic, Social and Technological analysis" and describes a framework of macro environmental factors used in environmental scanning of strategic management. It gives a certain overview of the different macro environmental factors a company has to take into consideration for understanding market growth or decline, business position, potential and direction for operations. The analysis also recognizes the growing importance of environmental or ecological factors in the evaluation of industry in the 21st century. A careful study of the SAILs macro-environment with the PEST analysis reveals the following:

Political:

A A A A

The Indian steel industry is in an expansionary phase backed by a liberal policy environment. National Steel Policy The National Steel Policy unveiled by the Government of India in the Year 2005 is aimed at global competitiveness in terms of international benchmarks of efficiency and productivity. Governmental thrust on leasing and development of mines. Disbandment of pricing and distribution control mechanism. However, during the recent surge in inflation the Government did ask steel majors to rein in prices.


Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

Economic:

A A A A A A A A A A

Excellent domestic demand driven by growth in investment, manufacturing and infrastructure. During 2007-08, production and consumption of finished steel grew by 5.2% and 10.1% respectively over the previous year. Cyclic nature of the steel industry market. Worldwide, steel prices have fluctuated between $700 per ton and $300 per ton in the 1st half of FY 2008-09. Production has dropped 9.4 % in September compared to CPLY. However, steel prices are expected to rise from the 4th quarter of current FY. Competition from China and excess availability from Ukraine and Thailand. Potential for huge employment generation. One man-year of employment in the steel industry generates additional 3.5 man-years of employment in other sectors. Corporate Social Responsibility is the buzzword among all major manufacturers. CSR is also used to add more value to the corporate brand while also being responsive to the society at large on whose resources the steel plants are run. Greenfield projects raise issues of land and social encroachment. Identification of the right technologies for the greenfield projects. Worldwide pressure on reduction in carbon emissions. Thrust on improved efficiencies for better utilization of limited natural resources. New product development is now a major challenge for all steelmakers. 70% of the products in the market today have been developed in the last 10 years. This has removed the myth that steel products and technology take generations from the R&D to the market. The pace of R&D and new project implementation has increased manifold. More thrust on quality and value added products to cater to growing demands of the automotive industry.

Social:

Technological:

Taking a Closer Look


While the PEST analysis has given us an over view of the macro environment for the steel industry and its potential for growth, we will now delve deeper to get a closer picture of the industry dynamics. The industry has already seen announcements of mega plans for expansion by leading domestic producers as well as global steel majors. We have categorized growth and challenges in the industry under three distinct heads:


"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Types of growth
1. Organic growth Challenges of scaling up 2. Growth through Challenges of mergers and assimilation acquisition

Challenges for the Steel Industry


Capacity Expansion through Brownfield and Greenfield projects Examples of mergers of Arcelor & Mittal, takeover of Nat Steel and Corus by Tata Steel, merger of IISCO with SAIL, other small steel units with SAIL, etc.

3. Growth through Challenges of Non steel makers entering the steel business innovation conversion A closer look at the expansion plans of the various steel making companies in India ( in Table 1 on next page ) vindicates the positive growth picture presented by the PEST analysis done by our team earlier.

Table 1
Investor

Growth Plans of Indian Steel Manufacturers


Existing Capacity 12.84 2.90 5.00 4.60 4.10 2.40 3.00 1.20 0.60 22.00 58.64 Brownfield Expansion 2011-12 12.00 3.90 5.00 3.90 6.90 4.80 2.00 2.00 40.50 Greenfield 2011-12 3.00 6.00 4.45 2.80 5.40 7.07 28.72 Total Capacity by 2011-12 24.84 6.80 13.00 14.50 11.00 10.45 5.00 4.00 6.00 28.47 128.06 Total Capacity proposed by 2019-20 60.00 10.00 33.50 20.50 31.00 26.50 17.00 12.00 24.00 7.00 9.00 42.43 292.93

SAIL RINL Tata Steel Essar Steel JSW Steel JSPL Ispat Industries POSCO India Arcelor-Mittal Bhusan Power & Steel Bhusan Steel Others Total

All figures are of crude steel capacity in million tonnes Source: Iron and Steel Review


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ANALYSING THE MICRO (NEAR) ENVIRONMENT FOR SAIL


The 5 - Forces Analysis
Going by the ballpark estimate of Rs. 4,000 crore investment per million tonne of additional capacity, the huge intended steel capacity building up in the country will cause a likely investment of Rs. 2,76, 800 crore by year 2012 and Rs. 8,70,640 crore by year 2020. Coupled with these investments is the significant steps taken by the industry in improving productivity, conserving natural resources and energy, import substitution, quality upgrades, environment management and research & development. The BIG question is: What are the implications of the above scenario for our company ? SAIL has planned to double its steel production by 2011-12. The challenges before SAIL can broadly be categorized as

A A A A A

Timely completion of projects Sustaining market leadership Diversifying product range to include new markets Increasing customer focus in all sphere of activities Retaining talent

We have used Michael E. Porters Five Forces Analysis to determine the nature and extent of competition in the market for SAIL.

Fig.2 : Porters Five Forces Model for SAIL Threat of

New Entrants
Bargaining power of Bargaining power of

Suppliers

SAIL

Buyers
Value Chain Threat of

Intensity of

Rivalry

Substitutes

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Challenges for SAIL emerging from the 5 Forces Analysis

A careful examination of the challenges posed by the 5 Forces, bearing in mind our growth plans and present and future competition, leads us to an array of competence clusters that we need to develop among our people. This is represented here in the form of a matrix.

THE GROWTH CHALLENGE vs. COMPETENCY MATRIX FOR SAIL


Porters 5 Forces Identified Threats Challenges for SAIL Required Competencies

Increase in prices of coking Bring down coal energy consumption Non availability of low ash content coal in India Indigenous 1. Bargaining Supplier market for technology power of plant and technology for suppliers expansion Rethink on Dependence on imported procurement machinery and spares methods Suppliers of highly unionized labour calling the shots

1. Business Acumen 2. Project Management 3. Negotiation Skills 4. Strategic Planning

Threat by the Railways to go Wide 1. Customer focus for alternative sources customer base Stringent quality 2. Proactive 2. Bargaining requirements by automobile Quality of approach power of manufacturers product customers Price sensitive market due to Cost of manu- 3. Effective no product differentiation communication facturing Availability of low grade cheap imports 1. Inclination towards research and development 2. Innovation and creativity 3. Conceptual thinking

3. Threat of Increasing substitutes in the substitute form of plastics, aluminum products and advanced composites

Need to launch more value added products and services

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Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

Porters 5 Forces 4. Threat of new entrants

Identified Threats Decrease in market share

Challenges for SAIL

Required Competencies 1. Cost Consciousness 2. Human resource management for talent retention 3. Project Management 4. Brand Management 1. Business acumen 2. Strategic orientation 3. Innovation. 4. Stamina and Adaptability

Market consolidation Drain of skilled workforce through cost Establishing Lowering of prices due to lean SAIL as and cost effective newcomers a brand to thwart Limited availability of suppliers newcomers. of plant and machinery Retaining talent Innovative product launching Major market share held by 4-5 Key account companies management Similar expansion plans putting Cost pressure on retention of human competitivecapital ness Product similarity among steel majors.

5. Intensity of rivalry

Other competencies identified through survey :


Type of Competency A. Competencies to manage the planned capacity expansion Competency Traits
1. Project Management Skills 2. Commercial Knowledge 3. Team Building and Leadership Skills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Focused approach Motivating employees Fostering teamwork Empowering people Managing change, effective communication Managing performance Inter-personal skill Building collaborative relationship

B. Competencies to deal with people

C. Competencies for managing self

1. Self confidence 2. Positive attitude 3. Learning through reading 4. Stress management 5. Personal credibility 6. Flexibility 11

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Competencies for Managing Projects


In case of projects, we have learnt that Project Management (PM) Skills are identified by means of a framework normally used for mapping and identifying activities related to the project. The PM framework used is as given below.

Table - 2

The Project Management Framework


Project Process Phases
Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & controlling 4 .. Closing

1 A B C D E F Scope Management Time Management Cost Management Quality Management HR Management Procurement Management A1

2 A2

3 ..

5 ..

F5

A project would be measured along the parameters A F during the phases 1 5. Therefore, in order to execute a world class project, we need to get the best combination A1, A2, A3, .., F5. The above framework helps us identify the requisite skills for each combination during the various project stages. For example, for C1 the skills required would be to have a good idea of the demand and the price for the product. A wrong estimation would have a negative impact on the project returns. Again, for E2 the project manager should be able to discern the capabilities required in the team skill sets, knowledge, adaptability, drive, etc.

Competence SWOT for SAIL

Having identified the competencies required for our people to manage growth and compete with the best in the world, we undertook a SWOT analysis of our organisation to understand where we stand in terms of competencies. Strengths 1. Highly skilled workforce 2. Vastly experienced manpower 3. Technical expertise 4. Excellent firefighters 5. Flexibility
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Weaknesses 1. No experience in project management 2. No competence based recruitment 3. Less thrust on strategic management 4. Absence of learning culture

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Opportunities 1. Edge over new entrants in stabilizing the plant 2. Competence to develop steel for nuclear power plants after the 123 Agreement 3. Learning to be cost conscious to see through the lean phase 4. Successful adaptation to the new technology.

Threats 1. New Engineers not inclined to join manufacturing industry 2. Poaching of existing talent by new entrants in the business

THE RESEARCH WORK


After analyzing the macro and the micro environments and learning about the competency clusters required to neutralize the five forces affecting our growth, we set out to tap the huge pool of experience gathered in the organization through years of practicing managerial abilities in the industry. We sought opinion from our senior executives who are directly involved in the decision making process. We asked them four basic questions (as noted below) to understand their perceptions of the challenges ahead of SAIL, the competencies required to meet those challenges and ways to develop those competencies. The responses to the interview questions are summarized in Table 3 :

Table 3 : The responses of the interviews


Q1. What are the strengths of SAIL? Huge experience in steel making, R & D and marketing Skilled workforce Country wide sales network Reliable brand name Strong financial positioning Availability of iron ore Mature production base Leader in domestic market Timely completion of projects Synergising the organisation in becoming world class Faster response time Optimising manpower and retaining talent Sustaining market leadership Diversifying product range to include new markets Increasing customer focus in all sphere of activities
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Q2. What are the challenges ahead of SAIL?

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Q3. What are the competencies required to meet those challenges?

Business acumen Long term vision Leadership capabilities Project management skills Customer orientation Strategic orientation Systematic approach Team building Succession planning Creativity

Q4. How to develop those Communication across the organisation of competencies? companys vision, mission , goals and objectives Training & development in the related skills. Employee empowerment Knowledge sharing Job rotation Make people accountable for their actions Make all employees cost conscious Promotion of QCs, suggestion schemes The answers to the interview questions gave us enough insight on the strengths of SAIL, the challenges ahead and the competencies required to sustain growth. We then moved on from the decision makers to the executors who are directly responsible for implementing the policies of the organization. We developed a questionnaire (designed on the modified Likert Scale) based on the Growth-Competency Matrix derived from the 5 Forces Analysis and the views expressed in the interviews to understand the perception of people at the level of executors. Our questionnaire had 46 questions from 8 broad fields as listed in Table 4:

Table 4 : The questionnaire categories


Sl.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Subject
Learning culture Ownership/ accountability Benchmarking/ consistency Systems concept Vision/ strategy Innovative approach Customer focus

Question nos.
Q1, Q11, Q16, Q21, Q27, Q33, Q41 Q2, Q7, Q18, Q22, Q28, Q34, Q37, Q44 Q3, Q8, Q17, Q23, Q29, Q35, Q42 Q4, Q9, Q14, Q24, Q32, Q36, Q43, Q45 Q10, Q15, Q20, Q26 Q5, Q38, Q46 Q12, Q31, Q40

8.

Project handling

Q6, Q13, Q19, Q25, Q30, Q39


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Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

A total of 140 respondents from operation, maintenance and service areas across the organization were approached. They were asked to mark their responses to items on a scale of 1 to 4, with 1 meaning Strongly Disagree, and 4 meaning Strongly Agree. We had deliberately left out the middle path i.e. undecided (or cant say) to have clear opinion from respondents. To analyze the responses, we then entered the data into a database and calculated the weighted average for each question to arrive at the mean score ( as shown in AnnexureIII). The questions are then clubbed category wise and the percentage response against each category are plotted. The results were interpreted as : Mean Score > 3.0 2.75 < Mean Score < 3.0 : The attribute is highly visible in the organization : The attribute exists in quite a good extent in the organisation : The attribute is rarely visible in the organization

2.50 < Mean Score < 2.75 : The attribute is moderately visible in the organisation Mean Score < 2.50

Analysis of responses :
We, then plotted the weighted average obtained from responses against each question in a particular field. We also plotted the percentage of responses with all the questions in that field clubbed together.

LEARNING CULTURE (Mean score = 2.43)

Findings and analysis :

A A

The mean score of 2.43 says that the learning culture attribute is rarely visible in the organization and a lot of effort is to be put into this aspect. 50% of the respondents disagree that a learning culture exists in the organization.
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

OWNERSHIP/ ACCOUNTABILITY (Mean score = 2.50)

Findings and analysis :

A A

The mean score of 2.50 says that ownership and accountability is moderately visible in our organization. A lot of effort is needed to improve the perception. 47% of the respondents disagree that the attributes exist in their workplace.

BENCHMARKING/ CONSISTENCY (Mean score = 2.52)

Findings and analysis :

A A

The mean score of 2.52 says that benchmarking and consistency is moderately visible in our organization. The weighted average of 1.85 in Question.3 of this category (We have clearly defined benchmarks for performance for all activities in the department) indicates the need of establishing benchmarks.
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SYSTEMS CONCEPT (Mean score = 2.75)

Findings and analysis :

A A

The mean score of 2.75 indicates that the attribute exists in quite a good extent in the organization. 66% of the respondents agree that they find a systems approach in their work area.

VISION/ STRATEGY (Mean score = 2.90)

Findings and analysis :

A A

The mean score of 2.90 indicates the existence of a clear cut vision and strategy in the organization. 73% of the respondents agree that they are aware of the companys vision.
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

INNOVATIVE APPROACH (Mean score = 2.62)

Findings and analysis :

A A

The mean score of 2.62 indicates that innovative approach is moderately visible in the organization. 62% of respondents agree that they resort to out of the box solutions in problem situations.

CUSTOMER FOCUS (Mean score = 2.52)

Findings and analysis :

The mean score of 2.52 in customer focus is not at all a good indicator. The company needs to take the matter very seriously.
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Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

45% of the respondents do not agree that customer orientation is visible in their workplace.

PROJECT HANDLING (Mean score = 2.16)

Findings and analysis :

A A A

The mean score of 2.16 says that the project handling skill is rarely visible in the organization and a lot of effort is to be put into this aspect. Good managers are generally not released for handling project jobs. People are generally not trained before the new equipment is set up.

DEVELOPING THE SOLUTION


Our work thus far has helped us zero-in towards the task of identifying the competencies that we need to build in our people. These competencies, we believe, will lead us towards attaining a long-term competitive advantage for SAIL. The task does not end here. Based on the findings of the research, our understanding of the prevalent environment in our plants and knowing the future potential of our company as displayed in the eagerness and initiatives of the top management, we now present our solution for Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth for SAIL.
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Fig.3 : Development of Action Plan

ACTION PLAN for Building Competencies

The Solution

competencies and the present level measured using the Competency SWOT and Questionnaire

Identifying focal areas for competency building using Michel Porter's 5 Forces Method and Interviews with DSP top brass (GrowthCompetence Matrix)

Gauging the growth potential of the Indian Steel Business by using the PEST Analysis

Mapping the task for developing competencies to take on the best in the world

We call it The 8 Cs Model for Building Competencies.

THE 8 Cs MODEL
The 8 Cs Model encompasses four necessary criteria for Building Competencies in SAIL for Meeting the Challenges of Growth. 1. Developing people has to be an indispensible part of a companys business strategy. 2. Our internal human resources should become a crucial means for Managing Growth Plan 2011-12 3. Employees need to acquire and practice new concepts for the growth of self and organisation. 4. For achieving the above, the company should create an environment of continuous learning by ensuring that all training is strategic and result oriented.
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The Research Methodology

Assessing the gap between the required

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Fig.4 : The 8Cs Model for Building Competencies


Catch them Call them CEOs Young Compel to Exel

The 8 Cs Model
for Craft a Learning Culture Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth Cultivate Project Outlook

Create System Dependence Communicate Continously

Collapse Time

ACTION PLAN The 8 Cs Model Explained 1. Catch them Young - Lead them along
a. Set up The SAIL University. Admit students after Std. 10th or Std. 12th through an open selection process. Start degree and diploma courses on Steel Technology and Management. Teach them on basics of Steel Making, HR Management, Project Management, Financial Management, Business Skills etc. as general subjects and some specialization in the final year. Link practical sessions with plant work. b. Recruit on merit at suitable levels. The process will reduce time and money normally invested in recruitment and development of people. c. Assign a mentor to every new recruit (MTTs, SOTs, JOTs included) in the organisation. Set performance parameters for both of them.
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

2. Compel to Excel
a. Create an atmosphere where employees at all levels are compelled to enhance their skill, job - knowledge, attitude. b. Give small SMART projects. Evaluate performance and link consistent performance to remuneration. c. Conduct compulsory functional test for promoting a person to the next grade. Enable a system of faster advancement for deserving candidates. d. Make the new Performance Management System applicable at all levels and follow it in its true spirit.

3. Cultivate Project Outlook


a. All functional managers should be trained in Project Management before reaching the E3 grade. b. Apply Management by Projects approach by treating aspects of ongoing operations as projects using Project Management tools. c. In order to ensure ownership of the project in one hand, designate the production manager as the project manager. A matrix organisation with operations and project people will help in quick decision making and good project progress. ( In our present set up, the project ownership gets transferred from the project head to the operations head. This is an area of potential conflict of interest).

4. Collapse Time - Cut Cost


a. Set benchmarks for each activity and encourage employees to reduce time. b. To eliminate time overruns, train and equip Projects personnel in the use of latest Project Management tools. c. Target zero delays by developing competence of maintenance people in the use of predictive maintenance tools. d. Educate and train employees at ALL levels about the cost aspects of each item and function at their workplace so as to develop organisation wide cost consciousness. Every service comes with a cost. The investment made in educating employees is far less than the benefits derived.

5. Communicate Continuously
a. Communicate Company Vision, Mission, Goals, Objectives and Strategy to all employees. b. Ensure that each employee is aware of the company's position at any point of time through various means of communication. c. Impart training on competencies identified in the Growth-Competency Matrix developed by the authors. d. Follow up training programmes by SMART projects and performance review.
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6. Create System Dependence


a. We want to see our organisation as more system oriented rather than an individual dependant one. Adherence to SOPs, SMPs, QMS, OHSAS systems, 100 % implementation of ERP are the key words in our model. b. We suggest periodic job rotation in the organisation to ensure (i) overall development of our managers (ii) to help in succession planning and also (iii) to do away with dependence on individual brilliance

7. Craft a Learning Culture


a. Encourage knowledge sharing within SAIL plants. Make Knowledge Management an essential part of the organisation. We cannot always retain talent for ever; but we can and should retain knowledge. b. Expose each employee to the best industry practices relating to his/her work. c. Reward learning in multifunctional areas by developing a system of faster advancement on the basis of competencies developed. d. Encourage a habit of reading by providing opportunities to demonstrate new learning.

8. Call them CEOs


a. Empowerment is the key word in our model. We want to see every HOS and HOD as CEO of his/her department with full authority to function as an entrepreneur and convert his/her work area into a profit centre. We believe that competencies are sharpened on use and that human excellence results from assuming a higher degree of responsibility. b. Ensure that all HODs in SAIL have worked on at least one project assignment before.

Also Recommended
We also recommend that there should be a SAIL Business Excellence Trophy for the Best Department and Best Employee in every plant/unit based on the annual performance against our Eight Cs Model for Building Competencies.

Some Final Thoughts


1. The Eight Cs Model for Building Competencies is designed to become a Company Philosophy for the overall excellence of SAIL. It is aimed at making our people competent to manage our Growth Plan 2011-12 successfully. 2. We expect our people to dare to dream, chart new courses and inspire others to do the same.
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

3. We began asking ourselves whether we have the people to match the best in the world one to one. Having gone through our work and by adopting the Eight Cs Model for Building Competencies, we are confident that SAIL men will keep touching new shores in the turbulent steel industry. 4. We are aptly reminded of our Managing Directors proclamation that We do not make steel. We make the people who make steel. The Eight Cs Model for Building Competencies will stand testimony to that.

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Competitive Strategy by Michael E. Porter (1980) Competitive Advantage by Michael E. Porter (1985) Fish ! by Stephen Lundin Guide to Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK) by The Project Management Institute Human Competence Engineering Worthy Performance by Thomas F. Gilbert (2007) Why Companies Fail by Mark Ingebretsen (2003) The Corporate Story of SAIL by N R Srinivasan (1990) National Steel Policy by Ministry of Steel , Govt. of India (2005) PEST Analysis from Businessballs.com

10. Macro Environmental Analysis for Strategic Management by L Fahey and V K Narayanan (1986) 11. Research Methodology by Dr. W G K Taylor and Dr. T K Ghoshal 12. Organisational Strategies and Processes edited by Dr. A Kumar and Dr. Hariharan 13. Workshops and Study material on Strategic Management by Prof. Ranjan Das 14. Knowledge Sharing Exercises at CHRD, Durgapur Steel Plant

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Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

Annexure-I

CASE STUDY - I
Learning from China Preparations for Beijing 2008 and Project 119 on how organisation wide initiatives in development of new areas of competence result in unprecedented growth. The Beijing Olympics was a case of triumphant strategy execution. A) All Strategy Execution Projects begin with a Big Dream and a Robust Planning Exercise done by an Empowered Steering Committee. Having studied the earlier Olympic Games, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games (BOCOG) outlined in detail the vast resources and requirements that were essential to create an infrastructure that could support such a massive sporting event. They carefully researched what worked and what did not with the Olympics, especially the Olympics at Sydney & Atlanta. To integrate the activities of key central government ministries, the Beijing Municipal Government, and BOCOG, the Chinese government created a high-level steering committee. They appointed then-Executive Vice Premier Li Lanqing as the leader. As the key driver of the Olympic project, Li Lanqing was empowered to take quick decisions and solicit top leadership support. The Chinese understood the need of having careful coordination among IOC, BOCOG, and Beijing city. There were lessons to be learnt from poor coordination at Atlanta games, where the city was not adequately in the loop. BOCOG was therefore staffed adequately with Beijing Municipal Government officials.

Lessons for us in SAIL


a. Form a Projects Steering Committee comprising both projects and end user personnel b. Empower the key driver to take quick decisions c. Ensure top management support d. Analyse similar projects undertaken in the past B) Construction of the Olympic City: To understand the whole process of strategy execution, we will study the making of the main Olympic stadium "Bird's Nest". The Chinese combined the best available resources in the form of recruiting foreign talent with best practices and vast experience along with the countrys vast pool of skilled manpower. China's low-wage workers gave the foreign architects the freedom to design structures that would be prohibitively expensive to build in the west.
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Foreign architects, on their part, used technology that could be handled by crews working round the clock and at a massive speed. This helped the foreigners to complete most Olympic venues in a remarkably short time, often within three to four years. This resulted in a remarkable structure that was the best in the world by any standards. In addition to the Birds Nest, many other stunning architectural feats came up in Beijing in a very short span of 3-4 years. The Olympic city transformed Beijing forcing it to shed its old skin as was evident in its ability to overcome routine organizational and bureaucratic hurdles.

Lessons for us in SAIL


a. Plan for 24 hour utilization of modern construction equipment. Train our people in these. b. Enable team building exercises between experts and the team members for faster and better communication. Follow up each activity rigorously. C) Project 119 : Targeting Growth with Superb Focus & Great Execution Launched in 2001, Project 119 was named after the number of gold medals then offered in track and field, swimming and other water-based events like rowing, in which China was traditionally weak. It goes back to the 2000 Games in Sydney when China won just one gold in Project 119 disciplines. An opportunity was spotted: if China could improve in these areas, it might clean up overall. Like the construction project, the Chinese approached the task of dominating the Olympics with top-down military style disciplined execution. They outlined their objectives, planned a program, invested considerable resources, acquired state-of-theart technology and imported world-class foreign talent. The Chinese handpicked and trained two hundred thousand kids in state-run sports schools. Unprecedented systemic discipline, high sport budgets, state-of-the-art foreign technology and proven international coaches have all been incorporated into Project 119. Thirty-eight foreign coaches were hired to help train China's teams, often with the explicit understanding that they produce gold-winning athletes. China won gold medals in 16 of 28 Olympic disciplines, up from 14 four years ago in Athens and 10 at the 2000 Sydney Games. While China targets greater glory in London 2012, Project 119 is not going to end anytime soon as nine-year-old Zhang Huiman is training for the Olympic gold, running 20 miles a day preparing for the games of 2020.

Lessons for us in SAIL


a. Identify our weak areas in Project Execution. Plan to transform those into our strengths by investing in resources technology. b. Pursue Growth Plan 2011-12 with unending zeal and time bound targets. c. Recruit young talent and tune them to meet results.
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Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

CASE STUDY II
A Case Study of CEM Department, Durgapur Steel Plant

A study of successful transformation through competence building

Profile of CEM Department :


We, the authors, are working in the CEM department for the last fifteen years. The Central Engineering Maintenance (CEM) department is the captive engineering shop of Durgapur Steel Plant. Our department caters to both manufacturing and reclamation needs of the entire steel plant. Our turnover was Rs 5200 lakhs in the financial year 2007-08 and we produced high value cost saving items worth 1800 lakhs. During our working, we have experienced many highs and lows in the department along with the movement of fortune of our plant. In the last few years, with the introduction of modern technology, the demand of user departments has also changed. Quality of output and time commitment are the major issues concerning our department.

Before the thrust was given :

A CEM was considered yet another service department which was invoked when A A A A A

necessary and ignored when convenient. Over the years, the department could not strategically align with the main functional areas in spite of substantially fulfilling the requirement of spares. The hierarchical structure of executives in the department resulted in slow decision making and an absence of empowerment at the shop floor level. The composition of non-executives was a rich mix of highly skilled and experienced persons, semi-literate unskilled persons and a young bunch of educated trainee operators. However, the absence of systematic skill retention and development of competencies resulted in a mediocre level of output. The machinery and equipment was installed mostly during 1960s, most of which were prone to frequent breakdown and found wanting in reliability. The internal manufacturing plan was more suited to maintaining the status quo of the department than to satisfying the customer needs on priority basis.

The above factors displayed a poor image of the department amongst the internal customers who, given a chance, always looked for vendors outside DSP.

Beginning of the change process :


Towards the middle of 2006, leadership changes led to a different view of the department. The compulsion to change was also catalysed by an organisation - wide restructuring of manpower for better productivity. A continuous depletion of skill due to superannuation coupled with increasing demand of high value spares by the plant necessitated a rethink.
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

The following areas were identified to meet the challenges of survival and growth: 1. Replacement of old and uneconomic machinery 2. Regular manufacture of cost saving items including new project supplies 3. Development of employees in multi-skills 4. Exposure of employees to upgraded facilities

Effecting the change Initiatives taken


The biggest challenge before the department was to transform into a dynamic business unit with upgraded facilities and competent workforce. This was accomplished through the following actions: 1. A planned approach was undertaken to manufacture cost saving items with annual turnover targets. 2. New CNC Machining Centres were installed. This increased the capability and productivity of the shops. 3. Employees executive and non executive were developed through a. Competence mapping b. Identifying required competences for today and tomorrow c. Systematic training both in-house and outside DSP d. Exposure to other plants and modernized units e. Job rotation and redeployment based on changed needs 4. Thrust on quality and customer focus was given through effective implementation of ISO 9001 2000 QMS. 5. Structured meeting with customers. Monthly meetings are held at HOD level to identify requirements. 6. Regular PIWs (Performance Improve-ment Workshops) were conducted which served the dual purpose of a. Department wide communication of tasks, targets and production plans b. Involvement of people and new idea generation through brainstorming. Most of the faculty was drawn from among experienced non executives 7. Role clarity at all levels led to faster decision making and effective communication with customers. At the shift level, the shift in-charge and group leaders in all the shops were empowered to contact user departments directly and take decisions.
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Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

The visible change reaping the benefits


From a passive service department, CEM has emerged as a vibrant unit of Durgapur Steel Plant working in tandem with the primary units. CEM is now a cost and quality conscious department committed to meet customer requirements. User departments now look to CEM as the first choice for supply of spares. The work force is lean, more energetic and highly motivated. The performance of CEMs Quality Circle teams at the national and international levels stands testimony to the marked change effected. Executives from CEM are now a part of various plant level committees for improving performance in varied areas. From a turnover of Rs. 3500 lakhs in 2005-06 CEM now has recorded a turnover of Rs. 5215 lakhs in 2007-08. The successful venture has made CEM an ideal case to rise to the next level of becoming a Profit Centre.

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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Annexure-II

Survey Instrument I : Interview Questions


Dear Madam / Sir, The following questions have been designed for the purpose of undertaking a research work titled Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth for the SAIL Chairmans Trophy for Young Managers 2008-09. Please write your valuable views on the topics mentioned below. We thank you for your time and effort.

M Chandrasekhar Sr. Manager, CEM

Subhasis Sengupta Sr. Manager, CEM


RESPONDENT PROFILE

Deepak Prakash Sr.Manager, WRS

Designation No. of years in SAIL

INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What are the strengths of our organization ?

2. What are the challenges ahead?

3. What we need to equip our people with to meet these challenges ? (In other words, what are the competencies required to meet the challenges ?)

4. How do we build the required competencies ?

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Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

Annexure-III

Survey Instrument II : Questionnaire


Dear Madam / Sir, The following questionnaire has been designed for the purpose of undertaking a research work titled Building Competencies to meet the Challenges of Growth for the SAIL Chairmans Trophy for Young Managers 2008-09. Please put your tick under the rank ( 1, 2, 3 or 4 ) against each statement that you consider as is being practiced in our organisation. 1 = Strongly Disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Agree 4 = Strongly Agree We thank you for your time and effort.

M Chandrasekhar Sr. Manager, CEM

Subhasis Sengupta Sr. Manager, CEM RESPONDENT PROFILE

Deepak Prakash Sr.Manager, WRS

Your present job position Operation. / Maintenance. /Services Your present grade No. of years at work

QUESTIONNAIRE Sl.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Statement
Employees regularly refer to books, journals, internet to update their job related knowledge Employees take responsibility of the jobs assigned to them We have clearly defined benchmarks for performance for all activities in the department We do not keep a job pending if the expert in that area is absent on a particular day New work concepts are easily assimilated in normal activities
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Rank 2 3 4

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Sl.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Statement
In our department Technical Specification for new equipments are made considering all aspects People do not look at others (to shift responsibility) in case of failures Our performance is more or less consistent throughout the year There is a system of maintaining breakdown history and referring to that in my work area My department has a plan to fulfill the annual targets The organization supports application of learning into assigned jobs. Employees are authorized to decide the mode of functioning in their work area. People handling projects in my work area are trained in project management If an experienced employee retires, we do not face much problem to fill the gap I know the targets of my department and have my plan in place to achieve those The knowledge and skill acquired from training is utilized in the organization We know the production standards set for us and strive to achieve those Employees know the cost implication of the job they do and also the cost of resources utilized Most of the new plants were completed in scheduled time in our organisation Each employees work is aligned with the organizational goals Problems are analyzed and long term solutions are found out rather than short term (kaam chalao) solution Employees normally meet commitments on time, quality and desired level of performance In my area, all the related agencies work in harmony SOPs and SMPs are clearly followed in my department Only the good managers are normally assigned to handle projects in my department
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Rank 2 3 4

Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

Sl.

Statement

Rank 2 3 4

26. The target fulfillment and shortfalls are discussed in the department 27. We get sufficient learning exposure in our present job position 28. Employees do not require persuasion / supervision to do their job 29. If the output is low on a particular day, the shortfall is analyzed and addressed immediately 30. We have a plan in place for stabilization of the new equipments in our work area 31. There is a customer orientation in all decisions 32. There is a continuous and visible improvement in our processes 33. Knowledge relating to work is shared across the organization 34. Employees take ownership of their jobs 35. Consistent performance is encouraged in my department 36. There is a system of job rotation for all levels in my department 37. In our organisation, we can speed up the process whenever we feel the need 38. At our workplace, we encourage innovation and implement new ideas 39. In our organisation people are identified and trained in advance before the new equipment is set up 40. End user requirements are considered in all spheres of activities that we undertake 41. Employees have easy access to learning aids 42. We are aware of our performance as compared to the best in the industry 43. A clear guideline is available on how a particular job will be done 44. We consider cost implications in most of our decisions 45. In my department, we depend more on teams than on individual brilliance 46. In problem situations, we also resort to out of the box solutions
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Annexure-IV

Questionnaire Result Summary


Total Survey Population: 140
1. Category wise break up of survey population

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Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

2. Questionnaire Response Statement

Rank
1 2 3 4 Wgt Avg

Learning culture

Mean score = 2.43

Employees regularly refer to books, journals, internet to 34 66 28 12 2.13 update their job related knowledge The organization supports application of learning into 30 59 34 17 2.27 assigned jobs The knowledge and skill acquired from training is utilized 10 38 62 30 2.80 in the organization Problems are analyzed and long term solutions are found 31 41 53 15 2.37 out rather than short term (kaam chalao) solution We get sufficient learning exposure in our present job position 13 22 81 24 2.83 Knowledge relating to work is shared across the organization 42 53 44 1 2.03 22 32 68 18 2.59 Employees have easy access to learning aids

Ownership /Accountability

Mean score = 2.5


18 2.24 18 2.76 11 2.04 14 2.51 20 2.34 9 2.63 56 3.24 18 2.24

Employees take responsibility of the jobs assigned to them 39 46 37 People do not look at others (to shift responsibility) in case 10 31 81 of failures Employees know the cost implication of the job they do 45 56 28 and also the cost of resources utilized Employees normally meet commitments on time, quality 18 47 61 and desired level of performance Employees do not require persuasion / supervision to do 37 39 44 their job 12 37 82 Employees take ownership of their jobs In our organisation, we can speed up the process whenever 4 14 66 we feel the need 29 67 26 We consider cost implications in most of our decisions

Benchmarking /Consistency

Mean score = 2.52

We have clearly defined benchmarks for performance for 65 42 22 11 1.85 all activities in the dept Our performance is more or less consistent throughout the 15 26 68 31 2.82 year
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

We know the production standards set for us and strive to achieve those In my area, all the related agencies work in harmony If the output is low on a particular day, the shortfall is analyzed and addressed immediately Consistent performance is encouraged in my department We are aware of our performance as compared to the best in the industry

39 74 19 2.74

12 39 74 15 2.66 27 38 51 24 2.51 0 28 87 25 2.98 45 50 31 14 2.10

Systems concept
We do not keep a job pending if the expert in that area is absent on a particular day There is a system of maintaining breakdown history and referring to that in my work area If an experienced employee retires, we do not face much problem to fill the gap SOPs and SMPs are clearly followed in my department There is a continuous and visible improvement in our processes There is a system of job rotation for all levels in my department A clear guideline is available on how a particular job will be done In my department, we depend more on teams than on individual brilliance

Mean score = 2.75


26 38 56 20 2.50 8 8 28 75 29 2.89 18 68 46 3.09

6 24 73 37 3.01 11 26 79 24 2.83 41 57 42 0 2.01 9 19 81 31 2.96

15 50 41 34 2.67

Vision /Strategy
My department has a plan to fulfill the annual targets I know the targets of my department and have my plan in place to achieve those Each employees work is aligned with the organizational goals The target fulfillment and shortfalls are discussed in the department

Mean score = 2.90


4 21 60 55 3.19 11 29 78 22 2.79 27 41 51 21 2.47 4 10 85 41 3.16

Innovative approach
New work activities

Mean score = 2.62

concepts are easily assimilated in normal 18 29 67 26 2.72

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Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

At our workplace, we encourage innovation and implement 10 22 89 19 2.84 new ideas In problem situations, we also resort to out of the box 29 49 54 8 2.29 solutions

Customer focus

Mean score = 2.52

Employees are authorized to decide the mode of functioning 22 47 51 20 2.49 in their work area 31 42 42 25 2.44 There is a customer orientation in all decisions End user requirements are considered in all spheres of 16 29 83 12 2.65 activities that we undertake

Project handling
In our department TS for new equipments are made considering all aspects People handling projects in my work area are trained in project management Most of the new plants were completed in scheduled time in our organisation Only the good managers are normally assigned to handle projects in my department We have a plan in place for stabilization of the new equipments in our work area In our organisation people are identified and trained in advance before the new equipment is set up

Mean score = 2.16


39 52 34 15 2.18 42 54 35 9 2.08

34 36 50 20 2.40 49 52 35 4 1.95

27 42 49 22 2.47 51 56 29 4 1.90

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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Jt. runnersup
N Bhaskar, AGM (Opr), SMS II Abhishek Shrivastava, JM (ProjectsSteel Zone) Aniruddha Bhagwat, JM (ProjectsSteel Zone)

Bhilai Steel Plant Introduction


Im a Divine Spirit Im seeing myself through past. I am a New Born Baby. Lots of people are around me. Im feeling cold. People are looking at my face. There is a strange feeling which is engulfing me as if I am out of an envelope. Besides me a lady is sitting.. She is looking at my eyes with loads of affection and love. She is my mom. I am six months old now. My mom holds me, cuddles me, sings and talks to me. She is interacting with me. Her every action is stimulating my brain development. I can recognize voices. Everybody is encouraging me to speak... They want me to talk....They are rattling and hanging bright coloured objects around me so that I stand and grab them.They want me to stand up and move my hands to grab it. They are encouraging me to walk. They want me to walk!! I am standing on my feetI am 15 months old now I have become a demon explorer . I am curious about everything around meI want to explore...My mom is keeping a watch on my activities. She is now beginning to set my limits. She is trying to make me aware about right & wrong. At times my dad shows affection & praise for my good behaviour. This is adding up to my self esteem & confidence. !!They are making me feel good about myself I am four years old now. I am having playmates. My mom told me to take care of my friends and to share my toys with them I really enjoy playing with them...I have been playing co operatively with my friends. I am in kindergarten. Lots of reading materials & picture books have been provided to me. I am more imaginative now. Everybody is encouraging me to read..!! They are giving me simple task to do...They are also engaging me in makebelieve & dress up play in which I assume a specific role...They are enhancing my cognitive skills.!! I am a graduate A fully grown up individual!! With lots of courage, confidence, conviction and faith, I am ready to take on challenges of life...!! I have been equipped with all the knowledge, skills & attributes required for successThey have transformed me into Competent Individual to face the future challenges of the world!! In this entire process, I have imbibed the essence of fundamentals behind Competency Building'. The purpose behind my recollection of past events is to make you aware about the fact that
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Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

Voice of the Divine Spirit:


Every individual, every human being, every organization, and every corporate can build the competency level of their employees, in similar way, as the parents build competency level of their New Born Baby during upbringing. It requires same strategy, dedication, time and effort to impart knowledge, skills & attitude to an employee to make them competent for meeting the challenges of growth.

A Divine Spirit as Voice of the Respondents.


The research paper evolves a Divine Spirit carrying the viewpoints of the employees and suggestions/ recommendations given by the respondents through survey, field interactions & interviews. The concept of Divine Spirit came into existence during interaction with the employees in the field survey. In the above story the analogy is as follows:

Parent

Line Authorities in collaboration with HR Department

Child

An Employee Field Survey Results/Recommendations/Suggestions

Voice of the Divine Spirit

Research Methodology
Literature Survey: Extensive Literature Survey through books, National & International journals, magazines like Harvard Business Review etc kindled our thought process. Internet search for world class articles updated us about the latest research trend & work done in this field to avoid repetation. Discussions with Team members & Experts: Views of each group member were discussed in length & guidance from experts was taken. The telephonic interviews & exchange of emails with exemployees of SAIL (working with ArcelorMittal & TATACorus) helped us in gaining insight into the various issues pertaining to Competency Building. Field Interaction: Questionnaires were designed & responses were gathered from 416 Senior Supervisors, Frontline Executives & Middle Managers of Bhilai Steel Plant. The questionnaire was designed to gauge the self perception of employees about their
39

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

competency level & to measure the Exposure and Effectiveness of various Competency Building Methods. Data Analysis & Interpretation: Data collected through questionnaire & on site discussions was analyzed. This broadened our understanding on the topic. The perceived barriers during competency building were discussed & recommendations given by the employees were analyzed. Interviews with Top Management: Challenges of growth were discussed at length & suggestions to overcome those challenges were recorded. Two Models have been proposed in this paper, namely, Competency Wheel Model and Alpha, Beta & Gamma Competency Model to depict the relationship between competency building & future challenges of growth. Case Study: To further strengthen our empirical study, two case studies were conducted. The first case study deals with the Converter Lining Life at SMS II of BSP. Second case study deals with the competency building of total 468 employees, through collective efforts of Power Plant I at Bhilai Steel Plant.

Demystifying the theme Competency What & Why?


Competency for a job can be defined as a set of human attributes that enable an employee to meet and exceed expectations of his internal as well as external customers and stake holders. A competency is the capability to apply or use a set of related knowledge, skills, and abilities required to successfully perform "critical work functions" or tasks in a defined work setting. Competency in context of an organization is ability to use its Strength & weed out its Weakness to exploit Opportunities and face Threats of the business challenges. Every successful business enterprise is bestowed with some core competencies. These core competencies have enabled organizations like Ranbaxy Laboratories, ITC, Wipro, Infosys Technologies, Dr Reddy's Laboratories to grow their businesses from strength to strength.

Competency is needed to:

A Translate the organization's vision and goals into expected results A Identify gap between present state and future requirements A Continue with the trend of growth with depleting natural resources
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Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

Exhibit#1 Name of Company POSCO WIPRO RANBAXY TATA POWER Dr. Reddys Laboratories HDFC Bank Base Line
We move the world in silence Not a One Man show A True Multinational Efficiency = Power

Core Competencies

A Technology Leadership A Process Innovation (FINEX, poStrip) A Innovative employee compensation A Highly competent in BPO business A World Wide presence in around 100
countries

A High

technology based Islanding System No power cut in Mumbai

The Freedom to Excel Balancing Growth and Risk

A Discovery driven company A Quality Research A Retail customers A Loan against shares and transactional
banking

Challenges of Growth
Challenges and opportunities facing businesses today include unprecedented growth in the developing world, the increased need for consistency, standards, controls, compliance and governance, and the cost, risk and management needs associated with evolving supply chain issues. The global flow of information, technology, capital goods, services and people has never been greater. Improving performance has become a persistent need for companies striving to remain competitive and effective in this environment. Main challenges confronted by any organization for its growth are:

A A A A A

Improving Business Performance Managing Finance Managing People Managing Risk Operating Globally
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

A A A

Reducing Costs Government & Regulatory Compliance Responding to Change

Steel Scenario
A) Indian Steel Scenario Looking into the mirror

The Indian steel industry has entered into a new development stage from 200506, riding high on the resurgent economy and rising demand for steel. Rapid rise in production has resulted in India becoming the 5th largest producer of steel.

STEEL

It has been estimated by certain major Few Domestic Steel Makers investment houses, such as Credit Suisse that, Indias steel consumption will continue to grow at nearly 16% rate annually, till 2012, fuelled by demand for construction projects worth US$ 1 trillion. The scope for raising the total consumption of steel is huge, given that per capita steel consumption is only 46 kg compared to 150 kg across the world and 250 kg in China. The National Steel Policy has envisaged steel production to reach 110 million tonnes by 201920. However, based on the assessment of the current ongoing projects, both in greenfield and brown field, Ministry of Steel has projected that the steel capacity in the country is likely to be 124.06 million tonnes by 201112. Further, based on the status of MOUs signed by the private producers with the various State Governments, it is expected that Indias steel capacity would be nearly 293 million tonne by 2020.

In India, there is enormous potential for growth in steel consumption. Indias demand for steel will continue to be supported in the future by the countrys automotive and construction sectors. Long term growth and development of the Indian steel industry, however, would continue to depend largely on its cost and quality competitiveness. By 2012, the consumption of finished steel in India is expected to reach around 5560 million tones (MT), nearly double the current level of 40MT.
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Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

The opening up of the Indian economy has posed numerous challenges and has also provided Indian organizations enormous possibilities of an unlimited global market. Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) continues to be the largest steel producer in India.

