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Hudson River Estuary

Habitat Restoration Plan


July 2013

Hudson River Estuary Program New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Joe Martens, Commissioner

DRAFT for Public Comment

Governor Andrew M. Cuomo TheNYSDECHudsonRiverEstuaryProgram,theHudsonRiverNational EstuarineResearchReserveandtheNEIWPCC

Commissioner Joe Martens

TheHudsonRiverEstuaryProgramprotectsandimprovesthenaturalandscenicHudson Riverwatershedforall.Theprogramwascreatedin1987andextendsfromtheTroydam totheupperNewYorkharbor.Itscoremissionistoensurecleanwater;protectand restorefishandwildlifeandtheirhabitats;provideriveraccessandwaterrecreation; adapttoclimatechange;andconservethewatershedsworldfamousscenery.The programisguidedbyanactionagendaaforwardlookingplan,developedthrough significantcommunityparticipation.TheHudsonRiverEstuaryProgramachievesreal progressthroughextensiveoutreach,coordinationwithstateandfederalagenciesand publicprivatepartnerships.Thiscollaborativeapproachincludes:grantsandrestoration projects;education,research,andtraining;naturalresourceconservationandprotection; andcommunityplanningassistance.FormoreinformationabouttheHudsonRiverEstuary Program,visit:www.dec.ny.gov/lands/4920.html TheHudsonRiverNationalEstuarineResearchReserve(HRNERR)isastatefederal partnershipprogramthatrelatestofourfederallydesignatedandstateprotectedsites along100milesoftheHudsonRiverestuary:PiermontMarsh,IonaIsland,TivoliBaysand StockportFlats.TheHRNERRsmissionistoimprovethehealthandvitalityoftheHudson Riverestuarybyprotectingestuarinehabitatsthroughintegratededucation,training, stewardshipandrestorationandmonitoringandresearchprograms.Thisprogramis operatedasapartnershipbetweenNewYorkStateandtheNationalOceanicand AtmosphericAdministration(NOAA). TheNewEnglandInterstateWaterPollutionControlCommission(NEIWPCC)isanotfor profitorganization,establishedbyCongressin1947toserveandassistitsmemberstates individuallyandcollectivelybyprovidingcoordination,research,publiceducation,training andleadershipinthemanagementandprotectionofwaterqualityintheNewEngland statesandNewYorkState.NEIWPCCstrivestocoordinateactivitiesandforumsthat encouragecooperationamongthestates,educatethepublicaboutkeywaterqualityissues, supportresearchprojects,trainenvironmentalprofessionals,andprovideoverall leadershipinthemanagementandprotectionofwaterquality.Throughapartnershipwith NYSDEC,NEIWPCCsupportstheHudsonRiverEstuaryProgrambyprovidingtechnical assistanceandprogramsupport.

LeadAuthor
DanielMiller,HudsonRiverEstuaryHabitatRestorationCoordinator NEIWPCC,NYSDECHudsonRiverEstuaryProgram,P.O.Box315,Staatsburg,NewYork 12561

Acknowledgements

Theauthorwishestothankthemanypeoplewhoparticipatedinthetechnicalreviewof thisreport,including:LisaBaron,NancyBeard,BetsyBlair,JohnCatena,MariBethDelucia, FranDunwell,SarahFernald,StuartFindlay,MikeFlaherty,RobertFoley,KathyHattala, CaseyHoltzworth,ErikKiviat,JohnLadd,EricLind,JimLodge,SusanMaresca,Frank Nitsche,ChuckNieder,AndrewPeck,GeorgeSchuler,SachaSpector,ZackSteele,David Strayer,DavidVanLuven,GaryWall,PeterWepplerandDavidYozzo.Theauthoralso thanksthefollowingpeoplefortheirsupportandcontributionstothereport,including: CarlAlderson,LisaBaron,MattCollins,ScottCuppett,LarryGumaer,ClayHiles,Karin Limburg,AlanLorefice,KristinMarcell,RobertSchmidt,DennisSuszkowski,Steve Rosenberg,LisaRosman,StephanieWojtowiczandJeffZappieri.Editorialassistancewas providedbyBetsyBlair,SheilaBuff,FranDunwellandJudithKahn. Pleasecitethisreportas: Miller,DanielE.,2013.HudsonRiverEstuaryHabitatRestorationPlan.NewYorkState DepartmentofEnvironmentalConservation,HudsonRiverEstuary Program.http://www.dec.ny.gov/lands/5082.html Thisreportisavailableonlineat:http://www.dec.ny.gov/lands/5082.html

DRAFT

TableofContents
EXECUTIVESUMMARY I.OVERVIEWOFTHEHABITATRESTORATIONPLAN Background PurposeofthePlan GeographicScopeofthePlan PlanDevelopmentandReview II.WHYRESTORE? RestorationWillIncreasetheEstuarysVitalityandProductivity RestorationWillHelpCompensateforHistoricLossesofHabitat RestorationWillHelpRestoreFisheries RestorationWillEnhanceEcosystemResiliency III.OVERVIEWOFHUDSONRIVERESTUARYHABITATS IntroductiontoHudsonRiverHabitats PriorityHabitatsforRestoration RegionalRestorationPriorities IV.RESTORATIONVISIONANDACTIONS EnvisioningaMoreResilientandHealthyHudsonRiverEstuary DefinitionofRestoration RestorationActions V.IMPLEMENTINGRESTORATIONPROJECTS RestorationPrinciples TheRestorationProcessandAdaptiveManagement VI.COORDINATINGRESTORATIONPARTNERSHIPS,FUNDINGAND DECISIONMAKING CollaborativeDecisionandPolicyMaking CoordinatingRestorationFunding InformationandProjectCoordination VII.RESTORATIONSCIENCENEEDSINTHEHUDSONRIVERESTUARY CurrentStateofKnowledge RestorationScienceNeeds VIII.CONCLUSION LISTOFREFERENCES iii 1