B) Global Scenario Looking across the boundary


Fast globalization and consolidation in the steel industry in world over has thrown up many challenges and provided myriad opportunities of growth as well. Exhibit#2 shows the production and consumption position of steel in world in 2007 .

Exhibit#2

A In 2007. the world crude steel output reached 1343.5 million metric tons and showed
a growth of 7.5% over the previous year. It is the fifth consecutive year that world crude steel production grew by more than 7%. (Source: IISI)

A China remained the worlds largest crude steel producer in 2007 also (489.00 million
metric tons) followed by Japan (112.47 million metric tons) and USA (97.20 million metric tons). India occupied the 5th position (53.10 million metric tons) for the second consecutive year. (Source: IISI)

A The International Iron & Steel Institute (IISI) in its forecast for 2008 has predicted that

2008 will be another strong year for the steel industry with apparent steel use rising from 1,202 million metric tonnes in 2007 to 1,282 million metric tonnes in 2008 i.e. by 6.7%. Further, the BRIC ( Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries will continue to lead the growth with an expected increase in production by over 11% compared to 2007.
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Exhibit#3

SWOT Analysis of SAIL Where we stand?


Having analyzed steel scenario both domestic as well as global and reading through the business magazines, publications, newspapers and various publications of SAIL, we were now clearly seeing our company SAILs various aspects. Thus, we arrived at the SWOT analysis of SAIL.

Exhibit#4 Strengths
Market leader in India in terms of steel production with 26% market share Large pool of experienced, committed, skilled workforce Enormous growth potential through Greenfield/Brownfield projects Largest Marketing Network Rich Product mix Compliance to International standards like ISO, OSHAS etc

Weaknesses
Only domestic orientation Lengthy decision making process Ageing plants and machineries High cost of production Slow in adapting to latest technical developments Dependence on imported coal

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Opportunities
Product Diversification Penetrating the rural market Emerging segments like pipelines in oil & gas transportation, ship building and defence Growth segments like construction and infrastructure Mergers & Acquisitions High GDP

Threats
Declining global steel demand and prices Constraints in availability and cost of critical raw material like coking coal and iron ore Capacity addition by global as well as domestic players Emergence of China as net exporter of steel in the global market Time & Cost over run of projects Attrition of talented people

Categorizing Competencies in the context of SAIL


After much deliberation on the topic we have categorized competencies under three sections in the context of SAIL We have also identified different competencies associated with each category, shown in Exhibit#5

Exhibit#5

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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

S. No.

Alpha Competencies Beta Competencies (Individual Competencies) (Influential Competencies)

Gamma Competencies (Organizational Competencies)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Personal Effectiveness Technical Skills Communication Skills Analytical Skills Adaptability Passion for Excellence Execution Skills Inner Drive Work Ethics

Leadership Skills Motivational Skills Planning Skills Delegation Result Orientation Decision Making Team Work

Strategic Planning Resource Management Project Management Marketing Efficiency Work Culture Corporate Social Responsibility Change Management Continuous Improvement Safe & Healthy Working Environment

Creativity & Innovation Operational Efficiency

10. Business Awareness

Through our literature survey and interactions we have identified key behaviour indicators associated with each competency in the context of SAIL. These are detailed in the following pages:

Alpha Competencies (Individual Competencies)


A strong foundation is a necessity for success. The alpha competence cannot be compromised and is the foundation for future growth of an organization. The competencies are to be developed and enhanced at individual levels, to benefit the organization. An individual should be able to apply his knowledge, skill and expertise to resolve problems rather than passing them to other functionaries.

alpha 1.

Personal Effectiveness demonstrates selfawareness and personal capability Key Behaviours

alpha 2.

A A A A A A

Identifies own strengths and limitations Seeks opportunities for selfdevelopment Takes initiative to clarify own responsibilities and accountabilities Takes on different responsibilities to enhance learning Applies lessons learned to new situations Demonstrates effective Time & Stress Management Skills

Technical Competency is the set of human attributes required to effectively perform the technical responsibilities of the job position.
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Key Behaviours

apha 3.

A A A A

Provides technical solutions Updates himself in the work area Keeps tracks of latest technologies Manages exigencies

Communication Skillsis the set of human attributes required to communicate ideas, thoughts and feelings clearly and correctly using oral or written means. Key Behaviours

A A A
alpha 4.

Uses most effective communication style and method Communicates in a tone and manner that demonstrates respect Listens without interrupting and asks questions to clarify understanding Communicates issues timely

Analytical Skillsis the set of human attributes required to understand and interpret the data and information. Key Behaviours

alpha 5.

A A A A

Demonstrates logical thinking Observes keenly Seeing the whole out of parts Ability to read between the lines

Adaptability demonstrates flexibility and resilience in response to changing work environment and demands Key Behaviours

alpha 6.

A A A A A A

Seeks information about impacts of change on the work environment Demonstrates a willingness to view change from a positive perspective Manages personal reactions in the face of changing circumstances Is flexible in adopting changes to work priorities and practices Learns relevant knowledge and skills to meet changing requirements Maintains effective working relationships during change

Passion for Excellence (Quality oriented approach) Improves work practices to achieve desired results and support productivity.
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Key Behaviours

alpha 7.

A A A A A A A

Seeks opportunities to improve work practices Generates ideas for improvement Actively participates in implementing improvement initiatives Pays attention to the quality of (his/her) work Maintains quality standards of (his/her) work Monitors work results Evaluates work results to determine productivity

Execution Skills demonstrates ability to accomplish a given task within a given time frame. Key Behaviours

alpha 8.

A A A A A A

Setting priorities Assessing the risk involved Mobilizing the resources available Optimum utilization of resources Minimizing time & cost overrun Coordinating between internal & external agencies

Inner Drive ability of an individual to take initiative, chase & accomplish a given task without the help of external motivating factors. Key Behaviours

alpha 9.

A A A A A A A

Perseverance Sense of responsibility Sense of ownership Resilience

Work Ethics values & principles associated with work. Key Behaviours Set of beliefs. Moral values. Honesty & integrity

alpha 10.

Business Awarenessthis deals with understanding of the complexities of a business and imbibing the spirit behind the companys vision, mission & goal.
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Key Behaviours

Beta Competencies (Influential Competencies)


Having acquired the Individual Competencies it is very important to work on ones Influential Competencies. It is the Influential Competencies which cultivates team spirit, builds atmosphere of mutual trust, provides required leadership and develops a culture where employees are striving for excellence. Below is the list of various influential competencies and their key behaviours.

A A A A

Understands the dynamics of market Knows about companys long term objectives & short term goals Knows about companys and competitors strengths & weaknesses Understands the requirements of customers

beta 1.

Leadership Skills ability to influence people & mobilizing resources in order to get best out of them. Key Behaviours Inspires people Has a transformational approach Ability to look into the future Does right thing at a right time Sets long term goals Motivational Skills Ability to encourage people to accomplish a task.

beta 2.

A A A A A A A A A

Key Behaviours Generating enthusiasm Ability to bring out the best Recognizing /acknowledging the effort of the team members Boosting the self esteem of team members Planning Skills is the set of human attributes required to understand inter relationships and requirements of different activities to be done to achieve the end result. Key Behaviours Ability to break down the task into subtasks Sequencing of subtasks Establishing relationship between different tasks Finalizing time frame for every subtask and monitoring

beta 3.

beta 4.

A A A A

Creativity & Innovationencourages and supports, new ideas and appropriate solutions to enhance results.
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Key Behaviours Ability to develop new ways to improve existing methods Evaluates processes against best practices to make improvements Fosters an environment where creative ideas and innovative approaches are welcomed Encourages team members to share diverse perspectives to generate new ideas

A A A A

beta 5.

Decision Making is the set of human attributes required to decide the course of action under any situation. Key Behaviours Ability to synthesize all available data Ability to correlate facts & ground realities Arriving at a viable solution

beta 6.

A A A

Delegation is the set of human attributes required to empower the subordinates for effective operations. Key Behaviours Identifying right person for the right job Assigning responsibilities Empowering and taking responsibilities for failures

beta 7.

A A A

Result Orientation demonstrates initiative and resourcefulness to achieve desired goals and objectives and strives for excellence. Key Behaviours Evaluates results against goals and objectives Communicates expected standards and results Holding team members accountable to achieve desired results Fosters an environment where people feel personally committed to achieve results Establishes challenging and relevant targets for the organization

beta 8.

A A A A A

Team workis the ability to actively collaborates with others to produce desired results in a supportive environment. Key Behaviours Sharing knowledge, expertise in order to encourage and strengthen team performance Collaborates with team members to solve problems Stands behind team decisions even if it is not his/her choice Recognizes accomplishments of others Appreciates the different strengths of team members

A A A A A

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Gamma Competencies (Organizational Competencies)


Following are the main organizational competencies and their key behaviours

amma 1.

Strategic Planning is the business acumen required to visualize near and distant future conditions and develop appropriate organizational response. Key Behaviours

amma 2.

A A A A A A

Assessing companys present position in the market Forecasting the companys future position Chalking out a growth plan Developing strategies and actions to realize the companys goals Ensures that initiatives are matched with appropriate resources Mergers and acquisitions

Resource Management Optimum utilization of resources is one of the greatest competency an organization can possess. Key Behaviours

amma 3.

A A A A A

Strengthening supply chain Improving logistics Monitoring system for tracking materials Exploring the availability & demand of resources Developing and Managing Human Resources

Project Management monitoring, timely execution and successful implementation of projects provides competitive advantage to an organization. Key Behaviours

amma 4.

A A A

Understands the implications of a project delay To minimize time & cost over run Displays a sense of urgency to complete a project

Operational Efficiency ability of an organization to operate with best technoeconomic parameters & maximum resource utilization. Key Behaviours

A A A A A

Thorough knowledge of SOPs (i.e. Operations & Maintenance) Optimum utilization of resources Minimizing down time Adherence to universally accepted quality parameters Process innovation, Product innovation & Differentiation
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amma 5.

Marketing Management traits that deals with intricacies of marketing and enables the organization to understand the complexities of the market. Key Behaviours

A A A A A
amma 6.

Awareness about the market Keeping abreast with the trend of the market Chalking a marketing plan Knowing the competitors strengths & weaknesses Exploring & developing newer markets

Work Culture a culture full of trust, learning and innovation motivates its employees to perform better. Key Behaviours

A A A
amma 7.

Respects the practices, customs & values of employees and norms of an organization Considers diversity as a tool to learn & encourage new practices Nurtures the traditions of universal brotherhood

Corporate Social Responsibility is the ways and means by which the company shows care & concern for society. Key Behaviours

A A A A A

Developing infrastructure, drinking water facilities and improving literacy level in peripheral areas in which the company operates Protection of environment, flora and fauna and historical monuments Designing schemes to uplift the deprived & under privileged Helping people affected in natural calamities Encouraging sports culture

amma 8.

Change Management is the ability of an organization to adapt to the fast changing business methods, including technology and HR management Key Behaviours

A A

Manages change effectively that can help smooth transitions Keeps abreast visvis technology, technique, and methods of working, with the least disruption in business affairs
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A A A
amma 9.

Identifies the scope of change & experiments in every sphere Assesses the impact of change, plans appropriate actions to manage the transition Provides the background, need and advantages for undertaking the change

Continuous Improvement is the ability to improve in every sphere of organizations operation by continuously learning, unlearning & relearning. Key Behaviours

A A A A A
amma 10. Safe

Job rotation & enrichment Identifies the scope of improvement in every sphere Adopting new methods & procedures Sharing knowledge and ideas with world class steel giants Using business tools like Six Sigma, KM, ERP, and MES

and Healthy Working Environmentdeals with the ability of the organization to provide safe and healthy working environment to the suppliers and employees.

Key Behaviours

A A A A

Adherence to world class safety standards Adherence to pollution control norms A strong health policies Transparency in dealings and negotiations with suppliers and contractors

Empirical Study Field Survey, Analysis and Recommen dations


Our empirical study was conducted at Bhilai Steel Plant. Such diverse is the plant that we decided it would be most apt to divide the survey population/departments into few groups depending on their functions and common attributes. These groups were categorized under the name of Hindu Mythological Gods. (Exhibit#6)

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GODS IN BHILAI STEEL PLANT


Exhibit#6
VISHNU GROUP CO&CCD, SPs, BFs, SMS I & II, Mills.

BRAHMA GROUP Projects, CED, Town Services

LAKSHMI GROUP Finance, Marketing

INDRA GROUP Oxygen plant, Water supply, Propane plant, CAS, PP I, PP II.

GANESH GROUP CET, BEDB, RDCIS, RCL

VISHWAKARMA GROUP' CHM, CRM, ETL, MSDS, PLEM, CPS.

SARASWATI GROUP HR Dept, Personnel Dept.

HANUMAN GROUP Safety Dept., Medical, Fire Services.

Survey was conducted by administering questionnaires to the employees. The first section of survey was designed to gauge the self perception of employees about their competency level & the second section was conducted to find the exposure& effectiveness of various competency building methods and barriers while building competencies. Note Resemblance of Gods with respective departments is for survey purpose only. No religious sentiments are attached to it.
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Survey Population Table S. No. Category Departments Covered No. of respondents

A. B. C. D. E. F.

Brahma Group Vishnu Group Lakshmi Group Hanuman Group Ganesh Group Indra Group

Projects Dept., CED, Township. CO & CCD, SPs, BFs, SMS I & II, Mills. Finance, Marketing

70 130 32

Safety Dept., Medical, Fire Services, Vigilance 38 CET, BEDB, RDCIS, RCL 41

Oxygen plant, water supply, propane plant, 43 CAS, PP I, PP II. HR Dept, Personnel Dept CHM, CRM, ETL, MSDS, PLEM, CPS. 30 32

G. H.

Saraswati Group Vishwakarma Group

Exhibit#7
Total no. of respondents= 416 Category wise Breakup Category Nos.

Sr. Supervisors(+ E0) Executives (E1,E2) Executives (E3,E4) Executives (E5,E6) Executives (E7) Total

93 87 90 108 38 416

Survey Analysis Self perception of Employees


This section details the survey analysis regarding self perception of employees in regard to competency levels.(Refer Section B of questtionnaire1 Annexure1)
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A. Brahma Group Projects Dept., CED, Township

Strengths High Technical Expertise Good Execution Skills Highly passionate about the quality of work Areas of Concern Communication Skills Business Awareness.

B. Vishnu Group CO & CCD, SPs, BFs, SMS I & II, Mills
Strengths

High Work Ethics High Technical Skill


Areas of Concern

Adaptability Business Awareness

C. Lakshmi Group Finance, Marketing


Strengths

Good Communication Skills High Business Awareness


Areas of Concern

Analytical Skills Inner Drive


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D. Ganesh Group CET, BEDB, RDCIS, RCL


Strengths

High Technical Skills Business Awareness


Areas of Concern

Analytical Skills Inner Drive

E. Indra Group Power Plant I & II, Oxygen Plant, Propane Plant, Water Supply, CAS

Strengths

Inner Drive High Technical Skill


Areas of Concern

Analytical Skills Business Awareness

F. Vishwakarma Group CHM, CRM, ETL, MSDS, PLEM, CPS


Strengths

High Execution Skills Technical Competency Passion for Excellence


Areas of Concern

Adaptability Business Awareness


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G. Saraswati Group HR Department & Personnel Department


Strengths

High Personal Effectiveness High Passion for Excellence


Areas of Concern

Inner Drive

H. Hanuman Group Safety Dept., Medical, Fire Services, Vigilance


Strengths

High Personal Effectiveness High Passion for Excellence Inner Drive


Areas of Concern

Communication Skills Analytical Skills

Organisation wise Findings

Survey revealed that the strengths of BSP are Technical Skills and High Work Ethics. The areas where we need to concentrate our efforts are Communication Skills, Adaptability & Business Awareness.
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Ten Commandments to Develop Competencies


Having analyzed various strengths and areas of concern with regard to competency elements across various groups and after discussing about fundamentals of competency building methods amongst ourselves and our interaction with the key persons we arrived at Ten Commandments which shall help in building competencies. Exhibit#8

In order to hone our skills continuously and increase our knowledge database we need to work out in the same way as a body builder works out to build his muscles or a gymnast sweats up in order to attain flexibility. It is important here for managers to overcome the perceived barriers by taking the help of concerned HODs or HR department time to time. Above all combine efforts of the individuals and the supporting policies of the company will certainly raise the competency level of an employee.
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1. By Coaching, Counselling & Mentoring (CCM): Coaching, Counselling, and Mentoring can dramatically improve employee productivity and satisfaction. There is a big difference between continuously encouraging employees to do their jobs well (Coaching), attempting to fix poor performance (Counselling), and helping top performers excel (Mentoring). Presently in SAIL this method is being used during Management Trainee period. In BSP this has been extended to lower and middle management levels also. A CCM can be ones best source of continued professional development.

Perceived Barriers: (Ref. SecB of survey instrument)

A A A

Finding a CCM is like finding a pearl in the sea as an efficient manager may not prove to be an effective mentor. To find a suitable coach, counselor or a mentor may prove to be difficult as senior executives may not devote much time on the learner because of immense work pressure and high responsibilities. Its difficult to spot a person who is strong in the areas in which an individual is weak.

From the responses of the respondents we arrived at..


Voice of the Divine Spirit:
A mentor can be found within the company or outside the company or industry. The most appropriate one will be a person from the mother department. Also, while choosing a mentor the concerned learner may be given a choice through HR department to select his Coach, Counsellor or a Mentor on the basis of expertise.

2. By Role Modeling: A Role Model is someone whose behaviour is imitated by others. Whenever an individual tries to enhance his efficiency in any area, first he takes inspiration from an effective person of that area & perceives him as a role model to adopt his working style. At later stages he develops his own style. Inspiration received from observing people we admire is the best method to enhance personal effectiveness. In SAIL every executive should try to portray himself as a Role Model to inspire others. In this way the competency level of the Role Model will also increase, as the individual will go for continuous learning and self analysis to set an example for others. It is similar to the efforts of parents to guide their young ones; some of them quit smoking & drinking in order to set an example for their young ones. Hence, this process of competency building is mutually beneficial.
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Perceived Barriers:

A A

Its difficult to find a single role model who is strong in the areas in which you are weak. Imitating a role model may hamper ones originality and innovative approach.

Voice of the Divine Spirit: Dont always go for positive role model. There are negativerole models also who behave so badly that they serve as a good example of what NOT to do. Read the biographies of famous people from time to time. Every executive should portray himself as a Role Model to inspire others. This can be termed as Two ways competency building method.

3. By Assigning Playgrounds: Assigning playground is one of the best ways of developing competencies of individual and teams by providing exposure to real life situations without accountability and risks involved. Competencies like personal effectiveness, technical skills, communication skills, analytical skills, execution skills, leadership skills, planning skills, motivational & delegating skills, decision making & team work can be developed by using the above method. There should be ample opportunities and platforms where people can unleash their creativity.

Perceived Barrier:

A A A

Without accountability the effectiveness of this method may become less as the individual may take the entire exercise lightly. Involvement of all immediate seniors may not be there as they may also take it casually rather than taking it as a Competency Development Technique. Exposure may be limited to a particular area.

Voice of the Divine Spirit: Continuous monitoring by respective HODs can infuse seriousness among the participants. Learner himself should take initiatives to explore other areas by persuading the concerned HODs, so that exposure may not be confined to a particular area.

4. By Simulation Exercises: Basically, simulation refers to representation or imitation of the real world. In its simplest form, it is learning by doing. Consequences, responses, reactions, and effects can all be entertained and experienced in the virtual world. A much more productive method is using business simulation programs.
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Perceived Barriers:

A A

As this process of competency building involves a little fun and entertainment, therefore there is a possibility that employees may deviate from the objective of learning by overindulging. As the real life situation is incorporated into virtual exercises, the risk involved is very minimal. So the desired seriousness may not be there in the participants.

Voice of the Divine Spirit: Self monitoring and self control is the only measure to check time spent on simulation games. Responsible learners very well know when to stop. Read the biographies of famous people from time to time. This method can be very useful for the company as the individual gets exposed to real life situations beforehand, thereby, saving revenue loss because of wrong decisions.

5. By On the Job Training: This type of competency building technique is based upon experiences gained by performing a task. It is rightly said that practice and practice makes a man perfect. On the Job Training is another method of boosting competencies like delegating skills, result orientation, decision making, team work and work culture.

Perceived Barriers:

A A

This type of competency building measure may confine the trainee in a particular area. Because of immense work pressure & time constraint, this competency building method will make the individual competent in a specific area.

Voice of the Divine Spirit: For all round development of an individual the respective heads of the department should ensure that exposure is given in every field. Job rotation in every three to four years will give rich exposure to the learner. The learner should also identify the areas in which he wants to get the exposure keeping in view his individual growth plan.

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6. Professional Bodies, Conferences & Seminars: To become abreast of the latest trends and recent practices in technology and management this type of competency building method is most appropriate for all levels. Competencies like technical skills, passion for excellence, inner drive, business awareness, leadership skills, result orientation, and decision making are enhanced.

Perceived barrier:

A A A

All people who are identified & given opportunities are not released by the department because of work pressure. Very few managers show interest in the membership of Professional Bodies. Seminars and Conferences are usually taken casually rather than a competency building method.

Voice of the Divine Spirit: Employees who are not released due to work responsibilities should immediately be given another chance so that they may not be deprived of the opportunity. Employees need encouragement to enroll in professional bodies through HR initiatives & persuasion by the concerned HODs.

7. By Job Rotation and Enrichment: Job Rotation at junior and middle level executives may be pivoted around their strengths and attributes and the future roles expected of them. Focus must be on exposure in all related areas so that by the time the individual gets higher responsibilities, he has an overall experience of almost all the areas. Job rotation also adds to the satisfaction derived from balanced distribution of work load, working conditions and learning opportunities.

Perceived Barriers:

A A

Job Rotation is normally viewed as just another transfer rather than as an important tool for implementing HR strategy of the company. Job Rotation may become a way of punishing poor performers, settling scores arising from organizational politics.
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Voice of the Divine Spirit: The perception of viewing job rotation as a means of punishment can be addressed by spreading awareness through HR initiatives. Before job rotation concerned manager may be invited by higher authorities to explain the benefits of the entire exercise. Poor performers need to be identified through competency mapping and according to the weaknesses new assignments can be given.

8. By Self Directed Learning Method (SDL). This is a competency building process in which the learner is involved in identifying what needs to be learned and takes the lead in finding and organizing the answers. Educational resources like Books, Journals, Magazines, CDs and Internet can be of great help to build competencies like personal effectiveness, technical skills, communication skills, analytical skills, business awareness, leadership skills, motivational skills, planning skills and team work.

Perceived Barriers:

A A A

Competency building using this method depends a lot on persons reading habit, literature choice and interest. This type of competency building method requires more time and effort. It depends on ability of the learner to synthesize what is found during literature research and apply it in the specific area.

Voice of the Divine Spirit: The perception of viewing job rotation as a means of punishment can be addressed by spreading awareness through HR initiatives. Before job rotation concerned manager may be invited by higher authorities to explain the benefits of the entire exercise. Poor performers need to be identified through competency mapping and according to the weaknesses new assignments can be given.

9. By Projects Based Learning (PBL): It has been found that individual & group projects enhance ones competency level up to a great extent. They kindle ones thought process through brain storming and interaction with wide range of people. Some good projects may add feathers to the company as some of the projects will be innovative and will be at par with international standards, thereby, creating an opportunity for filing patents.
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A A A

Perceived Barriers:
Projects may be repetitive in nature therefore individuals original work could not be reflected. Without proper guidance by seniors this method may become less effective and will lose the relevance in due course of time. As of now it is considered as a formality rather than a tool to build the competency level.

Voice of the Divine Spirit: The projects can be made mandatory, at least one project in every two year and can be made time bound. A reward or recognition can be attached for indigenous work to motivate the participants.

10. By Educational Institutes and Special Courses: Competencies like personal effectiveness, technical skills , communication skills, analytical skills, business awareness, leadership skills, motivational skills, planning skills and team work can be developed by imparting training to the individuals through premier institutes like IIM and IITs. SAIL as a policy sponsors potential candidates to premier institutes like IITs and IIMs to nurture KSA (Knowledge, Skill & Ability). For exposing managers to the latest management concepts under exchange of knowledge scheme SAIL is working with reputed knowledge Institutions like Management Development Institute (MDI), Gurgaon , Indian Institute of Management, Indore and Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad.

Perceived Barrier:

A A

As the number of seats allotted for advanced courses will be less and applicants will be more, therefore, not all the potential candidates will get the chance to build their competency level via this method. After doing an advance course from premier institute the candidate may opt for lateral entry to any other company.

Voice of the Divine Spirit: Premier institutes can be asked to design special courses in the field of management for personnel of SAIL. To check attrition, the personnel can be offered an increment along with a special designation viz. Senior Manager (Distinguished) after completing PG from renowned institutes.

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Competency Wheel Model


On the basis of the Ten Commandments, we propose a Competency Wheel Model. The model depicts that when an individual (I) Reads, Learns and Practices he attains Knowledge, Skill and Attitude (KSA). Employees of every organization do have some KSA, on basis of which they work. But in order to work efficiently and to acquire higher level of leadership skills, the competency level has to be raised from the present average level to a higher level. This can be achieved by further refining/ nurturing the (KSA) through the various competency developing methods through Ten Commandments.
Competency Wheel Model Exhibit=9

Toward superior performance

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Reality Check and Suggested Line of Action


SAIL is implementing a massive program to tap the human resource potential in order to meet the future challenges of growth. In this context look it is necessary analyze the effectiveness of various competency developing methods. We conducted a survey on our flagship unit Bhilai Steel Plant. Total No. of respondents = 416. The abbreviations used are as follows:
S. No. Competency Building Methods Abbreviation

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Coaching, Counselling & Mentoring Role Modeling Assigning Playgrounds Simulation Exercises On the Job Training Professional Bodies, Conferences & Seminars Job Rotation and Enrichment Self Directed Learning Method Projects Based Learning Educational Institutes and Special Courses

CCM RM AP SE OJT PCS JRE SDL PBL EI & SC

I. Brahma Group Projects Dept., CED, Township


Index Exposure Effectiveness CCM 15% 95% RM 55% 80% AP 5% SE 12% OJT 100% 66% PCS 21% 72% JRE 55% 91% SDL 86% PBL EI&SC 80% 28%

72% 98%

100% 88% 94%

Reality Check This group mainly relies on self directed learning and on the job training to enhance their competencies (86% & 100 % respectively) since last 50 years. This group has very less exposure to competency building methods viz. Role Modeling, Simulation Exercises, Assigning Play Grounds and Educational Institutes & Special Courses. Suggested Line of Action Efforts are needed to provide a Coach, Counsellor & Mentor to build the competency level of employees of this group, as 95% respondents felt that CCM as a tool to build competency level can be very effective. Respondents wants simulation exercises related to upcoming projects viz. Blast Furnace No. 8 & SMS III to be developed to broaden their understanding.
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In the context SAIL Corporate Plan 2012, specially designed simulation exercises must be adopted to get an idea of erection sequence of Heavy Machines beforehand. Respondents also felt the need of simulation soft wares to deal with the complexities of hydraulically operated machines so that response & reaction time can be minimized on site.

II. Vishnu Group CO & CCD, SPs, BFs, SMS I & II, Mills
CCM RM Exposure Effectiveness 45% 65% 38% 77% AP 5% 55% SE 12% OJT 98% PCS 48% 69% JRE 18% 98% SDL 100% 85% PBL 8% 96% EI&SC 25% 98%

100% 82%

Reality Check Exposures to competency development techniques like simulation exercises & through educational institutes & special courses are very less. Only 12% & 25% of the respondents respectively have been exposed to these techniques. Only 38% employees had a role model. The exposure to competency building through Project Based Learning is very less at about 8%, although 96% of them were of the opinion that PBL can be very effectively used to build competencies. Suggested Line of Action Efforts are needed to adopt job rotation & enrichment in a more scientific way. Specially designed projects are needed to nurture creativity & innovation. The respondents appreciated the academic collaboration tie up of BSP with Swami Vivekananda Technical University of Chhattisgarh to provide M.Tech. in Steel Technology. The demand to increase seats in such courses has been emerged out very strongly by the respondents of this group.

III. Lakshmi Group Finance, Marketing


CCM Exposure Effectiveness 25% 30% RM 78% 81% AP 6% 55% SE OJT PCS 41% 91% JRE 37% 85% SDL 95% 74% PBL 47% 96% EI&SC 15% 97% 45% 100% 76% 73%

Reality Check Almost 53% of the respondents never got an opportunity to enhance their skills through PBL. Approximately 96% of respondents termed the PBL as a very effective tool to build competencies. Respondents also suggested that in order to promote the Project Based Learning a financial reward or recognition like Best Project of the year for indigenous project work. Suggested Line of Action Efforts are needed to introduce PBL as a competency developing technique on a large scale. Respondents felt the need of a reward or recognition to encourage indigenous project work & to motivate the participants. This group also felt the need of higher education or specially designed courses in the field of finance & marketing.
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Respondents want projects to be made mandatory, at least one project in every two year .Some suggested associating a reward for indigenous project work. Respondents quoted an example of TATA Steel who has adopted the Project Based Learning in a large scale.

IV. Ganesh Group CET, BEDB, RDCIS, RCL


CCM Exposure Effectiveness 14% 73% RM 26% 62% AP 07% 72% SE 43% 73% OJT 98% 96% PCS 38% 88% JRE 10% 85% SDL 87% 63% PBL 19% 84% EI&SC 22% 91%

Reality Check Respondents appreciated competency building through EI&SC, PBL, JRE, PCS & OJT etc with OJT & EI & SC to be most effective with 96% & 91% effectiveness rating respectively. The respondents termed assigning playgrounds to be moderately effective with 72% effectiveness rating. The outcome of the survey also reveals that approximately 43% have been exposed to simulation exercises in the past. Suggested Line of Action This group stresses on competency building via educational institutes and special courses (in the field of design engineering). Respondent also wants interdepartmental projects to enhance their competency level. They want systematic project to be designed not only in the area of design engineering but also in newer areas like product development etc. Quality circles of various departments of BSP address technical problems encountered in the processes, as projects, on regular basis. In the year 2007, three QC teamsone each from SMS I, Rail & Structural mill & SP3 participated in the International Convention in Beijing, China and all the three teams bagged Gold Medal in various events.

V. Indra Group Power Plant I & II, Oxygen Plant, Propane Plant, Water Supply, CAS
CCM RM Exposure Effectiveness 11% 65% 82% 85% AP 9% 52% SE 5% 82% OJT 100% 90% PCS JRE SDL PBL 18% 77% EI&SC 8% 89%

27% 55% 88% 83% 92% 84%

Reality Check The respondents of this group consider job rotation as the most effective method to build competencies (92%) & also had exposure to this method upto 55%. The effectiveness of various competency methods like EI & SC, RM, OJT,
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PCS & SE is also very high. Most of the respondents were highly motivated to develop their competencies through self directed learning. The access to library by employees of this group is highest among all. Almost 65% visit libraries frequently. Suggested Line of Action The group highlighted the need of a simulator for various operational processes. This, according to them will help in reducing breakdowns, understanding the processes and effect of failures, to serve the internal customers better. Various branches of business can also be covered such as strategy and strategic thinking, leadership, management, business, industry, and financial acumen, people management, collaboration, and team building under business simulation programs. Rourkela Steel Plant imparts training through simulator for Power Plant employees in collaboration with CPTI, Rourkela. Simulation modules are available on www. steeluniversity.org to understand the complexities of the production processes.

VI. Vishwakarma group CHM, CRM, ETL, MSDS, PLEM, CPS


CCM Exposure 61% RM AP SE OJT PCS JRE 41% 79% SDL 80% 95% PBL 33% 73% EI&SC 18% 85%

47% 03% 80% 50%

63% 96% 31% 87% 92% 90%

Effectiveness 85%

Reality Check This group has demonstrated very keen interest in the entire exercise & answered almost all the questions of the questionnaire. The respondents found SDL, OJT, EI & SC, SE, CCM & RM to be very appealing. Although exposures to the methods like JRE, AP, PBL & EI & SC are very less, they have rated the effectiveness of competency development techniques to be very high. This group feels that competency development through self directed learning is the best tool to develop competencies (almost 95 % felt that). Only 5% of the respondents used central library in a month (the main reason for not accessing library is the long working hours on site). Suggested Line of Action The respondents want a fast & speedy access to the educational resources like books, journals, magazines, CDs and internet and wanted a time slot to be provided by the respective HODs to explore the central library, at least twice a month .
The respondents hailed the initiatives undertaken by HRD in collaboration with Directorate of Technical Education to introduce certificate courses for electricians, hydraulic machine operators etc. The respondents appreciated the competitions requiring in depth reading and extensive literature survey like CTYM, MD trophy for best innovation & Director (P) SAIL cup SAKSHAM etc. Some opined that similar competitions can be organized at departmental level to encourage reading habits of employees. 70

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VII.

Saraswati Group HR Department & Personnel Department


CCM RM AP SE 08% OJT 82% 71% PCS 68% 91% JRE SDL PBL EI&SC 25% 56% 17% 85% 57% 4% 100% 96% 96%

Exposure Effectiveness

65% 68% 89%

100% 87% 95%

Reality Check This group plays pivotal role in the development of human potential. The outcome indicates very good exposure in JRE in which around 90% of respondents had been rotated on job. Exposure to seminars & conferences is also very high. Suggested Line of Action Respondents want higher education in the field of HR management. Job rotation as a competency building technique has been adopted by the Personnel Department of Bhilai Steel Plant. The process was started about four years ago in a small scale & almost 100% employees under this scheme have been rotated on job till date.

VIII. Hanuman Group Safety Dept., Medical, Fire Services, Vigilance


CCM Exposure Effectiveness 11% 81% RM AP SE 35% 79% OJT 91% 45% PCS 63% 51% JRE 14% 96% SDL 75% 41% PBL 21% 58% EI&SC 08% 92% 66% 15% 58% 45%

Reality Check This group has very less exposure to competency building methods like CCM (at 11%), AP (at 15%), SE (at 35%), JRE (at 14%), PBL (at 21%) and EI & SC (at 08%). Almost 96% respondents found JRE to be most effective. They also rated CCM, SE, and EI & SC with effectiveness index ranging from 81% to 92%. The survey reveals that respondents consider effectiveness of OJT to be very low, hovering at around 45%. Suggested Line of Action Efforts are needed to spread awareness about the importance of self directed learning methods. The respondents felt the need of special courses from premier institutes to hone their skills. Appointing a coach, counsellor or a mentor is very much required to nurture the talent of the employees of this group. The respondents also advocated facilitative leadershiprole modeling at all levels and quoted an example of workshop held at Bhilai Steel Plant involving all GMs & EDs and MD, BSP. The respondents also appreciated the efforts undertaken by top management in the area of role modeling like PragatiSheel Manch an open forum chaired by MD, BSP
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Organisation wise Findings


Survey reveals that effectiveness (as expressed by the respondents) of methods like Simulation Exercises, Job Rotation & Enrichment, Project Based Learning and Special Courses are very high. But exposure to these methods is very low. More employees are needed to be trained by these methods so that competencies are built and skill gap is bridged.

Organizational Competencies, Challenges of Growth and Recommended Action Plan


Organizational competencies are usually the result of collective individual competencies common throughout the organization. Organizational competencies can include strategic planning, resource management, project management, operational efficiency, marketing efficiency, work culture, corporate social responsibility and customer focus. The following model depicts the relationship between people, resources, environment, processes and competencies issues, which when addressed properly, will lead to organizational growth.

PREEP Model for Organizational Competency Exhibit# 10


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The recent downtrend of global steel market will compel SAIL to carefully and cautiously go ahead with its expansion plan. Having a clear plan for the future and periodically monitoring progress can also contribute to a greater sense of purpose, movement, and accountability. Due to the critical condition of the financial markets and resulting uncertainty on the further development of the global economy, an all round review has become necessary. The various Challenges of growth have been discussed.

Challenge I Improving Operational Efficiency (OE)


We need to enhance operational efficiency before profits and customer satisfaction begin to suffer. Focusing on operational efficiency will help our business work smarter: increase efficiency, reduce costs, and streamline processes. Operational efficiency involves all employees in improving the plant's administrative and manufacturing processes. The benefits of implementing OE measures includes significant cost savings, increased productivity, reduced inventory, reduced setup time and response time, improved quality control and reduction of non valueadded costs, strong competitive advantage and increased profits . Recommended Action Plan Most of the respondents felt that OE can be increased in the area of

(a) Iron making

A A A A A A A A

Improved Blast furnace availability and utilization Achievement of consistent hot metal quality Increased use of LD slag and nut coke Maximum use of sinter Improving coke rate by introducing auxiliary injection methods in each and every furnace Improving BF productivity to the international level Increasing converter lining life to 6000 heats and increasing ladle life to 150 heats by better operations like reduction in reblows, use of combined blowing, maintaining high basicity of slag, etc. Increasing production of high value special steels
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(b) Steel making

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

A A A A A A A A A

Improved continuous casting Rebuilding coke oven batteries incorporating latest pollution control measures Phasing out open/twin hearth furnaces and using EAF/LD converters and complete phasing out ingot route and using CC route Energy conservation up to the international level

The interviews with top management gave us few more insights as:

(c) General
Increase inhouse production of high value spares Reconditioning of high value spares Reducing breakdowns Reducing Procurement Cost by vendor development Developing long term relationship with Quality Suppliers

Challenge II Market Leadership


In order to dovetail our marketing efforts in line with the companys growth plans, respondents advocated adopting a multipronged approach to attain market leadership.

Recommended Action Plan

A A A A A A A A A

Improving our market intelligence system and forecasting capabilities to provide strategic inputs for key business decisions. Retaining our overall market share and maximizing our share in high growth and value added segments. Competitive offer in terms of commercial terms, packaging, performance guarantee and services. Pre and post sales service like providing information about the order status, faster redressal of claims, suggesting better application of existing products. Should ensure faster delivery of goods to the customers by introduction of dealers/ stockiest in the rural areas and small towns. Taking further initiatives for product branding and establishing our brands in the market. Reduction in marketing cost through optimum utilization of marketing infrastructure and better management of logistics. Maintaining sustained presence in the export markets. Promotion of steel for increasing per capita steel consumption in India, especially in rural sector jointly with other producers and agencies.
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Developing products like Coated galvanized steel, Ultra low carbon steels, IF steels for auto mobile industry.

Challenge III HR Strategies


Steel is no more the labourintensive industry it used to be. Earlier, it was often associated with the image of huge work force living in a captive township. A modern steel plant employs very few people. In South Korea, POSCO employs 10,000 people to produce 28 million tons.

Recommended Action Plan


The respondents also revealed few action plans such as

A A A A A A A

Improving Labour Productivity Manpower rightsizing Bringing down average age to 40 years from the current level of 4546 years Restructuring and strengthening of the projects organization, particularly at plants, for speedy implementation of new projects Outsourcing of noncritical functions/ activities Thrust on appropriate training and development of employeescompetence mapping and skill gap identification Continuous innovation and implementation of HR initiatives to enhance job satisfaction, career growth, commitment and motivation amongst all employees

Challenge IV Project Management


Project Management competency has three constituents. Project Management Knowledge i.e. what an individual knows about Project Management, Project Management Performance i.e. what an individual is able to do while applying Project Management knowledge and Personal Competency i.e. how an individual behaves while performing on project(s). The major challenge in front of us is to complete the envisaged projects without time & cost over run.

Recommended Action Plan


In order to complete the project on time without cost overruns, recommendations have been given to enhance

A A

Project Scope Management Competencies Project Initiation Competencies


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A A A A A A A A A A A

Project Planning Competencies Project Execution Competencies Project Controlling Competencies Besides capacity enhancement, new projects should also aim at Eliminating technological obsolescence Energy savings Enriching product mix Pollution control Developing mines & collieries to meet higher requirement of key raw materials Introduce customer centric processes Matching infrastructure facilities in the plant to support higher production volumes.

Challenge V Work Culture


A good work culture is one where every employee finds the right balance between work and home.

Recommended Action Plan

A A A

Interactive sessions, various cultural and entertainment programs should be organized regularly. Events like sports tournaments, picnics, funfairs, music workshops, trekking expeditions to be held more frequently. Creativity, productivity and innovation needs to be fostered and encouraged.

At Bhilai Steel Plant, every year a cricket tournament is held amongst various college alumni teams involving employees from wide cross section of plant. The winning team is given MD trophy at the hands of MD, BSP. There are various such activities carried at zonal and departmental levels also. Such initiatives lead to greater employee involvement and a vibrant work culture.

Challenge VI Change Management


To improve is to change, to be perfect is to change often"
Winston Churchill

Change is inevitable & is an ongoing process. Change management is an art through which organizations keep themselves abreast visvis technology, technique, and method of working, with the least disruption in business affairs. How effectively and quickly one can bring a change is the key to success in todays fast pace business.
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Recommended Action Plan


Interviews with management also highlighted the need to manage change effectively by keeping following points into top consideration:

A A A A A A

Clarity and communication of goal Motivating employees for change Clarity of roles Formation of Task Force Committees and assigning Key Drivers Commitment from Top Management and Involvement of all Identifying specific training needs and carrying out mass awareness programs

Implementation of Executive Performance Management System (EPMS) an online appraisal system, across all the SAIL units is an excellent example of driving in change in a very systematic manner in a short period. Internal Resource Persons (IRP) were identified and all the executives were covered for training about EPMS.

Challenge VII Managing External Environment


We cannot live as an island of prosperity. Our periphery has to develop in tandem
S.K. Roongta, Chairman, SAIL

All have important interactions with their environment in numerous, diverse and complex ways. A crucial feature of the environment has always been the relationship with the state and central governments. There have been dramatic changes in the environment, and consequently in the ways companies respond to it.

Social
Respondents appreciated the SAILs social initiatives focused at Health & Medical Welfare, Sports & Cultural Activities, Education, and Peripheral Development in its surroundings along with assisting affected people during natural calamities. They also appreciated efforts like

A A A

Adopting villages as Model Steel Villages By augmentation of water supply Developing Mining and Tribal Areas
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

A A A A A A

Encouraging Sports and Culture Assistance to Physically Challenged Women Empowerment/ Supporting NGOs Road Development Community Centre & Vocational Training Centres Medical & Veterinary Camps

Environmental
Implementing growth plan faces many obstacles. The envisaged growth plan of SAIL through both brown & green field projects needs government regulatory clearances. Land acquisition may face obstacles from local groups in the vicinity. Clearance from forest department is also very difficult and a time taking process. Laws of pollution and effluent treatment have become very stringent.
Government norms & regulations Mining clearance Forest clearance Land acquisition Pollution Board RTI act

For example, Iron ore at Rajahara mines is getting depleted. Bhilai Steel Plant is getting low grade iron ore which increases the cost of production. The clearance of Rowghat mines is getting delayed because of governmental procedures. Managing these external agencies has become the need of the hour. Tata Motors has been moved out of Singur because of land acquisitions problems. ArcelorMittal & POSCO are facing the brunt of people at Jharkhand & Orissa.

Recommended Action Plan


Efforts are needed to involve all employees for CSR activities on rotational basis, and should be made mandatory after every promotion (on atleast one week deputation). Special training needs to be given for understanding RTI acts.

Challenge VIII Cost Control & Coping with Recession


The key to success plan Corporate Plan2012 is to attain higher levels of growth in output with focused attention on quality and cost competitiveness. The following interventions have been suggested by the higher management:
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Recommended Action Plan

A A A A A A A A A

Reducing inventories in the form of nonmoving products in stockyards and nonmoving items in stores. Optimizing energy consumption to the international levels. Reduction in fixed cost through volume growth, reduction in manpower cost and financial charges. Reduction in variable cost through 100% production through BOFCC route. Reduction in operating costs by plugging wastages, leakages in pipelines, effective utilization of assets, reducing nonconforming order etc using balanced score cards, bench marking etc. Process control computerization /automation. Reduction in procurement cost by enhanced used of ecommerce, centralized procurement for selected items. Revising projects to get better deal and optimize the investment. This is a blessing in disguise in recession. Regulating expenditure in projects rigorously.

During economic downturns, most companies go on the defensive cutting back costs, downsizing marketing efforts and commoditizing products and services just to survive. Great companies do just the opposite. In recessionary times, they position themselves to win ramping up promotions, accelerating new product introductions, and keeping a visible profile. By taking advantage of the emerging opportunities, they not only differentiate themselves during the downturn but also position themselves for explosive growth after its turnaround. Companies negatively impacted by a recession never see the grander purpose such times can offer them. Instead, they perceive only the worst, react out of fear and shrink to a victim mentality. Great companies, on the other hand, see recessions as learning opportunities. They recognize that yesterday's thinking and strategies will not address today's challenges. For these companies, recessions motivate them to get closer to their customers, reassess their direction, and take action in new and creative ways. Their rise to the top is often a byproduct of their beliefs, attitudes and responses to such challenging times. If seen in the right light, an economic downturn can be a blessing in disguise.
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Summary Alpha, Beta and Gamma Competency Model


On the basis of above research work, we are proposing a model which will help SAIL to identify various competencies to meet the future challenges of growth.

Alpha, Beta and Gamma Competency Model Exhibit# 11

Conclusion
It is impossible for any organization to build competencies in the short term. They take years to build. Building competencies requires tremendous amount of energy and time, in training and retraining people, making continual improvements, building databases where knowledge can be stored and retrieved and making competencies
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embedded throughout the organization. In this context human resource will continue to be the most vital key in realization of the targets set for the company. With changes in technology and work practices, the company will have to develop systems, policies as well as a culture which encourages newer ways of doing things through HR initiatives. The Wheel Model and the Ten Commandments proposed in this paper will help to chalk out individual growth plan & will propel our organizations pace of growth. The proposed AlphaBeta and Gamma competency model will align individual & organizational competencies in line with companys vision & mission. The ultimate aim of our company is to become the lowest cost producer of steel. This can be achieved by process optimization, technological interventions, reduction in procurement costs by enhancing dependence on eprocurement , long term strategic alliance for raw material , reduction in financial cost , manpower rationalization, prioritizing high returnlow implementation time projects, investment in JVs or acquisition etc.

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Managing the future, Peter F Drucker, Tata McGraw Hill, 1990 The Fifth Discipline, Peter Senge, Double Day, 1999 Building Robust Competencies Linking Human Resource Systems to Organizational Strategies: Paul C. Green, 1999 Five Pillars of Management Competencies, Monica E. Oss, Open Minds, 2008 Competency and the learning organization, Donald Shandler, Crisp series, 2000 Core Competency Base Strategies, Andrew & Kathleen, 1997 Strategic Management & Core Competencies, Anders Drejer, 2002 SAIL NEWS Publications GROWTH Magazines

10. Harvard Business Reviews (20042008) 11. Power Plant I in house manual Pravah

ereferences
1. 2. 3. 4.

www.sail.co.in www.tatasteel.com www.businessacumen.com www.amazon.com


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Annexure I

Survey Instrument Objective, Design & Outcome

Objective
This instrument is designed to assess the self perception of employees about their competency level, so that areas of concern can be identified. The instrument also aims to gauge the effectiveness of various competency development methods/ techniques as explained in this paper.

Design
The questionnaire I of the aims to abstract information regarding level of competency in areas like personal effectiveness, technical skills, communication skills, adaptability, business awareness etc. The instrument consists of two questionnaires. The Section B of the questionnaire is designed to collect the data from sample population providing self perception of individuals about their competency level. Section C of the questionnaire aims to abstract information regarding exposure & awareness of employees about various methods to develop competencies & will help to adopt & refine the prevailing competency development methods in SAIL.

Outcome of the Survey


The research paper evolves a Divine Spirit carrying the viewpoints of the employees and suggestions/ recommendations given by the respondents of the questionnaire 2 of the survey instrument. Voice of the Divine Spirit Field Survey results/recommendations/suggestions

Using the results of this survey instrument area of concern can be identified and focus can be given to build competencies of employees by adopting Ten Commandments to develop competencies proposed in this paper. The survey instrument is carefully designed to highlight the perceived barriers (as perceived by the respondents) during competency building and ways & means to overcome those barriers (as they felt).

Annexure I: Survey Instrument


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Feeling the Pulse


Dear Madam/Sir Under the research paper titled Building Competencies for meeting the Challenges of Growth for the SAIL Chairmans Trophy for Young Managers, we have developed this instrument to incorporate all crucial factors related to competency building. The outcome of the survey will give an overview about the present state of competency level of the executives of your organization & will also validate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques & anticipated barriers during competency building of employees. Please print your view points in the space provided or tick the options, as applicable. (This instrument is purely for academic purpose and your identity will be kept confidential). The Team:
N Bhaskar, AGM (O)SMSII Abhishek Shrivastava. JM (P)Steel Zone Aniruddha Bhagwat, JM (P)Steel Zone Personal Details

The data in the following section is meant to categorize the respondents according to Job Profile.

1. Which of the following best describes your job profile?

A A A A A A A A A A A A

Senior Supervisor Front Line Manager Middle Level Manager Senior Level Manager Zonal Head Head of the Department/suborganization Top Management Policy Maker 05 years 510 years 1525 years 2535 years
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2. How many years of experience do you have

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

3. Before proceeding further tick mark to the group in which you belong.

A A A A A A A A

Projects Dept., CED, Township. CO & CCD, SPs, BFs, SMS I & II, Mills Finance, Marketing Safety Dept., Medical, Fire Services, Vigilance CET, BEDB, RDCIS, RCL Oxygen plant, water supply, propane plant, CAS, PP I, PP II HR Dept, Personnel Dept CHM, CRM, ETL,MSDS, PLEM, CPS questionnaire for 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Section A. Self perception questionnaire about competency level


S. Self perception No. managers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

How will you rate your personal effectiveness? Rate your technical ability. How good are you at communication skills? How well you analyze a situation? Rate your adaptability and resilience in response to changing work environment and demands How passionate are you in improving work practices to achieve desired results? How well are you in demonstrating your ability to accomplish a given task ? Rate your ability to take initiative, chase & accomplish a given task. How well do you follow values & principles associated with your work ? How well are you aware of the complexities of the business and the companys vision, mission & goal?
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6.

7. 8. 9. 10.

Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

Section B. Questionnaire on Competency Building Methods


I. Building Competencies through Coaching, Counselling & Mentoring (CCM)
(a) Have you ever been guided by a coach, counsellor or a mentor at any point of time in your professional career? (Yes/No) (b) How effective do you feel the method of Coaching, Counselling & Mentoring? (CCM) is to enhance competency of individuals? Excellent Good Average Poor

(c) What are the barriers while building competencies through CCM? (d) How can we overcome the above mentioned barriers?

II. Building Competencies through Role Modeling (RM)


(a) Have you ever been inspired by a role model at any point of time in your carrier? (Yes/No) (b) Is your role model from your own department/organization? (Yes/No) (c) How effective can a role model (RM) be in enhancing your competency level? Excellent Good Average Poor

(d) What are the barriers while building competencies through RM? (e) How can we overcome the above mentioned barriers?

III. Building Competencies by Assigning Playgrounds (AP)


(a) Have you ever been assigned a task for the intent of exposure without being held responsible for the end results? (Yes/No) (b) How effective is the method of Assigning Playgrounds (AP) as a competency development tool? Excellent Good Average
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Poor

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

(c) What are the perceived barriers while building competencies through AP? (d) How can we overcome the above mentioned barriers?

IV. Building Competencies through Simulation Exercises (SE)


(a) Have you undergone training through simulation exercises? (Yes/No) (b) Rate the effectiveness of simulation exercises (SE) for building competencies. Excellent Good Average Poor

(c) What are the perceived barriers while building competencies through AP? (d) How can we overcome the above mentioned barriers?

V. Building Competencies through On the Job Training (OJT)


(a) Have you ever been adequately exposed to on the job training? (Yes/No) (b) How do you rate the effectiveness of OJT as a competency developing tool? Excellent Good Average Poor

(c) What are the perceived barriers while building competencies through OJT? (d) How can we overcome the above mentioned barriers?

VI. Building Competencies by Professional Bodies, Conferences & Seminars (PCS)


(a) Have you attended seminars & conference in the past? (Yes/No) (b) How many times in the last 5 years you have been given an opportunity to attend a seminar or conference? a. Once b. Twice c. More than twice d. Nil
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(c) Rate the effectiveness of competency building through professional bodies, conferences & seminars (PCS). Excellent Good Average Poor

(d) What are the perceived barriers while building competencies through (PCS)? (e) How can we overcome the above mentioned barriers?

VII. Building Competencies through Job Rotation & Enrichment (JRE)


(a) Have you ever been assigned different jobs in your professional career? (Yes/No) (b) How many times in your professional career have you been rotated on job? a. Once b. Twice c. More than twice d. Nil (c) How effective can be job rotation (JRE) for building competencies? Excellent Good Average Poor (d) What are the perceived barriers while building competencies through (JRE)? (e) How can we overcome the above mentioned barriers?

VIII. Building Competencies through Self Directed Learning (SDL)


(a) Do you take initiative for selfdevelopment through reading and applying management concepts in empirical situations? (Yes/No) (b) Rate the effectiveness of self directed learning techniques. Excellent Good Average Poor (c) How frequently do you visit the Central Library in month? a. Once b. Twice c. More than twice d. Nil (c) What are the perceived barriers while building competencies through (SDL)? (d) How can we overcome the above mentioned barriers?
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

IX. Building Competencies through Projects Based Learning (PBL)


(a) Have you ever been given specially designed projects related to your field to enhance your technical and managerial skills? (Yes/No) (b) How many times have you been given independent or group projects in you professional career? a. Once b. Twice c. More than twice d. Nil

(c) How effective can be project based learning (PBL) to enhance competency level? Excellent Good Average Poor

(c) What are the perceived barriers while building competencies through (PBL)? (d) How can we overcome the above mentioned barriers?

X. Building Competencies Educational Institutes and Special Courses (EI & SC)
(a) Have you undergone any training program from educational institutes for special courses? (Yes/No) (b) Rate the effectiveness of competency development through training programs from educational institutes & special courses (EI & SC) Excellent Good Average Poor

(c) What are the perceived barriers while building competencies through (EI & SC)? (d) How can we overcome the above mentioned barriers?
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Section C. Organizational Competency Assessment Questionnaire


Assessing Organizational Competencies Product mix of SAIL suffices Indian market conditions and requirements. SAIL products carry a good brand image The reach of our marketing network is quite sufficient to cater the demands of customer/market. Growth Plan envisaged in Corporate Plan 2012 is realistic & achievable. Do you think collaborations with our competitors in steel industry like POSCO will be fruitful for SAIL? Our projects implementation is on time. Financial strength of SAIL will cater the demand of new projects. Operational technology of SAIL is upto international standards(in terms of cost, energy consumption, quality etc) The production processes, planning and scheduling are as per customer requirement. Efficiency in operations is excellent in terms resources, utilization of assets etc., Operational technologies in SAIL are competitive enough to sustain us in the market Training in the field of operations is needed Processes are needed to be revamped, more automated. With respect to Growth Plan 2012, SAIL is giving sufficient effort for securing raw material resources. For infrastructure development like port handling, logistics, investments in JVs, acquisition SAIL is having a cordial & vibrant working atmosphere SAIL is doing a commendable work to develop infrastructure, drinking water facilities and improve literacy level in the peripheral areas of operation. Do you have a sense of pride being an employee of SAIL? Our company is adaptable to changes & fluctuations of business cycle?
89 Yes No Cant say

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Please write your viewpoints in the space provided. What are the main challenges of growth for SAIL (as you visualize)? In these recessionary times how you think SAIL can manage its finances for successful and speedy completion of its expansion plans? What are the strategies that can be adopted to achieve CP 2012? What are the organizational competencies (in the context of growth) do you feel important to overcome the challenges of growth for SAIL? What are the ways & means to enhance operational efficiency? How do you think SAIL can achieve & retain Market Leadership? In the context of growth, what strategies can be adopted in the field of HR initiatives to meet the challenges? Give your suggestions to minimize time & cost over run during project implementation. How can we improve our work culture?
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Annexure IIResults
Note:Analysis of the questionnaire under section C has been covered between page no.2631

Analysis Section C
Assessing Organizational Competencies Yes No 38% 30% 23% 9% 17% 59% 31% 54% 32% 20% 61% 5% 3% 22% 61% 5% 8% Product mix of SAIL suffices Indian market conditions and 55% requirements. SAIL products carry a good brand image 61% The reach of our marketing network is quite sufficient to cater the 71% demands of customer/market. Growth Plan envisaged in Corporate Plan 2012 is realistic & 78% achievable. Do you think collaborations with our competitors in steel industry like POSCO will be fruitful for SAIL? Our projects implementation is on time. Financial strength of SAIL will cater the demand of new projects. Operational technology of SAIL is upto international standards (in terms of cost, energy consumption, quality etc) The production processes, planning and scheduling are as per customer requirement. 81% 40% 53% 44% 65% Cant say 7% 9% 6% 13% 2% 1% 16% 2% 3% 25% 7% 2% 2% 30% 3% 7% 14%

Efficiency in operations is excellent in terms resources, utilization of 55% assets etc., Operational technologies in SAIL are competitive enough to sustain 32% us in the market Training in the field of operations is needed Processes are needed to be revamped, more automated. 93% 95%

With respect to Growth Plan 2012, SAIL is giving sufficient effort for 48% secured raw material resources. Efforts in areas like infrastructure development, logistics, investments 36% in JVs, acquisitions etc. are upto the mark SAIL is having a cordial & vibrant working atmosphere 88% SAIL is doing a commendable work to develop infrastructure, drinking 78% water facilities and improve literacy level in the peripheral areas of operation. Do you have a sense of pride being an employee of SAIL 89%

6% 19%

5% 2%

Our company is adaptable to changes & fluctuations of business 79% cycle? 91

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Self perception on Alpha Competencies of various groups (%)


Group Names Brahma Vishnu Lakshmi Ganesh Indra Vishwakarma Saraswati Hanuman PE 72 68 73 62 65 70 89 95 TS CS ES 85 85 75 90 91 83 68 64 40 65 85 42 86 76 82 60 64 86 88 71 55 71 95 76 72 AS 75 75 46 86 68 75 85 51 ADB 70 35 65 68 25 60 64 65 52 ID 74 64 51 69 92 67 54 78 68.9 PFE WE 92 67 66 61 62 82 63 85 73 95 88 88 80 87 63 88 81 86 BA 48 35 90 88 30 48 95 78 55.38 Respondents 70 130 32 41 43 32 30 38 416

72.3 82

80 71.7

Exposure to Various Competency Development Methods (%)


CCM RM AP Exposure 15 55 5 Brahma 45 38 5 Vishnu 25 78 6 Lakshmi 14 26 7 Ganesh 11 82 9 Indra 61 47 3 Vishvakarma 17 57 40 Saraswati 11 66 15 Hanuman 27.9 52 9 SE OJT PCS JRE SDL PBL EI & SC Respondents 12 100 21 55 86 80 28 70 12 98 48 18 100 8 25 130 45 100 41 37 95 47 15 32 43 98 38 10 87 19 22 41 5 100 27 55 88 18 8 43 63 96 31 41 80 33 18 32 8 82 68 100 96 25 56 30 35 91 63 14 75 21 8 38 23 96.8 41 36 91 30 22.827 416

Effectiveness of Various Competency Development Methods (%)


Effectiveness Brahma Vishnu Lakshmi Ganesh Indra Vishwakarma Saraswati Hanuman CCM RM AP SE OJT PCS JRE SDL PBL EI & SC Respondents 95 65 30 73 65 85 85 81 72.6 80 77 81 62 85 80 65 58 75 72 55 72 52 50 68 45 59 98 76 73 82 87 89 79 66 82 73 96 90 92 71 45 72 69 91 88 83 90 91 51 91 98 85 85 92 79 96 96 100 85 74 63 84 95 100 41 82 88 96 96 84 77 73 87 58 86 94 98 97 91 89 85 95 92 93.865 70 130 32 41 43 32 30 38 416 55 100

90 77.4

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Annexure IIICase Study I

Case Study I Initiatives at SMS II of BSP during Recession


Tough Times never last but Tough Companies do SMSII is an excellent example of competency building which we have undertaken as our first case study for Competencies Building. In the year 2000 the world wide recession was taking its toll. When survival was at stake BSP management was particular in increasing the life of converters. Meetings were organized at the shop level. After through discussion, a decision to reduce the number of converter repairs in a year was taken. Repair period was also to be optimized with the involvement of sister departments. Final mission was to increase converter availability. Ways and means were evolved to achieve the same.

I. Strategies & planning

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

Reduce the total no. of repairs in converters Optimize the time taken for relining Increase the utilization of VAD Route more heats through LFRH Use of 5hole lance A pilot lab at the shop floor Modified lip ring at converter Magnesia carbon bricks Fixed bottom Nitrogen splashing MgO enriched slag MgO > 8.0% Mass contact & training programmes like Performance Enhancement Programs (PEP) and Creating Responsive Organization through People (CROP) Increasing awareness amongst employees Involvement of all concerned departments like RED II, RMP II, RCL etc. Clarifying individual role with respect to the target Various motivational schemes for employees
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II. Process Modifications

III. Technological upgradation

IV. People related

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

A A A A

Constructive Leadership of the HODs Systematic mentoring of employees involved Raising the bar continuously Use of business tools like TQM, SQC which lead to six sigma implementation, KM etc later

The results of the exercise are depicted below:

The employees of SMSII have become totally charged. It seems they are following what can be explained in the words of "Maiden Olympic gold medalist" Abhinav Bindra as

A A specific and clear goal A An efficient system with targets specified for everyone A A mindset and desire to achieve the same A Plan & implement A World class technical know how with strong foundations A Train yourself harder A Full commitment and dedication in whatever you do A Don 't compromise with intermediate success and A Finally don't loose heart when faced with obstacles
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Annexure IIICase Study II

Case Study II PRAVAH (Power PlantI)


The best way to assess a model or a theory is to relate it with real life cases. We have validated our model by a Case Study in Power Plant 1. This case study relates to competency building of 468 in total employees through collective efforts of Power Plant I & HR department at BSP. The inhouse program was named as Pravah.

The Objectives of the program were:

A To create cost consciousness A Improve operational efficiency A Knowledge enhancement and sharing A Team Building A Multi Skilling A To create safety awareness A To make employees understand
Environmental Concerns

Methods given below were followed.

A Class room training A Involvement of all employees A Wide publicity through competitions,
hoardings posters etc.

A Personal contact exercises A Motivation & recognition A Inhouse

thereby assuring due credit to the deserving manuals which created a learning environment

(A) To create Cost Consciousness


SOPs and SMPs were made available to working personnel and were displayed at work place for safe and efficient working. Cost coordinators and stewards were appointed. Interactions, meetings etc were organized on daily basis.

A A A

To mingle with personnel of other areas Explain the importance and necessities of cost reduction Brainstorming sessions were conducted to identify areas where costs can be cut
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A A

Suggestions were also sought and given Task forces to liquidate the leakages of utilities like water, gas, oil and compressed air

(B) Improve Operational Efficiency


Efficiency of operations was increased through suggestions received like 1. Proper sizing of cables (length and rating) 2. Inventory control through standardization 3. Salvaging of idle assets 4. Optimization of operations for increasing efficiency A cost indicating chart for steam, power, chemically treated water, compressed air and circulating water, chemicals for water treatment, spares and stores were displayed at almost all the locations of public gathering like canteens, meeting rooms, rest rooms, walkways etc. This led to proper utilization of the same. The importance of maximum use of byproduct fuel gases in place of coal were explained to and monitored by employees. Awareness was spread about efficient working through slogans, posters, songs and announcements.

(C) Knowledge Sharing


Class room training was imparted to employees of one area about other areas in HRDC. During these classes problems arising in a section due to failure of other were discussed among various sections of Power Blowing Station namely Boilers group, Turbine group, Electrical group, WCTP group & Coal handling plant. The relationships among the various sections were emphasized. Their interdependency was highlighted. For example falling of steam temperature from 450 C (rated) to 390 C or 400 C can cause failure of various joints or failure of turbine blades. The boiler operation group was totally ignorant about the failures occurring in the turbines before. Maintaining the electrical generation became easy & reliable, because the electrical operator came to know the problems being faced by Turbine & Boiler group. This has improved co ordination in the working of Boiler, Turbine & Electrical personnel.

(D) Team Building


With the help of HRD various exercises related to team building were conducted during PRAVAH training program. Group presentations were also made during the sessions. This led to cohesive working and consistent outputs.
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(E) MultiSkilling
Earlier turbine group & boiler group were working independently in their own specific areas. During the training program technical inputs about the turbines, difficulties that arise in their working, causes and ways to eliminate/prevent them were given to boiler group & vice versa. The details were discussed at length covering all the technical aspects of operations and maintenance. After the training, employees were ready to take on the challenges in other areas also. The turbine capital repair group gained confidence to carry capital repair of boiler. Efforts are being made to rotate personnel of operation & maintenance of turbine group & boiler group respectively. Electrical section of PBS has already incorporated job rotation among operation & maintenance groups.

(F) To Create Safety and Environmental Awareness


Potential hazards involved with operation of the plant were classified on the basis of source, equipment, & medium. Physical injuries related with the operation of captive power plant were discussed in length. Apart from accidental injuries persons working in the hazardous environment of captive power plant also suffer from many diseases due to prolonged exposure of heat, dust, fumes, noise, vibration etc. The employees were made aware about the diseases & its prevention. Safety consciousness has also increased. All the employees of PPI were given safety talks before allotment of jobs on daily basis. An insight was provided about a. ISO140012000 b. Safety aspects while working in a plant In this way Power Plant I addressed key issues pertaining to operational efficiency and competency building of its employees. This case study inspires all of us to take initiatives in the field of competency building. This will help in increasing knowledge, skill & attributes of the employees to meet the future challenges of growth. After the success of Pravah I, a sequel to this program is also on floor named Pravah II.

Outcome of Training Program Pravah I


The employees were made aware of the following facts: 1. A reduction of 1% in the generation of power will lead to a savings of Rs 78 lakhs annually.
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2. A reduction of 1kg per ton of steam in boiler coal consumption will lead to a saving of Rs 82 lakhs annually.
Item Cost of Power Generation Cost of Steam Generation Cost of Compressed air production Sp. Steam cons. in Turbo Generators Sp. Boiler Coal consumption Steam consumption. in Turbo Blowers. Before Rs3111/ MWH Rs484/Ton Rs 433/ THCUM 5 Kg / KWH 35 Kg / T of steam After Rs3010/MWH Rs452/Ton Rs 413/ THCUM 4.91 Kg / KWH 33.85Kg / T of steam

460 Kg / T of hot metal 453.73 Kg / T of hot metal

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jt. runnersup
Debadutta Satpathy, Sr. Manager, TQM Ms Chaitali Das, Sr. Manager, HRDC Jayanta Sarkar, Manager, HRDC

Rourkela Steel Plant Introduction:


Hey! Damn it! Why could not you shoot that devil? asks the gang leader to his new recruit. He was only at a short distance, was not he? the leader growls again. Yes, he was. The shooter replies. The questioning continues. Was your gun properly serviced? yeah had bullets in it? yup Did your horse jump when you fired? No, my Hero will never do that Grrr thennnn???? the goon got choked in fury. Well boss... for a start ...I donno how to shoot Excerpts from a scene of the 1965 classic The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, Circa, 2008, when revolutions are taking place in every sphere of public life, when tectonic transformations are redefining the way we live, when village communities have long given way to world market places, the question that still remains uppermost in every corporate chieftains mind, how does he enhance the competencies of his employees? At least in this respect, both the gangster and the tycoon face the same dilemma. Perhaps the recurring query is inevitable. A skilled manpower is an exhaustible resource. After all, it is not everyday that a corporate honcho picks up one out of a billion populations and places him or her at a vacant post. It requires years and years of training, continual performance appraisal, rewards, and occasional reprimands and so on. Apart from the substantial monetary angle involved in building up of a competent individual, huge amount of time and energy is consumed in the process as well. But when overwhelming technological makeovers take place, the same hyped-up geeks fall by the wayside. In some other cases, highly skilled technocrats, being weighed almost in gold, are lapped up by hungry poachers. This causes incalculable tragedies to the original company in terms of missed opportunities as well as financial and goodwill loss.
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Reams of volumes have been dedicated to understand the ultimate non-linear function ever known to mankind: the human mind itself. How to make it susceptible to a laid down formula and how to ensure its adherence to booster doses of knowledge are challenges that are as old as the history of mankind itself. The successful ones say that they know that all powerful mantra to make their employee competent. But when favourable business opportunities give way to cycles of downturn and employees leave in hordes, they are left groping for answers. The bestsellers written decades ago by Akio Morita, Jack Welch and Lee Iacocca about culture and competencies may no longer be relevant in a vastly different world. The Japanese way of working was a huge hit in the 80s. Now it is the turn of China and some say, tomorrow belongs to India. C.K.Prahalads Core Competency was such a seminal success in the 90s, that organizations divested themselves in a tearing hurry. Now analysts say, conglomerates and federations are not bad ideas at all. Our point of submission is that understanding the overall nuances of competency assessment, augmenting the pertinent factors and canalizing the same to grow ones company by mere table-top discussions and few sundry observations are something akin to trying to save the Titanic by rearranging the deck chairs. A deeper level of thinking is required to break the shackles of long-held paradigms and create new frontiers of human capabilities. This study is intended to be a facilitator in that direction, how to unleash the vastly untapped potential energy and suitably convert it into limitless kinetic prowess. Our month long interactions with the workforce convinced us that competency development is the need of the hour which can not be realized by empty sermons or lackluster class room trainings. Situation beckons us to put our thrust not on slow improvements; it is more about big-bang transformations. Otherwise, organizations, including SAIL, regardless of their pedigree, will gradually slide into strategic stagnation. One of the finest examples of desired strategic shift is the watches that we wear. Efforts to improve the accuracy of mechanical watches are pointless today because electronic oscillators have made accuracy a non issue. A real strategic issue here would be the choice between developing the lowest cost pin lever watch with tolerable accuracy, for sale in third world markets where even the cheapest watch is still a costly luxury. At the beginning, we unfold our observations on the exigencies of todays corporations and why competency augmentation finds a place in the lexicon of every businessman worth his salt. The reason is pretty simple. He has to extract more from less in a volatile high growth market, where past is forgotten in a hurry and tomorrow is light years away.

Its all about utilizing todays resources to the optimum level. The more, the better.

The growth enigma for SAIL, should we or should we not?


Many hoary eyed idealists dwell on the good old days, when our company had very few rivals in the market. Competition was low, choices for the consumers were few, manpower was plenty and life was less demanding and complicated. They argue that any growth
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strategy, be it Greenfield or Brownfield expansions, mergers and acquisitions, is fraught with inherent risks. Its better, these pundits add, to stick to gradual improvements rather than wholesale expansions. With the advantage of hindsight, they gloat over the slump of late 90s and point out that the perils of overcapacity at that time were the undesirable residues of mindless growth. Therefore, it is quite natural that the talks of these so-called experts border on hysteria when discussion shifts to current growth plan of SAIL. They further bolster their arguments citing the present day turmoil in financial markets.

Doomsday is not far away, they wail in unison


These intellectuals have no doubt, merits in their arguments. When we are stepping into a future cris-crossed with scores of unfathomable variables, risks and returns can never be suitably ascertained. But then, no business house in the world has all its ventures successful. While Maruti-800 is still a huge hit with the middle class, its successor Maruti-1000 sank without a trace. Sabeer Bhatia created worldwide flutter with his hotmail. His next project, Junglee was an unmitigated disaster. If Yash Chopra knows the mantra of box-office success, then why had he so many flops in recent times? Even Warren Buffet, the undisputed kingpin of stock market, had burnt his fingers many a times. Take any of the fortune 500 biggies, be it Wal-Mart, General motors or Nike, all have their share of setbacks. But all these do not mean that these individuals or companies will stagnate, ruminating about the past glories. To stay in the business and thwart competition, they have to grow. They do not have a choice. Neither does SAIL. Its massive physical size no longer offers prestige value for the customer. In 2004, TATA Steel rolled out its international growth plan by acquiring a 2 MTPA steel manufacturing and rolling capacity in South East Asia through its investment in NatSteelAsia.(renamed since as NatSteel holding). The next year, it gobbled up Millennium Steel, Thailand, the countrys largest steel maker. Then came another beamer, the acquisition of Corus group in 2007 that made it the sixth largest steel company in the world with a combined capacity of over 31 MTPA. These are apart from the scores of joint ventures that the company has made in different countries like Oman and Mozambique for acquiring its raw materials like limestone, iron ore and coal. Back home, besides expanding its existing facilities at Jamshedpur, it plans three new Greenfield projects in Orissa, Chhattisgarh & Jharkhand. Another close competitor of SAIL, JSW steel, has similarly set up a scorchy growth pace. It acquired both Jindal Steel and Alloys ltd and UK based Argent Steel in 2006 followed by the merger of Southern Iron and Steel Company in 2008. It also formed joint venture in 2007 with Geosteel ltd to build a steel rolling mill factory in Georgia with a capacity of 175000 T/annum. As per its Vice Chairman and Managing Director Sajjan Jindal, it plans to go to 18MT by 2012 from the current 4.8 MT. Bhushan Steel, which was earlier a niche market player of cold rolled and coated product, has moved downstream to build integrated steel mill. Ispat industries is expanding its hot rolled coil steel making
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capacity from 3 to 3.6 MT and is expected to give SAIL tough competition, especially in the western region of India. Even Essar Steel has struck gold with its innovative marketing strategy, opening up scores of steel retailing stores at major steel consuming centers to help consumers meet their emergency requirements. The list would go on. What we want to emphasize is the fact that every player in the field is girding his loin for a quantum leap as far as growth is concerned. The drafting of the growth strategy of SAIL would simply therefore be based on the logical extension of ones reaction to external environment and not on short term expedient thinking. Therefore, growth is an imperative, not an option any more. But the company has to resist the temptation of short-circuiting the identification of critical issues and line implementation of solutions by skipping the intermediate steps: planning and organizing for concrete actions. Even the most brilliant manager can not translate an abstract plan into action in a single step.

Getting down to brass-tacks, the sustainability factor


Once we are clear that growing with the requirements of time is a necessity, then the question comes how far has SAIL fulfilled that requirements and whether competency does play a part in reviving up the growth engine. For a start, the company is investing Rs 54000 crores to grow the hot metal capacity simultaneously to about 26.2 MT in the next couple of years from the present level of 14 MT. This is quite on the expected line considering the fact that steel consumption has increased by 10% on a compound basis over the last couple of years, but the production has risen by just 6.5%. Plans have been spruced up for raw material linkage, sales force augmentation, enhancement of power facilities and so on. But when we closely look at the resources at the disposal of our company, almost simultaneously a very discordant note strikes. Yes, we are one of the major PSUs making pots of profit, our market capitalization is at an all time high, we have a diverse range of products catering to almost every market, and our marketing grid has spread its tentacles all over the country and beyond. We have the benefit of a rich legacy and future has never looked so bright.

Is that so? Then why that all too familiar apprehension is writ large on everybodys face? Why is the lingering feeling of lack of analytical mind and mental elasticity?
Core competency is something that is inherent to the organization, in its mind, body and soul. So it is almost impossible to steal, unless the competitor decides to nuke its rival. Every company that is trying to build the future must prioritize its resources and try to build its core competency on its most sustainable resource.
Garry Hamel and C.K.Prahalad in Competing for Future

Now it strikes. The challenges of growth of SAIL are just too many.( see Annex-I) In fact, none of the variables at the command of SAIL is non-replicable. Private players are smacking their lips for possible acquisition of mines and niche market operators are indulging in guerilla warfare to chip away our market shares.
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Actually, the private sector has received investment of US $ 5994 million lined up through 102 MOUs to add 103 MT in steel. Behemoths like Mittals and Jindals are money machines and are importing latest technologies in a tearing hurry. Project management delay is another perennial source of concern; especially for companies like SAIL due to varieties of reasons that range from change of scope to unrealistic deadlines to political. Government regulations are now things of the past and PSUs, once revered as temples of modern India, get no preferential treatment. Post Beijing Olympics, the demands of China has slumped .In addition to that customer demands are so capricious that any strategist would have his hands full to cater to them.The environmental norms are getting stricter by the day as customers demand clean and green steel. In the eyes of the world, we are slowly becoming an unwieldy spent force, ready to be forgotten once the economic boom subsides. If we can not compete on technology, if our decrepit machines are no match to the level 4 gizmos, if social obligations play a more important role in our vocabulary then profitability, where do we stand in coming future? How on earth can we vie with mammoth steel gorillas? What is our leveraging factor? Should we challenge our competitors on their field of expertise or should we unfold an entirely unexplored area? The fact that a weak opponent challenges a Goliath knowing that defeat is imminent is brought out clearly by Kenichi Ohmae in his all time best seller The mind of the strategist. A former classmate of mine had his car badly damaged when a deer ran out of the woods, evidently intending to cross the roads, but then stopped in its track as if it had momentarily lost its bearing. In the next instant, catching sight of my friends oncoming car, the animal lowered its head and charged the vehicle head-on. The sudden apparition of the car must have paralyzed the deers judgment, causing its perversely to rush in the fatal direction when it could have escaped with seconds to spare. Sadly, most of the organizations behave like the unfortunate beast. Even with the full knowledge that they can not compete with behemoths in the field of technologies, they become kamikaze warriors and go ahead competing, as if they have been gripped by strategic paralysis. The result is almost always painful, huge loss of resources and possible bankruptcy. Instead, what they should do is to search for blue oceans, which have not been probed by the other gigantic ones. Similarly, we ought to look for unexploited degrees of freedom and ask what remaining possibilities exist. Brute strength is not always required to survive against a heavyweight. Rather, what is vital is timing, for the most brilliant strategy will be useless if it fails to take into account the ever-changing trends of the market.
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In the present context, when we are almost seized from all fronts, one needs to fall back on the asset that never appears on the balance sheet. That sounds nice in speeches, but then slides out of mind as soon as it appears.

Our employees
Its an idea whose time has come. Its also about time that we come out of intellectual timidity.

Those little grey cells: the unlimited potential of human mind


When people say you are lucky, I agree. But when they say that software made me lucky, I disagree. A string of binary codes can not make anybody rich. I am lucky because I have people who comprehend those machines and optimally utilize it. Narayana Murthy, Chief Mentor, Infosys, in an interview Therefore, our only chance of survival in the face of sheer competition is to multiply the competencies of our substantial human resources that will tear away the sizeable advantages enjoyed by our rivals. Every employee will then be a value adding machine, every day will be an experiment in innovation and the intellectual return on investment will further enhance our knowledge bank. Unlike other resources, this one will be inexhaustible and enriching in nature. Being virtual, they will be embedded in organizational culture and impossible to imitate. The most important part of competency enhancement is the advantage of age and experience. The workforce will learn from the errors and omissions of the past and suitably utilize it in the current context.

Competency, the inherent catalyst


A competency is an underlying characteristic of a person that enables him to deliver a superior performance in a given job, role or a situation. It leads to demonstration of skills and abilities. It thus refers to behavior, differentiating success form merely doing a job. Most importantly, competency also embodies the capacity to transfer skills and abilities from one area to another. Unfortunately, just being competent is not enough to bring in superior performance. The job of a flourishing organization is to translate that potency to performance. A highly skilled technician may simply vegetate due to poor environmental factors. Persons with numerous academic achievements may degenerate into hibernation in view of improper recognitions and Durbar Politics. Therefore, the first job for any company like SAIL will be to identify the gap in competencies and then find ways and means to fill up that void. The next prominent step will be to enthuse those competent individuals to probe the boundaries of their capabilities and achieve the impossible.
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Can not do Gap in Competency Job in Jeopardy Thrust area

Can do Motivate Counsel

Will do Wont do

The Kenneth Carlton Cooper Model

But then, if updating competency is such an important factor, how come it is given such a short shift? It is all due to the longstanding, deeply embedded belief that capital is the critical strategic resource to be managed and that senior managers' key responsibilities should center on its acquisition, allocation and effective use. For the vast majority of companies, that assumption simply is no longer true. Without denying the need for prudent use of financial resources, we believe that, for most companies today, capital is not the resource that constrains growth. Global capital markets have opened up the supply side, while widespread excess industry capacity has reduced the demand side. The recent reversals in some sectors notwithstanding, most companies are awash in capital. There is a surplus of capital chasing a scarcity of talented people and the knowledge they possess. In today's economy, that is the constraining and therefore strategic resource. For example, in almost any company, decisions relating to capital expenditures are subjected to welldocumented capital-budgeting procedures. Typically, guidelines define approval levels (for example, division presidents may approve expenditures up to $1 million, the CEO up to $5 million, and the board above that level), require clear evaluation processes (for example, positive discounted-cashflow returns above the Weighted cost of capital) and set specific benchmarks (for example, payback on new equipment in three years).

When it comes to hiring a district sales manager or a shift foreman, however, decisions are routinely made by front-line managers who choose the best available among three or four marginal applicants to address a short-term difficulty. Yet that is at least a $2 million decision if one calculates recruiting costs, training costs and a discounted cash flow of the expected future stream of salary and benefits payments over the average tenure of such employees. But by recruiting a merely average individual, the company loses the opportunity to gain competitive advantage through a hiring decision.

Developing Competency Model to fill the gap


A competency model describes the combination of knowledge , skills and characteristics needed to effectively perform a role in an organization and is used as a human resource tool for training need identification, training and development, appraisal and succession planning. Identifying and mapping these competencies are quite complex and the
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methodologies may vary from organization to organization. Skill can range from highly concrete proficiencies like the ability to operate a particular machine or to write the software for sequentially performing an automation task to intangible capabilities like team building, communicating effectively; motivating / developing subordinates and so on. In the course of our project preparation, we have come across several models that could prove useful to an organization like us. (We have our own competency development model at HRDC and provided that of Infosys as a comparative study, see Annex-3 & 4). What appealed to us most was the Lancaster Model of Managerial Competencies that takes a step by step approach in this respect. It is a universal management competency framework developed by Burgoyne. The eleven qualities separate into three groups, which represent three different levels. The first level forms the foundation level, and comprises two kinds of basic knowledge and information a manager may need to use in decision making and action taking. The subsequent levels propel him to higher grades of mental strength that ultimately makes a complete and successful manager. In fact, we have based our own competency model on the basis of the Lancaster Model.

Level -1: have you done your homework?


During the course of our project, we came across people who are in a sense war veterans, but time has taken a toll on their mental agility. Their highly compartmentalized knowledge is hardly getting updated with the latest changes in the technological frontiers. Be it officer or non executives, everybody is watching the events through the prism of production and not technical awareness. For example, how many of the mechanical persons are updating themselves with information about latest lubricants that are coming in the market? How many electrical employees are thorough about contemporary logic circuits? How many innovations, however small, are being attempted for enhancing productivity of blast furnaces? If at all advancements are being studied upon, is the knowledge being passed on to the people at the shop floor? Most of the answers, sadly, will be in negative. We are bound by a bygone legacy of assembly lines, of sweatshops, where people carry little weight. Level 1 competency model therefore states that that a successful manager should understand the business and have a sound knowledge of basic facts surrounding the business such as short and long term goals, product knowledge and the roles and relationships between various departments. This includes such as management techniques, sources of finance or knowledge of basic background management principles including planning, organizing and controlling. The second category comprises specific skills and attributes that directly affect behavior and performance.
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The Lancaster Model of Managerial Competencies

Level-2 & 3: Its promptness and mental strength that count


The story goes back to 1984 when Dhirubhai Ambani was building his empire and his pet project Patalganga PFY plant was about to start. His son Mukesh was in charge of the recruitment of managers. Being a Stanford product himself, Mukesh was dead set to hire financial whiz kids when the elder Ambani dissuaded him. You MBAs are essentially bean counters who can not look beyond balance sheet. I want persons who have a feel of the system and take instant decisions as the situation demands. I wont mind spending a million for these guys. People differ not only in their ability to do but also in their 'will to do'.

Paul Hersey
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Of course, Dhirubhai never read Lancaster Model. But the level 2 explains that the manager must be aware of what is going on and is perceptive and open to information. As a result a successful manager is able to respond in a suitable manner to situations as they arise. His analytical, problem solving and decision making skills, emotional resilience as well as proactivity or inclination to respond purposefully to events need to be of highest order. Similarly, level 3 stresses upon creativity and mental agility. We understand that these traits are more self ingrained than acquired and especially for PSUs like us, we can not hire best people in a jiffy. But we can do the second best thing by placing the right people at the right job. Robert Joy of Colgate explains that his company tracks the success of competency based selection process by looking at the number of high potential employees in each business unit. According to him, the process has succeeded in helping the organization locate top talent worldwide. We also need to development of appraisal systems that evaluate people on their use of behaviors and practices that directly contribute to competitiveness, encouraging both the business and the individual to focus on whatever will have the greatest impact. The 360 degree Feedback process is being increasingly used in organizations for development, appraisal and compensation purposes. (See Annex-2). It involves a collection of perceptions about an individuals behavior and its impact on bosses, colleagues, subordinates as well as internal and external customers. Competency models help to ensure that such feedback relates to the competencies crucial to individual or organizational successes. Leaving aside theories, what we sensed from our several discussions with line managers that its about time for a cultural renaissance for our company. Moribund bureaucratic systems have to give way to an atmosphere of trust and openness. How can we generate that inquisitiveness in an employee if he is taken to task for every minor deviations? Where from that competency will come when all his ideas are clustered in a file and then quietly forgotten? Management, after all, is people, and businesses are made successful by people, not by generating grandiose plans in corporate boardrooms. Behind each success story in business are men and women of stellar character who conceived the ideas, developed the strategies and executed the planned actions. It is our firm conviction that SAIL will not be immune to the ambience of economic glasnost that is virtually redefining our way of living. We sincerely believe that day is not far off when there will be healthy revival of entrepreneurs who will demonstrate once again how crucially the success of a business depends on the way it is managed. A competent leader can get efficient service from poor troops, while on the contrary an incapable leader can demoralize the best of troops.

John J. Pershing
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The four drives that underlie competency : studying the human mind
So far, we have studied how externally calibrated approach enhances the competency of a group of individuals to unparalleled level. But only attenuating peripheral factors perhaps will not help in the long run in charging up an employee. We have to now get down to brass-tacks, from systems to human beings. All of us have witnessed the marked decline in the ability of large corporations to cope with the changes that confront them. In these companies, brains and muscles were separated, destroying the entire bodys coordination. On one hand, there were the brains; on the other there was the muscle-the people of the enterprise. They were there to make the plan a reality, to carry out the brains instructions. On putting it differently, there were smart people and dumb people. The smart people were so smart that they had to spell out every detail of the corporations strategy for three to five years into the future. They planned everything; they knew the job description of every function. Thus the dumb people never got the big picture. They just concentrated on the boring little details that they were still allowed to control. But when we are peeking into future markets, this us versus them concept no longer holds true. We have to do some very strategic thinking, along with insight and aggressive questioning as to why a workman can not think beyond his personal number. Theories and concepts are subject to obsolescence, brains and thought processes are not. More importantly, the mind is an asset that constantly appreciates in value and never a private property of a group of individuals. To goad a corporation to future, therefore, will not be possible by group competency development alone. In spite of excellent appraisal system, robust feedback mechanism and fantastic training programmes, what matters at the end of the day is whether the man with the spanner is revitalized to put in that bit extra. When we say organization means people, we need to really mean it. It has to be from gut, not from lips. New cross disciplinary research in fields like neuroscience, biology and evolutionary psychology has allowed us to probe deep into human psyche. Most research suggests that there are some common primordial drives that boost the human mind to unprecedented level of perfection. Though several models exist, the most famous and widely accepted one is that of Paul R.Lawrence and Nitin Noharia in their 2002 research paper, Driven: how Human nature shapes our choice. Being competent means the ability to control and operate the things in the environment and the environment itself.