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DRAFT APPENDICES AppendixA. SelectedResourcesforPlanningandEvaluatingRestorationProjectsinthe HudsonRiverEstuary LISTOFFIGURES Figure1. LandingsofHudsonRiverAmericanshad(Alosasapidissima)have declinedfrom1940to2009 9 Figure2. Shoreline,intertidal,shallowwaterandtributaryhabitatsofthe HudsonRiverestuary 13 Figure3. Chartshowingthehistoricandcurrentamountsofintertidal, shallowanddeepwaterhabitatsintheupperHudsonRiver estuary(rivermiles110152) 17 Figure4. Relativeproportionofnaturalandengineeredshorelineonthe HudsonRiverbetweentheTappanZeeBridgeandTroy,NY 18 Figure5. RegionalhumaninfluencesonHudsonRiverhabitatsandproposed restorationactions 23 Figure6. TheRestorationProcess 37 TABLES Table1. HudsonRiverestuaryrestorationactionsandbenefitstopriorityhabitats 25 Note: Allfigures,tablesandphotographsarebyDanMiller,unless otherwisenoted.

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DRAFT

EXECUTIVESUMMARY
TheHudsonRiverplaysavitalroleinthelivesofthepeopleofNewYorkStateandthe nationasanenvironmentalresourceprovidingdrinkingwaterandrecreational opportunitiesandservingasimportanthabitatforawidevarietyofresidentandmigratory fishandwildlife,includingimportantcoastalmigratoryfishspeciessuchasstripedbass, Americanshad,AtlanticsturgeonandAtlantictomcod.Theriverisaneconomicengine providingatransportationcorridorfortheregionsagriculturalandindustrialgoodsand supportingrecreationalandtourismindustries.TheHudsonisalsoanintegralpartofNew Yorksidentity.Itsrichhistory,scenicbeautyandproductivityhaveinspiredgenerationsof artists,naturalists,philosophers,touristsandresidents.

ThePlan
Aswithmanyofournation'sestuaries,theHudsonisanirreplaceablenaturalresourcethat willrequireasubstantialamountofeffort,fundinganddedicationtorestore.Tobe successful,restorationoftheHudsonRiverwillrequiremanystateandfederalregulatory agencies,localmunicipalities,nongovernmentalorganizationsandcommercialintereststo worktogethertoplanandimplementrestorationactivities.Thisplanidentifiespriority habitatsvitaltothehealthandresiliencyoftheestuaryandactionsforrestoringthem.The planisabasisforcoordinatingfunding,planning,researchandimplementationof resourcestowardasingle,focusedgoal:TheenduringhealthandwellbeingoftheHudson Riverestuary,itsinhabitantsandthepeopleoftheHudsonRiverValleyandNewYork State.

WhyRestore?

SectionIIofthisplanidentifiesseveralreasonsforrestoringhabitatsintheHudsonRiver estuary.Restorationwillcompensateforhistoricanddramaticlossofimportanthabitatsin theriverduetoengineeredshorelines,fillingofwetlands,constructionofthenavigation channel,introductionofinvasivespeciesanddammingoftributariesleadingtotheriver. Restorationactionsproposedbythisplanwillhelptherecoveryoffishandwildlife populations,includingeconomicallyimportantcoastalmigratoryfisheriessuchas Americanshad,shortnosesturgeonandAmericaneel.Proposedactionswillalsoimprove waterquality,preservebiodiversityandstrengthenourcoastalcommunities. RestorationispossibletodaybecauseofimprovedconditionsintheHudsonasaresultof theCleanWaterAct(1972)andotherenvironmentaleffortsbyNewYorkState,thefederal andlocalgovernmentsandahostofnongovernmentalorganizations.Restorationis neededtorecovertheHudsonshealthandproductivityandtobuildresiliencyinthe ecosystem.Habitatprotectionandrestorationwillpreservethemanycriticalfunctionsthat habitatsintheestuaryprovidefor,includingfishspawning,nurseriesandforaging,and improvedwaterquality.Furthermore,restorationwillbuildresiliencyintotheHudsons surroundingcommunitiessotheycanadaptandthriveinafutureofpotentiallyextreme weathereventsandsealevelriseassociatedwithglobalclimatechange. Pageiii

DRAFT

GeographicScope
ThegeographicscopeofthisplanisalltidalwatersoftheHudsonRiverestuary,fromthe federaldamatTroysouthtotheTappanZeeBridgeinHaverstrawBay,includingthe associatedshorelinehabitatsinwaterfrontcommunitiesalongtheHudsonfromAlbanyto SleepyHollow.TheplanismeanttocomplementtheHudson/RaritanEstuary ComprehensiveRestorationPlan(HRECRP)whichhasbeendevelopedforthesouthern portionoftheestuaryfromtheTappanZeetolowerNewYorkbay.

RestorationActions
SectionIVofthisplandescribesactionsthatwillbeundertakentorestorefourpriority habitattypes:intertidalhabitats,shallowwaterhabitats,shorelinesandtributarystream habitats.Eachofthesefourhabitatsplaysanimportantroleinmaintainingecosystem health,andallhavebeendegradedordestroyedonalargescalebyhumanactions.Most important,manyfeasibleopportunitiesexisttorestoreorrevitalizethesehabitats. TheplanidentifiesfiverestorationactionsintendedtorestorethefourpriorityHudson Riverhabitats: Preserveexistingestuaryhabitat,includingprotectionofadjacentshorelands Restoresidechannels,includingtidalwetlands,vegetatedshallowwaters,back watersandintertidalhabitats Promoteandimplementfishpassage,damremovalandculvertrightsizingin tributariestotheHudson Promoteandimplementuseofecologicallyenhancedshorelinetreatmentswhere shorelinestabilizationisrequiredtoprotectpropertyorothereconomicassets Implementprogramstocontrolinvasiveplantspecies,includingpreventingnew introductions RestorationScienceandAdaptiveManagement Manyyearsofresearchaccomplishedbyscientistsandresourcemanagershavecreateda wealthofinformationthatcanbeusedtoeffectivelydesignandimplementtherestoration actionsidentifiedinthisplan.However,restoration,likeallsciences,isalwaysevolving. Thisplanidentifiesbroadresearchneedsthatwillcontinuetodevelopourunderstanding ofHudsonRiverhabitatsandhowtorestorethem.Individualprojectsimplementedunder thisplanwillbemonitoredandevaluatedtodeterminesuccess.Informationfrom independentresearchandmonitoringofactiverestorationsiteswillbeusedtoadaptively managerestorationprojectsfromasitebysitebasistoanecosystemscale.

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DRAFT

I.OVERVIEWOFTHEHABITATRESTORATIONPLAN

BACKGROUND

ThetidalHudsonRiverishometoahostoffish,fromhogchokerstoeels,riverherringand stripersandtheriversresidentgiant,Atlanticsturgeon.TheHudsonswatersand wetlandsfeedmagnificentraptors,includingbaldeaglesandosprey,andgracefulwaders, suchasthegreatblueheronandsnowyegret.Riverhabitatssupportanimalsonthemove: noisycloudsofblackbirdsthatsettleinHudsonRivermarshesinthefall,andglasseels tinyseethroughswimmersthatarriveinspringfromtheSargassoSea.Acomplexweb sustainsalllifeintheHudsonRiverestuary.The Hudsonsecosystemislinkedtoitsvastwatershed throughtributarystreams,adjoininguplandsatthe shorelineandtheAtlanticOceanthroughcurrents andtidesthatreachfarinland,allthewaytoTroy. Thecenterpieceofthisecosystemistheestuarys mosaicofdiversehabitats. DespiterecentimprovementstotheHudsonRiver anditsgenerallygoodcondition,thereisaprofound needforhabitatrestoration.Theriverisvastly differentfromwhatitwaslikewhenEuropeansfirst settledthevalley.Theestuaryshabitatsand ecologicalprocessesweredisruptedbyhuman activities,especiallybetween1800and1972. Shorelinesandwetlandshavebeenaltered,relocated TheAmericanbaldeaglehasbeen reintroducedtotheHudsonRiver andeliminatedalongthe152milelengthofthe andisoftenseenperching,feeding estuary.Riverflowhasbeendirectedtoasingle channelbetweenCatskillandTroy,andoverathirdof andraisingyoungalongitsbanks. (Photo:NYSDEC) thesurfaceareaoftheriverinthissamereachwas filledwithsedimentsdredgedfromthefederalnavigationchannel.Hundredsofdamshave beenbuiltintributariesleadingtotheHudson,manypreventingmigratoryfishmovement anddegradingwaterquality.Waterandsedimentshavebeencontaminatedwithtoxins, andinvasiveplantandanimalspecieshavetakenupresidenceintheestuary.Asaresultof theseandotherfactors,manypopulationsofnativefishandwildlifehavedeclined,and severalhavebeenlistedasthreatenedorendangered. Fortunately,therehavebeenmanypositivedevelopmentsinthelast40yearsafterpassage oftheCleanWaterActbegantoreversethistrend.ThousandsofacresofHudsonRiver habitatshavebeenprotectedandenhanced.Dramaticimprovementsinwaterqualityin theestuaryhavebenefitedahostofaquaticandterrestrialspecies.Bothtidaland freshwaterwetlandsprotectionlawsandregulationshavesubstantiallyreduceddirect lossesofHudsonRiverhabitats.Severalimportanthabitatcomplexeshavebeenacquired byNewYorkState,municipalitiesandconservationorganizationsandaremanagedfor publicaccessandhabitatprotection.Somehighlycontaminatedsiteshavebeencleanedup. Page1

DRAFT However,thereismuchmoreto bedonetorestoretherivertoits fullpotential. Recognizingthis,NYSDEC,the NewYorkStateDepartmentof StateandtheUnitedStatesArmy CorpsofEngineersbeganto map,researchanddevelop restorationfeasibilitystudiesfor keyhabitatsoftheHudsoninthe StudentslearningaboutandenjoyingtheHudsonRiver mid1990s.In2005,theHudson aboardthesloopClearwaternearBeacon,NY.(Photo:Dave RiverEstuaryProgramadopted Conover,Clearwater) asoneofitsprimarygoalsto: Conserve,protectandenhanceriverandshorelinehabitatstoassurethatlifecyclesofkey speciesaresupportedforhumanenjoymentandtosustainahealthyecosystem.This restorationplanistheculminationoftwodecadesofresearch,monitoringand managementplanning. PURPOSEOFTHEPLAN TheHabitatRestorationPlanprovidesa roadmaptoachievetheestuarys managementgoalbyrestoringtidal wetlands,naturalshorelinesandshallows, andbytakingactionstofacilitatefish passageuptheHudsonstributaries. Restorationofhealthyhabitatswillprovide benefitsforfish,birds,turtles,crabs, mammalsandinvertebrateanimalsandto theresidentsoftheHudsonRiverValley andtheStateofNewYork. Thisplanisintendedforusebycommunity groups,governmentagencies,scientists, conservationorganizationsandother restorationpractitionersthroughoutthe regionto:1)plan,prioritize,carryoutand evaluatehabitatrestorationprojects;2) HudsonRiverEstuaryEducatorChrisBowser advancethestateofourknowledgeabout measuresanAmericaneelonFurnaceBrookin PutnamCounty. thehabitatneedsofpriorityspecies;3) developunderstandingofhowtobest carryoutmeaningfulrestorationprojects;4)guidehabitatprotectioneffortsthatwill supportadaptationtosealevelriseandpromoteecosystemresilience;and5)coordinate anddocumenthabitatrestorationandrestorationscienceprojects. Page2