L. Ron Hubbard
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The Drive to acquire: The importance of being important


A person is always driven to acquire scare resources that bolster his sense of well-being. The urge to excel comes when this drive is fulfilled, discontentment, when the same is thwarted. Even a simple toolbox with his name inscribed on it sometimes propels a workman to put in extra efforts. A small get-together proposed by a superior for a job well done drives a workman to think for even higher achievements. This phenomenon not only applies to physical goods like food, clothing, housing and money, but also to experiences like travel and entertainment not to mention events that improve social status, such as being promoted or getting rewarded. On the flip side, the drive to acquire tends to be relative (comparison with others) and insatiable (one always wants more). That suitably explains why people always care not just about their own compensation but about others as well. This was a case from personal experience. Once a steam pipeline at a plant got burst. There were ear splitting noise, unbearable heat all around and approach to the affected area was almost impossible. Simultaneously, due to constant steam leakage, the overall steam pressure was gradually coming down and the plant was on the verge of collapse. One of the workmen, in spite of tremendous physical risk, closed the valve and isolated the affected line thus saving the plant.
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Of course, his contribution was never acknowledged. Reason being, he should been so alert that the pipe-bursting would not have happened at the first place! What everybody forgot that the poor fellow has just utilized his muscles to do emergency corrections. It is the job the babus, the so-called brains, to initiate preventive measures. Our point is that a person is as much driven by money as by ego and self-esteem. Even a pat on the back or small mementoes can boost his morale and competency manifold. The drive to acquire is most easily satisfied by an organizations reward system, how effectively it discriminates between good and poor performers, ties rewards to performance and gives the best people opportunities for advancement. When the Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) acquired Natwest, it inherited a company in which the reward system was dominated by politics, status and employee tenure. RBS introduced a new system that held managers responsible for specific goals and rewarded good performance over average performance. Former Natwest employees embraced their new company in part because the reward system was tough but recognized individual achievements. Sonoco, a manufacturer of packaging for industrial and consumer goods, transforms itself in parts by making a concerted effort to better meet the drive to acquire- that is, by establishing very clear links between performance and rewards. Historically, the company had set high business-performance targets, but its 1995 pay-for-performance based on individual and group metrics that spurred it to top-20 talent management organization in the US. Significantly, it was one of the few midcap companies on the list, which included big players like 3M, GE, Johnson & Johnson and Dell.

The Drive to bond: We swim or sink together


Many animals bond with their parents, kinship group or tribe, but only humans extend that connection to larger collectives such as organization, associations, and nations. The drive to bond, when met, is associated with strong positive emotions like love and caring and when not, with negative ones like loneliness and anomie. At work, the drive to bond, accounts for enormous boost in competency when employees feel proud of belonging to the organization and for the loss of morale, when the institution betrays them. Perhaps nobody understood this drive to bond better then the Japanese: who pioneered the concept of continual improvement through Quality Circles and several such path breaking measures. They fully understood that management, after all, is people and businesses are made successful by people, not plans. A favorite phrase of Japanese business planner is hito-kane-mono or people, money and things (fixed assets). They believe that streamlined corporate management is achieved when these three critical resources are in balance; without any superfluity or waste.
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In our plants, we have several such measures, chiefly the Quality Circles (QC) and Shop-Improvement Groups (SIG). But their effectiveness leaves much to be desired. Currently, they are just plain statistics to be flaunted during PR exercises. The real benefit will accrue when the output of group activities are periodically reviewed and put in practice in related jobs. Most importantly, it is not job of one or two department to usher in the culture of bonding. It has to be embedded in organizational culture. Toyota provides a good example of Japanese sense of bonding to enhance competency. It provides specific thrust on suggestion boxes which used to receive more than lakh proposals annually, almost more than 25 per employee. These suggestions are not just harebrained ideas; they are the output of group discussions and viability analysis. This has resulted in savings worth $ 500 million last year, which is not an insignificant sum even for a company of the size of Toyota. Another company Hitachi has instituted a movement called Management Improvement (MI), which is a value analysis of all direct and indirect work in consultation with groups of employees. The profit contribution from this particular set of activities is an astounding 71%. Back home, Tata Steel has successfully initiated a program called MASS (Manthan Aab Shop Floor se) where a core knowledge management group is formed to assess organizational wide competencies and then syndicates with departments for their optimum utilization.

The drive to comprehend: my presence counts


This is an excerpt from an interview that we conducted in Hot strip Mill with a housekeeping staff. We have kept some portion in Hindi to let the reader get the essence. Q: What do you do? A: Jhadoo-poocha Q: For how many years are you working here? A: ayhi koi bees pachhis saal Q: Whats the benefit to the plant if you do good Housekeeping? A: Pata Nahi saab, babu log bolta hai, hum karte hain and finally Q: Whats the job of Hot Strip Mill? A: Pata Nahi saab,humara kaam to Jhadoo-poocha hai Our point of submission is that a person wants very much to make sense of the world around us, to produce theories and accounts- scientific, religious and cultural that makes events comprehensible. An employee feels frustrated and his competency level profoundly drops when he or she is unable to prove his existence. Conversely, it is the challenge of rediscovering his innate excellence that goads him to unfathomable heights. Growing and learning, these are the important factors in todays competitive world. Competence, like truth, beauty and contact lenses, is in the eye of the beholder.

Raymond Hull
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Had the housekeeping staff learnt that his job is linked to a clean workplace that could ultimately lead to fewer accidents, less man-hour loss and finally higher productivity, perhaps his entire approach would have been different. Possibly nobody bothered to explain him. Possibly he never asked, being in the muscle category. For him, every day is same, getting order and Jhadoo-poocha. In our view, any company that looks for future leadership, has to put a mirror in front of each of its employees as to where he or she stands and how his or her individual contribution is getting translated into organizational profitability. This is best exemplified by ISO 9000 standard, which has a term called Quality Objective. In short, Quality Objective is not only a departmental goal, it asks for its linkage with individual job design. The drive to comprehend is best addressed by designing jobs that are meaningful, interesting and challenging. JW Marriot, a star hotel in Mumbai, has a newsletter that is read out before the commencement of their shifts. Intels the write to know program allows employees to anonymously ask any business related questions about the company and get a prompt answer. Philips Software has a unique forum called Express Yourself through which the employees can write their thoughts on whiteboards provided in the cafeteria. Retail giant Wal-mart has some prefixed dates when groups of employees can directly interact with the CEO through video-conferencing. The global management-consulting firm McKinsey & Co. is an example of a company McKinsey & Company that truly values its employees, as it demonstrates through its commitment to their development. Although formal training plays an important role, by far the most critical development tools are intensive individual feedback and coaching. Such activities absorb 15% to 20% of the average partners time. Every consultant receives a formal performance review from his or her office's partner group twice a year, with the individual's designated development director offering detailed feedback, counseling and career advice. The input for that biannual review comes from reports prepared by each of the client engagement managers, senior-level consultants who are responsible for the day-to-day management of the team to which the individual belongs and who have supervised the individuals work. The engagement managers also provide the consultant with feedback, evaluation and development advice after each of the four or five engagements that span a typical year's assignment. During each engagement, the consultant also has dozens of additional one-on-one feedback and coaching sessions with the more senior people managing and directing the project. In total, each consultant receives scores of specific, detailed coaching sessions per year. The company maintains that its in-depth approach to development is one of the main reasons why people join McKinsey and why they stay.
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The Drive to defend: I will save my territory


We all naturally defend ourselves, our property and accomplishments, our family and friends against external threats. In humans, it manifests itself as a quest to create institutions that promote justice, that have clear goals and intentions and that allow people to express their ideas and opinions. An organization that proclaims over rooftop that people are its most valuable assets and in the next instance hands over pink slips will naturally have the competency of its workforce withered away. Similar is the case of mergers and acquisitions where employees get devastated due to this inherent drive to defend their territory and capriciousness of business cycles. Little wonder that headhunters target employees during such transitions, when they know that people feel vulnerable and at the mercy of managers who are adept at making arbitrary decisions. What was the last time such a forum existed in our plant? We regularly, tom-tom our achievement in the production front, but what about the big picture? Where is the concerted effort to let the employee know the current steel market scenario, the future possibilities of steel industries as such and his worth in such an eventuality? How many of our employees know the existing project status of SAIL? Are they aware of the political and economic scenario affecting our organization? Do they comprehend the constraints of regulatory bodies like safety and environment? It is all very easy talking about establishing strong communication channels, but at the present moment it seems the only message that we are conveying: wait for your pay slip at the month end and forget everything else. It is our firm conviction that a truly competent employee will never emerge if he is unable to guard his flanks; if he is suspicious of things going around him. Annex5 describes how lack of competency to handle external factors led to a series of troubles for two of worlds mammoth organizations. General Electric (GE) is a classic example of its legendary CEO; Jack Welchs understanding of this primary human emotion and it successful exploitation. The company has worked hard to make its decision processes very clear. Employees may disagree with a particular outcome, such as the mixing of a pet project, but they are able to understand the rationale behind the decision. In 1995, when Welch implemented six sigma, the quality initiative that permits just 3.4 defects per million and thus demands near perfection, there were company wide promotion of the event and the benefits supposed to be accruing from it. The people accepted the challenge because they knew that the decision has been
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the outcome of cross business unit teams and the funding criteria was transparent. The employees faith in their leader got reinforced as in 1997; GE became the first company in the world to cross $ 200 billion in market value. Each of these drives described above is independent; they can not be ordered hierarchically or substituted one for another. In spite of numerous competencies mapping and training, that inner urge to excel in an employee will be missing when bonding is not fostered or work seems meaningless or people feel defenseless. While providing even minor facilitating resources can propel people to take quantum jumps.(see Annex 6)Nor is it enough to help people bond as a tight-knit team when they are underpaid or toiling away at deathly boring jobs. There must be quiet introspection by the top brass whether there are avenues open for the employees to ask questions relentlessly and how many of these people still retain the inquisitiveness of children. Paying money handsomely may be a short term success, but ultimately it may degenerate into a phenomenon of diminishing return.

The blooming of competency: success stories at RSP


It is not that our unit does not have enough competent people, or otherwise it would not have 1500 crores profit last financial year. That sparks of creativity still exists, innovations are being made day in and day out and the word motivation still exists in the dictionary of our workforce. Here we are not going to talk about big departments for they have got enough platforms for articulation of their success. Rather, our team concentrated on the services, the so-called unsung heroes, to gauge out their contributions and competencies. When a gas leakage was detected at the goggle valve of the column number PS-24 on the blast furnace main gas line to the holder, it was a cause of concern to the management, it being a potential gas hazard. Being a critical job it needed shut down of the line, which would have compelled for total shut down of the blast furnaces. On this critical juncture the Energy Management Department collective decided to carry out online rectification of the leakage with necessary safety precautions for avoiding any kind of production loss. They made a box and fitted it in the damaged goggle valve main line which ensured that the emitted gasses would not come in contact with the atmosphere. Earlier refractory material was used in the leakage area for reducing the intensity of gas emission. On the other hand the fire brigade was kept ready to take care of any eventuality arising out of welding and cutting of the leaking goggle valve assembly which is extremely fire prone. However the meticulous planning and impeccable implementation resulted in successful completion of the job without any safety hazard.
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It is not always that we remember that there are 212 EOT cranes in different production units of the plant. From raw materials to finished products the materials are required to be handled minimum 16-17 times at every stage, be it hot metal, slabs, coils, plates or pipes the handling has to be safe and prompt. This handling is being done by EOT cranes. The mechanical and structural maintenance of these equipments is being done by Crane Maintenance department. The employees have exhibited their creativity through many unique jobs that they have taken up and completed to perfection. One such job is the commissioning of two motors in the main hoist drive of hot metal handling crane number 204 in pit side of SMS-I. Crane number 204 was previously running with single motor in half speed for the last four years since one of the motors had become non - functional. The collective took up the challenging task of replacing the defective gear box assembly with a gear box in perfect working condition. All the required alignment and commissioning work was also done. Moreover since the gear box had no drawings, after being dismantled from the crane the gear box casing drawings were prepared. Also the worn out bearing seats were replaced apart from replacement of all internals. The highlight of the job was that entire job was completed in a period of 8 days as per schedule. The main crane was restored with two motor operations, after a period of four years; a stand by hot metal crane numbered 223 was also commissioned with ability to be fully operational. The entire job was completed in a period of three days without affecting the production momentum. Similarly, Roll Shop tends to get overshadowed by its big brothers like Plate Mill, Hot Strip Mill, Cold Rolling Mill and Silicon Steel Mill. But the shop has an important role to play as it caters to the requirement of Ready Roll Assemblies to all customer mills. The pressure on perfection and timing is immense on the employee and they have come up with flying colours every time. This is just one of the illustrations of their sterling competency. The mechanical maintenance crew of roll shop successfully completed the challenging job of major reconditioning of in 21 days by using in-house facilities and resources. The major jobs were carried out during the reconditioning included v guide and flat guide flowering for better lubrication and smooth movement of carriage, replacement of old and defective bearings and seals, reconditioning of grinding wheel spindle and replacement of head stock analog meter with digital panel meter. Besides, the defective cables were also replaced during the job.
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After the reconditioning the reliability, quality of product and accuracy of the machine has improved and the desired controlled roll profile and finishing of the surface can be now achieved. Outsourcing the job could have cost the company Rs 23 lakhs, while the project was accomplished by the employees by spending only Rs 3 lakhs. Captive Power Plant (CPPI) has likewise a multifarious roles to play that include power and process steam generation. But its continuing stability depended on the healthy functioning of its Water Treatment Plant. In the Water Treatment Plant, the water is treated by using highly corrosive substance like hydrochloric acid for use in boilers. The pipelines which are considered as the life line of the CPP-I operation, used to have frequent leakages due to the highly corrosive nature of the acid. This created an adverse impact on the production of the department. Displaying a high degree of expertise and commitment, a group of about 10 employees replaced the old pipelines by acid proof CPVC pipe lines by utilizing in house resources. The replacement was very vital in the present situation, as there was a higher requirement of make up water for high pressure boilers during monsoon as compared to other seasons. We can go on listing achievements like this, but that is not our sole purpose. We want to emphasize that creativity and competency though can not be taught; they can certainly be cultivated consciously. Inventive geniuses such as Thomas Edison or Edwin Land are by definition rare exceptions. For most of us, a creative insight is a smoldering ember that must be fanned constantly to grow. We strongly believe that when all the right ingredients are present: sensitivity, will and receptiveness- they can be nurtured by example, direction and conditioning. In short, they can not be taught, but can be learned. And if they can be imbibed, why restrict it to only a group of employees? Why just create only islands of excellence when possibilities are limitless. Lets now to take our organization to new heights of success by making a competency model that believes not in full stops. At best it could be semicolons.

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Our competency Model


When we recount the entire project, there is a strong underlying assumption. That with booster doses of knowledge, skill and attitudinal development, an employee or groups of employees will turn into virtual samurais. In spite of numerous hurdles, they can convert challenges into opportunities and tribulations into triumphs. That is only half true, as our questionnaire (See Annex7) and subsequent competency model suggests. An employee is as good or as bad as the value for which his organization stands for. The values are basically convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence. For example, is capital punishment right or wrong? How about racial quotas in hiring- are they right or wrong? If a person likes power, is he correct? Each of these questions can be answered by either yes or no- both equally convincinglydepending on the persons value system. Why we started our model from the value system is because we firmly believe they influence attitude and behavior. So many questions arise when we think of our organization, SAIL? Does it bestow powers evenly or there is concentration among a selected cabal? Is it individual or group oriented? Does it show concern for the welfare of its employees and stakeholders or just pay lip service? Are its goals long term or short term? Does it reward people who take risk or is it basically uncertainty avoider? Again, opinion will vary but most certainly a general view regarding the company will be formed that will either propel or repel the employees. Dell computer learned that Chinese work values differ from US work values when it opened a computer factory in Xiamen, China. Chinese workers view the concept of a job for life. They expect to drink tea and read the papers on the job, and still keep the jobs. Dell China executives had to train employees so that they could understand that their jobs depended on their performance. To instill workers with a sense of ownership managers gave employees stock options and explained to them how their increased productivity would result in higher pay. Organizational values are of course hard to change as they have been seasoned with layers and layers of socialistic rhetoric. We are still regarded as a company whose sole purpose of existence is to drain the exchequer and let incompetence thrive. But times are changing and so is SAIL. With winds of liberalization blowing for the last decade and half, our company has certainly changed beyond recognition and so is some of its value. What we feel is that the change has to be hastened.
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In our view, what is most important among so many variables and what we feel will fundamentally influence the character of an employee is his knowledge of what the company really stands for, its vision, its core values and its corporate social responsibilities. Hardly anybody, we interviewed, was aware of the vision of SAIL. How effective it would be if the performance of SAIL would be evaluated on the basis of its vision and core values (by an independent auditing agency and displayed for the benefit of the employees) instead of being solely through production centric prism? Once, the organization is clear regarding its avowed principles like customer satisfaction, ethical standard, proactiveness to change, career opportunities to the employees and fulfillment to corporate social responsibilities, then only the business strategy should flow out of it as demonstrated in our model. If we are going for a massive modernization programme, there should be pre calculation regarding how it is going to affect the stake holders and customers. A systemic approach needs to prevail, not anarchy. Quite naturally, the HR strategy needs to be firmed up after the company is sure about its future. This includes hiring and retention of manpower along with possible retrenchment or job hopping. Only when an organization is sure about the potential of the newly recruit should it start the competency frame work. When S.M.Walton created and made famous the retail store wal-mart, he made sure that every employee that he has hired owned the shops as he himself would have liked. This was way back in 1960s when such management terms like competency building or assessment' was not much heard. But he still would go great lengths to teach each staff as to how to greet a customer, how to gauge his moods, his profiles etc. so that each deal is clinched. The employees were called associates and offered generous profit sharing plans. But they were never lax as Walton himself would sometimes visit a shop under a disguise and pseudonym to check efficacy of the system. When we have defined the scope of competency mapping, then in the next step, the frame work is to be established. As discussed else where in the project, developing competency transcends individuals and engrosses the whole organization. It was the lack of competency in environmental and stakeholder management that failed McDonalds and British Petroleum. So many steel projects (including Posco & Mittal) are stuck up in Orissa because of their incompetence in handling issues that are part political and part economic. The profitability of General Motors touched its nadir when a costly 1998 strike came as a bolt from the blue. If the organizations have the courage to look to the future through a binocular and act accordingly, they may well make sure that the lenses are cleaned properly.
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As we come to more micro level like assessing group and individual competencies, we strongly recommend that it has to be a perennial exercise; a continuing quest for excellence. The current model of generation of Annual Training Plan as per departmental requirement is too archaic and conventional. At best, the HRD has to be made a forum for imparting training; the thrust should come from the departments themselves. The most serious lacuna that we found regarding training is in fact the lack of seriousness. We should not count the number of trainings as a scorekeeper does regarding goals, rather the content and feedback mechanism has to be made robust. One of the terms that Jack Welch used liberally in his best seller winning is mutual symbiosis. In fact, it is a term taken from biology where two organisms help each other to grow. An example of mutual symbiosis is the relationship between Ocellaris clownfish that dwell among the tentacles of Ritteri sea anemones. The territorial fish protects the anemone from anemone-eating fish, and in turn the stinging tentacles of the anemone protect the clownfish from its predators (a special mucus on the clownfish protects it from the stinging tentacles). I know very little management terms and even less about what they call strategy says the all time Management Guru rather modestly. What I honestly feel is that your foreman is not going to work if he feels that his competency is not properly utilized. The organization has to nurture him like the anemone does to the fish. The fish in turn will give his best to ensure that its protector is well looked after. In case this symbiosis is not established, volumes of data regarding employee motivation and teamwork are just rubbish. The gaps of competency, once identified, therefore, has to be bridged with a massive organizational impetus. While the short term training needs can be addressed by need based training, it is the big picture that matters. Right slots are to be identified for employee depending on their competencies and nature of jobs by regular performance appraisal. Simultaneously, their mental and technical expertise needs to be enhanced with suitable motivation, mentoring and team building. We believe that time has come to transform outlays into outcomes and entrepreneurs into intrapreneurs; persons who focus on innovation and transform ideas into a value adding ventures, operating within the organizational environment. That is where the blue print of captivating the employees attention and engagement lies. Our thinking has to go beyond conventional compensations and perks, which are anyway standardized and can not be increased beyond certain limits.
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Instead, the employees should be provided with a larger cause that will enable him or her to own tomorrows enterprises. In effect, a platform needs to be created; a standard process should be formalized, wherein an employee, irrespective of his hierarchy in the organization, can share his ideas and own its implementation. He should not be fettered by a structured growth path, but by his inherent or cultivated abilities. The moment of reckoning has arrived for SAIL, for our own plant RSP and for all of us, to have the ultimate tryst with destiny. We need to create that all encompassing culture of trust and togetherness which will transform an also-ran workforce to a breed of potent Intrapreneurs. Its a long way up from lethargy to dynamism and time is incredibly short. We have to act fast, from right now. For tomorrow may never come.

References

A The 8th Habit by Stephen R Covey, Franklin Covey A Winning by Jack Welch A What they do not teach you at Harvard Business School by Mark H. McCormack
Collins

A Made in Japan by Akio Morita, New York: Dutton, 1986 A An Autobiography by Lee Iacocca, Bantam A 50 Companies that changed the world , Howard Rothman, , Jaico Book A Business Maharajas by Gita Piramal, Penguin Books A Dhirubhaism by A.G.Krishnamurthy, TMH publication A Organizational Behaviour by Stephen P. Robbins, Prentice Hall of India A Harvard Business Review, July 2008 A Managing Human Resources, George Bob Lander and Scott Snell,

Thomson Southwestern

A The Toyota Way, Jeffery K.Liker, McGraw-Hill. A Ignited Minds Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam A The Hand Book of Competence Mapping Process by Seema Sanghi (A Division of
SAGE publication)

A Competency based HRM by Ganesh Shermon (TMH publication)


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Annex- I

SAIL- A SWOT Analysis


The Strengths
Market leadership by volume Countrys largest steel producer Wide selling network Wide product range Captive mining with sizeable reserve Skilled manpower Large infrastructure Reasonably modernized key facilities Geographically dispersed plant locations

The Weaknesses
Inconsistency in product quality, process Product brand value High manpower cost Project implementation capability Non-core, loss making units Quality of raw material Slow decision making process Dependence on external sources for coal Depleting technical knowledge base

The Opportunities
Favourable domestic demand potential; Low percapita consumption of steel Export potential high High growth segments for long products CR, pipes etc. Potential for reducing cost of production and enhancing operational efficiency Outsourcing of non critical process (After reaching optimum manpower level) Strategic alliance in coal, mining & power

The Threats
Market competitive pressure Lower tariff Cost driven pressure Demand for high product quality Stringent environmental norms Non-availability of coking coal/energy source Timely clearance of mining project Waste disposal/environmental concern 123

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Annex- II

Knowing How the Environment Rates You: the 360 degree feedback
In human resources or industrial/organizational psychology, 360-degree feedback, also known as 'multi-rater feedback', 'multisource feedback', or 'multisource assessment', is an employee development feedback that comes from all around the employee. "360" refers to the 360 degrees in a circle. The feedback would come from subordinates, peers, and managers in the organizational hierarchy, as well as self-assessment, and in some cases external sources such as customers and suppliers or other interested stakeholders. It may be contrasted with upward feedback, where managers are given feedback by their direct reports, or a traditional performance appraisal, where the employees are most often reviewed only by their manager. The US armed forces first used 360-degree feedback to support development of staff in the 1940s. The system gained momentum slowly, but by the 1990s most HR and OD professionals understood the concept. When the first online 360 degree feedback tools appeared in 1998, it became possible to request feedback from raters anywhere in the world by email, to customize automated systems, and to generate reports for recipients in minutes. In recent years, Internet-based services have become the norm, with a growing menu of useful features: e.g. multi languages, comparative reporting, and aggregate reporting. The results from 360-degree feedback are often used by the person receiving the feedback to plan their training and development. The results are also used by some organizations for making promotional or pay decisions, which are sometimes called "360-degree review." There are some basic advantages with 360 degree feedback system which will be very much relevant to a tradition bound company like SAIL in enhancing the competencies of its workmen.

A Individuals get a broader perspective of how they are perceived by others than
previously possible.

A Increased awareness of and relevance of competencies. A Increased awareness by senior management that they too have development needs. A More reliable feedback to senior managers about their performance. A Gaining acceptance of the principle of multiple stakeholders as a measure of
performance.
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A Encouraging more open feedback new insights. A Reinforcing the desired competencies of the business. A Provided a clearer picture to senior management of individuals real worth A Clarified to employees critical performance aspects. A Opens up feedback and gives people a more rounded view of performance than they
had previously.

A Identifying

key development areas for the individual, a department and the organization as a whole.

A Identifying strengths that can be used to the best advantage of the business. A Raised the self-awareness of people managers of how they personally impact upon
others positively and negatively.

A Supporting a climate of continuous improvement. A Starting to improve the climate/ morale, as measured through the survey. A Focused agenda for development. Forced line managers to discuss development
issues.

A Perception of feedback as more valid and objective, leading to acceptance of results


and actions required.

A Gaps are identified in one's self-perception versus the perception of the manager,
peer or direct reports.

A Customizing the questions to one's organizational competencies.


In spite of so many positive outcomes, the implementation of 360 degree feed back has not been an unqualified success. Though a huge hit in US (A recent study done in 2006 suggests that an over whelming 90% of fortune 500 companies have joined the "360 degree feed back" bandwagon), Indian corporate are tad bit slow off the block to embrace 360-degree appraisal system. The reasons are not far to seek. Indian business houses are markedly reluctant to embrace the system for fear of tinkering with traditional hierarchical structures. Nevertheless, top-notch companies like wipro, Infosys and Maruti are few of them who have gone 360 degree way and made success of it. In SAIL, the system has just taken its first tentative steps in the corporate level. It is our firm conviction that, the proper implementation of this magnificent feedback mechanism will bring out those hidden competencies of the employees to the fore.
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Annex-III

Competence Building at SAIL, RSP


Apart from imparting structured module based training, HRD Centre , RSP has undertaken various other professional development activities like facilitating Performance Improvement Workshops , Identifying Supercritical Skills and organizing training to bridge the gaps , developing Young Managers and Shift in charges , Organizing Seminars , Technical Talks etc. The jobs at HRD Centre are directed towards:

A Providing Training Intervention A Identification of Training Need A Conducting Training Programme A Evaluating the Effectiveness A Encouraging a culture of Learning A Learning Forums A Learning after Duty Hours A Experience Sharing A Creating and Maintaining a Learning Environment A Development of Infrastructure facilities A Maintaining the Library A Housekeeping of the entire building and its surroundings
A. Training Need Identification :

Some of the recent HR interventions to enhance the competency level of our employees to face the challenges ahead of SAIL are given below:

At the base of all competency development through training interventions is identification of training needs. This is carried out through: i. Training Need Analysis: With the assistance of training engineers and the support of all HODs , the Annual Training Need Analysis is carried out for employees of each department from November to January where training needs of employees are identified and indicated for all our existing regular in-house modules . Any new requirement is also indicated here.
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ii. Competence Mapping: Competency Mapping in SAIL is a useful process for assessing the competency levels of the individual employees deployed on various jobs on the shop floor. It aims at identifying jobs/positions and corresponding competencies required to be effective at that job / position. Competency Mapping helps in identifying gaps in terms of specific attributes like knowledge, skill and attitude for each and every employee so that required training is imparted for bridging these gaps. In December 2004, a committee was constituted to develop the system in SAIL . The committee standardized the assessment system and the more or less uniform methodology is being adopted all over SAIL. The broad steps followed in competency mapping are: Identification of competencies required for the job. Identification of knowledge and skill level of employees keeping in view the job requirement / competency. Identification of the gaps in competency which can be fulfilled through training. Systematic training efforts to build competencies and bridge the gap in competence. Such systematic approach to competency mapping facilitated not only assessment of competency levels of existing manpower but also identified required competencies and linked the outcome with training initiatives . At micro level, it helps in :

A A A A

A A A A

Identifying individual training need to be addressed in a department / function Bridging the competency gaps through structured training programmes Ensuring timely availability of competent workforce Minimizing surprise element in case of change in technology. In RSP, during 2007-08 competency mapping was carried out in 11 departments for 111 job positions and mapping was carried out for 2317 employees and during 2008-09 competency mapping was carried out for 6 departments for 66 job positions and mapping so far was carried out for 968 employees. It is observed that in RSP, above steps of competency mapping resulted in the availability of competent manpower through training routes to the major departments because of dynamic nature of competency mapping process.
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iii. Skill Gap Analysis: This is another very important tool for Training Need Identification where critical and urgent skills are identified for major departments at the beginning of each year and the gaps are also identified through observation / systematic study at the shop floor. During the year 2006-07 skill gap analysis was carried out in 12 departments and a total of 41 skills were identified in which 755 employees were identified for training. Training was imparted to 342 employees during 2006-07, 190, employees during 2007-08 and 96 employees so far in 2008 -09. Until now, a total of 628 employees have been trained and 34 skills have been decriticalised. In May 2007, a special effort was made to identify plant wise inventory of supercritical skills (e.g. maintenance of hydraulic systems, cable jointer, vibration meter reading, PLC troubleshooting etc.) which needed to be decriticalised through training intervention on priority basis. During 2008-09, 21 such skills have been identified in 10 areas, training for which are being conducted in collaboration with line department.

iv. Supercritical Skills:

B. Approach towards Multiskilling


In view of thrust on right sizing of manpower in SAIL, multiskilling has become an integral part of the work system at RSP and consequently multi skill training has also become a vital part of the training initiative at RSP. It is an effective tool for enhancing employee job performance and job effectiveness in organizations aiming at rightsizing of manpower in SAIL. At present at RSP, multiskill training is conducted through the following training schemes :

Department Specific Programmes: These modules are designed and conducted on priority basis to meet the specific requirement of the department with the help of in house as well as external faculty. During 2007-08 , 438 employees were trained through 15 different department specific modules like operation & maintenance of Nitrogen Compressors for TOP II , Track Maintenance for TRM and Electro-Hydraulics for HSM Equipment Specific Programmes: These modules are conducted specific to particular equipment which may or may not be common for many other units. During 2007-08, 121 employees trained through 8 different equipment specific modules like CNC Roll Grinding Operation & Programming, Rockwell PLC Programming and Troubleshooting etc. Unit Training: It is mainly job based and the objective is to bring up the capabilities of operators to an agreed standard of operation. Unit training ensures that current
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operating and maintenance practices which are reviewed and updated continuously for improving the quality parameters and the techno-economic parameters of the department. The employees are trained on the job by an experienced worker of the same department called a Unit Trainer. Apart from the shop based Unit Training, at HRDC two no. of modules on Job Instructional Training and Unit Training Manual Writing Workshop are conducted on regular basis.

Specific Multiskill Modules: To ensure that employees of RSP possess multiple skills to enhance their effectiveness, 6 no of multiskill modules are run at HRDC workshops which are mostly hands on oriented. These modules are :

A A A A A A

Welding & Gas Cutting Fabrication of Pipe bends Repair & Fitting of electrical machines Material Handling Wire Rope Splicing Machine Tool Maintenance

During 2007-08 , 375 employees were imparted multiskill training in their allied trades.

As per the directive of corporate office , a new scheme of multiskill training has been introduced in all major units of SAIL which says

A A A

All employees up to 55yrs of age should preferably covered under this scheme. Additional skills identified should preferably be in the same work platform as the basic skill. Scope includes Multiskill Training (Training in two additional trades apart from current basic trades like Welding, Rigging, Gas Cutting etc.) Multi task Training (Training for doing extra jobs in addition to ones own job) and Skill Enhancement Training (Skill enlargement and skill enrichment in existing skills e.g. Hydraulics, PLC, Digital Control, Computer Packages, Electronics etc.) Minimum duration of training should be of 4 Weeks

This scheme has been planned to implement in 5 department of RSP at present (Mech. Shop , SSM , PD , PM and SMS I). A committee has been formed comprising members of these departments, HRDC and Personnel to implement successfully. No. of related trades, No. of Master Trainers and No. of employees to be trained are already identified, manual writing is in progress and the training would commence very soon.
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Annex-IV

Nurturing Competencies: the saga of excellence at Infosys


Infosys Technologies has been such a pioneer in competency enhancement that has been recognized by world over. In fact, it has been assessed at Level 5 on the PCMM model by KPMG Consulting, becoming the first company in the world to be assessed at the optimizing level on the updated version 2.0 of the model. The assessment has been carried out at the Infosys Development Centre in Pune, which employs 1393 Infoscions the largest centre outside of the company's headquarters in Bangalore. The PCMM model, developed by SEI, has five levels of maturity and twenty-two Key Performance Areas (KPAs), across these five levels. The model helps software organizations increase their ability to attract, develop, motivate, organize and retain the talent needed to continuously improve their software development capabilities. It also helps to develop and promote a culture of excellence amongst its people. The PCMM assessment marks another milestone in the company's successful track record of Level 5 assessments, on software CMM and more recently, the CMM integrated. Infosys has been a trail-blazer in innovative workforce practices: be it in creating wealth for employees through wide distribution of stock options or in creating a fun workplace with various amenities such as a gymnasium, amphitheatre, multi cuisine food courts etc. The companys ability to retain talent is well above the industry norms. The company's individual training plan for employees ensures near 100% coverage of employees in the performance management process. Over the past year, Infosys has completed the transition into a role and competency based organization, defining the various career paths available to employees. The company has also launched an internal job posting mechanism and the concept of Personal Development plans, on the basis of 360 degree feedback. Infosys is one of a handful of companies to have invested nearly $ 7 million in a Leadership Institute based in Mysore to instill world-class leadership qualities in its employees. "Infosys has always believed that people are its greatest assets. We have been widely recognised for our HR practices and have been rated the best employer in India by several studies. The fact that we have been able to go in for a final assessment in Pune with aggressive timelines vindicates the robustness of our HR processes. PCMM is an integral part of our efforts to provide uniform levels of people capability across global locations," said Hema Ravichandar, Senior Vice President and Head HRD. The electric combination of value system, culture, leadership and innovative people processes has consistently yielded better employee and customer satisfaction levels. It has been perceptibly demonstrated and validated during this intensive assessment.
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Annex: V

Develop your external competency or face trouble: the infamous Mclibel and British Petroleum Cases
The McDonald's Restaurants v Morris & Steel, colloquially the McLibel case, was a long-running English court action for libel filed by McDonald's Corporation against environmental activists Helen Steel and David Morris (often referred to as "The McLibel Two") over a pamphlet critical of the company. The original case, considered by some scholars to be a strategic lawsuit against public participation (SLAPP), lasted seven years, making it the longest-running court action in english history. Beginning in 1986, "London Greenpeace", a small environmental campaigning group distributed a pamphlet entitled whats wrong with McDonalds: Everything they dont want you to know. This publication made a number of allegations against McDonald's that include wasting vast quantities of grain and water; destroying rain forests with poisons and colonial invasions; exploiting children with advertising and poisoning customers with contaminated meat. Though a number of the defendants later withdrew fearing retribution from a behemoth like McDonald's, two activists, Helen Steel and David Morris dogged fought on, in spite of having very limited income. The most surprising thing was that such a huge organization had never studied the potential environmental troubles that its products could face and therefore unable to comprehend the course of action. The case dragged on till 2005 and the judgment was mostly in favour of the Steel and Morris pair. The case cost McDonald's close to a billion dollar as part of legal fee, compensation and lost business. Though the company never admitted it, the advertisement of children by McDonald's stopped after that. It also concentrated on staple diet preferred by the locality in which it operates and not primarily beef or pork. As of Steel and Morris, they became instant celebrities, apart from huge compensation and royalty from feature films made on the case. Another company that faced huge ignominy due to lack of competency in handling environmental issues was British Petroleum. Till 2000, it was one of the most respected oil exploration and refinery company in the world. But a series of unfortunate incidents like spillage of oil in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska and pollution of Lake Michigan with ammonia and sludge besmirched its reputation. Instead of correcting the issues, the company even refused to acknowledge them till media and public forced it to eat humble pie. Accused of fooling the world, it had to shutdown its operation in several areas. The company that once proudly proclaimed its abbreviation is actually Beyond Petroleum, faced several lawsuits and named one of the ten worst corporations in both 2001 and 2005.
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AnnexVI

Enhancing competencies of village poor: the success story of Grameen Bank


The Grameen Bank is a microfinance organization and community development bank started in Bangladesh that makes small loans (known as micro credit or "grameencredit") to the impoverished without requiring collateral. The word "Grameen", derived from the word "gram" or "village", means "of the village". The system of this bank is based on the idea that the poor have skills that are under-utilized. A group-based credit approach is applied which utilizes the peer-pressure within the group to ensure the borrowers follow through and use caution in conducting their financial affairs with strict discipline, ensuring repayment eventually and allowing the borrowers to develop good credit standing. The bank also accepts deposits, provides other services, and runs several development-oriented businesses including fabric, telephone and energy companies. Another distinctive feature of the bank's credit program is that a significant majority of its borrowers are women. The origin of Grameen Bank can be traced back to 1976 when Professor Muhammad Yunus, a fulbright scholar and Professor at University of Chittagong, launched a research project to examine the possibility of designing a credit delivery system to provide banking services targeted to the rural poor. In October 1983, the Grameen Bank Project was transformed into an independent bank by government legislation. The organization and its founder, Muhammad Yunus, were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006. Among many different applications of micro credit by the bank, one is the Village Phone Program, through which women entrepreneurs can start a business providing wireless payphone service in rural areas of Bangladesh. This program earned the bank the 2004 Petersburg Prize worth of EUR 100,000/-, for its contribution of technology to development. In 2003, Grameen Bank started a new program, different from its traditional groupbased lending, exclusively targeted to the beggars in Bangladesh. This program is focused on distributing small loans to beggars. The existing rules of banking are not applied, the loans are completely interest-free, the repayment period can be arbitrarily long, for example, a beggar taking a small loan of around 100 taka (about US $1.50) can pay only 2.00 taka (about 3.4 US cents) per week and furthermore the borrower is covered under life insurance free of cost. The bank does not force borrowers to give up begging; rather it encourages them to use the loans for generating income by selling low-priced items. Based on a paper presented in the Global Micro Credit Summit in 2006 by one of the bank's managers, as of May 2006, around 73,000 beggars have taken loans of about Tk 58.32 million (approx. USD 833,150) and repaid Tk. 34.78 million (about USD 496,900).
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Annex-VII Question Survey - I

Questionnaire on Need Analysis for Competence Development


Dear Madam/ Sir, The undersigned has designed the following questionnaire for making a survey as a part of a research paper titled Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth for the SAIL Chairmans Trophy for Young Managers. For each of the following questions rate your team/ individuals on a scale of 1-5, where 5 = Almost always, 4 = Mostly, 3 = Sometime, 2= Rarely, 1 = Almost Never. Please tick your rating which best represents the situation in Rourkela Steel plant Ms C. Das, Sr. Mgr. D. Sathpathy, Sr. Mgr. J. Sarkar, Mgr.

1. Awareness of the customer feedback of our product and services is available to all the employees of the organization 1 2 3 4 5

2. Periodical skill and knowledge gap analysis of our workforce is done 1 2 3 4 5

3. The employees are confident in their respective work areas with no errors 1 2 3 4 5

4. We have specialized teams at our workplace who are expert in their field of work 1 2 3 4 5

5. We follow all standardization procedures at our department and maintain records 1 2 3


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6. We incorporate our employees skill gap in the training need format 1 2 3 4 5

7. We benefit from our standard training programmes that we attend 1 2 3 4 5

8. We benefit immensely from Performance Improvement Workshops 1 2 3 4 5

9. We have a multi-skilled workforce 1 2 3 4 5

10. We review our processes and services as per our customer feedback 1 2 3 4 5

Target Population: Front line executives of both works & non-works areas

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Question Survey II

Questionnaire on Managerial Competencies


Dear Madam/ Sir, The undersigned has designed the following questionnaire for making a survey as a part of a research paper titled Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth for the SAIL Chairmans Trophy for Young Managers. For each of the following questions rate your team/ individuals tick on the appropriate answer. Ms C.Das, Sr. Mgr. Fully Agree 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. We are dependent on our group leader for all decisions We get clear instruction from our seniors at beginning of the shift We feel hesitant to carry out the instructions independently We have regular interactions in the shop floor about developmental and safety aspects We do not have any shift change delay in our department When I face some problem I approach my senior We are cost conscious and aware of our techno economics We are unable to take decisions while handling a surprise breakdown I/we are willing to learn/acquire new skills as and when required Our team leader passes on the entire blame if our team fails Whenever a new machine is installed the technical know how is explained to us while commissioning Our seniors are indifferent if creative jobs are done independently Our training needs gets addressed at regular intervals D. Sathpathy, Sr. Mgr. Partly Agree J. Sarkar, Mgr. Neither Partialy Fully agree disagree disagree Nor disagree

Target Population: non-executives of both works & non-works areas


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Question Survey - III

Questionnaire on Competency based HR Themes for attribute identification for development of Competency model
Dear Madam/ Sir, The undersigned has designed the following questionnaire for making a survey as a part of a research paper titled Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth for the SAIL Chairmans Trophy for Young Managers. For each of the following questions rate your team/ individuals tick on the appropriate answer. Rate on a scale of 1-5. How do you rate the following attributes for the development of Competency ?
Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Attributes Very Essential Essential Required Ornamental Almost not required

Talent Management Motivation HR Interventions Facilities, Administration & Cost Organizational Communication Building Employee Relations Recruitment/Hiring/Selection Training & Development Compensation & Benefits

10. Leadership Building 11. Performance Management 12. Succession Planning 13. Managing Change 14. Managing Knowledge 15. Autonomy of job 16. Companys concern for maintaining work/ life balance 17. Cross-Industry Mergers and Acquisitions 18. Creativity at work

Target Population: executives & non-executives of both works & non-works areas
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I . Questionnaire on Need Analysis for Competence Development


Survey Findings: Sample Size: 75 Sl. No. Statement Almost always 25% Mostly 22% Sometime 26% Rarely 15% Almost never 12%

01. Awareness of the customer feedback of our product and services is inadequate to all the employees of the organization 02. Periodical skill and knowledge gap analysis of our workforce is rare 03. The employees are confident in their respective work areas with no errors 04. We have specialized teams at our workplace who are expert in their field of work 05. We follow all standardization procedures at our department and maintain records 06. Skill/knowledge gap of our employees is incorporated rarely in training need 07. We benefit from our standard training programmes that we attend 08. We benefit immensely from PIWs 09. We have workforce a multiskilled

72%

25%

2%

--

1%

19%

27%

29%

14%

11%

25%

23%

17%

25%

10%

5%

27%

16%

18%

23%

55%

31%

9%

2%

3%

33%

25%

16%

14%

12%

26% 29% 16%

21% 33% 18%

23% 21% 13%

17% 11% 32%

13% 6% 21%

10. We review our processes and services as per our customer feedback

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Conclusion
Q2 : Periodical skill & knowledge gap analysis of our employees is rare

This particular survey was conducted for the executives (shift in charges, line managers and middle management groups). We tried to judge the parameters responsible for competency development like awareness, customer satisfaction, expertise, training need assessment etc. The most astonishing factor was evident in Q2 and Q6 which states that gap in skill and knowledge is not identified properly which in turn fails to fulfill the training objective.

Q6 : Skill/nowledge gap of our employees is incorporated rarely in training need

In Q2 72% of the total respondents feel that skill and knowledge gap analysis of our existing workforce is not properly done. In Q6 55 % of the entire people feel that even if the skill & knowledge gap is identified, it does not become a part of our existing training management system. In summary, our primary conclusion is to emphasize on competency gap analysis and then design and conduct need based structured module to bridge the gap.

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II. Survey on Questionnaire on Managerial Competencies


Survey Findings : Sample Size : 56 (non-executives )
Sl. No. Statement Fully Agree Partly Agree Neither Partially Agree disagree Nor disagree 18% 8% 8% 20% 18% 13% 9% 22% Fully disagree

1. 2. 3. 4.

We are dependent on our group leader for all decisions We get clear instruction from our seniors at beginning of the shift We feel hesitant to carry out the instructions independently We have regular interactions in the shop floor about developmental and safety aspects We do not have any shift change delay in our department When I face some problem I approach my senior We are cost conscious and aware of our techno economics We are unable to take decisions while handling a surprise breakdown I/we are willing to learn/acquire new skills as and when required Our team leader passes on the entire blame if our team fails Whenever a new machine is installed the technical knowhow is explained to us while commissioning Our seniors are indifferent if creative jobs are done independently Our training needs gets addressed at regular intervals

23% 12% 61% 13%

27% 62% 17% 18%

14% 5% 5% 27%

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

27% 21% 13% 62% 21% 2% 12%

22% 33% 33% 28% 22% 5% 15%

27% 23% 13% 4% 43% 33% 33%

13% 21% 20% 3% 12% 37% 22%

11% 2% 21% 3% 2% 23% 18%

12. 13.