DRAFT

GEOGRAPHICSCOPEOFTHEPLAN

ThegeographicscopeoftheHabitatRestorationPlan includesthetidalwatersoftheHudsonRiverestuary andtheportionsofitstributariesthatwerehistorically accessibletomigratoryfish,fromthefederaldamat Troy(rivermile152)southtotheTappanZeeBridge (rivermile26).ThisplancomplementstheHudson RaritanEstuaryComprehensiveRestorationPlan(HRE CRP),whichidentifiesrestorationprioritiesforthe lowerHudsonRiversouthoftheTappanZeeBridgeand fortheNewYorkNewJerseyharborarea. 1 Together, theHudsonRiverEstuaryHabitatRestorationPlanand thecompanionHudsonRaritanEstuaryComprehensive RestorationPlanareintegratedthroughasimilar approach,sharedparticipantsand,mostofall,asingle waterbody:theHudsonRiverestuary. EarlyRestorationPlanning Estuarywidehabitatrestorationplanningbeganinthe mid1990swithauthorizationofthefederalstate HudsonRiverHabitatRestorationProject,apartnership oftheNewYorkStateDepartmentofEnvironmental Conservation(NYSDEC),theNewYorkState DepartmentofStateandtheU.S.ArmyCorpsof Engineers(USACOE).Aninitialreconnaissancephase establishedahistoricalbasisshowingUSACOEimpact tohabitatsandsetthestageforUSACOEinvolvementin restorationplanning,requiredforcontinuedfederal funding. 2 Aninterdisciplinaryteamofscientistsandhabitat biologistswasformedtoidentifyexistingresourcesand relevantinformationaboutHudsonRiverhabitatsand toguidethesiteselectionprocess.Theteamquickly identifiedwidespreadgapsinourknowledgeofhabitatlocations,statusandtrends, ecologicalfunctionsandrestorationneeds.Theteamrecognizedthatsubstantiallymore informationwasneededtodevelopappropriategoals,actions,ecologicaltargetsand

PLANDEVELOPMENTANDREVIEW

1http://www.nan.usace.army.mil/harbor/index.php?crp 2U.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers.1995.

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DRAFT suitableindicatorsofrestorationsuccess.Soonafter,thepartneragenciesbeganstudiesof thefeasibilityofrestoringhabitats. Althoughthefeasibilityworkwasnotformallycompleted,itledtoaseriesofestuarywide habitatstudies,someofwhichcontinuetoday.Theywereunderwrittenand/or coordinatedbytheHudsonRiverEstuaryProgram,theHudsonRiverNationalEstuarine ResearchReserve,theHudsonRiverFoundation,theNationalOceanicandAtmospheric Administrationandothers.Thesestudiesincluded:habitatinventories(tidalwetlandsand submergedaquaticvegetation),studiesofhabitatchangeovertime,ariverbottomdigital mappingprogram,shorelinemappingandecologicalassessments,andstudiesofthe ecologyandecologicalfunctionsofbothsubmergedaquaticvegetationandHudsonRiver freshwatertidalmarshes.Thestudiesprovideanimportantfoundationforrestoration planning,implementationandevaluationofsuccess.Detailsaboutthesestudiesare providedinAppendixA:Selectedresourcesforplanningandevaluatingrestoration projectsintheHudsonRiverestuary.Severalleadingacademicandresearchinstitutionsin theregionparticipatedinproducingthiswork. TheCurrentDraftPlan TheHudsonRiverEstuaryHabitatRestorationPlanwasdevelopedwithinputfromstate andfederalregulatoryagencies,scientists,naturalresourcemanagersandnon governmentalorganizations.Manytechnicalresourcesproducedbythesegroupswere usedtodevelopanunderstandingofcurrentconditionsandhowtheyhavechangedover timeduetohumanaction.Theauthorpresentedthisinformationtoseveralagenciesand organizationstopromoteasharedunderstandingofhistoricalandcurrentconditionsin theHudsonRiverestuary,andtogatherinformation,ideasandsuggestionsfromthese groups,whichwerefactoredintotheplan. SettingPriorities Priorityhabitatsforrestorationwereidentifiedusingthefollowingthreecriteria: Habitatsimportanttotheoverallhealthoftheecosystem Habitatsthathavebeendegradedordestroyedonalargescalebyhumanaction Habitatsforwhichfeasibleopportunitiesforrestorationexist Thesecriteriaresultedinafocusonfourpriorityhabitatsforrestoration:intertidal habitats,shallowwater,shorelinesandtributaryhabitats.Torestorethesehabitats,five restorationactionswereidentified: Preserveexistingestuaryhabitat,includingprotectionofadjacentshorelands Restoresidechannels,includingtidalwetlands,vegetatedshallowwaters,back watersandintertidalhabitats Promoteandimplementfishpassage,damremovalandculvertrightsizingin tributariestotheHudson Promoteandimplementuseofecologicallyenhancedshorelinetreatmentswhere shorelinestabilizationisrequiredtoprotectpropertyorothereconomicassets Page4

DRAFT

ReviewProcess Draftsofthisplanwerereviewedbyscientistsandstateandfederalnaturalresource managers,includingmembersofNYSDECsHudsonRiverEstuaryManagementAdvisory Committee.Severalmeetingstointroducetheplananddiscussproposedactionswereheld withnongovernmentalorganizations,includingconservationandenvironmentaladvocacy groups,soilandwaterconservationdistrictsandsportsmansclubs,aswellaspublic presentationsincommunitiesalongtheHudson.Thedraftplanisnowbeingreleasedfor publicreviewfollowingStateEnvironmentalQualityReviewActrequirements.