53% 18%

21% 12%

16% 25%

2% 22%

8% 25%

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Conclusion
Q3 :We feel hesitant to carry out instructions independently This particular survey was done to identify the factors responsible for developing the managerial competencies like business knowledge, analytical skills, proactivity, decision making skills etc. It was stratling to note that our employees are not empowered (Q3) , they are not exposed to emergency handling (Q8) and their managerial qualities are not nurtured properly (Q12). We therefore propose to build and implement a competency model to develop the key competency characteristics of our workforce as they are our primary resource.

Q8 :We are unable to take decisions while handling surprise breakdowns

Q12 : Our seniors are indifferent if creative jobs are done independently

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III : Survey on Questionnaire on Competency based HR Themes for attribute identification for development of Competency model
How do you rate the following attributes for development of competency?
Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Attributes Very Essential Required Essential 52% 45% 28% 20% 45% 19% 22% 49% 22% 42% 59% 15% 21% 26% 45% 12% 24% 29% 36% 23% 15% 21% 27% 12% 20% 30% 18% 36% 21% 28% 17% 21% 42% 26% 15% 21% 6% 12% 19% 13% 9% 26% 18% 12% 20% 6% 8% 26% 23% 17% 8% 31% 23% 24% Ornamental Almost not req uired 4% 6% 15% 35% 10% 23% 12% 6% 27% 9% 9% 22% 28% 19% 6% 18% 23% 16% 2% 14% 13% 11% 9% 20% 25% 3% 13% 7% 3% 9% 11% 17% 3% 13% 15% 10%

Talent Management Motivation HR Interventions Facilities, Administration & Cost Organizational Communication Building Employee Relations Recruitment/Hiring/Selection Training & Development Compensation & Benefits Leadership Building Performance Management Succession Planning Managing Change Managing Knowledge Autonomy of job Companys concern for maintaining work/ life balance Cross-Industry Acquisitions Mergers and

Creativity at work

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Conclusion
Q1:Talent Management

Q2: Motivation

Q5: Organisational Communication

Q8:Trg. & Development

Q10:Leadership Building

Q11 : Performance Mgmt.

Q15 : Autonomy of Job

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Above survey was carried out for executives as well as non-executives of different works and non-works department with a sample size of 122 to identify the necessary attributes of Competency Model , the implementation of which would result in meeting the challenges of growth at all levels. It was found out that following factors are essential while addressing the competency development of our employees :

A Talent Management A Motivation A Organisational Communication A Training & Development A Leadership Building A Autonomy of Job A Performance Management
In our proposed Competency Model we have incorporated above factors.

Some learning points from our survey:


In the course of our survey, we not only covered almost all the production units, but some major services units as well. What we found out was both a mixture of pleasure and concern. We were happy to learn that the creative stimulus is still alive in most of our employees and they are ready to demonstrate it that could take RSP to new heights of success. Simultaneously, our group was equally aghast at how much we could gain had the latent potency been fully tapped. There is a crying need of recognition, of contemporary training and a subtle reassurance of well being of the organization. It is not the fear of tough job that is proving to a hindrance to competency. Rather what is missing is the Aha! Factor, the innate strength that distinguishes champions from hasbeens. Perhaps time has come to recognize our unsung heroes. We bid sayonara with a quote from the all time great management thinker Henry Van Dyke; Use whatever talent you possess, the woods would be very silent if no birds sang except those that sang best

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special jury award


B K Giri, Sr. Manager, BOM S K Sony, Sr. Manager, BOM R K Jena, Manager, BOM

Raw Materials Division INTRODUCTION:

ith exponential growth in the global economy many new challenges are emerging in the corporate world. The explosion of investment in the industry world wide demands high levels of competencies to reap fruitful benefits. In spite of many all round reforms, the industry is unable to meet the extremely large numbers and complex variety of challenges that have cropped up in view of the sky rocketing targets, declining profitability
26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8

due to rising cost of inputs, shortage of skilled manpower and other resources This emerging scenario forces the industry to develop a continuum strategy to maneuver the five engines of growth viz Market, Capital, Technology, Organisation and most importantly the people - they are the task masters who control the other engines. Thus the need of the hour is to buildup the levels of competencies across the entire crosssection of the organisation so as to meet these challenges and fulfill the goals and vision of the industry.
180000 170000 160000 140000 130000 120000 110000 100000
FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY10

It can be easily understood from this graph that the growth target for SAIL has suddenly shot up, while the manpower is taking a deep downslide. Thus the urgent need of the hour is to increase the manpower productivity to bridge the ever widening gap. This can only be possible by improving upon the existing competencies and learning new ones.
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CHALLENGES BEFORE THE INDUSTRY


In this cut-throat competitive business environment any industry is subjected to the five forces which try to retard the growth and profitability. According to Porter, these are: a) b) c) d) e) Bargaining power of the buyers Bargaining power of the suppliers Threat of new entrants Threat of new cheaper substitutes Rivalry among the existing competitors.
BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS

PROFITABILITY
THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS RIVALARY AMONG EXISTING COMPETITORS THREAT OF NEW CHEAPER SUBSTITUTES

In fact, the above entities are just like the centrifugal force, which always try to throw out the organisation from their business, unless a strong binding force is available to keep these destabilizing forces at bay. What is this binding force? To answer this let us delve deeper into the people and process aspects of an industry.

The Binding Force Competent People


The saying of a famous entrepreneur, Henry Ford, comes to our mind; People, not money, not building, not tools: Competent people are our most valuable resource - the weapon, - the central binding force. We need the right ones, the dedicated ones with drive and good instincts. We want them as Supervisors, our Managers, our Division Heads, Organizers, and Visionaries who keep our business in top form, efficient now and prepared for future. And we want competence, dedication and drive in our people. Men and women who routinely get the job right and on time. In fact, the most formidable challenge to growth of any industry is the acute shortage of competent manpower to take up the challenges of change management which is a vital element of growth. Many new expansion plans are launched without meticulous planning particularly in respect of manpower deployment, implementation schedules, training of existing work force, and proper integration of available competitive strengths at all levels. Even if, manpower is available they may not have the required technical and functional knowledge and skills essential for successful implementation of different building blocks of the project. The Employers Federation of India (EFI) foresees a severe shortage of competent manpower a few years ahead which would seriously retard growth if left unaddressed. For enterprises like SAIL, shortage of competent manpower will have a very adverse impact on its future performance, as the workforce will be plunging down in the years to come and on the other hand the targets will keep on going up in leaps and bounds. From the inception of the free market system, organisations have attempted to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage. In search for this Holy Grail, organisations have resorted to a variety of approaches such as price differentiation, market differentiation,
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product differentiation and the like. All of these have only provided short term success with very little long term benefits. Now, people, and more specifically, a competent employee resource base has proven to be the only truly sustainable source of competitive advantage in todays business world. The war for competent people will persist. There are three fundamental forces fueling the war for competence/talent. (a) The irreversible shift from industrial age to information age. (b) The intensifying demand for high caliber managerial talent. (c) The growing propensity for people to switch from one company to other. Since, these forces show no sign of abating, our team believes that the war for managerial talent will be defining the future of business landscape for many years to come. So, in this project we intend to know the aspects of Competence, the existing levels of competence, the required level, analysis of the gap and means & methods to bridge this gap, so as to achieve the desired growth and profitability of our organisation.

COMPETENCIES an overview
Competencies are a cluster of related knowledge, skill, attitude, behaviour, motive and other personal characteristics (OPC) that are essential for successful job performance that differentiates the best from the rest i.e. the superior performers from the normal workers. To identify the various competencies our group decided to conduct a general survey (details enclosed as Annexure I) in which the respondents were asked to suggest the required competencies which could be helpful to meet the challenges of growth and the level of awareness about the prevalence of competency culture in the organisation. Based of our studies we have broadly categorized the competencies suggested by the surveyees into two types i.e. core competencies and role specific competencies.
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Core Competency that is required for all positions in the organisation


(i) Adaptability: Personal willingness and ability to effectively work in and adapt to changes. Being adaptable means each of us needs to look at different ways of doing things, learn new approaches and to be able to shift priorities to meet new priorities. Client Focus: Understanding and meeting or exceeding clients need. Clients are those group or individual internal/external who use the organisations products or services.

(ii)

(iii) Communication: Clearly conveying and receiving messages to meet the need of all. This involves, listening, interpreting, formulating and delivering verbal, non-verbal written and/or electronic messages. (iv) (v) (vi) Organisational awareness: Ability to understand the structure, culture and underlying issues of the organisation. Problem solving and judgement: Ability to assess options and implications in order to identify a solution. Result orientation: Ability to know what results is important, focusing resource to achieve them in alignment with the organisational goals.

(vii) Team work: Ability to work co-operatively, productively and collaborate with others to achieve desired results.

Role specific competencies are applicable to certain roles within the organisation which are critical for some positions:
(i) (ii) Developing other: A desire to work for developing the long term capabilities of others. Impact & Influence: Ability to persuade, convince & influence others for achieving the desired goal.

(iii) Innovation: Using original and creative thinking to make improvements and/or develop and initiate new approaches. (iv) Leadership: Ability to positively influence people and events. (v) Relationship Building: Ability to develop and maintain win-win relationship and partnership.

(vi) Resource Management: Ability to effectively manage internal and/or external resources to achieve organisational goals. (vii) Self Management: Ability to reflect on past experience in order to manage and continually improve ones own performance.
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(viii) Strategic thinking: Ability to have a long term view assessing options and implications.

Benefits of building and developing competencies:


There are three obvious benefits of building competencies:

A A A

It enables us to perform a higher level task at a lower level of the organisation. It gives an opportunity to do our task in an improved way i.e. it enables our people to do things differently than simply doing it. It improves quality at an optimum cost.

BUILDING COMPETENCIES
We shall now discuss different approaches that can be utilised effectively for building the required level of competencies in our organisation.

Competency mapping
Successful performance of an individual in any task has taken a significant position for the success of any organisation. Competency mapping assessment is an important tool for determining the following:

A A A A

The existing competence level of an individual or group The required competency for a particular position The competence gap The possible methods of bridging this gap

This helps the organisation to use it for job description, training and development, performance management and succession planning. The standard methodology of competency mapping is shown in the figure below. It suggests that we must identify key functional areas or work platforms where the employees perform their jobs. The next step is to identify the required competencies to successfully execute those jobs. Then design the test questions/ interview so as to gauge their on-job skills and knowledge. Thereafter collate and prepare the capability matrix and then judge whether he/she is competent or not. If yes then utilize the person and if not then arrange customized training/coaching and then re-evaluate. This is an ongoing cycle in which the competencies are renewed continuously. Competency mapping examines two areas like emotional intelligence and strengths of the individuals in areas like leadership, team-work and decision making. Organisations employ competency mapping assessment to understand the employee strengths that could be utilised effectively for growth of the individual as well as the organisation. Further, organisations study the combination of strengths of workers to produce the most
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effective team and the highest quality of work. Competency mapping and evaluation has achieved supreme importance in organisations in terms of human resource development and practices accustomed with organisational growth and objectives and capitalising on the utilisation of human potential.

STANDARD METHODOLOGY OF COMPETENCY MAPPING


Identify Key Functional Areas/Work Platform Identify required Competencies Design Test Questions Interviews Evaluate Skill by on-the-job Performance Collate Result Prepare Capability Matrix Evaluate Knowledge Test results

DEVELOP NEW COMPETENCY

Arrange customized training

NO

Whether Competent

YES

OK UTILIZE

What is the Primary issue?

An employee may be skilled and knowledgeable but until he or she effectively applies the skill and knowledge on the assigned tasks, the employee is considered to be incompetent. Competency mapping means actual application of knowledge, skill and
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Attitude (KSA) in carrying out assigned tasks. The primary issue here is identifying the key competencies for an organisation or a job in particular. Competencies for management would include analytical skills, planning, consulting, communicating, managing and developing people etc. According to Daniel Katz, competency is classified under three zones which were later expanded to the following four:FOUR ZONE OF COMPETENCIES

A Technical or functional: Knowledge, skill A A A

and attitudes associated with technology or functional expertise to perform the job. Managerial: Knowledge, skill and attitude required to perform the functions of management like planning, organising and directing etc.. Human: Knowledge, skill and attitude required to manage and develop human resources. Conceptual: Knowledge needed to visualise the invisible at abstract levels and plan for the future. These four zones encompasses all the core and role specific competencies. The problems in competency mapping arise when there is no scope for an employee to work in a field that would enable the best use of his or her competencies. If the organisation does not provide the platform for employees to work based on their competencies, the assessment would be useless and waste of time and effort. Right skills, right job and the right person to do the job should be matched. If the individual needs a challenging environment where one can learn new things, competency mapping shows the right direction. The major reason for attrition is having dissatisfied employees to perform the task that does not suit their competencies. The organisation needs to:
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Functional Expertise TECHNICAL

Planning, Organizing, Directing MANAGERIAL

CONCEPTUAL

HUMAN

Future
planning

HRD

LEVELS OF COMPETENCIES & THEIR INTERCONNECTION

Corporate Goals

Competencies Requirement

Identification of Job requirement

MIDDLE
MANAGEMENT

Identification of Competencies

S T R A T E G I C O P E R A T I O N A L

Competencies Catalogue

Competencies Mapping & Review

Job Performance

Actual Competencies

Assessment of Learning

FRONT LINE MANAGEMENT

Gap Analysis

Training & Development

Competency Gaps

Development Measures

Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

A Identify the skills required for the job with a clear set of roles and responsibilities. A Assessing the performance of employees and future need of skills required for the
same job.

A Assessment of compensation and other aspects like designation, roles etc., of a


particular job.

A Selecting the ideal candidates based on competency-based interviewing methods.


Feedback System
The time tested method to measure competency is self appraisal method. This helps the employees to rate themselves in the organisational conditions. The next method could be 360 degree feedback system. Here the peers, seniors, juniors and the person himself give the feedback. Identification and assessment of competencies is considered more effective by the 360 degree feedback system as also found from the outcome of the first tier survey. There are scientific methods of assessing attitudes, and qualities etc., of employees. Psychometric instruments are useful in assessing the intellectual, managerial, social and emotional competencies of the employees.

Ample Planning

Competency mapping requires ample planning from the organisation. Identifying weaknesses of the individual and building them to strengths is the main motive. The individual could be deployed positively in areas where the current strengths can be gainfully utilised. Competency mapping is one of the most powerful self-marketing tools available for both individual professionals and organisations of the present day. A well managed firm should have a clear organisational structure with well defined roles in terms and have mapped the competencies required for each role. High performing workplaces achieve the desired objectives, including attracting competent employees, besides being innovative and productive. Attractive workplaces include those that promote good work-life balance, have good health and safety systems, balance the interests of employers and employees, encourage career development, and most importantly have a large proportion of the staff with high job satisfaction.

Creative Workplace
In a rigid labour market, workplaces that are not attractive may have difficulty in recruiting and retaining good staff. Creative workplaces achieve superior output and provide greater opportunity for innovation. Utilising the individuals in the appropriate roles matching their competencies would greatly enhance the performance of individuals. There is a common misconception that a persons skill is his talent. Skills, however, are not talents. Talents, on the other hand, require skills. People can have skills and knowledge in areas where their talents do not lie. If they have a job that requires their skills but not their talents, organisations will never be able tap into their passion or voice.
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They will go through the motions, but this needs external supervision and motivation. If you can hire people whose passion intersects with the job, they would not require any supervision at all. They will manage themselves better than anyone could ever manage them. Their fire comes from within, not from outside. Their motivation is internal, not external.

Building Competencies by creating a culture of Unlearning & Relearning


In the ever changing business perspective the only permanent thing is change. The traditional way of incorporating new information was to learn, learn more, and then learn even more, but this theory no longer holds true. Rather, it creates a mental blockage and information overload. As one thinker has very rightly quoted "unfortunately, perspective (what we believe) is a fun-house mirror; it distorts and discolors everything we see, learn, and experience. We tend to fall in love with the things that we think are true. ...We clutter our mind with so much old stuff that there is no room for anything new." Thus, what's necessary today is to approach one's work and life from the perspective of learning, unlearning, and relearning. This makes every individual of the organization to continuously upgrade and renew his/her knowledge base and gives them a propelling power to know the new & renew. It directs our thoughtful attention to extraordinary occurrences in the flow of work, continually accessing if novel situations will enhance or retard organizational growth. It reminds us the following things in these unsettling moments: Am I (are we) doing the right thing now? Am I (are we) doing it in the best way? To whom does this matter? And it also helps us to understand and decide the following:

A A A A A A A

What tasks must now be done? How? With whom? Why? The skill, dexterity and ability to unlearn the learnt lessons that are irrelevant to cope with the speed of change are the only means of survival. Long established market
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leaders respond to the challenging market environment by developing more complex designs that can not be easily duplicated. They keep their intellectual creativity as trade secrets instead of applying for patents, in order to achieve the same lucrative role as Microsoft or Intel in the PC industry have done. Such organizations have developed the capability to answer the questions raised above more effectively. As the figure shows, a culture of unlearning and relearning will lead to the formation of a learning organisation which will in turn will develop and maintain a constantly updated technical know-how. This updated knowledge base is the only tool to solve the problem of technological obsolescence, thereby leading to very high productivity and profitability, quick response to the varying market requirements and best utilization of available resources. An organization which is successful in acquiring these elements will obviously have a cutting edge over its competitors. Thus, this is the right time for SAIL to take advantage of this updated technical knowledge base and leverage this strength to gain dominance in the steel industry. Until recently, SAIL has managed to succeed based upon the individual knowledge of a handful of strategically positioned individuals, but now to maintain market leadership it needs to work on collaborative knowledge sharing across all functional levels and building the necessary competencies at all fronts.

Competence Based Management Training


Investing in the development of managerial capability is an essential ingredient for business success, and Competence-Based Management Training (CBMT) is one route that organisations are taking now-a-days. Let us examines what CBMT is, how organisations are using it and why? What impact has it had on their business and on their traditional approaches to management development? Many organisations have switched from conventional training programmes to Competence-Based Management Training (CBMT), to explore the organisations practices for linking management competencies to training programmes. This can be used to examine the mechanisms for assessing competence requirements & shortfalls and to gauge the effectiveness of adopting a competence-based management training approach. The use of competencies is increasing worldwide. The background of CBMT users is no different from that of other competence users, except that they have seen an increased demand for their products over the last two years. Compared to other competence users, CBMT users have a higher proportion of standardised training programmes. They train for longer durations and have increased their training for senior and middle managers. The most favoured methods of delivering CBMT include the use of coaching, and modular courses.
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Targeting for Business Success


Competence-based approaches to management training and development are predominantly used for linking competencies to management training courses with an aim to strengthen the link between skills and business needs. CBMT users also assist in identifying training needs and designing customised training programmes. Approaches adopted to link competencies to management training depend largely upon organisational priorities. Whilst approaches varied, the overall trends were for CBMT to be business driven, targeted to immediate job needs with a focus on development and, where possible, externally validated. Three main models: a top down approach where existing training courses are regrouped under competence headings expressed as business objectives; a functional approach which integrates training courses under generic and functional competencies, and a modular approach which matches each competence heading with a specific training module.

Assessing and Developing


As organisations increasingly link their competence frameworks to their management training, they are doing so on the premise that they are able to assess and develop the competencies required by the business. However, most competence users still rely on traditional assessment methods such as performance appraisal. More recent developments such as the use of personal development plans also place ownership on the individual for development. Increasingly, therefore, individuals are key to the success of assessing and developing competencies. Equipping line managers to assess competencies should help them to translate competence headings to departmental requirements, use more effective assessment methods and value diversity. The increased contribution of line managers in the development of competencies should be supported by providing them with adequate training in coaching skills. Similarly, encouraging individual ownership calls for provision of tools for self assessment, training on the evidence to be collected, and adaptation of materials to individual learning styles.

Benefits of Competence Based Management Training


CBMT users tend to evaluate the effectiveness of their approach more readily than other competence users. CBMT brings added value to the business by improving the performance of managers and employee motivation. Whilst linking competencies to management training requires investment and effort, this is fully justifiable. CBMT users feel the use of competencies to be more cost effective, to contribute to changing the culture of the organisation and also, to customer satisfaction and business profitability.
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Building Competencies by promoting Entrepreneurship in the Organisation


Entrepreneurship is the ability to build and create something from practically nothing. The creation of value by people and organizations working together, through the application of creativity, drive and a willingness to take what might commonly be seen as risks. It is initiating, doing, achieving, and building an enterprise or organisation. It is the knack of sensing an opportunity where others see chaos, contradiction and confusion. In this rapidly changing business environment the key to success it entrepreneurship, without which it will would be virtually impossible to survive in this ever growing global market. Promoting an entrepreneurial culture can be seen as one of the best means to build competency which can be effectively utilised to meet the challenges of growth. As companies grow, they risk becoming victims of their own success. Structures and rules spring up, and the drive and energy that underpinned their growth can become inhibited by excessive bureaucracy. In order to succeed in fast-moving markets, many corporations are trying to reinvent themselves by shifting from highly structured, pyramidal organisation to more flexible horizontal hierarchy that give individuals more autonomy which creates empowerment among the employees. This makes people realize that they are valued. Thus giving more autonomy is the key to creation of this culture which can develop and sustain an environment of balanced freedom where innovative persons have the liberty to act upon their thoughts and implement their plans which might be otherwise seen as something beyond the normal routine work.

SECOND TIER OF THE SURVEY


After the general survey our group felt the need for an assessment of gauging the level of competencies in our organisation wherein the respondent were asked to assess themselves (for their individual endevour to acquire and demonstrate the respective competencies at work) and also for the organisation (representing process, systems and structure that supports/enable people to demonstrate those behaviours). We received feedback from 75 executives (E-4 & above) of RMD mines in this survey. They were asked to rate in a scale of zero to hundred. The assessment sheet includes behavioural aspect of core and role specific competencies. The detailed survey analysis and findings of both tiers of surveys are enclosed as Annexure I.
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RECOMMENDATIONS & SUGGESTIONS


Now, based on the survey analysis and findings our group proposes a competence building model. In this model we have identified six key elements for building the competency and making it a continuum process. The model is self explanatory with its elements as enumerated below:

PLAN: Anticipate talent needs through articulated strategy. SELECT: Identify high performers with potential to perform person wise and position wise based on the competence and not only on qualification. DEVELOP: Augment the competencies of high-potential employees by CBMT. PROMOTE: Create a pool of ready managerial talent. REPLACE: Manage effective succession in leadership positions. And most important is to RETAIN the high performers with drive and instinct which is the most compelling need of the hour.

SUGGESTIONS Mutli-skilling
Until recently, dividing work into controllable sub-lots was viewed as a tool to enhance the efficiency of an individual by repetitive application of a single skill which produced experts with a narrow field of vision who worked quite well in their own job but failed miserably when the need arose to take up someone elses work. Especially, in the
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operators and maintenance group this is very prominent. Now that SAIL has gone on in a big way towards rationalizing its manpower, the only option available is to impart multi-skill training to its entire workforce. This develops experts having a broader vision & diverse skill sets who are ready to any face challenges in their work arena. In some RMD mines, the different equipment operators/mechanics are now redesignated as HEMM operators/mechanics or Light Vehicle operators/mechanics after giving them proper training so that they are able to operate or maintain all types of heavy, medium or light equipment respectively. As a measure of motivation they were given promotions in two years instead of three. This has resulted in much better productivity and gainful utilization of the human resource.

Job Rotation
In our organisation few persons are continuously working for years together in routine and trouble shooting zones where there is low predictability and low delay tolerance, forcing the individual in a stress zone killing their creativity and innovative pursuits. On the other hand few are working continuously in the project or negotiable jobs where there is high predictability and high delay tolerance. They remain unaware of the operational realities and seasoned in the same work environment causing mismatch of interpretational deviations. Job rotation will liberate higher level energy by alignment of nature, nurture & type of tasks. So the ideal job blend should be that every body be rotated through all the four types of job, so as to achieve cohesive collaboration.

Job Enrichment
We should develop schemes to enrich the job of individuals. There are five factors of job design that typically contribute to people's enjoyment in a job:

A Skill Variety Increasing the number of skills that individuals use while performing
work.

A Task Identity Enabling people to perform a job from start to finish. A Task Significance Providing work that has a direct impact on the organization or
its stakeholders.

A Autonomy Increasing the degree of decision making, and the freedom to choose
how and when work is done.

A Feedback

Increasing the amount of recognition for doing a job well, and communicate the results of people's work.

Job enrichment addresses these factors by enhancing the job's core dimensions and increasing people's sense of fulfillment. Job enrichment is a fundamental part of attracting, motivating, and retaining talented people, particularly where work is repetitive or boring. To do it well, we need a greater match between the way our
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jobs are designed and the skills and interests of the employees working for us. When our work assignments reflect the above factors, members of our team are likely to be much more content, and much less stressed. Enriched jobs lead to more satisfied and motivated workers. So, our responsibility is to figure out which combination of enrichment options will lead to increased performance and productivity. As an example in Bolani, we provided walkie-talkie sets in the dumping station and to the shovel and dumper operators, thereby giving feedback of hourly trips and individual trips made by each dumper operator to the entire team. Prior to this the information of trips was limited to only the shift In-charge and control room operator. Now, as the entire team was aware of the hourly trip by use of the walkie-talkies this made their job more enjoyable even in the last hour. This has boosted performance of dumper and shovel operators resulting in increase of 6 to 7 trips per shift.

Unit Training
Unit training is a specific need based training to prevent repetitive failures in operations. Here, a small group is targeted and are trained to develop specific knowledge and skill pertaining to the equipment/causes of failures. After training their performance is monitored at work. This type of training was imparted to 23 persons at Bolani in small groups of 2 to 3 at the work site. These persons were later made responsible for the operation and maintenance of the secondary crusher (7 XHD Simon cone crusher). This training has been instrumental for trouble-free operation of this crusher for last three years even with the in-house repaired eccentric assembly. Similar training was designed and imparted for safe operation of reclaimer after the failure of one of its leg. The reclaimer is also giving satisfactory performance since then. Presently, the modules for conveying system are being developed.

Strengthening Quality Circles


Concept of quality circle is a method of controlled empowerment of employees where they select an autonomous team to take up the de-bottlenecking projects. This provides a forum to exhibit their creative and innovative pursuits. They take up the task, do the critical analysis to find the reasons and remove the root cause of problems for improving the system reliability and productivity. Thus quality circle will act as a tool for step by step improvement in productivity and growth. In Bolani, the endevours of quality circle group has accomplished significant reduction in water content of washed iron ore fines and this case was presented at an International forum in Dhaka and another case was presented at Badodara.

Information Technology
Fantastic speed, huge capacity and absolute reliability is at the heart of information technology and this has been instrumental in developing new competencies in the
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workforce as it enables one to do much more in much less time and efforts. Organizations are imbibing the latest technologies and systems to improve their functioning in which IT plays a key role. This is more relevant in todays context as there is an irreversible shift from the industrial age to the information age. Information technology acts as a catalyst in fostering growth, increasing profit margins and enhancing competencies. Post liberalization corporate India has been successful in cutting costs and streamlining operations. The role played by the knowledge economy cannot be ignored. The average operating margins of top 100 companies in India has increased from 18% in 2000-01 to 26% in 2007-08. In Bolani there has been significant progress in computerization over the last decade. The major achievements in the field of IT are:

A Oracle based MIS working on remote nodes connected to the central database via

fiber-optic LAN spread over a stretch of 7 Kms. This MIS has enabled fast online transactions in various functions of Materials Management, Finance & Accounting and other operational areas. First in first out (FIFO) system has been effectively implemented in the hospitals medicine stores, resulting in appreciable savings accrued from reduction is wastage of expired medicines as the oldest batch is sent to the pharmacy for distribution first. lot of valuable time and efforts. Any information can be accessed from any point in a very short time without having to look over any manual records as all data is stored in the servers. That is, more accurate statistics and reports are available to the management for taking better decisions in time. executives as a result of continuous in-house training.

A This has also eliminated redundancy and errors in data entry process thereby saving

A There is 90% computer literacy among the executives and around 60% for the nonA In May 2008, the Wide Area Networking (WAN) of mines with head office at
Kolkata was completed using VSATs thereby affording seamless transfer of data. We are in the process of implementing video conferencing, after getting leased line connectivity, so that time and expenditure on travels could be reduced substantially. future plans to install GPS based automatic despatch system for mining equipment.

A Implementation of surpac mine planning and scheduling software is in progress with


Performance Management System (PMS)

PMS is the crux of any "people management" process in any organisation. Organisations exist to perform and if people do not perform organizations cannot survive. If people perform at their peak level organization can compete and create waves. Performance management systems, if properly designed and implemented can change the course
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of growth and pace of impact. In the past, organizations as well as the HR function have wasted a lot of time by wrongly focusing on performance appraisals rather than performance management. We suggest that our PMS should be designed so as to:

A clearly identify between the high performers and laggards. A afford more transparency in the total process. A provide quarterly review of performance and feedback instead of bi-annually. A give performance based rewards and incentives.
Above all 360 feedback system to be introduced as this is a tool of key importance in PMS for upward and downward integration of performance as was also revealed from the survey findings. A very broad, pragmatic view of performance management involves enhancing performance of individuals, teams and the entire organisation. Setting up a good performance management system cannot happen overnight or by accident. We need to consider its design and carefully plan how it will work before managers begin using it to evaluate their employees. An effective performance management system will provide employees with these four basic benefits:

A A clear understanding of job expectations A Regular feedback about performance A Advice and steps for improving performance A Rewards for good performance
The ultimate goal is to help boost employee performance and thereby, the productivity and growth of the business.

Project Management
In the first tier survey an important finding was that projects are not completed in time (as opined by 69%), and we are unable to reap the benefits of expansion plans. In SAIL, key decisions related to projects are left to the indentors who as such remains continuously under day to day job pressures and hence are unable to scrutinize indepth, even if they have all the required local information but may not usually have the experience of project implementation. The indentors remain unknowingly, uninvolved and un-informed about the project documentations which becomes almost entirely developed by CET unilaterally. This results in mismatch of thought profile and leads to numerous problems during the implementation phase.
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So our group suggests that a key person from indenting unit should be temporarily posted in CET with concerned group while the project is on the drawing board. Similarly, one or two key persons from the CET group be also posted during the implementation, commissioning and till stabilisation of the project at the unit. This will inculcate ownership and accountability resulting in success of project apart from exchange of knowledge and experience which will benefit both CET and the concerned unit, improving the confidence and level of competence thereby building self-reliance.

Training & Development


SAIL has a world class training institute devoted to managerial training at MTI Ranchi. However, for technical training needs SAIL is dependant on outside agencies like ABB, Cummins, Yuken, SKF, BEML, HIL and many other organisations/OEMs. These kind of trainings becomes open-ended since there is no feedback system to judge the effectiveness with regard to its application at the work-site. Moreover, these trainings are most often taken as a pleasure trip. Also, these trainings are designed by the OEMs to cover a large gamut of participants with varied requirements. This does not properly fulfill the training needs of our organisation many a times. In this context we feel that in line with MTI a separate technical training institute dedicated for technological training should be started at a nodal location to benefit our managers, supervisors and technicians beside attracting external customers as well. Here, in-house experts from steel plants and related units may be called as faculties. This will contribute to development of a technical knowledge bank which will go a long way in making SAIL a learning organisation. This endeavour will prove to be a true investment on training.

CONCLUSION
The time has come that, large organisation like SAIL needs a way to set and clarify new standards of performance and expectations, better aligned individual behaviour and business strategies, and help employees take charge of the challenges. This can be achieved by successful development and implementation of a Competency Management Programs at all levels, which need to address the Management Development, Career Development, cultivating a culture of unlearning and relearning for re-skilling of employees, and higher employee retention initiatives to face the challenges of growth. These competency management programs must be integrated with the overall talent management strategy in order to accelerate the development of visionary leaders and ensure that employees can implement new work processes and become drivers of continuous innovation and change and align the workforce with corporate strategy, goals and objectives.
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In this rapidly changing liberalised and globaised business environment, SAIL has to grapple with the ever-intensifying competition. SAIL has envisaged Corporate Vision 2010-11 in which long terms plan has been made to achieve market leadership in the steel arena by producing over 26 MT of steel per annum. It is important to note that by then many private players will start producing significant amount of steel and the struggle for SAIL to sustain leadership might become really tough. Hence, it is of utmost importance to build the competencies across all functional levels in the organisation to face the future challenges. To address this, while we need to do things better than our competitors, we also need to do things that are radically different. The committed mindset in our company, aided by a strong culture that fosters and encourages business innovation will greatly strengthen the competitive arsenal of SAIL. To conclude we would like to say that, to become a world class respectable customer focused enterprise we must respect competency and competent person. We must promote those who have it, hire those who have it and train those who dont have it on how to have it and utilize effectively those who have it. And most importantly make all out efforts to retain those who have it.

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References:
Research Papers: 1. Building Knowledge-based Core Competencies, Markku Sotarauta, Research Unit, University of Tampere, Finland. 2. Building Competencies through Information Technology; Michael Porter Way. Dr. Arpita Khare, Faculty Associate-M.B.A-I.T; Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad. 3. Building Competencies in Human Resources: Hector C. Parker, Faculty Mexican University of Management. 4. Building Competencies: The need of the hour. Dr. Anitha Ramchander, Adarsh Institute of Management & Information Technology (AIMIT), Bangalore. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Selection and Assessment - A new appraisal, M Smith, M Gregg and D Andrews, Pitman, 1989. Competence at work: Models for superior performance, Lyle M Spencer and Signe M Spencer. Individual differences in output variability as a function of job complexity, J Hunter, F Schmidt and M Judiesch, Journal of Applied Psychology 75, 1990. Can behavioural interviews produce results? Sean Boyle, Guidance & Assessment Review. Skills of an Effective Administrator, Katz, R.L., Harvard Business Review, Vol. 52.

10. An Investigation into Management Training Development Needs of Senior Officials, DPPC, Research Monograph No. 2, University of Bradford, Analoui. 11. Management Skills and Senior Management Effectiveness, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Analoui. (1995). 12. Myth of the well-educated Manager, Harvard Business Review, January-February 1971, J.S. Livingston 13. Teaching Organisational Behaviour: Current patterns and implications, Filley, A.C., Foster, L.W., Herbert, T.T. (1979), The Organisational Behaviour Teaching Journal, Vol. 4. 14. The Competent Manager, John Wiley, Boyatzis, R.E. (1982). 15. Achieving the Capacity and Competence to Manage, Margerison, C.J. (1985), Journal of Management Development, Vol. 4. 16. The Medici Effect: Breakthrough Insights at the Intersection of Ideas, Concepts, and Cultures. Johansson, Frans. Harvard Business School Press. 2004
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17. Management Development: needs and practices, Digman, L.A. July-August 1980. 18. In-house publications of SAIL, like Growth, MTI-Musings etc. Websites: www.employee-employer.com www.salary.com www.sciencedirect.com www.workitect.com www.employment-studies.co.uk www.im.gov.ab.ca www.ecgi.org www.voyager.gaia.com www.seattleu.edu www.enotes.com www.indiainfoline.com

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Annexure I
General Survey

QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear Madam / Sir, We would appreciate your valuable feedback on the following survey which has been designed for identifying the different competencies and prevalence of competency culture in our organisation. The results will be utilised for presentation in a project titled Building Competencies for Meet the Challenges of Growth under the scheme of Chairmans Trophy for Young Managers 2008. 1. Please suggest few characteristics of a competent person/workforce which you feel are necessary for meeting the challenges of growth in our organisation?


S#

Please tick in the box for each question below which you feel best answers it; SA = STRONGLY AGREE, A = AGREE, M = MAYBE, D = DISAGREE & SD = STRONGLY DISAGREE
QUESTION SA A M D SD

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Is there a system to recruit people on the basis of specific job competencies? Is your training based on identification of competency gaps and competency needs? Is there proper recognition for competencies separately in the present appraisal system? Do you feel that the 360 feedback system would be more effective in building competencies? Is your organization good in execution of projects, once decided, rather than aborting them in the middle? Does your organization have a culture of using task forces and work groups for various exercises/tasks/ issues?
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S#

QUESTION

SA

SD

7.

8. 9.

Has your organization missed any business opportunities in the recent past due to lack of competent people to handle any one or more areas of growth? Does your organization encourage innovations and scientific ways of doing things? Is your organization systems driven (i.e. values systems) rather than being rampant with ad-hocism and convenience based decision-making?

Name: ______________________________ (Optional). Years of service: _________ Designation: ____________________ (Optional). Organisation: ________________

Team Members:

Bipin Kumar Giri Sr. Manager (Plant)

Sirish Kumar Sonny Sr. Manager (C&IT)

Radha Kanta Jena Manager (E&L)

RESULTS OF THE GENeRAL SURVEY (FIRST TIER)


Feedback was obtained from 82 executives and 30 supervisors working in the various departments of the RMD mines and 36 feedbacks were obtained from external sources through e-mail. Results of the survey are summarized as follows: 1. Characteristics of a competent person/workforce as suggested by the respondents are collated below:ADAPTABILITY PROBLEM SOLVING & JUDGEMENT IMPACT & INFLUENCE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CLIENT FOCUS RESULT ORIENTATION INNOVATION COMMUNICATION TEAM WORK ORGANISATIONAL AWARENESS DEVELOPING OTHERS RELATIONSHIP BUILDING

LEADERSHIP

SELF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT THINKING 166

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(Figures in %)
S# QUESTION SA A M D SD

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Is there a system to recruit people on the basis of 11 specific job competencies? Is your training based on identification of competency 7 gaps and competency needs? Is there proper recognition for competencies 15 separately in the present appraisal system? Do you feel that the 360 feedback system would be 32 more effective in building competencies? Is your organization good in execution of projects, 10 once decided, rather than aborting them in the middle? Does your organization have a culture of using task 23 forces and work groups for various exercises/tasks/ issues? Has your organization missed any business 16 opportunities in the recent past due to lack of competent people to handle any one or more areas of growth? Does your organization encourage innovations and 13 scientific ways of doing things? Is your organisation systems driven (i.e. values systems) rather than being rampant with ad-hocism and convenience based decision-making? 7

40 20 25 37 21 29 43

13 4 24 11 9 25 9

27 44 29 13 46 14 25

9 25 7 8 15 8 7

8. 9.

25 15

11 9

31 40

20 29

Salient Observations:

A A A A A A

We have got competent people but their competence is not developed during their career (11+40) % agreed that recruitment is based on competency. Nature is good but needs proper nurture as only (7+20) % felt that training is need based. 360 feedback system was felt to be very important to develop competence (32+37) % agreed. Projects are not completed in time, so we are unable to reap the benefits of expansion plans as only (10+21) % agreed that projects are completed timely. Climate for creativity & innovation is not very conducive (31+20) % disagreed in Q 9. A large majority (40+29) % felt that the organization is driven by ad-hocism & convenience based decision-making, rather than systems driven.
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Annexure I For E-4 & above

ASSESSMENT SHEET FOR SURVEY


Dear Madam / Sir, We would appreciate your valuable feedback for the following survey which has been designed for gauging the level of competencies in our organisation. The results will be utilised for presentation in a project titled Building Competencies for Meet the Challenges of Growth under the scheme of Chairmans Trophy for Young Manager 2008. Please give the rating on a scale of zero to hundred in both the columns i.e. to SELF (representing individuals endeavour to acquire and demonstrate the competency) and to the ORGANISATION (representing process, system & structure that supports/ enables people to perform) for evaluation of specific competency levels:
S# COMPETENCY BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT
SELF

ORGANISATION

CORE COMPETENCIES 1. ADAPTABILITY Individuals willingness and ability to effectively & efficiently work in changing business scenario will decide our future sustainability. You believe, customer is the most important visitor in your premises, you serve them responsibly, and organisational support enables you in doing that.

2.

CLIENT FOCUS

3.

COMMUNICATION You spend sufficient time to listen, interpret, formulate and deliver verbal and non-verbal communication at your work. ORGANISATIONAL You are aware of your key role in AWARENESS your organisation and you go an extra mile to understand the organisational realities and underlying issues.
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4.

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S#

COMPETENCY

BEHAVIOUR

ASSESSMENT
SELF

ORGANISATION

5.

PROBLEM SOLVING You are given need based training and & JUDGEMENT you manage the challenges of your work environment well by utilising the knowledge / skills acquired during training. RESULT ORIENTATION You always try to perform beyond expectation and the organisation recognises your exceptional / extra ordinary achievement. Work in a co-operative, participative and cohesive team becomes fun and improves individual performance of team members. ROLE SPECIFIC COMPETENCIES Developing others through proper direction, active support, proper feedback, and coaching is one of the important duties of every manager. Method of positive impact and influence helps aligning the work force towards organisational goal and improves managerial effectiveness. Creative and innovative work culture cultivates true entrepreneurial behaviour among employees that earns sustainable growth and profit for the organisation. Managers must exhibit visionary leadership behaviour through self positioning, compelling vision and pragmatic practices. Creating a win-win situation through formal and informal relationship building helps tapping the higher level energy that can work miracles in the organisation.
169

6.

7.

TEAM WORK

8.

DEVELOPING OTHERS

9.

IMPACT & INFLUENCE

10. CREATIVITY & INNOVATION

11. LEADERSHIP

12. RELATIONSHIP BUILDING

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

S#

COMPETENCY

BEHAVIOUR

ASSESSMENT
SELF

ORGANISATION

13. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

14. SELF MANAGEMENT

15. STRATEGIC THINKING

Efficient and effective utilisation of external and internal resources takes top priority in our day-to-day functioning. As a responsible manager you spend some time regularly for reflecting on your past experience in order to manage and continually improve your own performance. Achieving bottom line results and top line growth calls for analyzing potential, aligning action towards an articulated strategy.

Name: _____________________________ (Optional). Years of service: __________ Designation: ________________________ (Optional). Organisation: ____________

Team Members:

Bipin Kumar Giri Sr. Manager (Plant)

Sirish Kumar Sonny Sr. Manager (C&IT)

Radha Kanta Jena Manager (E&L)

RESULTS OF THE SECOND TIER SURVEY


S# COMPETENCY BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT
SELF

ORGANISATION

CORE COMPETENCIES 1. ADAPTABILITY Individuals willingness and ability to effectively & efficiently work in changing business scenario will decide our future sustainability. You believe, customer is the most important visitor in your premises, you serve them responsibly, and organisational support enables you in doing that.
170

72

68

2.

CLIENT FOCUS

78

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S#

COMPETENCY

BEHAVIOUR

ASSESSMENT
SELF

ORGANISATION

3.

COMMUNICATION

You spend sufficient time to listen, interpret, formulate and deliver verbal and non-verbal communication at your work.

65

48

4.

ORGANISATIONAL You are aware of your key role in your AWARENESS organisation and you go an extra mile to understand the organisational realities and underlying issues. PROBLEM SOLVING You are given need based training and & JUDGEMENT you manage the challenges of your work environment well by utilising the knowledge / skills acquired during training. RESULT ORIENTATION You always try to perform beyond expectation and the organisation recognises your exceptional / extra ordinary achievement. Work in a co-operative, participative and cohesive team becomes fun and improves individual performance of team members. ROLE SPECIFIC COMPETENCIES Developing others through proper direction, active support, proper feedback, and coaching is one of the important duties of every manager. Method of positive impact and influence helps aligning the work force towards organisational goal and improves managerial effectiveness. Creative and innovative work culture cultivates true entrepreneurial behaviour among employees that earns sustainable growth and profit for the organisation.
171

56

62

5.

44

32

6.

76

44

7.

TEAM WORK

79

61

8.

DEVELOPING OTHERS

80

58

9.

IMPACT & INFLUENCE

92

74

10.

CREATIVITY & INNOVATION

89

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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

S#

COMPETENCY

BEHAVIOUR

ASSESSMENT
SELF

ORGANISATION

11.

LEADERSHIP

12.

RELATIONSHIP BUILDING

13.

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SELF MANAGEMENT

14.

15.

STRATEGIC THINKING

Managers must exhibit visionary leadership behaviour through self positioning, compelling vision and pragmatic practices. Creating a win-win situation through formal and informal relationship building helps tapping the higher level energy that can work miracles in the organisation. Efficient and effective utilisation of external and internal resources takes top priority in our day-to-day functioning. As a responsible manager you spend some time regularly for reflecting on your past experience in order to manage and continually improve your own performance. Achieving bottom line results and top line growth calls for analyzing potential, aligning action towards an articulated strategy.