Implementprogramstocontrolinvasiveplantspecies,includingpreventingnew introductions

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DRAFT

II.WHYRESTORE?
Ahealthy,vibrantandresilient HudsonRiverecosystemhasalways beenandwillalwaysbeanessential partofthewellbeingofthepeople andcommunitiesoftheHudsonRiver Valley.Today,theHudsonRiverhasa vitalroleinthelivesofthepeopleof NewYorkStateandthenationasan environmentalresourceproviding drinkingwaterandrecreational opportunitiesandservingashabitat forawidevarietyofresidentand migratoryfishandwildlife.These includeimportantcoastalmigratory fishspeciessuchas:stripedbass, Americanshad,Atlanticsturgeonand AcommercialshadfishermanisshownontheHudson Atlantictomcod.TheHudsonalsohas Riverbeforethefisherywasclosed.(Photo:NYSDEC) beenandcontinuestobean importanteconomicengineproviding atransportationcorridorfortheregionsagriculturalandindustrialgoods,providinga tourismdestinationandattractingbusinessestotheregion.Finally,theHudsonisan integralpartofthevalleysidentity.Itsrichhistoryandscenicbeautyhaveinspired generationsofartists,naturalists,philosophers,touristsandresidents.Theactions proposedinthisplanwillrestorehabitatsthatarekeytoproductivityandthehealthand resiliencyoftheHudsonnowandintothefuture.Doingsowillenabletherivertocontinue itscentralroleinthebiological,economicandculturalhealthoftheHudsonRiverValley andallitsresidents. Formanyyears,theHudsonRiversecosystemwasonapathofdecline.Centuriesof expandingpopulations,industryandtransportationprojectshavetakentheirtollonthe estuary.Habitatshavebeendegradedordestroyed,invasiveandexoticspecieshavebeen introduced,fisherieshavebeendecimatedandwaterqualityhadbeenreduced.Increased awarenessoftheimportantroletheHudsonRiverplaysintheecologyandeconomyofthe region,alongwiththeworkofnumerousadvocacygroupsandpolicychanges(CleanWater Actof1972),hasslowedthedownwardtrendandresultedinimprovedwaterqualityand protectionofmanyspeciesandhabitats.Actionstakentoconserveforest,streamand wetlandecosystemsinthewatershedoftheHudsonhavealsoprovidedimportantbenefits totheriver.Interestinandstudyoftheriverhavealsogreatlyincreasedour understandingoftheriverspastandpresentconditions.This,alongwithimprovedwater qualityconditions,hascreatedauniqueopportunitytotakethenextstepsinrecoveryof theHudsonRiverecosystem:therestorationofhabitatsvitaltosupportingthebiological andeconomichealthoftheHudsonanditssurroundingcommunity. Page6

DRAFT RestorationWillIncreasetheEstuarysVitalityandProductivity Estuariestidalareaswherethefreshwaterofarivermeetsthesaltwateroftheseaare amongEarthsmostimportantandproductiveecosystems.Theysupportabundantwildlife, andtheyfunctionasreproductive,refugeandforagehabitatformanyresidentand migratoryspeciesoffish,birds,reptiles,amphibians,invertebratesandmammals. Estuariesarehometoanunequalleddiversityofplantandanimalspecies,manyofwhich donotorcannotexistelsewhere. 3 Nationally,75percentofcommerciallyharvestedfish andshellfishdependonestuariesandnearbycoastalwatersforsomepartoftheirlife cycle. 4 Estuariesalsoprovidehumanbenefits,suchastheproductionoffood,erosion control,floodwaterstorageandwaterpurificationbywetlands.Theyalsoprovidesitesfor industry,transportationroutes,recreationandinspiration. Habitatrestorationisneededtopreservethebiologicalintegrityandproductivityofthe HudsonRiverestuary.SuccessfulhabitatrestorationintheHudsonwillincreasethehealth anddiversityoftheriver,preservethenaturalscenicbeautyoftheriverandvalley, increaserecreationalopportunities,andincreaseecosystemresilienceoftheriverand surroundingcommunitiesduringaperiodofclimatechangeandsealevelrise.Commercial andsportfishingindustrieswithinthevalleyandalongtheAtlanticcoastwillbenefitfrom amoreproductive,restoredestuary. RestorationWillHelp CompensateforHistoric LossesofHabitat TheHudsonRiverestuaryhas beentransformedbyhuman actions,significantlyaltering andreducinghabitatsneeded tosupportaproductive, diverseandresilient ecosystem.HudsonRiver habitatshavebeenlostdueto twolargescaletransportation developments:constructionof thefederalnavigationchannel andrailroadsonbothshores Dikeswereconstructedtonarrowanddefinethenavigation dumpingwasteintoshoreline channel.Shallowwaterhabitatsbehindthedikeswerethenfilled withdredgematerialtakenfromthechannel.(Photo:United wetlands,aswellasthousands StatesArmyCorpsofEngineers) ofsmallerhabitatlossesthat tookplaceoverhundredsofyears.

3RestoreAmericasEstuaries,2002. 4RestoreAmericasEstuaries,2002.

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DRAFT Fromtheearly1800sthroughthemid1900s,theU.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineersdeepened theriverforcommercialnavigation.Maintenanceofthechannelcontinuestoday.Early attemptstoimprovetheHudsonsnavigationchannelincludedconstructionofdikes alongthelengthoftheupperthirdoftheestuary(CatskilltoAlbany)inanattemptto constrictthemainchannel,therebyincreasingflow.Laterprojectsincludeddredgingthe mainchannel,thendepositingthedredgedmaterialinshallowsbehindthedikesto eliminatesidechannels,connectislands,andfurtherconcentratetheflowofwatertoinside themainchannel.Theseactionsresultedinthelossofnearly4,000acresofshallowwater habitat,includingthenearcompleteeliminationofsidechannelsintheupperthirdofthe estuary. 5 Lossofshallowswasnotisolated totheupperestuary.Towns, villagesandindustriesalongthe lengthoftheHudsonreliedonthe waterwayfortransportation. Manyshallowsalongthebanksof theHudsonwerefilled,then developedordredgedtocreate deepwateraccessforships, bargesandferries.Inadditionto dredgingandfilling,wetlandsand shallowcovesalongtheedgesof theestuarywerefilledand/or isolatedwhenrailroadcauseways wereconstructedalongthebanks oftheriverinthe1850s.Many communitiesupanddownthe riverdepositedwasteand industrialchemicalsinshoreline wetlands,eliminatingkeyhabitat andintroducingpollutantsinto theriver.Overall,abouthalfofthe rivershorelinefromTappanZee toTroyhasbeenalteredby humanaction. Agriculture,timberand ThisimageoftheHudsonRivernearCastleton,NewYork manufacturingindustriestook showsthehistoricshoreline(redlines),historicislands advantageofthemanytributaries (orange)anddikes(bluelines).Areasoflandinsidethehistoric leadingtotheHudson.Manydams shorelinethatarenothistoricislandsareareasthatwerefilled wereconstructedtoprovide whenthenavigationchannelwasdredged.(Image:NYSDEC) hydropowertosawmills,grist
5Miller,etal.,2006A,CollinsandMiller,2011.