91

66

85

61

73

86

62

42

59

71

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ANALYSIS OF THE SECOND TIER SURVEY RESULTS


The findings in respect of core competence are as under:

1. Problem solving and Judgement The rating was low for both self (44) and organisation (32). It implies two things, first that the competence level is just enough for routine work but not enough to meet the challenges and learning seems to be localized and knowledge sharing is lacking. 2. Result Orientation The deviation is high (from 76 to 44) meaning there is lack of Intrinsic motivation and recognition mechanism is not adequate. 3. Communication Here also deviation is high (from 65 to 48). Meaning communication means and methods are not adequate. 4. Team Work Structurally, cross functional collaboration is missing as for self we got a high rating of 79 whereas for the organisation it was lower at 61. 5. Client Focus The individuals have rated themselves high (at 78) meaning that they care for the customers, however in organisational framework the score is low (at 63) meaning the customer satisfaction model is not upto the mark.
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Analysis Of The Second Tier Survey Results

With reference to the role specific competencies the findings are as under: 1. Resource Management The organisation has outperformed the individuals endeavour. It implies that the individuals are unable to come up to the organisational expectation. In resource management the individual score is 73 while for the organisation it is higher at 86. 2. Strategic Thinking Here also the organisation got a higher rating meaning that the strategic thinking lacks prevalent facts and articulated efforts. 3. Leadership pursuit gets subdued due to lack of freedom or DOP as we can see that the score for self is high at 91 but for the organisation it is less at 66 we have lions but caged. 4. Creativity & Innovation The individual rating was high at 89 but for the organisation its lower at 68 meaning that the work environment does not promote at creativity and innovation although there is drive in the individuals. 5. Relationship Building Formal relationship prevails causing lack of collaboration and fails to tap the higher level energy. 6. Developing other Knowledge, experience and information sharing lacks here also in different roles.
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We conclude with an interesting fact that under both categories i.e. under core & role specific competencies there has been an overall higher rating for the self as compared to the organisation. It seems that individuals consider themselves as having more drive for acquiring and demonstrating the competencies whereas at organisational (system, structures & style the Hard S) level it gets subdued. In core competency the individual average score is 67 and for the organisational framework it is 53. Similarly in role specific competencies the individual average score is 79 and for the organisational framework it is 66. An obvious inference is that the same individuals who rated themselves higher are unable to liberate their potential in organisational framework. Thus, the hard S part of the organisations needs review.

Annexure II
CASE 1: CASE STUDIES

TO IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY OF DUMPER & SHOVEL OPERATORS


To promote competitiveness among the different shifts and within the shift one display board at the GArea site office was installed on which the production achieved by the previous shift was publicly displayed. Also, the related incentives were shown. Further, to give/receive continuous feedback a walkie-talkie was provided at the main dumping station, one in each shovel and one of the dumpers attached to each shovel so that the trips made by each operator was known to the full team, which earlier was limited to telephonic discussion between the shift I/c and dumping station operator.

Benefits:

A This has motivated the operators right in the beginning of the shift to go the extra
mile in order to outperform the previous shifts achievement.

A Broadcasting of the trips among the operators created an environment of competition


among the team members making their jobs interesting and zealous.

A This has resulted in average increase of 6 to 7 trips per shift.


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CASE 2:

OPERATION OF SECONDARY CONE CRUSHER AFTER REPAIRS


In the crushing plant after the primary gyratory crusher there is a secondary cone crusher (7 Simon XHD) which developed problems in operation after in-house repairs of the eccentric assembly. The shrink fit between the eccentric gear and shaft was disturbed due to the welding resulting in permanent eccentricity causing frequent high spinning of main shaft and excessive of wearing conical & eccentric bushes with high noise due to un-even backlash. The adverse effect was frequent stoppages of this crusher and subsequent production losses. Imperatives: The emerging situation called for hourly monitoring/adjustment of the following:

A Lube oil flow & pressure in the countershaft box A Spinning rpm of the mantle shaft A Coast-down time A Return line strainer A Oil temperature A Water level in cooling water tank A Inlet and outlet water temperature
Solution:

A A unit training module was designed in which detail of crusher components,


operational parameters and their tolerable limits were explained to the participants (23 heads). how to take the readings and fill it in the form. parameters as per the need.

A A form for recording the above parameters was prepared and individuals were told A These persons were also trained on how to make minor adjustments to these
Benefits:

A The crusher is managed to operate trouble-free for the last three years. A It has increased the knowledge and confidence of the employees besides improving
production and productivity.

A The shutdown for replacement of eccentric assembly was planned in November08


but we have shifted it January09 in view of lump requirement of DSP.
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CASE 3:

OPERATION OF BUCKET WHEEL RECLAIMER AFTER LEG FAILURE


In the year 2003 the stock-pile side leg of the reclaimer failed suddenly and the entire structure collapsed. We wondered how and why it failed after seven years of operation? After pondering over the issues of failure it was identified that it had something to do with the operating procedures/practices also.

Intervention:

A We designed a unit training module in which component wise load analysis was A A A A

explained to the operators and technicians in simplified way. The training was organized in the machine itself by picking up small group of 2 to 3 persons (14 covered in total) available at work. SOP was developed in consultations with operators and recommendations of the OEM. Limit switches were provided to eliminate extreme operational positions of bucket wheel boom. Points were identified and shown to the operators which had to be checked weekly for any crack and other structural deformation. While commissioning the balancing was done properly.

Benefits:

A After imparting this training the reclaimer is working satisfactorily for last four years. A The excessive oscillation of super structure has been eliminated.
Remarks of Case 2 & Case 3: When these operators/technicians were being interviewed in reference to the subject, we received an overwhelming response from them about the efficacy of this training and there was a request from their side to develop such modules for the conveying system, which is being developed at Bolani. Inference: Unit training will certainly go a long way in building competencies. CASE 4:

IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


In Bolani there has been significant progress in computerization over the last decade with notable achievements during the last two years. The major achievements in the field of IT are:

A Oracle based MIS working on remote nodes connected to the central database via
fiber-optic LAN spread over a stretch of 7 kms. This MIS has enabled fast online
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transactions in various functions of Materials Management, Finance & Accounting and other operational areas. First in first out (FIFO) system has been effectively implemented in the hospitals medicine stores, resulting in appreciable savings accrued from reduction is wastage of expired medicines. The oldest batch is sent first from the medicine stores to the pharmacy for distribution to patients.

A IT has also eliminated redundancy and errors in data entry process thereby saving

lot of valuable time and efforts. Any information can be accessed from any point in a very short time without having to look over any manual records as all data is stored in the servers. That is, more accurate statistics and reports are available to the management for taking better decisions in time. executives as a result of continuous in-house training. A good number of executives as well non-executives are also proficient in computer operation. Kolkata was completed using VSATs thereby affording seamless transfer of data. We are in the process of implementing video conferencing, after getting leased line connectivity, so that time and expenditure on travels could be reduced substantially. future plans to install GPS based automatic despatch system so that data pertaining to operation of mining equipment can be captured and recorded on the fly without human intervention.

A There is 90% computer literacy among the executives and around 60% for the non-

A In May 2008, the Wide Area Networking (WAN) of mines with head office at

A Implementation of surpac mine planning and scheduling software is in progress with

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finalist
Harishanker Singh, Manager, HSM Debabrata Chowdhury, Sr. Manager, HSM

Bokaro Steel Plant Introduction:

ndia is a land of immense natural & human resource & it is indeed a surprise, that with such an abundance resources we continue to remain as an underdeveloped country I even after sixty years of independence. If we analyze the reasons for this yawning gap between aspirations & actuality- lack of involvement of people, lack of competence and lack of strong political will are the main reasons.

Almost any thing done will seem insignificant, but it is very important that to do it- one must be the change, he/she wishes to see in the world. In this paper we have emphasized on VISION of SAIL and to achieve the vision what type of growth is needed and for that growth what are the different challenges we will face in future and what are our competence gap and how to bridge them?

Methodology
1. Literature study done through studying books, journals, magazines, internet 2. Empirical study done through:

A A

Questionnaires. Interaction and InterviewsWith MTTs, personnel and technical managers and workers.

3. Case studiesbased on actual cases.

Structure of Paper
1. Objectives / Definitions 2. Present status of SAIL / BSL SWOT analysis Challenges of growth Resource handling

3. Need of BUILDING COMPETENCE. (Introspection through survey with the help of questionnaire 1).Identifying challenges of growth and potential areas to be looked after for building competence.
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4. Various facets of competence and challenges of growth. 5. Barriers and bottlenecks in building competence and suggested debottle-necking measures. 6. How in BSL/SAIL competence can be built for sustainable growth. (survey with the help of questionnaire 2) 7. Present status and future needs Facilitating factors to face challenges of growth 8. Changing the mindset of people, making them creative, innovative and competitive some case studies. 9. Recommendations: (A) H - D Hypothesis (B) Employee Performance and Competency Model (EPCM) to meet future challenges. 10. Conclusion.

Relevance of Topic:
In the competitive business environment, success & growth of an organization depends upon its people and their capability to respond to business challenges. However, do they know their actual potential and competence? If not then, what are the benchmarks, how it can be built. In SAIL/BSL, we are in a phase of depletion of experienced manpower and under utilization of our capability & capacity. Now is the time to realize our capacity and hence use our HR potential and competence on a world level. It has been rightly said If you think you can, you are right- just be passionate about what you think. OUR VISION: to be a respected world class corporation and the leader in Indian steel business in quality, productivity, profitability and customer satisfaction. We envisage following three scenarios based on present & future growth plan of SAIL:

A Present scenario :
Low capacity, less foreign players With large manpower base we are still in the market leadership position Plan for 26.2 MT by 2012. Man power reducing drastically, how to manage and sustain market leadership?
180

A Capacity expansion by almost all companies including SAIL

Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

A Competition with large and mature companies like POSCO, MITTAL, TATA,
JINDAL. How to survive? In view of all those situations the topic for this years chairmans trophy is quite relevant. We need to build the right competence and culture across organization which will be the key for sustainable growth and long term success.

SAIL TODAY:
STRENGTHS
Availability of iron ore. Talented pool of human resource. Mature production base. Strong domestic marketing network.

WEAKNESSES
Coking coal import dependence. Unexploited talent of HR. Infrastructure constraints-ports, railways. Constraints in availability of raw material. Weak marketing network for export. Low C mpetency level in Project Management.

OPPORTUNITIES
Unexplored rural market. Growing domestic demand. Exports. Consolidation.

THREATS
Dumping by global competitors. Competition with large private companies: MITTAL, POSCO, TATA, JSW, ESSAR. Cyclic nature of steel prices and demand. Age mix of the present manpower.

As per the SWOT analysis we have envisaged the GROWTH CHALLENGES in three levels viz: GROWTH CHALLENGES MACRO LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL MANAGERIAL LEVEL

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Macro level:

A Improving delivery and core services A Making growth more inclusive A Sustain growth by managing fiscal and trade deficit & accelerating the speed of
reform

Organizational level:

A Formulating strategies A Inducting, grooming & retaining talent A Meeting aspiration of employees & various stake holders A Identifying skill gap & quickly bridging A Ensuring continual improvement in organization structure, system and processes A Cultivating the culture of delegation & prompt decision making
Managerial level:

A Adjusting to growth A Changing the way of doing business A Creating an environment of learning, creativity, innovation & mutual respect A Developing trust on middle and front line team of management A Challenging the status quo A Maximizing internal efficiency
Relationship between growth and competence:
Growth: growing, developing, increase in size and value Size capacity expansion Value value added quality product, customer satisfaction, building brand image Growth indicators: a business to survive, grow and meet future challenges, it should continue to create value beyond its strategies. Growth=Value Creation = (R, C) (Where R = Resources & C = Competencies) To find out the gap of competency between SAIL & others from the above let us analyze some competency parameters:

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Competency- WHAT?
It is the combination of behaviour, motives, traits, skills knowledge and thoughts not only in performing a particular job correctly and safely but also leading to excellence in performance. Competencies are typically expressed in terms of visible on-the-job behaviours. Competencies can usually be developed by participating in training, through on-thejob opportunities such as project and task team involvement. A job competency is an underlying characteristic of a person which results in effective / superior performance in job (Klimp 1980). It implies that it is a characteristic of a person; it can be motive, trait, skill, knowledge, self-image. Here the role of leader becomes critical because if his action does not reflect the espoused organizational value and belief system, the sense of making purposeful statement made by him would appear contrived & artificial. The leaders should have resonant relationship i.e essence of relationship between leader and his/her people.

Comparing SAIL with other big players of the market

To bridge the gap and build right competence SAIL, now needs a visionary leader at each level having following competencies.
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"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Normally, leaders have threshold competency, which is having 3 clusters of competencies- viz Expertise, Experience, Knowledge and Basic cognitive competencies, but the outstanding leader has 5 clusters of different competencies including threshold competency like: 1. Cognitive competencies System thinking 2. Emotional intelligence competency of self awareness 3. Emotional intelligence competency of self management 4. Social intelligence competence of social awareness Self control, adaptability and initiative 5. Social ntelligence competence of relationship management- developing others and team work But in SAIL, we do not emphasize on Emotional intelligence of self awareness & self management and Social intelligence competence of relationship management. Lets see the three dimensions of success to further elaborate the growth and competency vis a vis SAIL.

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Competencies can be derived from the formula below:


Situation * processes BehaviourResult. Task at hand * employee Performance (Action)Target Interesting job * creative employee-Work differently & passionatelyTarget Useful job * hard working /ambitious employeeIn depth working Target The reverse is happening in SAIL/ BSL, and the result is not encouraging. We observed the complete lack of enthusiasm in the employees of SAIL/BSL. We found that it is the lack of passion. Employees and executives are having passion for good remuneration, facilities and conducive environment. If it is not present in the organization, then only a small percentage has the passion to do something different for the benefit of the organization. Secondly there are people with skills, knowledge competency & the urge to succeed. However the urge is neither forceful nor passionate. In an organization like SAIL/BSL, with huge capacity and skilled manpower, we need leaders in all departments, sections and work groups, with their vision in line with the organization to deliver. Therefore future leaders should be groomed from those who are capable of delivering results in todays scenarios. The need of the hour is creating a culture of innovation and being strategically proactive - not reactive. The big question is, how? Take a look at the schematic of action & job performance of a competent managerINDIVIDUALS VISION. VALUES. KNOWLEDGE COMPETENCY INTEREST PASSION JOB DEMANDS TASK, FUNCTION. ROLE BEST FIT

ORGANISATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
CULTURE & CLIMATE, STRUCTURE & SYSTEM, CORE COMPETENCE, STRATEGIC POSITION

We have to go for the " best fit"


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It can be categorically stated competence can be developed: Any typical training program has the honeymoon effect. Improvement starts immediately but subsides within a month. To make it effective we have to choose the same group and provide for continuous improvement programs in different area. A feed back program to track down the effectiveness and the result should be put in place. The result will be manifold. Its true that not every one will become leader. There are some having the capability in SAIL, which is not being utilized. It is a pity that this potential tends to serve other organizations successfully at a later point of time.

Our growth drivers:


Through interaction with various cross sections of employees, we found about the following growth drivers:
INDIVIDUAL COMPETENCE Based on job skill, leader ship skill, interpersonal relationship skill, proactiveness, opportunity sensing mind.

Developed by group of competent individuals TEAM COMPETENCE based or trained group members, quality consciousness, cohesiveness, urges to satisfy customers, innovativeness, passion to excel and win.

Based on strategy, resources, competitive pressure, ORGANIZATIONAL COMPETENCE knowledge management, networking, branding and consolidation. It is the combination of individual and team competence.

Challenges of growth as we foresee in BSL/SAIL:


Table No. 1 SL. Elements No.
1.

Present status in SAIL/BSL

Emerging challenges
Directional visionary holistic strategies with commitment. Low cost high quality through collaborative strategy.

Business planning Trends/projections and management of future. Process High cost of process.

2.

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SL. Elements No.


3. 4. 5. Leader Structure Leadership style

Present status in SAIL/BSL


Manager Long Hierarchical Authority driven, hierarchical, Task oriented control Money, Machine, Material, Men Stability, continuity Efficiency on the job.

Emerging challenges
Entrepreneur. Flat and lean. Competence based power, non hierarchic, people and process oriented, Commitment building. Time, information, idea, power of employee. Responsiveness, flexibility, change, innovation, creativity. Building organization with involvement, initiative & excellence. Exhaustive competency mapping for both executives and non executives to reduce skill gap. Building a culture for preserving knowledge pieces ERP implementation Need based, modern, keeping an eye on future.

6. 7. 8.

Resource Organizational values Employee expectation/ motivation Competency mapping and skill gap identification. Knowledge management Information technology. Training

9.

No competency test for Executives. Competency mapping not done effectively. Very slow action. Paper work Very much theoretical.

10. 11. 12.

The other function of growth is Resource Handling:

RESOURCE HANDLING:
To build competitive edge and meet the above challenges by optimum and efficient use of resources is foremost for sustainable growth. The present resources have to be handled in the following way: 1. HUMAN RESOURCE: Training based on competency mapping and leadership building. 2. TECHNOLOGY & EQUIPMENT: Upgraded equipments and latest technology adoption.
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3. RAW MATERIAL: Smooth flow of input raw materials and spares from reputed companies. 4. E V A +ve: Overall financial status of SAIL. 5. PROJECT MANAGEMENT: Development of project managers and strict adherence to dead line.

WHAT TO DO?
We have to groom leaders at all levels with creative and dedicated followers, who work with passion. Human resources are to be counselled at every level for shedding older mindset, continuous unlearning and relearning of concepts and adopting newer techniques. They must be made aware of the vision, targets regarding production, safety and house keeping, environmental factors and above all customer satisfaction needs. This will give SAIL its competitive edge, because there is big difference between people who just work and people who work passionately. And this difference is the difference between success and failure. People with passion automatically tend to be innovative. We have to groom our people who passionately believe they can & develop the ability to face adversity. For this there should be a proper balance between job-insecurity for wrong doing and fast tracking for those having more competency and working to give something extra to the organization. They should not hesitate to shift tactics in tune with the situation because those employees are never completely content. They are happy with the success and also accept failures because it is a new learning for them to achieve success. They dont hide failures or discredit others. This type of competent leadership is required to get the maximum advantage and growth. BE NOT AFRAID OF GROWING SLOWLY BUT BE AFRAID OF ONLY STANDING STILL

But how? Lets see an example of survey conducted.


There was a research done in 1960 and it was found that 83% people chose career for the reason of making money and 17% chose as per their passion for what they wanted to do and after 20 years the result was tremendous- out of 101 millionaires in that country 100 were those who chose as per their passion. Then the question arises that, why in SAIL, during the recruitment at all level this criteria is not taken care of. If it is taken care then why most executive think of having a desk job or switch to other soft area. PEOPLE are companys only sustainable competitive advantage; MOTIVATE THEM you will be surprised to see how fast motivated people can perform.
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The above statement is well supported by our own experience as shown in cases and view of respondents of questionnaire. For building competence and enhancing knowledge base of our most valued resources i.e HUMAN RESOURCE. We had to move step by step about what we are, where we have to go and how to reach there. Competence of our intellectual resources are to be leveraged and that to can be done by 1. Creating an aura of emotional attachment, passion and pride 2. Creating right environment, culture for retaining talent 3. Inquisitiveness 4. Sharpening of skills-leadership, communication 5. Setting aside ego 6. Out of the way thinking process 7. To be creative and innovative Need of building competence for meeting challenges of growth.(introspection through survey with the help of questionnaire)

Questionnaire 1: Where are we?

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Survey of Executives

Survey of Non- Executives

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Questionnaire 2: Questionnaire on Need of Building competence for meeting challenges of growth.

Overall Survey of Respondents:

Survey of Respondents Below 45years Age:

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Need of Increase in Competence Level for Organizational Growth: Survey of Respondents above 45years Age:

Inferences from above Survey.


(Sample size 100, Executives 60, Non Executives 40 As per priority, majority of people think that:There is need of enhancing competencies for sustainable growth. There is need of educating and motivating people regarding challenges of growth. Most of the people are working at their 60% of potential, competence. Family and work area environment affects the performance of individuals.

A A A A

Barriers/bottlenecks for Building Competency & Suggested Solutions for Debottlenecking:


As we move forward, we found that lots of policies had been made but not implemented seriously with right spirit and most of the implementers are not serious to take pain. If they are serious then not committed to do the best of it. Most of the people are there
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in fault finding and escape goat. People mend the policies according to their comfort, because to do differently it takes time and pain, but they were unaware of the fact of the good result. For demotivated employee, the HR department is not present for any counseling, though the policy is there. You can take a horse to a pond but you cannot make it to drink, reason behind are: 1. Unawareness of ones competence: People are not aware of their competence, skills due to monotony of the jobs they do. Solution: Competency mapping and proper training to acquire necessary skills is required. 2. Lack of Culture / Passion to Perform: Lack of culture of Innovation and creativity and also to excel in all fields. Solution: We have to create a culture of passion and ownership through effective leadership and empowering employees. Jack Welch said The chemistry of change acts faster when people feel passionate about its success. 3. Personal Ego: Matured people do not want to learn from the newer generation. Solution: These people are to be handled very cautiously. Front line managers should inculcate a sense of prides among those persons and counsel l them for innovative work. 4. Lack of knowledge / insufficient training: Potential enhancement is very difficult without proper knowledge of work and access to new technologies. Solution: Compulsory seven days of training for every employee half yearly and presentation in respective departmental knowledge hubs. Also to offer cross functional growth opportunities to fast track individuals. 5. Improper reward and compensation: People have a feeling that to get the full benefit of human resources, reward and compensation to be performance linked. Solution: Rationalization and better performance based incentive reward system to be incorporated. 6. Monotony in day to day work: Inadequate transfers, job rotation, lateral movement. Workforces become stagnate. Solution: Systematic job rotation and job enrichment with right spirit to be done. 7. Stress Factor: Due to huge job pressure, people are not able to concentrate both in work and in personal life, because outside the plant also, they had to take pain for each fringe benefits provided by organization.
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Solution: Help desk to provide, assistance to family members, when they are employee is out of station or in trouble. Counselling for practicing yoga to be done. 8. Lack of motivation We feel in BSL, that workforce motivating factors which are existing are not enough like workplace not safe, clean and conducive, rewards for innovative work is less, ineffective competency mapping measures. Solution: More counselling, interaction program, small workshop with competitive thoughts by introducing best area in safety and housekeeping in individual department is to be introduced. 9. Mental Barriers Why work more when compensation is same for every one. Also doing repeated work due to failure of bad quality spares causes resentment. Solution: Instantaneous reward and appreciation by concerned HODs to be done. To avoid repetitive work good quality spares are the need of the hour.

How in BSL/SAIL competence can be built for meeting challenges of growth.


(Survey with the help of questionnaire in Annexure: 1) Now lets have a look on the questionnaire # 3, about how to build competence for meeting challenges of growth in SAIL/ BSL.

Effect of leadership, punishment reward, competence mapping and fast track.

Inference of survey How to build competency and meet challenges of growth:


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As per survey about how to build competence of SAIL/BSL people, it is clear that 76% of the respondents are of view that reward and appreciation, and 62% task to nonperformer and pay differentiation will be implemented then, it will be easy to build competence. In addition to this, average people about 70% feel that, if innovation failed, it should not be discouraged, and overall development should be there along with tracking of mental and physical health. Considering competency mapping, training based on skill gap, reward system and career advancement and performance based succession planning, we are mediocre with respect to our competitors. Also executive competence mapping is required. With the help of survey we want to point out that, if we had to take quantum jump, then thrust to be given in areas like competence based training and basic comfort to employees and family. It has been observed that building competence is a factor of development and self-attitude. To change attitude also we had to look into the comfort zone of our employee and counselling. If the outstanding employee and managers will not feel that they are treated, differently with pride, then it is not possible to keep them motivated and also it will send silent message to others to do best of themselves. At first people refuse to believe that a strange new thing can be done, then begin to think it cant be done. Then they see it can be done. Then it is done and the entire world wonders why it was not done before. JOB SATISFACTION AND HAPPY ON THE JOB LEADS TO ENERGISED WORKFORCE.

How to meet challenges of growth:


As far as our survey is concerned challenges in todays competitive environment can only be met by:

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As our group inferred after deliberating with cross section of people in BSL/SAIL.

Model of change process:

Based on universal competencies which is nothing but integration of 3 clusters--1. Sharpening the focus through communication. 2. Building commitment through passion. 3. Driving for success through ownership attitude.

Some case studies highlighting the benefits of Building Competence for Meeting Challenges and Winning
Case 1: Innovation done by HSM of BSL of roughing edger hydraulics circuit:In this case the team has done excellent design innovation and implemented it by changing the design and saving crores of rupees of SAIL / BSL per year, since this was existing from last many years and with the change in leadership of that area and motivation from top management, the team had unleashed their actual potential and had increased their competence level to two fold. Here the effective leadership plays an important role, along with reward and recognition. Case 2: Innovation done by HSM of BSL in coiler for coiler mandrel cooling system The same case as above, where the team had introduced new cooling system and designed it indigenously and implemented and saved crores by enhancing the life of
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mandrel. Thus they were having the group, who think new things and also motivates his teammates but once the reward will not become a motivating factor and these people who are giving extra to organization will go on working with added competence and confidence. Case 3: Change in attitude regarding maintenance system in HSM Today the attitude and potential is changing and increasing respectively, with new thinking and positive attitude. But all are not alike more training and management concept and counselling is required to motivate people to do the best. Two of our suggestions have already been implemented and giving tremendous result in hot strip mill:

A PEP talk by HOD to a group of skilled but lazy employees weekly thus making them A Fortnightly display and review of targets.
Case 4: Exceeding to ones own competency after motivation and better leadership in HSM

aware of their worth and making them responsible for inspection in their respective areas.

We had experienced that how in one area of hydraulics and lubrication system, where the average oil loss was too high and productivity low there with the same people but less in number the oil reduced to half and productivity four folds. Here the passion of the leader worked who motivated his week team and made them to work differently. All the above cases are extraordinary job done by ordinary same people, who were working there for many years, but the change due to there area leader support from top management, attitudinal change, realization of competence, risk taking ability and getting reward in the form of CII award, Vishwakarma award, award for good job done by MD for their innovative work which also motivate others to do the best. There are many more cases through out that plant to give an insight but this leadership capability and exercising it is so low after performing for 30 -40 years in Indian steel industry. Now we had to come out to feel insecurity about the sustenance and to take hard step whatever it takes, like Mahindra Scorpio says:- nothing else we do, we say no one better can do what the SAIL does. The main formula for success that we find from the above real time cases in BSL/SAIL that can be divided in the following parameters:

1. Socially responsible business excellence :

A A A

Adaptive thinking Entrepreneurial drive Excellence in execution


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2. Energizing the team:

A A A A A A A A

Driving change Team leadership Empowerment with Accountability Networking Organizational awareness Stake holder influence Executive Maturity Transcending self

3. Managing the environment :

4. Inner Strength:

These cases also highlights the following secrets of work .These include: The first secret of energy at work and be competent: Choose the right attitude and be passionate about work. There is always a choice about the way you do your work, even if there is not a choice about the work itself. When we come for work everyday, we bring an attitude with us. We can bring dull attitude and have a depressing day. We can bring an angry attitude and irritate our co worker and customer. Or we can bring a sunny, cheerful, playful attitude and have a great day. We can choose the kind of the day we will have at work. We must realize that as long as we are going to be at work, we might as well have the best day we can have. The second secret of energy at work: Play Any enterprise pays a lot of salaries and has to be taken seriously, but we could be serious about business and still have fun with the way we conduct business. This way we enjoy work that can be very tedious. The third secret of energy at work: make their day The playful way the work is done allows employees to find creative ways to engage their customers in ways, which create energy and goodwill. They create great memories whenever they make someones day. They try to engage all in their fun respectfully. If they succeed, It makes others day. The fourth secret of energy at work: be present Look vigilant, eyes roaming for the next opportunity, means to be fully present in job. Dont day dream, or on the phone if not required.
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The fifth secret is stroke: It is the unit of existence; it tells somebody that he exists and is important for the organization. This is very less in our organization, even those executives or supervisor who much above there subordinate, they lack in it as if others will come in between their carrier path, due to knowledge sharing. Building competence in an organization is no small task, especially in uncertain times. But there are some important steps executives can take to lead and enable their employees in any economic environment. As a start, they can articulate a clear vision of the future, communicate it across their organizations and describe the strategy to achieve it. They can help people understand how important their day-to-day work is to fulfilling strategic goals, and they can provide people with the tools they need to succeed in their jobs. They can also establish a culture of open and honest communication between people and their leaders to celebrate success, acknowledge setbacks and outline plans to meet new challenges. Therefore for SAIL to be competent in technology, human resource and productivity to achieve its vision we had postulated an H-D (Human Desire) Hypothesis of management concept. This will work for those organizations, having similar mindset, infrastructure and technology base. According to this The people working in the organization having very high job security have the tendency of increase in their desire of getting more, by doing less. Due to the prevailing environment of not having passion and feeling of being in a slow developing organization they start loosing their passion and creativity thereby feeling defeated with the system. This ultimately results into desire of more money & facility without having thought of how much they are returning to the organization. Finally resulting into a team of low competency w.r.t to human resource, understanding of technology and unaligned career path.

Why does this happen?


The human psyche is such that the desire value always tends to go up and it is not possible to fulfill the individuals desire always. Once the desired value is satisfied the perceived value will become the desired value and a new perceived value of higher level comes into existence. This in marketing terms is called customer delight. For the new desire without any passion or feeling of my, me or ours no one wants to do more for that exceeded desire value. At the same time with good leadership at all stages, the passion and creativity comes into picture & things will be reversed.
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The solutions as per our Study are:


Recommendations:
We suggest our designed EPCM MODEL (Employee Performance & Competency Model):

Competency Mapping:
Present competency model followed is insufficient it is only followed for NON EXECUTIVES. In HSM /BSL competency test done only for Non Executives. It is followed as per clause no.6.1 QMS (ISO 9001:2000). Identification of section done .Test taken in consultation with frontline managers by personnel department every three years. Based on knowledge of safety norms, quality norms, equipments, process involved and general aspect. Scoring is given on weighted average. If it is less than equal to 4 on the job training is given. If it is 0. Training should have been given by T&DC in consultation with line managers. WE PROPOSE for non executives-- skill/ competency test based on knowledge of safety norms, quality norms, equipments, process involved and general aspect on BSL/SAIL and future challenges. It should be conducted yearly, result should reflect in CCR. To identify supervisory skilled workers to be trained in house and to rotate them in various sections once in 2 years. Fast track promotion to be given for skilled workers with responsibility and empowerment. Benefits: Huge gap of supervisory / charge man grade people envisaged in the coming years. This gap can be neutralized by this method. Also due to regular skill tests people will have a fear for failing that will make them more proactive and competent. Delegation of authority will give them sense of ownership. For executives: presently no competency test is there: WE propose yearly competency test based on following criteria: Total Marks: 200 1. Knowledge of Sectional/Functional/Technical know-how : 50marks 2. Knowledge of Materials Mgmt. Know-how: 25marks 3. Knowledge of Financial Mgmt. know-how: 25marks 4. Knowledge of HR/personnel/IR/general awareness know-how: 25marks
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5. Paper/presentation on any innovative/creative work done on the year which has brought financial benefit to BSL: 50 marks. 6. Organization and National level awards (CII, AIMA etc), participation with selected papers in seminars, quizzes etc: 25 marks. Grading to be given on 010 scale. This grading should be added to annual CCR. Below 3 a second test to be given after necessary training in consultation with HR. Above 8 for consecutive 3 years and subsequent financial benefit to company which has to be judged by ED with recommendation from HOD along with consecutive. A grade in CCR will be chosen in fast track and necessary increment to be given along with promotion. And condense course for management for at least six months. Benefits: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Executives competence will increase manifold. Will reduce attrition in coming years of competition. Non performers will start performing in the fear of being getting exposed. People will get motivated to reach in fast track. Growth challenges can be taken care of.

Management Trainee Training Module:


Based on the interaction with 2007 batch MTTs some interesting facts came up: 1.30% of the MTT's want to leave SAIL may be for higher education MBA, IAS etc. They want to utilize this one year long training period for preparations and fun. In the process contributing least for the company. 2.60% feel long one year training period make them lazy. So, after department posting after one year of training when suddenly job load starts them feel stressed causing attrition. 3.90% feel basic amenities like no sitting arrangement in department /site for documentation work, lunch etc and quarter seepage problem makes them demotivated. TO REMOVE those barriers and effective utilization of MTT's we propose a training model based on our EPCM: 1. Training period to be reduced to three months from one year.

First Month:
a) b) c) Induction lecture -2 days. Plant orientation and functional lectures -25 days Presentation, test & interview-3 days
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Second month:
a) b) c) Department posting, attachment with training engineers Orientation in various sections of the department. One technical project and presentation

Third Month:
Non functional area awareness Material Management, Personnel, Finance with assignments not projects for 10 days in each section. Training completes and from fourth month starts on the job training after posting in a particular section of the department. Quarterly review by HOD. Confirmation after one year. One industrial complex visit after one year.

Benefits:
1. Effective utilization of MTTs 2. Competence building becomes faster. 3. Increased motivation, Low attrition.

Break Down Cost Analysis


Monthly break down and cost analysis with responsibility of every section to be prepared and be reviewed by HOD. Benefit: People become aware of cost of break down and take necessary action.

Knowledge Management
Every employee shall log knowledge pieces in their departmental hub. Reward should be given for quality knowledge piece. Benefit: People should be motivated to do something new and with a feeling that their creative work has been stored for future. Sense of pride will be developed.

Lateral Movement
Lateral movement allows organization to place people where they are needed. Benefits: These changes allow companies to give employees new challenges, and new opportunities thus allowing them to unleash their full development and competence and potential. Thereby helping organization to meet challenges of growth.
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Psychometric Tests
Psychometric tests to be conducted to judge the following parameters of workforce (For Both Ex, Non ex) from reputed institutes once in two years to know where we are.

1. Intelligence Quotient 2. Emotional Quotient 3. Irritation Quotient 4. Passion Quotient


Benefits: Psychological competency judgment will be there and necessary training for the same will develop a world class competent workforce.

Multiskilling
For new recruits:
Designation: MST: Multi Skilled Technician Training: Necessary training to be given for fitting, welding and other trades in T&D Scale: One grade up from general stream For existing workers: After competency test and interview competent workers of various grades to be counselled to take up MST promotion. Scale: one scale up and with two increments.

Benefits:
1. 2. Skilled manpower shortage will reduce. Workforce will be energized and motivated. .

Job Rotation, Job enrichment


Job rotation to be done after necessary skill test to selected workers. With necessary increment. Benefit: It will create motivation develop competence, reduce monotony.

Help Desk
Help desk under hospitality section to be set up to take care of employee needs when any employee is out of station in coordination with departmental personnel section. For any official tour purpose necessary arrangement to be done by this section. Benefit: Employee competence and potential will be unleashed manifold. Productivity will increase.
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DEPARTMENTAL WORK GROUP :


Technology hub which is effectively working in HSM to be created in all main shops to take care of departmental innovative works, presentations by voluntary work groups who contributes by doing innovative projects and motivate others . Benefit: Effective sharing of knowledges and awareness about outside world.

ACTION PLAN FOR FUTURE: Refer Annexure 2


Based on the above discussions, surveys- questionnaires, case studies and giving and effective competence building model EPCM, we hereby suggest an action plan.

Conclusion:
The detailing given above about building competency and capability has already been proved by many organizations and brought immense benefit to them. We have to make more leaders who will work like an entrepreneur in their own organization have the capability of understanding and practicing leadership by direction, leadership by motivation, leadership by association and leadership by delegation. Therefore to survive, sustain and become world leader in the era of globalization we have to build competence as per the road map above. People are our most valuable resources & building competent workforce, working with all the resources, building synergy & creating strong global marketing network, we shall win the race. Finally for building competence and to meet challenges of growth and to get the best out of SAIL as a whole Let Us

Begin With Faith, Drive It With Skill, Power It With Partnership, Raise It With Honesty, Distinguish It With Teamwork, Honour It With Respect, And Last But Not The Least, Let Us Imprint Our Values In The Mind Of Customers & Stakeholders.

It is the Beginning
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Reference:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Klimp 1990 US journal. Creating Intelligent Organizations Written by: Brett Richards, M.A. President, Connective Intelligence Inc. Basics of Management by Dr. S. N . Pandey People and Performance: The best of Peter Drucker on Management by Peter F Drucker. MTI Growth Journals SAIL News Beyond HR: The new science of Human capital by John W Boudreau. Unleash the power of your workforce by Sharon K. Parker Managing individual and group behavior in organization by Daneil C feldman and Hugh J Arnold.

10. Work and motivation by Victor H Vroom. 11. S.K. Parker, 'From passive to proactive motivation: the importance of flexible role orientations and role breadth self-efficacy,'Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49 (3), pp. 447-469, 2000. 12. Unleashing the power of creative collaboration by Carol Kinsey Goman 13. M. Hucelid, The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity and corporate financial performance' in Academy of Management Journal, 38, p. 645, 1995. 14. D.J. Campbell, 'The proactive employee: managing workplace initiative,' Academy of Management Executive, 14, 52-66, 2000.

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Annexure - 1
(A)

Questionnaire 1: Where are we?


Dear colleagues, We are submitting a paper on the theme selected for chairmans trophy for the year 2008 09 on Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth. In order to gain an insight into the present state of mind sets, in our organization, we as a team has devised certain questions. Its an utmost request to please fill your choice and if required give your comments. Regards Harishanker Singh Debabrata Chowdhury 1. What do you think about BSL on overall performance in India? a) Excellent b) Very good c) Good d) Average e) Dont know. 2. Do you think average employee of BSL, work with their 60% potential or more. Yes No

3. How do you rate yourself in using your competence and skills for BSL. (rate in the scale of 1 5).

4. Do you feel BSL/SAIL will be able to sustain its market position with its existing human resource performance / utilization? Yes No

5. Do you feel you are posted at right place as per your competency? Yes No Dont know

6. Whether the competency level of SAIL/BSL matches with world standard .If no answer Qs no.7? Yes No

7. What is the level of competency of SAIL/BSL w.r.t. world, as you feel?( scale 15)

3
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8. What is your level of competency in SAIL/BSL?( scale 15)


25%


50%

2
75%

4
>75%

9. What % age of your competence is being utilized in SAIL/BSL? 10. What is your subordinates average competency level (Non ex for junior officers and ex for senior officers ) <25% 25-50% 50-75% >75% 11. Do individual competency helps in organizational growth if yes upto what level write in %age? Yes No 12. Is it possible to increase competency of individual at any stage of his/her career? If yes write how ( 3 points) Yes Yes No No 13. Is there any need of building competency for meeting challenges of growth? 14. In SAIL / BSL what is the level of safety and housekeeping, rate in scale of 1 5.

1
Yes Yes

5
No No

15. Do safety and house keeping affect the individuals performance/ competence? 16. Do basic amenities at work area and welfare facility, effects individual performance. 17. Do you feel that problems related to yours and your familys comfort affects your potential at work. Yes No 18. How do you rate your familys comfort provided by SAIL / BSL. (Rate in scale of 1 5).

Optional Name: Age:


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Designation: Department:

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

(A-1)
Q 1) Where do you rank bsl w.r.t. overall performance in world? 1 3% 2 18% 3 63% 3 73% 3 60% 4 11% 4 15 % 4 16% 5 5% 5 6 % 5 12 %

Exe 1 0% 2 6 % Non-exe 1 0% 2 12% Q 2)

Where do you rank your potential utilization in bsl? 1 7% 2 21% 2 13 % 2 7% 3 61% 3 49% 3 72% 4 9% 5 2%

Exe 1 2% Non-exe1 5% Q3)

4 22 % 5 4 % 4 10% 5 6 %

What is the competence level of human resource of bsl? 1 0% 2 30% 2 0 % 2 4% 3 56% 3 73% 3 68% 4 11% 5 3% 4 21 % 5 6 % 4 20% 5 8 %

Exe 1 0% Non-exe 1 0% Q 4)

Do you feel basic amenities in plant and outside, safety, envirnoment and other facility effects once performance and competency development? 1 7% 2 15% 2 28 % 2 4% 3 13% 3 43% 3 44% 4 59% 5 6% 4 20 % 5 5 % 4 41% 5 11 %

Exe 1 4% Non-exe1 0% Q 5)

What do you feel about the average competency of your subordinate? 1 12% 2 28% 2 6% 2 12% 3 36% 3 56% 3 44% 4 17% 4 21 % 4 32% 5 7% 5 17 % 5 12 %

Exe 1 0% Non-exe 1 0%

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(B)
Questionnaire 2: Questionnaire on Need of building competence for meeting challenges of growth.
Dear colleagues, We are submitting a paper on the theme selected for chairmans trophy for the year 2008 09 on Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth. In order to gain an insight into the present state of mind sets, in our organization, we as a team had devised certain questions. Its an utmost request to please fill your choice and if required give your comments. Regards Harishanker Singh Debabrata Chowdhury

1 2 3 4 5

Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Strongly Disagree Disagree

1. Your tasks and targets suits your competence and commitment level. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
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2. You feel competent enough to take decisions pertaining to your work domain. 3. Your decisions are accepted by your peers, superiors and teams. 4. You feel SAIL /BSL will meet the future challenges of growth. 5. You feel there are no challenges in the coming days. 6. You feel proud in working in SAIL/BSL . 7. You give at least 80% of your effort in achieving targets. 8. You are self motivated to take up jobs without being planned by your boss.

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

9. You aspire to work without any interference unless asked for . 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 10. Your creative and innovative enthusiasm decreasing with age. 11. You do your job for your satisfaction and growth . 12. You are aware of financial implications of input raw materials in coming days. 13. You feel there is a mechanism for competency mapping and skill gap identification. 14. You feel there is a need of building competent workforce to meet the challenges of growth . 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 15. You feel competency mapping test of work force (both ex and non ex) is required. 16. You feel people avoid tests, presentations with a feeling of being exposed. 17. You feel your potential will be better utilized in different sections . 18. You feel you have knowledge gap for the task in hand. 19. You feel technology hub is a good concept for competence building. 20. You feel there is wide focus on continual improvement of competency based process in SAIL/BSL . 1 2 3 4 5 Comments: Name: Age: Designation: Department:

Optional

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(B-1)
Q1) How people rank themselves in their competency level ? 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 2 5% 2 8% 2 2% 3 -61% 3 -60% 3 -62% 4 20% 4 21% 4 19% 5 14% 5 11% 5 17% Over all Below 45yrs Above 45yrs Q2)

How people rank organizational competency w.r.t world standard ? 1 5% 1 3% 1 7% 2 15% 2 18% 2 12% 3 73% 3 70% 3 76% 4 5% 4 7% 4 3% 5 2% 5 2% 5 2%

Over all Below 45yrs Above 45yrs Q3)

How people rank their team competency level ? 1 0% 1 0% 1 0% 2 13% 2 7% 2 19% 3 56% 3 59% 3 53% 4 23% 4 22% 4 24% 5 8% 5 12% 5 4%

Over all Below 45yrs Above 45yrs Q4)

Effect of competency mapping in increasing competence level. 1 3% 1 0% 1 6% 2 15% 2 13% 2 17% 3 70% 3 68% 3 2% 4 9% 4 15 % 4 3% 5 3% 5 4% 5 2%

Over all Below 45yrs Above 45yrs Q5)

How you rank motivating factor (reward, incentive, recognition, fast track carreer advancement etc.) as a main criteria for increase in competence level of individual and team. 1 4% 11% 1 7% 2 9% 2 5% 2 13% 3 16% 3 18% 3 14% 4 58% 4 60% 4 56% 5 13% 5 16% 5 10%

Over all Below 45yrs Above 45yrs

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(C)
Questionnaire 3: Questionnaire on How to build competence for meeting challenges of growth.
Dear colleagues, This questionnaire is with two option, and we as a team, request you all to please respond it honestly in brief, so that we will be able to correlate ours perceptional theory and organizations perception and prejudice & to prepare an action plan / suggestions to build competence of our human resource. Regards Harishanker Singh Debabrata Chowdhury 1. What are the motivating factors that will help you to work at full potential? Rate in scale of (1 -10) a) b) c) d) e) f) Appreciation and reward. Job rotation. Pay differentiation as per potential. Overall development. Encouragement of innovative / creative ideas, even if it fails at first stage. Identification of non performers and taking them to task.