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DRAFT millsandfactoriesortocreatereservoirsforirrigationordrinkingwatersupply.Despite declinesindemandfortheseuses,manydamsbuiltoverthepastcenturyremaininplace. Thesestructuresfragmenttributaryhabitats,degradewaterquality,blockfishmigrations andinterruptnaturalsedimenttransporttotheestuary.

RestorationWillHelpRestoreFisheries Certainfish,birdandwildlifepopulationssupportedbytheHudsonRiverestuaryhave declinedtocriticallylowlevelsoverthepast70years,inpartduetohabitatloss.Historic accountsoftheHudsonRiverfromearlyEuropeansdescribebountifulfishpopulations thatwereeasilyharvestedwithoutmodernfishingmethods.SinceEuropeansettlement, severalfactorshavecontributedtothedeclineinthenumberofnativefishandfishspecies, includingoverfishing,degradedwaterquality,introductionofinvasivespecies,lossof habitatandclimatechange. 6 Withinthepast70years,populationsofmanyestuarineand coastalmigratoryfishthatspawnintheHudson,includingAmericanshad(Alosa sapidissima)havedeclineddramatically(Figure1).
4,000,000 3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 Pounds 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 19 70 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

Figure1.LandingsofHudsonRiverAmericanshad(Alosasapidissima)havedeclinedfrom1940to2009. Note:Fisherywasclosedin2010.(Source:NYSDEC,HudsonRiverFisheriesUnit)

Fisheriesmanagementexpertshaveidentifiedseveralpotentialcausesforthedeclineof migratoryfishspeciessuchasriverherringandshad,andhavesoughttoprotectspawning fishbytakingmanagementactionstoreducecommercialandsportfishingmortality. However,therecoveryofthesefishstocksisatleastpartiallydependentontheHudsons abilitytoproducefuturegenerations.Successfulrestorationofhighqualityspawning, nurseryandrefugehabitatsintheHudsonRiverestuarywillallowgreaterspawning


6HattalaandKahnle,2005,Hattala,2010.

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DRAFT successandsurvivalofyoungofyearfishforanumberofspecies.Withoutrestoration, recoveryoftheseeconomicallyimportantspeciesmaybelimited.Becausemanycoastal migratoryfisharealsoasourceoffoodforlargeroceanfishsuchascod,coastal commercialfisheriescouldbenefitfromrestorationofHudsonRiverhabitats. RestorationWillEnhanceEcosystemResiliency Sealevelhasbeenrisingworldwideformanythousandsofyears.Overthelastcentury, however,therateofsealevelrisehasbeenincreasing,and,alongtheHudsonRiver,water levelshaverisenoverafootsince1930. 7 Intheearly1990s,therateofsealevelrisebegan furtheracceleratingandisnowrisingsignificantlyfasterthantheglobalaverageduetoa combinationofchangesinlargeAtlanticOceansurfacecurrents,themeltingofcontinental icesheetsandtheexpansionofoceanwaterasitwarmsallwelldocumentedrecent trends. 8,9 Accordingtothemostcurrentprojectionsavailable,waterlevelsalongthe Hudsoncanbeexpectedtoriseupto72inchesbytheyear2100andwillcontinuerising rapidlyinthecenturiestocomeunlessmajorstepsaretakentoreducecarboninthe atmosphere. 10 Additionally,intheNortheast,extremerainfallandfloodingeventshave becomemorefrequent.TropicalstormsIreneandLeein2011producedmassiverainfall anddischargefromtheriveranddepositedanestimated1.5milliontonsofsedimentinthe estuary.HurricaneSandyin2012createdahistoricstormsurgethattraveledinland,up thelengthoftheestuarytoTroy,risinginsomelocationstomorethanninefeetabove normalhightides. ManyHudsonRiverestuaryhabitatswillbestressedbyacceleratingratesofsealevelrise andincreasedfrequencyofextremestorms,butnonemorethanitscriticallyproductive wetlandsandshallowwatervegetationbeds.Intertidalandshallowwaterplant communitiesareextremelysensitivetowaterdepthandsalinitylevels.Evenmoderately alteredconditionsinestuarineandcoastalareaswillleadtolossesofthesehabitatsalong withtheecosystemservicestheyprovide:food,floodprotection,waterquality,recreation, andmanyothersdescribedabove.DataonwetlandsedimentaccretioninHudsonRiver tidalwetlandssuggeststhatmanymarshesandothertidalhabitatswillbeseverely challengedoverthecomingcentury.Atthelower,moreconservativeendofprojectedsea levelriserates,tidalwetlandsmayaccreteenoughsedimenttomatchrisingsealevel,while atthehigherendofprojectedrates,ahighproportionofhabitatsmaybelost.Inthelatter scenario,shallowwaterhabitatswillbecoveredbymorewaterwhichgraduallywill becometoodeepforenoughlighttopenetrateandenableplantstogrow.Intertidal wetlandswillbecomecontinuouslysubmerged,tothedetrimentofplantsnotadaptedto thoseconditions.Adjacentuplandsthattypicallygetfloodedafewtimesamonthwillbe inundatedathightideonadailybasis.Inbothscenarios,upslopemigrationoftidal habitatstowardlowlyingfloodplainareascanbeexpected.