2. Do you think that skill / competence mapping, required for both Ex and Non Executives in SAIL / BSL. Yes No 3. How to build competence of an individual in BSL/SAIL ? Write 3 points. 4. While doing some good job, whether people are rewarded in SAIL / BSL. Always Occasionally Rarely Never 5. If yes in above question, whether reward is appropriate & motivates you in improving your competence. Yes No 6. Do you feel multiskilling of workforce will help SAIL / BSL in increasing productivity? Yes No
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7. If yes in above question, why according to survey, SAIL / BSL is not getting benefit.(rate in scale of 1 10) a) Inadequate & Improper training. b) c) d) e) f) g) Attitudinal change Motivating factor. Equal pay for unequal work. Icebreaking from top management. Lateral movement at a very low level. Any other please write here

8. Do high or above average competent and skilled people are leaving SAIL / BSL, due to improper development and less pay packet with respect to their private counter parts Yes No 9. Heavy job load, with same or less benefits results to dissatisfaction and hence high attrition level. Yes Yes No. No 10. Is it possible that good leaders can change the mindset of employees? 11. Where we (SAIL / BSL), stand compared to our competitors, with respect to following. (Rate in scale of 1 5). a) Training 1 2 3 4 5 b) Reward 1 2 3 4 5 c) Leadership 1 2 3 4 5 d) Career advancement 1 2 3 4 5 d) Performance based promotion 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 e) Job as per knowledge and trait- 1 12. What do you think in SAIL / BSL, performance related to proper utilization of human resource in last five years. No change Good Better Worsened Dont Know. 13. What is the affect of keeping sound mental / physical health, in increasing potential, (e.g. yoga, aerobics etc). Rate in scale of 1 -5. 1 2 3 4 5 Yes No
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14. Do you think that in SAIL / BSL, the 3600 communication system is predominant?

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

15. Do employee empowerment and delegation of authority leads to increase in employee competence ? Yes No

Optional
Name: Age: Designation: Department:

(C 1)
Q 1) Leaders with passion of work and motivating team will be able to balance the situation and increase competency of their people. 1 0% 2 5% 3 -22% 4 48% 5 - 25%

Over all Q 2)

Do spares and other facilities important for work effects in performance or competency. 1 0% 2 17% 3 -28% 4 41% 5 - 14%

Over all Q3)

Motivating factor, competence mapping of all in real sense and training can improve the compency of all. 1 5% 2 16% 3 -33% 4 38% 5 - 8%

Over all Q 4)

Fast track system of career advancemant will help in increasing the competency of low performers and motivate others to do best of all. 1 2% 2 3% 3 -41% 4 47% 5 - 7%

Over all Q5)

For organizational growth and competency of all, a balance of job insecurity if imposed forcefully , it will help in performance of individual.(like reporting of good job and bad job for both) 1 0% 2 11% 3 -57%
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Over all

4 29%

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Annexure-2 Table:2
Sl. No. 1 Parameters Skill,competence gap identification and effective training. For both EX and NON EX Good communication and information sharing. Counselling to change mindsets Motivation technique Action to be taken Responsibility Time frame Test to be done once in a year Remarks After identification of needs and competence mapping to be referred to HRD.

Requirement of Sectional training to be training identified as per engineer and job demand. controlling officer Information flow As per from top to bot- Hierarchy tom to be fast.

Continuous

Present and future scenarios, challenges to be discussed. Unlearning of older concepts and migrating to newer ones. Creation of owner ship concept. Competence unleashed.

Mental blocks, Controlling As and personal egos to officers. when be changed . required. Role of employees to be highlighted. Performance based incentive rewards to be given. As per hieararchy HR department Regular

Knowledge management

Knowledge pieces HOD to be restored for better knowledge sharing. HOD's with Multi skilling the help of training to be HRD provided. Job rotation to be encouraged to avoid monotony. More responsibility & authority down below to be delegated. Sectional / area incharge

Regular

Innovativeness and creativity unleashed through knowledge hub. incentives to be given regularly for good job done. Competent work force , Challenges can be taken with less manpower.

Multi skilling Job rotation Job enrichment

Regular

Responsibility and decision making Visits /tours learning from each other. Technology hub

Continuous

Changes attitude. Leadership and ownership competence developed.

Inter plant and HOD abroad visits.

Regular Exchanges of minds and as per getting a feel about what requirement others are doing . can get idea of benchmark. Within six Regular knowledge sharing months through presentations . reference through journals books internet and news papers.

All main shops to have a technology hub as in HSM.

HOD, GM (HRD)

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finalist
A Rituraj, Sr. Manager, (U&S) Ms Ruma Bharti, Sr. Manager, (Elect) Manish Kumar, Manager (U&S)

Centre for Engineering & Technology INTRODUCTION


The Indian steel industry has entered into a new development stage from 2005-06, riding high on the resurgent economy and rising demand for steel. Rapid rise in production has resulted in India becoming the 5th largest producer of steel. It has been estimated by certain major investment houses that, Indias steel consumption will continue to grow at nearly 16% rate annually, till 2012, fuelled by demand for construction projects. The scope for raising the total consumption of steel is huge, given that per capita steel consumption is only 40 kg compared to 150 kg across the world and 250 kg in China 7. The rapidly changing steel landscape in the country has brought about numerous challenges as well as opportunities to the major steel producer like SAIL. SAIL has envisaged an ambitious modernization and expansion of its various steel plants, but the question before our organization is --How to gear up to face the challenges of growth in this scenario? It naturally follows that we have to build the competencies levels of our employees in such a way so that they can give output to meet their performance goal fixed by the level of desired growth.
Challenge of Growth Competency

SAIL

CET

Survey for Organisational & Individual Competency Mapping

Organisational

Individual

Supplementary Survey for Plant

Methodology / Analysis / Result & Feedback

Roadmap for Building Competencies


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This paper looks into ways & means for building competencies among the employees of CET. The paper starts by looking into challenges of growth faced by SAIL in general & CET in particular. CETs role in meeting the challenges has been analysed & based on them, factors required for organisational competencies are selected. Components of individual competencies have been identified by literature survey for individual competency mapping. Based on the selected factors of organisational & individual competencies a survey has been conducted among the employees of CET. The results of the survey has been analysed & is compared with the survey taken in the plants about CETs performance for data validation. In this way existing competency levels have been arrived at. Further to this, with the help of literature and survey findings & discussion with the employees this paper tries to identify major areas of thrust required for strengthening existing competency level. Finally suggestions are given how to build competency levels in these thrust areas. To know whether our findings are only applicable to CET or in general reflected the opinion of SAIL collective we also conducted a supplementary survey among the executives of plant. The results obtained were compared with the results of main survey for CET employees.

CHALLENGES OF GROWTH FACED BY SAIL


The challenges and hardships of the organizations have become multi directional. SAIL has to tackle both global as well as local competitor. It is the need of the hour to embrace and acknowledge changes in response to the global trends. Competition has raised the bar and organizational performance is judged upon new benchmarks. In this environment there are many challenges faced by SAIL. Some of the major challenges our company is facing today are:

1. Raw Material Linkages


The shortfall in raw material capacity has lead to unprecedented price hikes e.g. iron ore and coal. Therefore owning raw material will become a greater source of competitive advantage in the future. Following measures are required for long terms security and availability of raw material.

Acquisition and mergers of iron ore and coal mines through strategic relationships and partnership
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A A A

Increase in productivity and quality of product by modernization of existing mines Reduction in import dependence by high level of beneficiation of existing coal and iron ore deposits. Innovative investment and logistic solutions in road, port and railway sectors for handling the large volume of material as per enhanced production plan.

2. Eliminating Technological Obsolescence


Technology is the driving force in todays fast changing environment. Radical development in technology and increased competition from substitute materials have profound impact on our strategic plans. This in turn calls for selection of new advanced and innovative technologies with better production efficiencies. Another area of challenge is to develop new, superior grades of steel that provide enhanced value to the customers. With continuous changes taking place in IT, automation, process control and standardization, customers assessment about quality competitiveness itself has changed. This requires further augmentation of quality assurance systems with focus on process and quality enhancement. Backward integration by high demand customers calls for varying quality assurances suiting their requirements. Steel industry faces growing challenges with respect to ever stringent quality demand by the customers. It has been planned to produce 60 MT production with less than 1 lac manpower which translates into labour productivity 800 T/M/Y. To meet these challenges posed by added capacity enhancement, introduction of new technology and as well as cater to market expectation our workforce is to be highly motivated, educated and energized. The challenges posed before our current workforce are as

3. Enriching Product Mix with quality output


4. Development of Human Resources


A A A A A

Ageing workforce resulting in loss of critical skills and experience Shrinking talent pool leaving in fewer skilled resources Talent from the company are leaving for greener pastures The attitude , values and career expectations of the workforce is becoming more demanding Making the workforce familiar with the new technology
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5. Customer Service, Distribution and Logistics


The market today is driven by the customer. In order to increase the market share in steel we have to move closer to the customer understanding their needs and problems. This would require Strengthening our existing distribution network by providing warehousing services, extending our marketing facilities to new towns and cities, electronic ordering, shipping options. Improved customer relationship and satisfaction level by technical advice. After sales service, financing alternatives To create an atmosphere that will help build customer loyalty that lasts for years

A A A

6. Environmental Protection & Energy Optimisation


Being part of the countrys problems in energy, water, pollution, resource, environment, and land use management, our company has to be at the leading edge of technologies for optimum use of all these resources to enhance value. Proper implementation of projects running into thousands of crores is by no means an easy task. The challenge ahead of SAIL in the area of project management is to achieve all the project goals and objectives while adhering to classic project constraintsusually scope, time and budget. The secondaryand more ambitious challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of inputs necessary to meet pre-defined objectives.

7. Project Management

ROLE OF CET TO MEET THESE CHALLENGES


It is evident that to meet the challenges of growth CET has major role to play especially in the following areas:

A Being the inhouse consultant of SAIL, CET becomes nodal agency for strategic
planning to suggest roadmap of growth.

A CET has also to play major role in acquiring & implementing new technologies in

different plants & mines taking into consideration energy & environmental aspects. This can only happen if existing knowledge base of CET is widened by developing its human resources. plants for timely completion of the projects without cost overrun. This will require building of trust with specific focus to client needs.
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A Finally to reap the full dividends of modernization, CET has to work in tandem with

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

Hence it can be easily concluded that to provide innovative design & engineering solution to meet the challenges of growth CET has to built organisational competencies in the following areas 1. Organisational & Strategic Planning 2. Development of human resources by proper job orientation, fulfillment of training needs & ensuring motivation with tools of rewards & recognition. 3. Enrichment of its knowledge base by Knowledge Management 4. Aligning towards client needs by Goal Alignment

ORGANISATIONAL & INDIVIDUAL COMPETENCY MAPPING


In this competency era it is beneficial and cost effective to have competent people to occupy work positions. Competency mapping identifies an individuals strengths and weakness in order to uncover the gap that exists between the present competency and the competency needed to reach the strategic goals in the future. But before coming to competency mapping we should first understand what is competency?
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Competency1 is an underlying characteristics of a person, which enables to deliver superior performance in a given job, role or situation. The competency is the cumulative result of the presence of three components. These components are

A A A

Knowledge : Skills :

Information that is organised, learned and applied through experience, study or investigation. Results of repeatedly applying knowledge or innate potential to perform mental and physical actions or tasks Individual traits, values, motives and attitudes that indicate an employees probable behaviour.

Attributes :

In order to excel in a particular role, all the three components are mandatory. In the absence of attributes, the competency becomes a hidden competency. Attributes include motives, self concept and traits. Knowledge and skills tend to be visible and are relatively surface characteristics of people. But attributes which consists of attitude, traits and motives are more hidden, deeper and central to personality. Surface knowledge and skills are relatively easy to develop. But core motive and trait competencies are at the base of the personality iceberg and more difficult to assess and develop as shown in figure.
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Iceberg model of competencies ,2,3

Motives drive, direct and select behaviour towards certain actions or goals. For instance achievement motivated people consistently set challenging goals for themselves and use feedback to do better. A persons attitude, values or self image such as self confidence, a persons belief that he can be effective in any situation is a part of that persons concept of self. The primary asset to the organisation is the influence that can be exerted on human attitudes and thus behaviour patterns through the development of a sound organisational culture. A secondary asset is the influence on trading partners and customers from a set of sound and fair organisational values and beliefs. Clearly before embarking on a programme of change it is important to establish the state of the current culture within the organisation. To gauge the current state of competencies in the organisation it is necessary to decide upon the factors upon which they can be mapped. The value of defining organisational competencies5 is that it firstly encapsulates the vision of our organisational culture, secondly it provides the starting point for all subordinate competencies and thirdly it demonstrates to individuals how their individual competency links into the greater scheme of things.
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So, how will organisations define the factors for organisational competencies? This will of course be specific to each organisation. As explained earlier in this paper the factors for organisational competencies were selected based on the role CET has to play in meeting challenges of growth for SAIL collective. The same is reproduced below

A Organisational & Strategic Planning A Job Orientation A Training Needs A Knowledge Management A Rewards & Recognition A Goal Alignment
With the help of literature survey parameters for individual competencies were selected & were divided in five major groups :

A People & Organisational Competencies A Decision Making Competencies A Motivational Competencies A Personal Competencies A Interpersonal Competencies
Based on the selected factors for organisational & individual competencies a questionnaire was prepared for survey analysis, details of which are given in the following section.

SURVEY METHODOLOGY & ASSESSMENT


To assess the existing organisational & individual competency level of our workforce, a survey was designed. The survey contained two sets of questionnaire, one containing 25 statements for organisational competency mapping and second containing 45 statements for individual competency mapping. The formulation of statements was based on the factors that we have discussed in earlier paragraphs. The statements were framed in such a fashion that they can be answered in four-point scale of strongly disagreeing to strongly agreeing. The survey statements/questions are attached at Annexure I. The survey was done by distributing the questionnaire to a sample workforce of 100 individuals. The sample workforce included randomly selected employees of all grades from a total strength of about 234 employees of CET units from Ranchi & sub centers.
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Grade wise distribution of employees in the sample has been given in the pie chart

19% 22%

26% 33%

E1-E3

E5-E5

E6

E7-E9

The survey results were quantified by following methodology 1. The statements were such that they can be answered in multiple choice type format on a four-point scale. This scale was balanced and marked between two extremes of strongly agreeing to strongly disagreeing to the statement. 2. Every statement was related to a competency sub factor. All the sub factors for a particular competency set were weighed on different scale considering the grade & its particular importance in the organisation. 3. On numeric terms strongly agreeing to a positive statement fetched 4 points, while somewhat agreeing to it fetched 3 points. Similarly somewhat disagreeing to a positive statement resulted 2 points & strongly disagreeing to it 1 point. 4. 5. Considering the original response & taking the consideration of weighing factor, scale was converted in numeric terms in the scale of 100. Final value of competency factor was then calculated based on weighed mean average of competency sub factors.
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6.

Interpretation of scores were done based on following table Scores >75 62.5-75 50-62.5 < 50 Interpretation Strongly Agreeing Somewhat Agreeing Somewhat Disagreeing Strongly Disagreeing

We certainly do not claim that the absolute value thus obtained gave us the competency level of individuals with no error. The survey is as liable to error as any survey of such kind. We may have many non-serious answers as well as unintentional errors. But the results have certainly given us the direction & pointers for building competency roadmap to meet the challenges of growth.

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION


1 Organisational Competencies
The whole response sets were divided in two different sections. In first section, responses to 25 questions related with organisational competencies were analysed. The response of workforce on six selected factors of organisational competency is taken up one by one. I. Organisational & Strategic Planning In questions related to organisational & strategic planning respondents were asked questions related to their Knowledge of future work areas Time Management for Engineering Activities Identification of development needs of employee Job planning & Work Strategy The response across all grades was found to be almost uniform in the range of 70 to 75, which indicates that majority of respondent somewhat agreed to the fact that sufficient impetus is given in their organization for planning of their work on short & long term basis.
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A A A A

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 E1-E3 E5-E5 E6 E7-E9

II. Job Orientation In questions related to job orientation respondents were asked whether

The response across all grades was pretty uniform & somewhat similar to that observed in case of organisational strategy & planning. The results also corroborates the fact that CET has absorbed seamlessly employee with different plant & mining background.

A A

Proper guidance and exposure for execution of job is given to them Emphasis on learning and developing skill sets are there

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 E1-E3 E5-E5 E6 E7-E9

As shown below the survey result also pointed that the questioning about work issue is encouraged in our organisation which has a positive effect on job orientation
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Survey Statement I feel that asking question & raising issues about work is encouraged in our organisation III. Goal Alignment

Workforces Response
E1-E3 E4-E5
E6

E7-E9
40 50 60 70 80

Regarding goal alignment the statements in the questionnaire were related to

A A A

Awareness about technological changes required Alignment of individual performance with organisations vision Keeping employee informed about major strategic decisions

The result we found was quite interesting. In general the whole sample population felt that they are only somewhat aligned to the companys goal. However except at E6 level alignment was gradually increasing with increase in grade. But this trend took a dip in E6 grade. This indicates that some disillusionment with the companys goal is perceptible in employees within this grade. This may be due to one or the combination of factors as indicated below

A A

Lack of motivation level due to stagnation in the organisation Feeling of being left out in strategic decision making.

100

90

80

70

60

50

40 E1-E3 E4-E5 E6 E7-E9

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IV. Rewards & Recognition To judge the impact of current mechanisms of rewards & recognition the respondents were questioned about Satisfaction with appraisal system Encouragement for experimentation with new ideas Inclusion of everyones opinion irrespective of grade Encouragement for solving organisational problems The overall trends considering all above factors are depicted in the graph below

A A A A

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 E1-E3 E4-E5 E6 E7-E9

The results clearly showed that existing tools for rewards & recognition are not motivating enough for the middle management level. Dissatisfaction with the previous appraisal system was evident in E4, E5 & E6 levels which opined that previous appraisal system was not somewhat identifying their talent ability. Similarly this group also feels that more recognition & encouragement should be given to the people with new ideas & thinking. Survey Statement I feel that current appraisal system identifies my talent ability Workforces Response
E7-E9 E6 E4-E5 E1-E3

40

50

60

70

80

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I feel that employees are recognized or rewarded for experimentation with new ideas

E7-E9 E6 E4-E5 E1-E3 40 50 60 70 80

The above bar graph shows the response of workforce on some specific questions. In questions related to Knowledge Management respondents were asked whether in their opinion

V. Knowledge Management

It came out (as shown in graph below) from the response across all grades of employees & especially those from middle management level that existing system for knowledge management needs to be further strengthened to increase their working effectiveness.
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 E1-E3 E4-E5 E6 E7-E9

A A A

Cost and technical data management system exists Emphasis on knowledge sharing is there Exchange of information with clients /customers

VI. Training Needs To gauge the fulfillment of training needs in the organisation questions were asked about

Importance of training in organisation


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A A

Existence of knowledge gap in work area Training as per individuals technical and managerial needs

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 E1-E3 E4-E5 E6 E7-E9

Satisfaction level of junior & senior management level with existing training system was slightly more than the middle management level. Respondents in general felt that further emphasis is required on training to fill the knowledge gap in their areas.

2 Individual Competencies
In second section, responses to 45 questions related with individual competencies were analysed. The response of workforce on five selected factors of individual competency 4,6 will be taken up one by one. I People & Organisational Competency The competency was further subdivided into the following factors & questions were framed on them

A A A A A A A

Managerial Control Long Term Planning Customer Orientation in terms of response time & focusing on client needs Task Leadership Delegation Staff Development Sharing Knowledge
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In deciding the weighing factors for sub competencies, these factors were carefully chosen depending upon the grade of the employee. For example sub competencies like delegation ability, staff development got higher weightage for senior management level & the weightage decreased for lower levels. The overall trends considering all above factors are presented below

100 90 80 70 60 50 40

E1-E3

E4-E5

E6

E7-E9

The response of the workforce was quite encouraging and they strongly feel that they have required competencies in these areas of their work. Survey Statement Task Leadership I feel that I am willing to take extra load in case my team member is unable to perform his proper role in a project Customer Orientation I keep track of problems faced by plant personnel in my area of work
E6 E1-E3 50 60 70 80 90 100

Workforces Response

E6 E1-E3 50 60 70 80 90 100

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II Motivational Competency Motivation among employees is a key word for any organisation on the path of growth. To ascertain the existing motivation level of employees questions related to following areas were asked

A A A A A

Energy Level Self Development Initiative Ambition to Grow Commitment

100 90 80 70 60 50 40

E1-E3

E4-E5

E6

E7-E9

It was heartening to note that in spite of dissatisfaction with present tools of rewards & recognition employees across all grades are somewhat motivated. Decision Making Competency of the workforce was analysed on two scales. This was done because any decision making process involves application of skill sets as well as managerial abilities. These two factors were further subdivided into

III Decision Making Competency

Skill Sets to Make Decision

A A A

Conceptualisation Problem Solving Numerical Analysis


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Managerial Attributes

A A

Judgment Decisiveness
Skill Sets 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 E1-E3 E4-E5 E6 E7-E9 Managerial

Survey results showed that while majority of respondent agreed that they have the skill sets to arrive at decision but they have some problem in executing those decisions. To investigate further on this trend we analysed responses to specific questions related to these areas. Survey Statement Decisiveness I feel that in case of conflict between/difference of opinion among the team members, I dont take the matter to the highest level Judgment in pressure situation I feel pressurized when judgment of decision rests on my shoulder
E7-E9 E6 E4-E5 E1-E3 50 60 70 80

Workforces Response

E7-E9 E6 E4-E5 E1-E3 50 60 70 80

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It was clear that people prefer to take the problem to the higher level instead of solving it at their own level. This has also reflected negatively in the responses such as judgment taking ability in pressure situations. IV Inter Personal Competency Any consultancy organisation can only thrive if it has conducive team environment with employees having high interpersonal skills. To map the interpersonal skills of the workforce questions were asked in the following areas

A A A A A A

Team Work Communication Skills Persuasiveness Impact & Influence Listening Sociability
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 E1-E3 E4-E5 E6 E7-E9

Survey results show a very rosy interpersonal environment among the employees of CET with respondents highly rating their competency in above mentioned factors. There are certain traits of individual which are inherent to his personality. Organisation needs to know about quantum of these traits in individual employee for their role identification & proper utilisation. Questions were asked from the respondents regarding following factors of personal competency

V Personal Competency

Adaptability
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In general workforce responded positively on the factors of integrity & lack of ego. However specific questions on adaptability, stress tolerance & compliance yielded some interesting results Survey Statement Stress Tolerance I feel that intense pressure situations doesnt affect my quality of job negatively
E7-E9 E6 E4-E5 E1-E3 50 60 70 80

A A A A

Integrity Lack of Ego Stress Tolerance Compliance

Workforces Response

Adaptability I feel that working in team with people of diverse thinking doesnt affect my performance negatively Compliance I feel it is always better to follow managerial hierarchy to pursue a job
E7-E9 E6 E4-E5 E1-E3 50 60 70 80

E7-E9 E6 E4-E5 E1-E3 50 60 70 80

It can be inferred from the above bar graph that middle management level has a relatively low stress tolerance & adaptability problem compare to other levels. This may be due to higher distribution of work load in these levels. Another trend which was observed that there was tendency to bypass hierarchy across middle & senior management levels.

3 Outcome of Survey Analysis


Based on the analysis we can identify our strengths & weakness in terms of organisional & individual competencies.
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organisational competencies
STRENGTH Adequet Planning & Organising Impetus Proper Job Orientation Alignment with the Organisational Goals WEAKNESS Inadequate knowledge Management Need for improvement in existing Training System Dissatisfaction with present reward & recognition tools WEAKNESS Lack of decisiveness in pressure situation Tendency to bypass hierarchy Low adaptability & stress tolerance in middle mgt. level STRENGTH Proper Team Work Personal Environment Satisfactory motivation level & of Inter self &

Effective task leadership customer orientation

individual competencies

It is a well known fact that individually people have the tendency to overrate their abilities. Therefore any such analysis will be incomplete without validating the results with the customers feedback. So a customer feedback survey was conducted the details of which is given in the next section. To get the feedback of CETs performance from customers a questionnaire was prepared and distributed among 60 employees from E1-E8 grade of BSP, RSP & ISP in whose area, CET is presently or in the past has been involved as a consultant. The survey statements/questions are attached at Annexure II. CETs performance was evaluated on following four parameters 1. Response time including time taken to take up assignment & time taken for reports preparation 2. Clarity & precision in specification writing 3. On site support
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4 Customers Feedback

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4. Preferred Consultant
100

90

80

70

60

50

40 Response Time Clarity & Precision in Specification On Site Support Preferred Consultant

In all the areas respondents somewhat to strongly felt that CET is able to provide its services. However, relative lower score was given in clarity & precision in specification writing pointing the need of further scope of improvement in this area. So, it is evident that customers feedback is more or less in line with individual & organisational competency mapping. Results of these analysis emphasize that though we are on the right track, we need to move further up the ladder by building our competency levels. Organisational & Individual Competency mapping for the executives of CET gave certain pointers to the areas where existing competencies level within the organisation is adequate or needs further improvement. However the question which naturally came to our mind was whether the trend shown by survey are unique to CET or they have some wider ramifications? To arrive at the just conclusion for the above question a random survey of 60 executives of BSP, RSP & ISP based on the questionnaire given at Annexure-III was conducted. The questionnaire given to plant was similar in nature to those given to employees of CET in our main survey. However, few questions were rewarded so that they become more relevant to the plant working environment. Response of the workforce to various factors were tabulated as per methods detailed in Ch 5 & are presented in graphical form at Annexure-IV.
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5 Supplementary Survey for Plants


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Result of the survey show more or less same trend as observed in the main survey. Plant executives also felt that their organisational competency is good with respect Organisational Strategy & Planning, Job Orientation & Alignment towards companys goal. But their responses with respect to Knowledge Management, Training Needs & Rewards & Recognition were not so positive thus indicating further need of improvement. On individual competency front also respondent rated their planning, motivational & interpersonal competency level higher than their decision making abilities. In view of the above it can be concluded that trends obtained in the main survey are almost identical with those of plant. However, measures required for improving competency levels will differ as per the working environment. In the present paper we have concentrated on the measures required for building competency levels of employees of CET as we are more familiar to the existing working culture & can make direct contribution in implementing the suggested measures for competency development.

ROADMAP FOR BUILDING COMPETENCIES


Taking the cue from the survey analysis & results we have identified four major areas where thrust should be given so that we can bridge the gap present between existing & desired level of competencies among the employees of CET.

1 Ushering the culture of Knowledge Sharing & Management


Organizations have recognized that knowledge constitutes a valuable intangible asset for creating and sustaining competitive advantages. The sharing of knowledge constitutes a major challenge in the field of Knowledge Sharing & Management because some employees tend to resist sharing their knowledge with the rest of the organization. A.) Encouraging culture of Knowledge Sharing Knowledge sharing within the consultancy organisation shall not only be from top to bottom levels but also from within the organisation to outside it. To make it happen following measures are suggested 1. Mandatory Knowledge sharing session for employees Each employee in the organisation shall give minimum two knowledge sharing session per year. This will send a message that sharing of knowledge is important in organisation culture.
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2. Rewarding best knowledge sharing session on monthly basis There are a number of obstacles that can hinder knowledge sharing. One obstacle is the notion that knowledge is property and ownership is very important. In order to counteract this notion, individuals must be reassured that they will receive credit for a knowledge product that they created. post project analysis in form of team presentation always helps to learn from our mistakes & building in our success.

3. Team presentation for new learning from completed projects

4. Customize forum for technical discussion among the steel sector consultants. Knowledge sharing should be also done on common technical forum between the various consultants engaged in consultancy in steel sector & in particular SAIL.

B.) Building Knowledge Management System Knowledge Management System (KM System) refers to a generally IT based system for managing knowledge in organisations, supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information. The idea of a KM system is to enable employees to have ready access to the organisation's based documentation of facts, sources of information, and solutions. In context of CET following KM systems are required to build knowledge level gap 1. Standardisation of technical specification for each equipment & system 2. Building a modern computerised archiving system for easy access to the scanned copy of documents, drawings collected from plant & various reports issued from CET . 3. Centralised cost data information system for preparation of accurate cost estimates in optimum time. 4. Integration of plant data management system with our sub centres All these measures will enhance the competencies of employees & in turn organisation by: 1. Sharing of valuable organizational information. 2. Avoiding re-inventing the wheel, reducing redundant work. 3. Reduce training time for new employees 4. Retention of intellectual property after the employee leaves if such knowledge can be codified.
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2 Improvement in Existing Training System CET has both managerial & technical training system in place. Though most of the employees are satisfied with the managerial training system, further improvement is desired in meeting with technical training needs of the employees. Following measures are suggested 1. Changing mindset about training

A A

Training shall not to be given as reward or means of relaxation. Training should not be decided based on loading of job. Many a times people are not sent on training designated for them just because they are more loaded at that point of time.

2. Preparation of section/grade wise Technical Training Calendar for the organisation. Similarly as per managerial training modules, technical training required for person working in particular work area shall be finalized as per employees grade. This will help in employee getting trained when he/she actually needs that training. There is considerable difficulty faced by human resource department in locating the training institutes that can provide customized solution to fulfill the training needs. In view of the above stress should be given in making more & more In House Training Modules by tapping expertise that exists in the organisation.

3. Development of In House Training Modules

4. There are many new technological areas where CET as a whole has lack of experience. However, we have to accept project in these areas as per plant needs from time to time. To meet this challenge we should provide proper exposure to the executives in these areas either by technological tie up or foreign plant visits where these technologies are well established. 5. For proper monitoring of these measures employee feedback on fulfillment of his training needs to be taken & should be made part of annual training report send by HRD section. 6. Above measures can be implemented only if training department is strengthened with people having technical background. 3 Restructuring Reward & Recognition Tools It's a proven fact that motivated work forces are critical to a company's bottom line. By recognising your people's dedication, commitment and results -- you boost their morale, increase productivity, enthusiasm and create powerful motivators.
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1. Development of an appraisal system fair to expectation of most of the employees. It is difficult to satisfy everyone as far as any appraisal system is concerned. But management should involve employees in any modification of appraisal system. It is also a fact that everybody cannot be given promotion. Good engineers are not necessarily great managers but they have a definite role to play in the organisation. The same should be impressed upon the employees in managerial workshops.

2. Role Identification: People not getting promotion should not feel left out.

3. Encouraging people with innovative thinking irrespective of success or failure 4. Introduction of rewards for remarkable work done from time to time.

A A A

Recognition of work done by employees in open forums such as coordination committee meetings etc. National/International Seminar/Conferences in the areas where employee has done outstanding job Introduction of some special performance rewards such as paid vacation for the team or employees family, food & gift vouchers may also be thought of.

4 Enhancing Competencies of Middle Management Level In the whole survey employees of middle management level who formed 60% of the survey population responded differently than the rest of the employees. They were relatively more stressed, less adaptable to pressure situations & felt some difficulty in decision making. Following measures are suggested to address these points 1. Regular planned intake for even distribution of number of employees across each grade. Due to uneven distribution of employee across different grades, majority of E4 & E5 grade employee have no subordinate staff. In fact even in E6 levels there are many employees who do not have any subordinates. Since middle management level is main workhorse of the organisation, the work load on them should be shared. This will not only enhance their competency levels but help organisation in terms of succession planning.
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Also people from senior management level should become more involved in the problems faced by subordinates of their group in such a way that a team atmosphere is created within a group.

2. Senior management should encourage people to take decision at their own level instead of asking for solution from them. This will help in improvement in decision making & judgmental activity at the middle management level. 3. Give more responsibility like an important project or challenging assignment to people who have proven leadership ability. Work done by these individuals should be recognised in other forums so that others try to emulate them. 4. Constant efforts should be made to make individual employee part of strategic decision making.

Conclusion
In a nutshell we see that to meet the challenges of growth faced by SAIL, CET has to modify, adopt & improve upon the existing system to build the competencies level further up the ladder. To meet the challenges of growth we have to build systems and values in such a way so that they survive time and people, and tie every existing and future member to a certain chosen way of working. Dinosaurs are extinct today because they couldnt adopt themselves to the changing environment. It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.

Charles Darwin

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References:
Books : 1. Suhasini J & Dr. Bhojanna U : Competency Mapping Training & Management, September 2007 issue. 2. Whiddett Steve & Hollyforde Sarah, A practical guide to competencies, Jaico Publishing House,2004 3. Shermon Ganesh, Competency base HRM , Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 2004 : 4. Kotwal Milind, Model & Method for Competency Mapping & Assessment, Sunrise Management Consultancy Services, www.sunrise.net.in/CompetencyAppraisal.pdf 5. Debenham MGS, : Organisational Culture & Role of Competencies 2004 http://72.14.235.132/search?q=cache:SEimk6NDPM0J:www.qmconf.com/ Docs/178.pdf+Organisational+Culture+%26+Role+of+Competencies&hl=en&ct=cl nk&cd=2 6. Standard Competency based interview questions Changeboard the HR Jobs & Career Development http://www.changeboard.com/hrcircles/content standardcompetencybasedinterviewquestions.aspx 7. Domestic Scenario of Indian Steel Industry http://padmavatipublications.com/ publications.htm Some of the books & websites have been used for shaping ideas only hence no direct reference to paper is mentioned.

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Annexure I
Designation: No. of years in SAIL :

Dear Sir, We are preparing a research paper for participating in the Chairmans Trophy for Young Managers for the year 2008-09. The topic of this year is Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth. We have prepared two sets of questionnaire, one for organisational culture and environment and another for assessing the competency level at which we are working. We request you to kindly spare your valuable time and tick mark the questionnaire to help us prepare the research paper. Thanking you, Manish Kumar, Manager (U&S) Ruma Bharti, Sr. Manager (Electrical) Anujeet Rituraj, Sr. Manager (U&S) Direction Please tick mark the appropriate box that matches with your opinion Box 1 : Strongly agree Box 3 : Somewhat disagree Organisational Culture and Environment 1. 2. 3. 4. I have knowledge of the project areas I will be involved in next six months? 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. I always feel that I have knowledge gap for the task in hand. I am aware of major technological changes required as envisaged in SAIL growth plan upto 2020. 1. 2. 3. 4. I feel that asking question & raising issues about work is encouraged in our organization. 1. 2. 3. 4.
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Box 2 : Somewhat agree Box 4 : Strongly disagree

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5. 6. 7. 8.

I feel employees are always recognized or rewarded for solving organisational problems. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. I regularly read technical journals, standards etc. for improving my knowledge base. I always spare time to attend knowledge sharing sessions organized by my company. I feel that my section has system of maintaining cost related data of each equipment at designated place? 2. 3. 4. I feel that proper encouragement is given for paper publication in our organization? 2. 3. 4.

1.

1. 9.

1.

10. I feel that technical information about system & individual equipment are methodical stored and made available to every one? 1. 2. 3. 4. 11. I feel that I devote most of my working time on jobs directly related to engineering activities (formulating technical specification, study client drawings and data, preparing reports etc?) 1. 2. 3. 4. 12. I feel that information exchange system with plants can be improved to give better support to clients? 1. 2. 3. 4. 13. I feel that top management keeps its employee informed about major strategic decision taken for the growth of the company? 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 14. I feel that training in our organization is properly emphasized? 15. I feel that enough management support is provided for attending seminar/ conferences in the area of my interest? 1. 2. 3. 4.
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16. I feel that organization fulfills training need of an individual as per requirement? 1. 2. 3. 4. 17. I feel that my section has a proper system of archiving data & drawings collected during site study? 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 18. I feel that current appraisal system identifies my talent ability? 19. I feel that employees are recognized or rewarded for experimentation with new ideas? 1. 2. 3. 4. 20. I feel that system exists where new knowledge gets shared to individual who need it? 1. 2. 3. 4. 21. I feel that employees are provided with training on how to get results working in a team environment? 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 22. I feel that teams strive to include everyones opinion irrespective of their grade? 23. I feel my performance goals are clearly aligned with the organizations strategic value? 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 24. I feel the employee way of working is aligned with the organizations vision? 25. I feel that employee should work in one particular area to get expertise?

Competency Level
I keep track of problems faced by plant personnel in my area of work. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4.
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1. 1.

I always keep records of past change efforts and what happened as a result.

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3.

I always gather information from clients, customers, suppliers about completed/ ongoing projects. 2. 3. 4.

1. 4.

I am able to handle more projects in same period of time due to acquired expertise over the years. 2. 3. 4.

1. 5.

I do the job for my satisfaction and growth. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4.

1. 6. 7. 1.

I feel proud that I am working in SAIL. I feel that employees are recognized or rewarded for helping each other learn in our organization. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
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1. 8. 9. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1.

I understand that my subordinates have different working styles and needs. I am open to negative feedback from employees.

10. I feel that my rate of learning new thing has decreased with time. 11. I feel that jobs which are repetitive in nature require less time for completion. 12. I still feel that best of me in professional field is yet to come. 13. I feel that my potential will be better utilized in doing varieties of jobs. 14. I find it easy to do job personally rather through group of individual. 15. I feel that individual is more important than team to achieve organizations goal.

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

16. I feel that I am more concerned about results of my team rather than about my individual success. 1. 1. 1. 1. 20. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 17. I always go by the rule of thumb when the method is complicated. 18. I feel I always look for ways to improve process. 19. I feel after completion of job I could have done better. I feel that intense pressure situations doesnt affect my quality of job negatively.

21. I feel experts are always right and we should follow them without any questions. 22. I give sufficient time for assimilating new information & technology for better handling of future projects. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 23. I have contributed to organisational data bank. 24. I feel at ease while using technology to communicate with my clients. 25. I feel that in case of conflict between/difference of opinion among the team members, it is always wise to take the matter to the highest level. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 26. I feel it is always better to follow managerial hierarchy to pursue a job. 27. I feel that working in team with people of diverse thinking doesnt affect my performance negatively? 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4.
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28. I feel that response time for preparation of reports has decreased over the years?

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29. I learn from mistakes committed during execution of previous projects? 1. 2. 3. 4. 30. I feel that I always take on the role of coaching, mentoring & facilitating employees for their learning effectiveness? 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 31. I support sharing knowledge information & skills among employees? 32. I like to ask my colleagues for information about work issues? 33. I always think of new ideas to provide better technical solutions for my projects? 34. I believe that long term planning is key to achieve organisational goals? 35. I feel that when conflict arises among team members I resolve it effectively? 36. I feel that as a team member I am open and honest with one another? 37. I feel that we should take projects in the areas where we do not have previous experience? 1. 2. 3. 4. 38. I feel that get together, office parties etc. help to improve inter personal relationship and bonding among employees? 1. 2. 3. 4. 39. I feel that I am willing to take extra load in case my team member is unable to perform his proper role in a project? 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4.
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40. I feel that I am able to put across my views among my colleagues with ease? 41. I feel pressurized when judgment of decision rests on my shoulder?

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

42. I feel delegation of work is essential for smooth and efficient working of the project? 1. 2. 3. 4. 43. I feel that it is always better to listen my team members before formulating an opinion about a problem? 1. 2. 3. 4. 44. I feel that formulating & following a written communication is an easy job for me? 1. 2. 3. 4. 45. I feel that my intervention at many instances helped in resolving issues related to project? 1. 2. 3. 4.

Annexure II
Designation: No. of years in SAIL :

Dear Sir, We are preparing a research paper for participating in the Chairmans Trophy for Young Managers for the year 2008-09. The topic of this year is Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth. We request you to kindly spare your valuable time and tick mark the questionnaire to help us prepare the research paper. Thanking you, Manish Kumar, Manager (U&S) Ruma Bharti, Sr. Manager (Electrical) Anujeet Rituraj, Sr. Manager (U&S) Direction Please tick mark the appropriate box that matches with your opinion Box 1 : Strongly agree Box 3 : Somewhat disagree
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Box 2 : Somewhat agree Box 4 : Strongly disagree

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Feedback about CET


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. I feel response time generally taken by CET for acceptance of project is adequate. 1. 2. 3. 4. I feel that time taken by CET to complete FR & TS is as per the requirement of plant. 1. 2. 3. 4. I feel that quality of reports, FR & TS prepared by CET are clear and precise in their approach. 1. 2. 3. 4. I feel that sufficient interaction takes place between CET and plant before preparation of FR and TS. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. I will prefer CET as a consultant in my future projects. I feel that sufficient support is provided by CET during execution of project. I feel that projects in which consultancy has been provided by CET are running smoothly. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. I feel that inhouse consultant should be done away with. I feel that sufficient support is provided by CET subcentre for project execution/ attending site problems. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4.

10. I feel that overall quality of service provide by CET is satisfactory.

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Annexure III
Designation: No. of years in SAIL :

Dear Sir, We are preparing a research paper for participating in the Chairmans Trophy for Young Managers for the year 2008-09. The topic of this year is Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth. We have prepared three sets of questionnaire for primary research one for organizational culture and environment, second for assessing the competency level at which we are working and third feedback about CET. We request you to kindly spare your valuable time and tick mark the questionnaire to help us prepare the research paper. Thanking you, Manish Kumar, Manager (Utility & Services, CET, Ranchi) Ruma Bharti, Sr. Manager (Electrical, CET, Ranchi) Anujeet Rituraj, Sr. Manager (U&S, CET, Ranchi) Direction Please tick mark the appropriate box that matches with your opinion Box 1 : Strongly agree Box 3 : Somewhat disagree Box 2 : Somewhat agree Box 4 : Strongly disagree

Organisational culture & environment


1. 2. 3. 4. I have knowledge of the work areas I will be involved in next six months. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. I always feel that I have knowledge gap for the task in hand. I am aware of major technological changes required as envisaged in SAIL growth plan upto 2020. 1. 2. 3. 4. I feel that asking question & raising issues about work is encouraged in our organization. 1. 2. 3. 4.
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5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

I feel employees are always recognized or rewarded for solving organizational problems. 1. 2. 3. 4. I regularly read technical manuals, drawings of existing system for improving my knowledge base. 1. 2. 3. 4. I always spare time to attend knowledge sharing sessions organized by my company. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. I feel that my section has proper procedure for purchasing new equipment. I feel that proper encouragement is given for giving new suggestion and its implementation at our workplace? 1. 2. 3. 4.

10. I feel that technical information about system & individual equipment are methodical stored and made available to every one? 1. 2. 3. 4. 11. I feel that I devote most of my working time on jobs directly related to managerial activities (problem analysis, people & resource management etc)? 1. 2. 3. 4. 12. I feel that information exchange system with in different plants can be improved to give better tech solutions to customers? 1. 2. 3. 4. 13. I feel that top management keeps its employee informed about major strategic decision taken for the growth of the company. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 14. I feel that training in our organization is properly emphasized. 15. I feel that enough management support is provided for attending seminar/ conferences in the area of my interest. 1. 2. 3. 4.
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16. I feel that organization fulfills training need of an individual as per requirement. 1. 2. 3. 4. 17. I feel that my section has a proper system of archiving data & drawings for existing shops. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 18. I feel that current appraisal system identifies my talent ability. 19. I feel that employees are recognized or rewarded for experimentation with new ideas. 1. 2. 3. 4. 20. I feel that system exists where new knowledge gets shared to individual who need it. 1. 2. 3. 4. 21. I feel that employees are provided with training on how to get results working in a team environment. 1. 2. 3. 4. 22. I feel that our management strive to include everyones opinion irrespective of their grade. 1. 2. 3. 4. 23. I feel my performance goals are clearly aligned with the organizations strategic value. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 24. I feel the employee way of working is aligned with the organizations vision. 25. I feel that employee should work in one particular area to get expertise instead of job rotation. 1. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Competency Level
I keep track of problems/complaints faced by internal /external. Customer regarding product output from my shop. 1. 2. 3. 4.
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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

I always keep records of past change efforts to improve working of plant & machinery and what happened as a result. 1. 2. 3. 4.

I always gather information from customers, suppliers consultants about new technology/equipment used in my area of work. 1. 2. 3. 4.

I am able to handle more jobs in same period of time due to acquired expertise over the years. 1. 2. 3. 4.

I do the job for my satisfaction and growth. 1. 2. 3. 4.

I feel proud that I am working in SAIL. 1. 2. 3. 4.

I feel that employees are recognized or rewarded for helping each other learn in our organization. 1. 2. 3. 4. 4.

I understand that my workers have different working styles and needs & they should be handled differently 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.
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I am open to negative feedback from employees.