7 8

http://metroeast_climate.ciesin.columbia.edu/coastal.html http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=3256&from=rss_home#.UBLu2KA9XTp 9 http://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/administration_pdf/slrtffinalrep.pdf 10 NYS 2100 http://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/news/publications/nys-2100-commission-report-building

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DRAFT Habitatrestorationisakeycomponentofaforwardlookingcoastaladaptationstrategy thatcanincreasetheHudsonRiverestuaryecosystemsresiliencyduringtimesof environmentalstresssuchasperiodsofextremeweather,climatechangeandaccelerated sealevelrise.Aresilientecosystemwithgreaterbiodiversityanddiversityofhabitatshas thecapacitytowithstandandbouncebackfromtheseacceleratingstresses,helpingto maintaincriticalhabitatsandtheirfunctionsintheestuary.Ensuringthecapacityfor wetlandmigrationthroughhabitatprotectionandrestorationwillpreservethemany importantfunctionsthesehabitatscontributetotheecosystem,includingfishspawning, nurseryandforagehabitats,andimprovedwaterquality.Preservinglowlyingnatural areasalongshorelinestoallowwetlandstomigrateinlandandremovingdamstorestore sedimenttransportintributarieswillenablemoreshallowsandwetlandstocontinueto existassealevelrises.Constructionofsidechannelsintheupperestuarywillincrease spawningandforagehabitatsformanyspeciesandprovidelowflowrefugehabitatsfor fishandwildlifeduringhighflowperiodsassociatedwithhighdischarge,extremeweather events. 11 Whereshoreprotectionisneeded,designingshorelinesthatincludefeaturesthat mimicnaturalsystemswillenhancethehabitatfunctionofthoseshorelines,andwillallow communitiestoprotectimportantpropertiesandinfrastructurefromerosionwhile preservinghabitatvalue.Inadditiontothesemeasurestoenhancethehealthofthe estuary,thisplanrecognizestheimportantlinksbetweentheestuaryandmaintaininga healthywatershed,includingtheforests,fields,streamsandwetlandscomprisingit.

11

McMahonandHartman,1989,Bowen,etal.,2003.

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DRAFT

III.OVERVIEWOFHUDSONRIVERESTUARYHABITATS

INTRODUCTIONTOHUDSONRIVERHABITATS

TheweboflifeinthetidalHudsonRiveriscomplex,diverse,fascinatingandimportant.It linkstouplands,tributarystreamsandtheAtlanticOcean.Theexistenceandconditionof HudsonRiverhabitatshasabearingonwaterquality(andforsome,drinkingwater), resiliencetostormsandshorelineerosion,recreationalfisheries(andanyfuture commercialfisheries),ahostofrecreationalpursuitsandthequalityofourcommunities. TheHudsonRiverestuarys watershaveawiderangein salinity(saltiness),from freshwaterthroughouttheupper 85milesoftheestuarytowaters muchclosertothesalinityofthe AtlanticOceannearNewYork harbor.Heavyfreshwaterflows fromstormsorsnowmeltdilute salinityinthelowerpartofthe estuary,whileperiodsofdrought canresultinbrackishwaters movingwellupriver.The estuaryswatersalsorangefrom shallowslessthan6feetdeepat Agreatblueheronfeedsinvegetatedshallowsnearintertidal lowtidetodepthsgreaterthan marsh.(Photo:CarlAlderson,NOAA) 100feetintheHudson Highlands.Historically,theupperthirdoftheestuary(fromCatskilltoTroy)was dominatedbyshallowwaters.AllwatersoftheHudsonarehighlyproductive,supporting manyecologicallyimportantspecies. Throughouttheestuary,twobroadhabitattypesintertidalwetlandsandshallowwater habitatsaredistinguishedbyelevation(height)relativetohighandlowtide(Figure2). Theycontainrichlydiversebutdistinctplantcommunitiesthatarehometoagreatvariety ofanimalsandareimportanttomanyecologicalprocessesthatprovidefoodandimprove waterquality. Inthelowerpartoftheestuarywherewatersalinityisusuallywithintherangeof1530 partspermillion,easternoysters(Crassostreavirginica)oncegrewinvastnumbers formingextensivereefsinandaroundNewYorkharbor.Today,foravarietyofreasons, oystersareonlyoccasionallyfoundinlocalizedreefsonthebottom,wheretheyprovide habitatforarangeofanimals.Oystersfeedbyfilteringmicroscopicplantsandanimals fromthewaterand,intheprocess,improvewaterquality.

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DRAFT SmallpopulationsofoystersarefoundintheHudsonasfarnorthasHaverstrawBay.The TappanZeeBridge,whichspansthebay,isthesouthernboundaryofthisplan.Although oysterrestorationinthisareamaybeaworthwhileendeavor,themajorityoflocations whereoysterrestorationisfeasibleintheHudsonRiver/NewYorkharborregionare outsidethegeographicscopeofthisplan.Therefore,oysterrestorationisnotspecifically addressed.However,thisplanrecognizesandsupportstheoysterrestorationgoalsofthe HudsonRaritanEstuaryComprehensiveRestorationPlan,includingrestorationeffortsin theHaverstrawBay/TappanZeeregion. 12 Althoughthisplandoesnotdirectlyaddressmeasurestoimprovewaterqualityinthe HudsonRiverestuary,manystateandfederalprogramsarefocusedonthisissue.For instance,theHudsonRiverEstuaryActionAgendaincludesgoalsfocusedonwaterquality forswimming,sourcewaterandpollutionreduction.Thisplanindirectlysupportssuch waterqualityimprovementbyidentifyingopportunitiestorestorewetlands,whichfilter sediments,transformnutrientsandremovepollutants.