10. I feel that my rate of learning new thing has decreased with time. 11. I feel that jobs which are repetitive in nature require less time for completion. 12. I still feel that best of me in professional field is yet to come. 13. I feel that my potential will be better utilized in different area of work.

"Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of Growth"

14. I find it easy to do job personally rather through group of individual. 20. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 15. I feel that individual is more important than team to achieve organizations goal. 16. I am able to take responsibility for my failure. 17. I always go by the rule of thumb when the method is complicated. 18. I feel it is easy to implement my decisions at work place. 19. I feel after completion of job I could have done better. I feel that intense pressure situations doesnt effect my quality of job negatively.

21. I feel my superiors are always right and we should follow them without any questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 22. I give sufficient time for assimilating new information & technology for better handling of future projects. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 23. I have contributed to reduction in cost cutting efforts in my organisation. 24. I feel use of technology as means of inter plant & customer communication should be encouraged. 1. 2. 3. 4. 25. I feel that in case of conflict between/difference of opinion among the team members, it is always wise to take the matter to the highest level. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4.
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26. I feel it is always better to follow managerial hierarchy to pursue a job.

Chairman's Trophy for Young Managers Year, 2008-09

27. I feel that working in team with people of diverse thinking doesnt affect my performance negatively. 1. 2. 3. 4. 28. I feel increasing the production rate has negative effected quality of products/ services of my shop. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 29. I learn from mistakes committed during execution of previous jobs. 30. I feel that I always take on the role of coaching, mentoring & facilitating employees for their learning effectiveness. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 31. I support sharing knowledge information & skills among workers. 32. I like to ask my colleagues for information about work issues. 33. I always think of new ideas to provide better technical solutions for my jobs. 34. I believe that long term planning is key to achieve organizational goals. 35. I feel that when conflict arises among team members I resolve it effectively. 36. I feel that as a team member I am open and honest with one another. 37. I feel that my growth in the company is satisfactory. 38. I feel that get together, office parties etc. help to improve inter personal relationship and bonding among employees. 1. 2. 3. 4. 39. I feel that I am willing to take extra load in case my colleague is unable to perform his proper role in a job. 1. 2. 3. 4.
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40. I feel that I am able to put across my views among my colleagues with ease. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 41. I feel pressurized when judgment of decision rests on my shoulder. 42. I feel delegation of work is essential for smooth and efficient working. 43. I feel that it is always better to listen my team members before formulating an opinion about a problem. 1. 2. 3. 4. 44. I feel that formulating & following a written communication is an easy job for me. 1. 2. 3. 4. 45. I feel that my intervention at many instances helped in resolving issues related to project. 1. 2. 3. 4.

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Annexure -IV

RESULTS OF SUPPLEMENTRY SURVEY


Organisational Competencies
I. Organisational & Strategic Planning
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 E1-E3 E4-E5 E6 E7-E8

II. Job Orientation


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 E1-E3 E4-45 E6 E7-E8

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III. Goal Alignment

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 E1-E3 E4-E5 E6 E7-E8

IV. Rewards & Recognition


100 90 80 70 60 50 40 E1-E3 E4-E5 E6 E7-E8

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V. Knowledge Management

VI. Training Needs

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Individual Competencies
I. People & Organisational Competency

II. Motivational Competency

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III. Decision Making Competency

IV. Inter Personal Competency

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V. Personal Competency

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finalist
Sandip Biswas, Sr. Manager, (Heavy Maint.) S Manoj Kumar, Jr. Manager, (SMS) Priya Ranjan, Sr. Manager (SMS)

IISCO Steel Plant INTRODUCTION


ith abundant iron ore resources and well established base for steel production in the country, steel is poised for growth in the coming decades. Steel will continue to be the most popular, versatile and dominant material for wide ranging applications. Current shortage of inputs has pushed-up the costs for the steel industry. Merger and acquisition poses another big threat in front of SAIL. The demand for growth is endless. Steel is yet to touch the lives of millions of people in India. Rural India today presents a challenge for development of the country and the opportunity to increase uses of steel in these areas. Declining profitability along with raw material crunch seems to be the biggest challenge in front of SAIL. With huge amount of money to be spent as per corporate plan 2010 (CP-10) to jack up the production, scheduled completion of project is another big area of concern. To meet all these challenges of growth, increasing competency level of employees is the only way out. Whilst SAILs employees are competent, but only 20% of employees competency is visible and next 80% is latent. We need to invert this scenario. For increasing the competency of employees several methods can be adopted; either in isolation or in combination. For e.g. training, reading journals, giving more responsibility, organizing experts lectures, interaction between all concerned agencies, a knowledge forum and dissemination of information are some of the methods for increasing competency level of employees.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1) Literature study on the topic. 2) Empirical study through questionnaire. 3) Interviewing employees and interaction. 4) Study of related topics on internet. 5) Analysis of survey results, case study and finally moulding all the information in one theory.
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THE CHALLENGES OF GROWTH FOR STEEL INDUSTRY


We still have a number of persons in our country in SAIL, TISCO and other big and small steel plants who have the capabilities. They have the will to excel and transform the country, given a long term vision.
We should be ready to compete in outside markets..If our steel industry gears up in about 3 to 4 years, Indian steel can be both in Indian and foreign markets. Our vision should be towards this. - Indian 2020: A vision for the new millennium by APJ Abdul Kalam and YS Rajan

With abundant iron ore resources and well-established base for steel production in the country, steel is poised for growth in the coming decades. Production has increased from 17 MT in 1990 to 36 MT in 2003 and 66 MT is targeted for 2011. While steel will continue to have a stronghold in traditional sectors such as construction, housing, ground transportation; special steels will be increasingly used in hi-tech engineering industries such as power generation, petrochemicals, fertilizers etc. Steel will continue to be the most popular, versatile and dominant material for wide ranging applications. While India may not become a leader in world steel market, it can become a powerful force. To help the Indian Steel Industry achieve its potential and play a meaningful role in Indias development some steps need to be taken.

A Steel is yet to touch the lives of millions of people in India. Per capita consumption A A

A A

of steel in India is only 29 kg and has to go a long way to reach consumption levels of around 400 kg in developed countries like USA and world average of 140 kg. There is a need to continue the current thrust on infrastructure related activities and extend them to rural India. Rural Indian today presents a challenge for development of the country and the opportunity to increase usage of steel in these areas through projects such as rural housing etc. Current shortage of inputs has pushed up the costs for the steel industry. With ministry of steel targeting an output of 100 MT of steel by 2020 there is an urgent need to develop raw material resources for inputs like iron-ore and coal within or outside the country. Countries like Japan have already taken similar steps to safeguard their industries. Adequate enabling infrastructure such as power, ports, roads, rail transport is prerequisite for the Indian steel Industry to remain competitive. The Indian Steel Industry is amongst the least protected in the world. While developed countries have put numerous tariff and non-tariff barriers on steel exports from the country, the domestic industry is exposed to cheaper importsfrom competing nations. As in case of other important industries, the government should give reasonable levels of protection to the domestic steel industry, which is just starting to get back on its feet.
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GROWTH CHALLENGES IN FRONT OF SAIL


There are numerous challenges ahead of SAIL. We are listing only those, which have potential to surge SAIL as frontline and world class organization, if handled properly. Merger & Acquisition: Merger & acquisition strategies for growth is very significant in present market scenario as SAIL can easily build up the capacity without having to wait for building a green field project. SAIL being government owned company, decision on this account can be time consuming and procedural bound. New Product Launches: Many new products need to be launched into the marketplace. Plant engineering must ensure that these products are fully tailor made to meet customer demands and marketing wing should address all aspects of a new product launch. Global Meltdown: With global economy crumbling, its effects are seen in India too. SAIL reduced the prices of steel across the board. Steel prices may fall further due to fall in demand. Many steel companies have started reducing their production in line with the market demand. Reducing prices and production is a sign of worry for steel industry. Research & Development: New ideas can be given by anybody in the organization and R & D must find the right technology to develop those ideas with regard to the cost, customers, market or competition. By adding the market perspective, R & D can greatly improve its probability of success. New growth opportunities: The demand for growth is endless. Marketing people can help identify the most promising growth opportunities available and communicate the same to the plant & R&D. Balance between being Technologically-Driven and Market-Driven: The Marketing people can help transform a technologically-driven company into one with a more balanced approach of technology and market orientation. Plant people must understand the problems of marketing people & a short term visit to stockyards / marketing depots by plant people & vice-versa can solve most of the problems. Ineffective Business Plan: In todays fast-moving and competitive business environment, market situation is very fluid and hence there should be a business plan that is dynamic and reviewed continuously. Adverse Employees Age Profile: Average age of employees in SAIL is above 45 years and in case of ISP it is above 52 years. As steel industry is labor intensive, a younger workforce would yield better result. Lost in the market : Being Lost in the Market is a problem SAIL is presently facing due to huge capacity expansion by other steel producers in a very short time, so that SAIL is dwarfed in comparison to competitors in terms of installed capacity. Declining Profitability: Only a handful of companies are able to maintain or increase their profit margins. SAIL must reduce the production cost further along with improved marketing techniques, both amalgamated with innovative ideas, to stimulate increased profitability. Innovation and creativity holds the key to success.
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Raw Material Crunch: It seems to be the biggest challenge in front of SAIL. SAIL has formed joint venture partnerships with certain organizations to develop coal mines and ore mines. SAIL has also formed consortium to develop coal mines overseas. An SPV International Coal Ventures Limited has been formed with equity participation from SAIL, RINL, CIL, NTPC & NMDC for acquisition of coal assets in overseas territories. Company is vigorously pursuing with the State Governments for the renewal of mining leases and forest & environmental clearances. Employees Competency Level- Competence level of employees is being studied and is presented in this paper itself. There are number of areas where competence level needs to be improved to adapt new technology. Scheduled Completion of Projects: According to corporate plan 2010 (CP10), SAIL is going to invest about 75,000 crores to jack up production from 13MT to 25MT of hot metal. If these projects are not completed in time, there will be huge cost overrun, exorbitant interest burden and adverse return on investment. Wallace (1991:211) argues that good management development depends upon identifying business change opportunities, matching managers to these opportunities, supporting managers while they tackle the opportunities; and helping them reflect on what they learned. Creating a network of managers keen to improve performance through business change facilitates management development in line with the business needs of the organization. Employees have different views on challenges ahead of SAIL. There have ranked the challenges as follows.

EMPIRICAL STUDY RESULTS

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Most of the employees have ranked Mergers & Acquisitions, timely completion of projects and Raw material crunch as the major challenges ahead of SAIL. The silver lining is that almost all employees felt that SAIL employees are competent enough and SAIL as an organization is capable enough to meet the challenges of growth. Employees perception about their organization can work wonders. It is highly positive sign for SAIL. For handling the present situation, we have to resort to our most valuable asset, i.e. our employees. Our employees can handle the situation, if their competency level is improved. But first, let us find out, what is competency?

LET US EXPLORE COMPETENCY:


The difference between what we are doing and we are capable of doing would solve most of the Worlds problem.
- Mahatma Gandhi

Skill was defined by Hans Renold in 1928 as any combination, useful to industry, of mental and physical qualities which require considerable training to acquire. Note that a defining property of a skill is that it develops over time, with practice. Skill encompasses both manual facilities, including dexterity, and conceptual ones, including relevant knowledge and understanding. Knowledge includes underpinning theory and concepts relevant to an area of activity, as well as tacit knowledge gained as a result of the experience of performing tasks. Knowledge may therefore be gained through formal or informal training, or, typically, through both routes. An established company which in an age demanding innovation is not capable of innovation is doomed to decline and extinction. And a management which in such a period does not know how to manage innovation is incompetent and unequal to its task. Managing innovation will increasingly become a challenge to the management, and especially top management, and a touch-stone of its competence.
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DEFINITIONS
Job competence: Job competence is an employee's capacity to meet (or exceed) a job's requirements by producing the job's output at an expected level of quality within the constraints of the organizations internal and external environments. Job competency: A job competency is an underlying characteristic of an employee (i.e., motive, trait, skill, aspects of ones self image, social role or a body of knowledge) which results in effective and/or superior performance in the job. (Adapted from Boyatzis, 1982, pp-20-21) Competency model: A competency model includes those competencies that are required for satisfactory or exemplary job performance within the context of the persons job roles, responsibilities and relationships in an organization and its internal and external environments. (Adapted from Boyatzis, 1982) Hirsh and Strebler (1994: 83) identified three recurring features in the notion of A competence is seen in the context of a particular job or job role and the organization in which that job exists. Competences are positively associated with superior performance. Competences can be described in terms of specific behaviours which can be observed in the job. Burgoyne (1988a) similarly distinguishes being competent (meeting the job demands) from having competencies (possessing the necessary attributes to perform competently). Spencer (1995: 144) offers a typical North American definition of competency as a relatively enduring characteristic of a person as casually related to effective or superior performance in a job. Boak (1991) argues that competency in the American sense complements competence as used in the U.K. occupational standards. Woodruffe (1991) offers the clearest statement, contrasting areas of competence, defined as aspect of job which an individual can perform, with competency, referring to a persons behaviour underpinning competent performance. In the great epic THE MAHABHARATA, Dronacharya was the entrusted with the job of imparting all necessary skills and knowledge to both Kaurvas and Pandavas. Eklavya was not a direct disciple of Drona, but Drona realized that Eklavya could be a big challenge to Arjuna in future as he was highly competent archer and hence he demanded his right thumb as guru-dakshina to meet the challenge to Arjuna. History is replete with such examples. Technological upgradation can make one superior to its rival, but it is attitude which makes the difference in case of two equal entities. In the modern times, competent people are turning around Industries and by their knowledge, skill and attitude changing the course of our lives. One competent man, K. R. Narayanmurthy writes the history of IT revolution in India. In another case, Ambanis

A A A

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build up a business empire, whilst Swami Vivekananda won applause of world audience by his sheer competency. Who can forget the most competent leader like Mahatma Gandhi? There are scores and scores of such examples. What is strikingly common in their qualities is their COMPETENCY. Then, what is competency? The most striking success story of POSCO is another great example which rose like a phoenix against the verdict of IMF despite lack of raw materials, financial and technical know-how etc. According to Shiv Khera, Intelligence is the quickness to learn. Skill is ability. Competence is the ability along with the willingness and desire to apply what is learned. Desire is the attitude that makes a skillful person competent. Many skillful people are incompetent. Ability without the right attitude is wasted.

Fig 1:

Basic ingredients of competency

Competencies are probably most closely related to abilities. However, the term ability normally means either able to do or a special talent; while competencies relate more to expertise and experience. Competencies can be thought of as the state or quality of being well qualified to perform a task. A person gains a competency through education, training, experience, or natural abilities. While there are many definitions of competency, most of them have two common elements: The competency is an observable and measurable knowledge and skills. The knowledge and skills must distinguish between superior performers (or exemplary performance) and other performers. The original use of competencies was conceived by David McClelland. He first used it as an alternative for the replacement of intelligence tests with criterion reference testing (McClelland, 1973).

A A

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Robert De Bono, the celebrated Management Guru has a different view on creativity and competencies. If we regard creativity as an inborn talent which some people have and others do not have, then we just look for creative people. Learning is generally thought of as both a cognitive process involving the assimilation of knowledge and an effective process leading to change in behaviour. The stages in learning identified by Fitts (1962) link the two processes; in the cognitive stage, the individual understands what is required and how to achieve it; the associative stage involves practice to attain correct behaviour; while in the autonomous stage, external sources of information are unnecessary and the individuals capacity to perform secondary task increases.

STAGES OF LEARNING:
1. Self Organized Learning: it is done only by self. 2. Action Learning: It aims at utilizing the knowledge and experience of fellow workers for problem solving. 3. Personal Mastery: It is learning from job context and beyond to acquire inno- vatory occupational skills.
Fig 2: What constitutes competency

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MODERN METHODS FOR IDENTIFYING COMPETENCIES


There are three major approaches used to identify competencies and are as follows.

1) Modified task analysis approach (MTAA):


As stated by Zemke, this approach is basically the task listing analysis technique most trainers know, but with some minor niceties added. Task analytic approaches to job or work analysis find their most useful and frequent applications in the concrete, less abstract jobs. The MTAA is the most appealing approach to use for technical and vocational training or education. In this approach one must be able to identify the critical personal traits, behaviours and other characteristics of employees that distinguish exemplary from average job performance. Unlike MTAA approaches, the CTA places its emphasis on the underlying personal traits and other characteristics required for successful job performance. CTA focuses attention on long-term endurance and value of human competencies rather than job tasks and activities in the present. CTA can be applied to concrete jobs (e.g., assembly-line work) as well as to abstract jobs (e.g., management). However, CTA is especially useful for professional, managerial, and executive roles-in general. This approach was reported by Zemke in 1982 and refined by Patricia Mc Lagan for identifying competencies and creating competency models. Of the three approaches, SA brings an element of unity and eclecticism to the competency modeling process. The exact methods and techniques used during a SA application largely depend upon how concrete or abstract the job is, whether the job already exists in the organization, and whether a set of related jobs are under analysis for their component competencies. One of the distinguishing features of SA is its flexibility.

2) Critical Trait Approach (CTA) :


3) Situational Approach (SA):


MODERN COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT MODELS


Organizations have successfully used five methods (or variations of them) for building job competency models as follows.

1) Job Competence Assessment Method:


The JCAM relies on the use of a rigorous, empirical research procedure called job competence assessment, which helps determine what competencies differentiate exemplary from average job performance. Exemplary and average performers are interviewed about the dimensions of their job performance. Once the competencies
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have been determined, they-in conjunction with other job elements-are used to construct the job competency model.

2) Modified Job Competence Assessment Method:


MJCAM uses the job competence assessment research procedure, with the modification of having the exemplary and average performers, who would normally be interviewed face to face, write or otherwise record their critical behaviour stories for use by the researcher.

3) Generic Model Overlay Method:


When an organization uses GMOM to acquire a competency model, it selects or obtains a prepared competency model and then overlays or superimposes it on a job within the organization.

4) Customized Generic Model Method:


CGMM relies on the researchers tentative identification of a universe of candidate generic competencies that fully characterize the attributes of the exemplary and average performers of a job in the organization. The universal list of competencies is then researched and interpreted within the job and the larger organization context. As a result, the specific competencies that characterize the successful employee are verified or denied by the research. Other attributes for the desired competency model are also researched. The job competencies and these other attributes are then used to develop the competency model.

5) Flexible Job Competency Model Method:


FJCMM relies on having a vide variety of comprehensive information sources for inclusion in the research base. A feature of this method is the identification and use of future assumptions about the organization and the job. Depending upon the organizations preferences, internal and external sources of information can be used. The use of this method results in the availability of job roles, job outputs, quality standards for the outputs, and behavioural indicators for each job competency.

Usefulness of Competency Development Models:


Competency models helps organizations take a unified and coordinated approach to designing the human resource management system, including job design, hiring performance improvement, employee development, career planning, succession planning, performance appraisals, and the selection and compensation systems for a job. Therefore, any investment an organization makes in competency model development work has benefits beyond the usefulness of the results for HRD purposes.
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TYPES OF COMPETENCIES:
Although competencies can be divided into several types, there are following types of competencies, in general.

(1) Core functional competencies:


It primarily deals with the core /domain or own area where you are working. Normally people acquire all the necessary skills of the area where they work over the period of time. Moreover it becomes easier for anybody to pick up the secrets of his/her area of work.

(2) Cross functional competencies:


Every individual while being very good in his/her core function should develop an appreciative volume of knowledge and skill of other cross-functions that would aid him/her to perform better. For instance, for a software engineer, apart from expertise in his domain area, a good knowledge of other facets of technology, business processes, quality assurance, finance, HR and marketing, would enable him to have a broader vision of his assignment and be able to meet customer demands better.

(3) Managerial competencies:


The job of a manager is to turn one persons particular talent into performance. Identifying and capitalizing on each persons uniqueness saves time. A good manager must be able to manage all the resources under him and must deliver same result everyday or he/she should try to improve upon his/her performance.

(4) Administrative competencies:


A good manager can be a bad administrator and that may truly spoil ones chances of being successful. You must be able to take a decision of your own and you should stand by that in any adverse circumstances. Most of us are obsessed with our weaknesses to the extent that we tend to neglect our strengths Managers who build up their strengths can reach their highest potential. A good administrator always plays on his strengths.

(5) Interpersonal competencies:


It may also be called Personal Competence. People knowledge is more important than product knowledge. Successful people build pleasing and magnetic personalities, which is what makes them charismatic. This helps in getting friendly cooperation from others. Benjamin Franklin said, When you are good to others, you are best to
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yourself. Treat people with respect on your way up because you will be meeting them on your way down. Any employee with good personal competence can build trust, but he must have reliability, consistency, respect, fairness, openness, congruence, integrity, character and courage.

(6) Communication competencies:


Words can hurt feelings and destroy relationship. Choose what you say rather than say what you choose. Excessive talking does not mean communication. Talk less; say more. Spoken words can not be retrieved. Do not criticize and complain all the time. Take criticism in right earnest as truth may not always be what you want to hear and be a patient listener. Give honest and sincere appreciation.

(7) Business competencies:


You must acquire, organizes and maintains information related to business and economic environment in which it functions. Then interpret and communicate information for the benefit of the business. You must know business practice, understanding and practice of visioning, planning, implementing change and managing business activities. Then monitor and correct performance based on ongoing evaluation and improves systems by suggesting modifications to current systems and developing alternative systems.

(8) Social competencies:


Empathy, the ability to understand others points of view, works well with people from diverse backgrounds. Work to satisfy members expectations & resolves divergent interests along with mediation and Consensus building, toward the effort of achieving a common voice when necessary. communicates ideas to justify position. Persuades and convinces others, both from the perspective of being a good follower and an effective leader. Participates as a member of the team in what ever role is appropriate & contribute to the groups effort.

(9) Ethical competencies:


It has more to do with the character and integrity of the employee and employer, both in a business sense and in terms how ones actions affect others. An ethical employee will be honest to the organization and vise versa. With honesty, comes sincerity. An honest & sincere employee is an asset for any organization. When employees follow ethical behaviour, they can stand upright at the time of crisis.
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EMPLOYEES COMPETENCY IN SAIL


In SAIL, we have a vast pool of qualified and experienced people. They are intelligent too. We only need to remind them about their true abilities.

As Benjamin Franklin has rightly pointed out that Being ignorant is not so much a shame as being unwilling to learn to do things the right way. Similarly in SAIL, we have to formalize a strategy of making every employee competent enough to handle any situation. Most of the people have competencies, but they are in hibernation or latent as represented by following picture.

Fig 2: State of employees competencies in SAIL

Some of employees competency is clearly visible & mostly is latent. We need to invert the picture.

We came to this conclusions after exhaustive survey of around 260 employees both executives and non-executives. Moreover we had interaction with quite a number of employees and we interviewed a good number of senior executives also. For survey we made questionnaire (ref. annexure-I) and distributed to employees for their valuable comments and their perception about challenges of growth and competency level.
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COMPETENCY SURVEY RESULTS Core Functional Competence-

There is further scope for improvement. Our immediate aim is to cross 4 mark.

Cross Functional Competence-

Most of the employees are incompetent in this area and this area needs to be developed.
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Managerial Competence-

Employees tend to be better managers under any circumstances. Very good indicator for SAIL. Personal Competence-

Once again most of the employees have good inter personal competence.
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Administrative Competence-

It is just above average. Making people more disciplined might solve it.

Communication Competence-

Employees do communicate, but this skill needs to be polished more.


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Social Competence-

It is above average. Business Competence-

It is poor. We need to be more business minded.


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Ethical Competence-

- SAIL employees more or less follow ethical behaviour. It is satisfactory.

PRESENT STATUS OF COMPETENCE MODEL IN SAIL :


At present, competencies of all employees are mapped basically to assess their training needs as represented by the following diagram:

MEETING CHALLENGES OF GROWTH BY BUILDING UP COMPETENCIES


Almost all the employees feel that there competencies should be built up. There are several methods for developing competencies to meet the challenges of growth. Training: By giving proper training, efficiency & competency can be increased. For this, training needs have to be mapped first and only then befitting training can be organized.
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Reading journals: By referring to latest and relevant journals, knowledge level of employees will develop and also ones idea & perception regarding changing business scenario. Giving More Responsibility: Some people are not given any responsibilities as people have apprehension about their competencies. In fact giving more responsibility to those so called incompetent people will increase their competency level. Experts lecture: An experts view can always change our perception towards any situation and it will improve the competency level. Expert can be drawn even from the department itself. Such a lecture or interactive session can be organized on a regular interval. Interaction: Exchange of views and ideas among people give the best results. Employees from all concerned sections can be asked to gather at a predetermined area and a fruitful discussion can be held apart from the regular meting agendas. Dissemination of information: Any information that is useful in organizational context must be passed down to the last man in the hierarchical chain. It can be passed in form of personal call, SMS, Xerox copies or in the form of bulletins. Then even the last man in hierarchal chain can contribute something positive. Knowledge forum: Any available pool of resources / information must be tapped by one and all. All relevant pieces of information must be kept at specified location. There can be a shop floor library or regular information sharing meetings etc. Based upon the various methods of developing competencies, we asked a cross-section of employees to rank all the competency developers and the results are shown below.

EMPIRICAL STUDY SHOWS


But employees fail miserably when it comes on their own effort. Most employees dont intend to use library or access Internet, at least for improving themselves Although they felt that their competency level has improved over the years, but mostly in core areas.
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RECOMMENDATIONs Corporate development plan

A A personal development plan for every executive. A A minimum of five days off the job development per year for every executive. A A reimbursement of tuition fees for education (if anybody joins any courses; of his/her A
own; which may be useful to the company). i.e. sponsor self dedicated learning. Identify one person every week in job area and make him/her free from routine jobs and he /she will be on training/learning for that week.

Record of detailed craft knowledge

A All major breakdowns, suggestions, novel method of performing a task etc has to be A Use

recorded in a log in the department. analogy to find solutions (for this everybody needs exposure to different departments/ organizations) and then transfer technology from one field to another.

Knowledge Dissemination

A Regular (e.g. fortnightly) meeting of all concerned agencies in the room of HOD to
understand each others problems.

A Internet connection at work place. A Setting up of shop floor library. A Official board for pasting everydays relevant information for everybody to see. A Either an outsider expert (e.g. RDCIS personnel or from Premier Institute or other A A A

private sector company) or even somebody from the department itself can make a presentation on regular basis about departments technical/nagging issues or about some newer technologies / innovations. Handling projects Skill gap arising out of newer technologies and new project must be overcome by suitably training the identified persons for that project. Even a days delay to be highlighted in monetary term on the notice board.

Boosting bottom-line

A Design steel tailor made to Indian needs (e.g. agricultural implements for farmers in A A A A

rural India), even with association of other companies. Performance related pay. Exploring newer markets and also market for new customized products. Celebrating suggestion month for inviting suggestion on cost cutting only and giving commensurate reward to all accepted suggestions. Reducing man power further with right balance of multi skill, technological up gradation and outsourcing.
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Succession Planning

A Next man in line to be identified and detailed succession planning to be done. A Identified officers to be retrained. For that, outside training which is useful for A
the company for setting new units, to be given with certain preconditions (e.g. bond). After completion of training they must be given assignment related to their training. Incompetent /not so promising employees to be offered early retirement without VRS benefits on the condition that their qualified son/daughter will be employed by the company in their place.

SUMMARY
Wallace perfectly argued that good management development depends upon identifying business change opportunities, matching managers to these opportunities, supporting managers while they tackle the opportunities; and helping them reflect on what they learned. It is equally true that there are various challenges in front of SAIL. Such as merger and acquisition, raw material crunch, declining profitability and scheduled completion of projects. For deftly handing the situation, employees competence level has to be built up, by any established methods; such as training, assigning more responsibility, interaction and dissemination of information etc. SAIL need to have a better corporate development plan for building up employees competency along with detailed succession planning at all levels. Skill gap arising out of newer technology must be overcome by identifying and training suitably. We should have a regular meeting of all concerned agencies to understand each others problems. Internet connection at workplace or setting up of shop floor library will also help in building up competency. Maintaining record of detailed craft knowledge and organizing experts lecture will definitely build up competency.

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POHANG IRON AND STEEL COMPANY ( POSCO)


Against all odds (Taken from the Emerging Market Century) The march 1969 report from the world bank was unambiguous. The construction of an integrated steel plant in Korea (was) a premature preposition lacking economic feasibility. If any reader of the report was inclined to question its conclusions, its author spelled out the rationale behind his thumbs down verdict. 1. Korea lacked iron ore, an essential component in steel making. While the primary source of a steady supply of iron ore were distant and costly to reach. 2. Korea lacked coal, the raw material for coke, a key component in steel making. 3. Korea lacked the skills and complex engineering know-how required for integrated steel making. 4. Korea lacked the ready capital required for integrated steelmaking. 5. Korea lacked a large domestic market for steel, while the most efficient steel producers in the world were located practically next door in Japan. In any country other than South Korea circa 1969, under the repressive and autocratic regime of military strongman Chung-Hee Park. Such an unalloyed negative verdict from the all powerful world bank would have scuttled the project without the further ado. But the Korean government was determined to succeed in even its wildest ambition. Despite every rational argument against it, fierce determination and national pride took precedence over plain common sense. Even as the world bank was issuing its downbeat assessment, road crews were clearing a site in the former fishing village of Pohang to make way for the nations first modern steel plant. The Japanese not only identified a promising commercial opportunity in South Korea, but found a tangible way of making amends for thirty-six years of hardship under Japanese rule, as the Japanese government contributely conceded. After the American refusal, the Japanese, led by Nippon Steel, saw an opportunity and became Poscos major technical partner, training ground, and day-to-day adviser. President Chung-Hee Park was obliged to personally intervene when his stiff-necked bureaucracy kept raising objections to the costly equipment purchase being agreed to in Japan. He signaled his imperial displeasure by signing a hastily drawn up note, famously called Memorandum with the Presidents Handwritten Signature to clear all future logjams with a presidential stroke of pen. In April 1970, ground was broken for Poscos first plant, boasting an annual capacity of 8.5 million tons. By July 1973, the concern was open for business. Today, the company is among the worlds most efficient, largest and technically advanced steel producer. In 2005, Posco was honoured by the editors of fortune as a globally most admired company, called the most competitive (steel company) in the world by leading steel industry analysts, and named one of the masters of the web by Business Week.
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References : 1) The concise Adair on creativity and innovation - by John Adair Viva Book, First Indian edition 2006, Reprinted 2008 2) Developing Managerial Competence by Jonathan Winterton & Ruth Winterton. Routledge Publishers, London 1999. S.A.I.L. MTI, June 2006. MacMillan India Ltd.-2002, Reprinted 2003. MacMillan India Ltd.-2003, Reprinted 2003 Jaico publishing house 1997. 3) A Compendium of Readings on Management 4) You Can Win by Shiv Khera 5) Living with Honour by Shiv Khera 6) Creativity How to Catch Lightening In a Bottle by George Gamez, Ph.D. 7) Competency based performance improvement A strategy for organizational change by David D. Dubois, Ph.D. HRD Press Inc., U.S.A.- first edition-1993. Simon & Schuster UK Ltd, A CBS company, UK 2007.

8) The Emerging Market Century by Antoine Van Agtmael.

SOURCES 1) http://www.arcelormittal.com/ 2) http://www.indiansteelalliance.com/ 3) http://www.financialexpress.com/ 4) http://www.sail.co.in 5) http://www.frost.com/prod/servlet/

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Annexure -1

CHAIRMANS TROPHY FOR YOUNG MANAGERS 2008


Dear Sir / Madam, We have undertaken an empirical study route to find out the ways to Building Competencies for Meeting the Challenges of growth for SAIL, which is the topic for this years CHAIRMANS TROPHY FOR YOUNG MANAGERS. Your valuable comment is most welcome. This instrument is purely for academic purpose and your identity will be kept confidential. The team : PRIYA RANJAN Sr. Manager S.M.S. SANDIP BISWAS Sr. Manager H.M.S. S. MANOJ KUMAR Jr. Manager S.M.S.

QUESTIONNAIRE
SCALE GUIDE - (a/1 for minimum, e/5 for maximum) COMPETENCIES CORE/DOMAIN FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES Sl. QUESTION No. 1. How do you rate your job knowledge? OPTIONS mark) a) d) 2. At what efficiency level you are working ? a) d) 3. Can you consider yourself to be an expert a) in your area ? 4. d) b) e) b) e) b) e) b) e) c) c) c) (Please put tick c)

Do you have necessary skills to resolve your a) work problem ?


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

CROSS FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES Do you know how is company managing its a) b) d) e) finances? Do you know the companys HR policies? a) d) b) e) b) e) b) e) b) e)

c) c) c) c) c)

Do you know companys vision & future a) d) plans? Do you have knowledge about companys a) d) marketing? Are you able to meet your internal a) d) customers requirement? MANAGERIAL ABILITIES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Can you work with people with diverse a) interests? d) Do you know the strength & weakness of a) all of your employees? d) Can you form a team with diverse a) backgrounds? d) Can you repeat your performances day in a) day out? d) Do you take responsibility for failure? Do you give credit to others for success? a) d) a) d)

b) e) b) e) b) e) b) e) b) e) b) e)

c) c) c) c) c) c)

1. 2. 3. 4.

INTERPERSONAL ABILITIES ( PERSONAL COMPETENCE) : Do you know all of your strength? a) b) c) d) e) Do you know all of your weakness? Are you setting any personal goals? a) d) b) e) b) e) b) e) c) c) c)

a) d) Are you monitoring your progress towards a) these goals? d)


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5. 6.

Are you fully confident about your job?

a) d) Are you accountable & transparent to your a) team members? d) ADMINISTRATIVE ABILITIES

b) e) b) e)

c) c)

1. 2. 3. 45.

Are you able to reach to a decision of your a) own ? d) Can you implement your decisions ? a) d) Can you enforce discipline of the deptt. all a) the time ? d) Can you mobilize all your resources a) effectively ? d) Can you evaluate performance & change a) the plan accordingly ? d) COMMUNICATION ABILITIES

b) e) b) e) b) e) b) e) b) e)

c) c) c) c) c)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Are you able to make others understand a) your point of view ? d) Do you understand others point of view? a) d)

b) e) b) e) b) e) b) e)

c) c) c) c)

Do you make others agree to your point a) without hurting them ? d) Are you interacting with all concerned a) agencies on continuous basis ? d) SOCIAL COMPETENCE Do you work to satisfy your members a) expectation? d) Do you extend cooperation for reaching a) consensus? d) Can you persuade and convince others? a) d)

1. 2. 3. 4.

b) e) b) e) b) e) b) e)

c) c) c) c)

Do you communicate ideas to justify a) position? d)


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5. 6.

Do you take responsibility for failure ?

a) d) Do you exchange your role between a good a) follower and an effective leader ? d) BUSINESS COMPETENCE

b) e) b) e)

c) c)

1.

Do you acquire, organize and maintain a) information related to business and eco- d) nomic environment in which it functions? Do you interpret and communicate a) information for the benefit of the business? d) Do you understand and practice of a) visioning, planning, implementing change d) and managing business activities? Do you monitor and correct performance a) based on ongoing evaluation? d) Do you improve systems by suggesting a) modifications? d) ETHICAL COMPETENCE

b) e) b) e) b) e) b) e) b) e)

c)

2. 3.

c) c)

4. 5.

c) c)

1.

Do you understand what your responsibilities a) are, and make sure that you contribute d) positively? Do you undertake your personal work a) during office hours? d) Do you make personal calls from companys a) telephone? d) Do you divulge companys secrets in other a) forums? d) Do you submit false information for smaller a) pecuniary gains? d)

b) e) b) e) b) e) b) e) b) e)

c)

2. 3. 4. 5.

c) c) c) c)

BUILDING COMPETENCIES 1. Why do you think that competencies should be build up? E.g. (a) Self development (b) Better skill set (c) so as to resume more responsibility (d) Organizational development (e) Others
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2. How can competencies be build up? E.g. (a) More classrooms training (b) More on the job training (c) Providing relevant books and journals d) Giving more responsibility. (e) Others

3. How frequently do you go to library? (On a scale of 1 to 5) 4. How frequently do you access internet? (On a scale of 1 to 5) 5. Do you have internet connection at your home? Yes or No 6. How do you rate your present competency level vis--vis your joining level on scale of 1 to 5? 7. Are you satisfied with your rate of increase of competency (on a scale of 1 to 5)? 8. Has your competency increased in any particular area or in all areas (on a scale of 1 to 5)? 9. Please rate these competency developers according to priority? (i) More training (ii) Providing books and journals (iii) Giving more responsibility (iv) Experts lecture (v) Interaction between all concerned agencies (vi) Knowledge forum (vii) Dissemination of knowledge and information (viii) Internet connection at workplace (ix) Others My ranking is a) j) b) k) c) l) d) e) f) g) h) i)

CHALLENGES OF GROWTH:From this list, rank the challenges ahead for SAIL in terms of priority. 1. Mergers & Acquisitions 3. New Growth Opportunities 5. Ineffective Business Plans 2. New Product Launches 4. R&D Idea Evaluation 6. Lost in the Market

7. Declining Profitability 8. Balancing between Technology-Driven and Market-Driven 9. Raw Material Crunch 11. Employees Competence Level 10. Adverse employees age profile 12. Others.
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My ranking is - a) j)

b) k)

c) l)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

(1) Is SAIL capable enough to meet these challenges? (2) Which is most critical challenge for SAIL?

Yes or No

(3) Are SAIL employees competent enough to meet these challenges? Yes or No Name (optional): Designation: Department:

Annexure-II
Number of employees surveyed Number of executives surveyed : : 260 120 140 Matriculation to Post graduate

Number of non-executives surveyed : Average qualification level Methodology of calculation: :

For each responses a was assigned a value of 1, b was assigned a value of 2, c was assigned a value of 3, d was assigned a value of 4 and e was assigned a value of 5. Then individual responses were multiplied by respective values and sum total of all responses were divided by total number of employees answering the question.
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For example
For a particular question 100 employees answered the question in the following manner, 18 opted a, 22 opted b, 28 opted c, 32 opted d and 10 opted e. Then the average value will be (18x1 + 22x2 + 28x3 + 32x4 + 10x5) / 100 = 3.24. In all the graphical representation, scales (on the Y-axis) were shown between 1 and 5. Average value was considered as 3. In certain questions graphical representation, responses were in percentage basis. For eg, graph in employees view on competency developers.

Annexure -III
Characteristics to look for when recruiting Superior general intelligence with an ability to store and recall information. A high degree of autonomy, self sufficiency and self direction. Relatively little gregariousness; creative thinkers tend to be ambivert. An independence of judgment and a resilience to group pressure towards conformity in thinking. A sense of honesty and the ability to express that honesty. A broad range of interests to stimulate the mind. A special motivation to solve problems and to take up the opportunities to do this. A sense of curiosity and good powers of observation. Dedication and commitment to projects. An awareness of the purposeful unconscious mind. An ability to hold many ideas together in creative tension, without reaching a premature resolution.

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Annexure -IV
Effective teams Belbin (1981) identified nine ideal types of team members in terms of there psychosocial characteristics and the roles they adopt within a team. 1) The coordinator- The coordinator establishes the goals of the group. 2) The shaper A shaper clarifies and moves forward these objectives. 3) The plant They contribute ideas and provide new recommendations to overcome problems. 4) Evaluator or monitor The evaluator challenges and tests the teams decision. 5) The implementer Implementer puts the ideas and proposals into practice. 6) The team worker They maintain the internal cohesion of the group, ensuring that everyone works together. 7) The resource investigator They explore opportunities on behalf of the team. 8) The completer A completer ensures all aspects of the projects are completed. 9) The specialist A specialist provides knowledge and skill in specialist areas. Any successful team must have all these nine members. Any member can interchange their roles and most importantly any member can play more than one role.

Annexure -V

Case study
A particular non-executive employee in Steel Melting Shop Operations area was working as second helper. His job was to assist his first helper in taking sample, temperature and helping him in house keeping and fettling. He was non-matriculate, but was very sincere and had a very positive attitude. Seeing his sincerity and positive attitude, he was given inputs on various aspects of steel making on continuous basis. Additionally, he was given opportunities to (voluntarily) work as (non-designated) Assistant Furnace Operator; although under strict supervision. He made some mistakes initially, but gradually he picked up the job. Furthermore, he was encouraged to pursue his studies further as a part- timer and necessary helps were extended to him (e.g. tutoring, filling up forms, providing information about exams etc.). Finally he did his matriculation and when the post of Assistant Furnace Operator fell vacant, he was prompted to apply. He was selected as Assistant Furnace Operator in due course of time. Right now, he is working as Assistant Furnace Operator very efficiently and has become a very competent furnace operator.
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Annexure -VI
If you are competent enough, then check against these parameters:

A Open to new ideas A Supportive to new ways of working A Suggests new ways of working A Approachable and supportive to colleagues A Develops innovative, workable solutions to problems A Recognizes contribution and achievement A Adapts style to suit the needs of the audience A Writes and speaks clearly and simply Identifies the most appropriate method of
communication and considers different formats

A Listens, questions and clarifies to ensure full understanding A Requests work which extends their experience A Gives constructive feedback A Shares learning and expertise A Makes time to consult with others based on their knowledge and expertise A Supports others by having a flexible approach to work demands A Anticipates workloads and plans ahead A Anticipates and avoids problems A Takes effective decisions even when under pressure A Overcomes setbacks to complete tasks A Builds effective relationships A Considers the impact of their actions on others A Looks at situations from the others point of view A Sensitive to the needs and feelings of others A Aware of barriers people face and recognizes the need for positive action to overcome
these barriers behaviour

A Maintains

impartiality/fairness with all people, challenging unacceptable

A Tactful in discussion; sensitive in use of language A Shares information A Takes steps to understand different cultures, beliefs and behaviours A Uses feedback to introduce new ways of working
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A Listens to customers needs and responds A Seeks both formal and informal feedback A Polite, patient and helpful when dealing with customers A Seeks advice from others when appropriate A Gathers all necessary and relevant information A Shares knowledge and good practice with others A Challenges existing procedures through the appropriate
alternatives

channels and suggests

A Aims to develop simple processes A Ensures quality standards are maintained A Revises decisions in the light of subsequent information A Maintains high personal standards A Communicates consistent positive and realistic messages about the council A Co-ordinates and directs the action of others A Confronts difficult issues in order to resolve conflict A Is pro-active in responding to the needs of others A Takes decisions within time constraints A Creates an environment of trust A Regularly reviews methods of working A Takes responsibility for solving problems and making decisions A Seeks to achieve and exceed targets and standards A Identifies customers and seeks to exceed their expectations A Checks accuracy/validity of information A Anticipates future needs A Plans and organizes workload to meet deadlines A Analyses the consequences of different courses of action A Contributes to the PDR process A Seeks to improve knowledge and skills A Regularly reviews own performance A Assesses own potential to develop A Learns from others A Uses a variety of learning methods A Understands the big picture
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L to R (Sitting on Chair)

: Ms Ruma Bharti, Shri Manas R Panda, Shri S N Singh, Shri G Ojha, Prof. J Akhter, Shri S P Patnaik, Dr Hari Haran, Shri S Jena, Ms Chaitali Das

Standing 1st Row

: Shri N Bhaskar, Shri B K Giri, Shri M Kumar, Shri D Prakash, Shri R Jena, Shri P Ranjan, Shri S Sengupta, Shri S Biswas, Shri D Chowdhuri, Shri J Sarkar

Standing 2nd Row

: Shri A Rituraj, Shri A Bhagwat, Shri A Shrivastava, Shri S K Sonny, Shri M Chandrasekhar, Shri S Manoj Kumar, Shri H Singh, Shri D Satpathy

AUTHORS
Durgapur Steel Plant
M. Chandrashekhar S. Sengupta Deepak Prakash

bhilai steel plant


N. Bhaskar Abhishek Shrivastava Aniruddha Bhagwat Debadutta Satpathy Ms Chaitali Das Jayanta Sarkar B K Giri S K Sony R K Jena

Rourkela Steel Plant

Raw materials Division

Bokaro Steel Plant


Harishanker Singh Debabrata Chowdhury A Rituraj Ms Ruma Bharti Manish Kumar Sandip Biswas S Manoj Kumar Priya Ranjan

Centre for Engineering & Technology

iisco steel plant

250/01/09 Kailash Paper Teel.:0651 2532251