Figure2:Shoreline,intertidal,shallowwaterandtributaryhabitatsoftheHudsonRiverestuary (PLACEHOLDERONLYTHISGRAPHICTOBEREPLACED)

Restorationofstrictlydefinedhistoricconditionsisgenerallynotpossible,norisit necessarilydesirableundercurrentconditionsofsettlementandriveruse.Instead,this planidentifiesfeasibleandappropriateactivitiesthatwillresultinmeaningfulrestoration todayandintothefuture.Threecriteriawereusedtoidentifypriorityhabitatsfor restoration:1)habitatsimportanttotheoverallhealthoftheecosystem;2)habitatsthat havebeendegradedordestroyedonalargescalebyhumanaction;and3)habitatsfor whichthereareexistingfeasibleopportunitiesforrestoration.Thecriteriaresultedinfour priorityhabitatsforrestoration: Intertidalhabitats Shallowwaterhabitats Shorelines Tributarystreamhabitats

PRIORITYHABITATSFORRESTORATION

12http://www.nan.usace.army.mil/harbor/index.php?crp

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DRAFT Althoughthislistdoesnotincludeallhabitatsthathavebeenlostorimpaired,theitems listedareprioritiesbecauseitisfeasibletorestorethemonameaningfulscale,andtheir restorationwillimprovethehealthandresiliencyoftheHudsonRiverestuaryecosystem. IntertidalHabitats TheHudsonRiverestuarysmorethan 6,000acresofintertidalwetlandsoccur betweenlowandhightideandare regularlyfloodedanddrainedtwiceaday byrisingandfallingtides.Intertidal wetlandsinclude:brackishmarshes, freshwatertidalmarshes,mudandsand flats,broadleafemergentmarsh,and tidalswamps. Brackishmarshes,vegetatedbynon woodyplantsthataresalttolerant,exist inthelowerestuaryandare uncommon. 13 Freshwatertidalmarshes TheTivoliBaysWildlifeManagementAreain DutchessCountyisafreshwatertidalmarsh arecommonfromtheBearMountain dominatedbycattail(Typhaangustifolia)andis Bridgenorth.Theycontainrichlydiverse hometoawidevarietyoffish,birdsandmammals. wetlandplantcommunitiesdominatedby (Photo:NYSDEC) nonwoodyplants,oftencattail(Typha angustifolia)andspatterdock(Nupharadvena),withmanyotherplantspeciespresent. Freshwatertidalswampsarehighlydiversecommunitiesdominatedbyshrubsand/or trees,withdiverseunderstoriesthatcantolerateregularflooding. HudsonRiverintertidalhabitatsalsoincludeextensiveareasofnonvegetatedmudand sandflatsregularlyinundatedbywater.Mudflatsconsistoffinergrainedsedimentshighin organicmatter,givingrisetodiverseinvertebratecommunities.Sandflatswhichhave loweramountsoforganicmatterpredominateintheupperestuary.Bothareimportant feedingareasforwildlife,especiallyresidentandmigratorybirds,includingmanyspecies ofwadingbirds,ducksandgeese.Tidalflatsalsoprotectadjacentpropertiesbydissipating waveenergyandslowingtheriverscurrentsthatcanerodeshorelines. AlloftheseintertidalhabitatsarevitalcomponentsoftheHudsonRiverecosystem, providinghabitattoahostofspeciesfromsmallmarshfish,suchasthebandedkillifish (Fundulusdiaphanus),tothelargestpredatorybird,thebaldeagle(Haliaeetus leucocephalus),whichthrivesonfishfromtheHudson.

13Reschke,1990.

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DRAFT StressesonIntertidalWetlandHabitats Constructionofthefederalnavigationchanneldestroyedanddegradedintertidalhabitats intheupperestuaryonamassivescale.Asthemainchannelwasdeepened,dredge materialwasusedtofillnearbyshallowsandintertidalareas,includingsidechannels.Asa result,theupperestuaryfromHudsontoTroy,NYwastransformedfromashallow, braidedriverchannelwithmanyislandsandbackwaters,toariverdominatedbyadeep channelwithfarfewerintertidalwetlandsandvegetatedshallows.

ComparisonsofhistoricandmodernmapsoftheHudsonyieldestimatesthatnearly4,000 acresofshallowwaterandintertidalareaswerelostintheupperthirdoftheestuary alone. 14,15 Additionalfillingofmanyhundredsofacresthroughouttherestoftheestuary alsooccurred,especiallyalongmoreurbanizedsectionsofthelowerestuary,where industrialandtransportationinfrastructurewasbuilt. Currentandfuturestressesonintertidalhabitatsincludecontinuedpressurefrom commercialandrecreationalactivities,pollutantinputsfromthewatershedand acceleratedsealevelriseassociatedwithclimatechange.Whileseveralofthesestresses aremanagedthroughregulationsdesignedtoprotecthabitatsandprogramstoreduce pollutants,climatechangeandsealevelrisepresentnewchallengesfortheriverthatwill requireadditionaleffortstoprotecttheseimportanthabitats.Assealevelrises,intertidal areaswillbefloodedbydeepeningwaters.Theintertidalwetlandsareexpectedtoeither stayinplacebybuildingupsedimentsmorerapidly,migrateinlandandupwhereterrain andlanduseallow,ordisappear,becomingshallowsthatmayormaynotbevegetated. Scientistsarestudyingmarshsedimentcorestodeterminepastsedimentationratesand patterns.Inafewareas,scientistshavebeguntomonitorcurrentsedimentationratesusing surfaceelevationtables.Tominimizethenetlossofremainingintertidalareas,wetland buffersundevelopedareaswithnaturalslopingshorelinesshouldbeprotectedand
14Miller,etal.,2006A. 15CollinsandMiller,2011.

Thismapfrom1820oftheupperHudsonRiverestuarynearSchodackshowsmanyislandsandside channels.

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DRAFT restoredtoprovideopportunitiesforintertidalhabitatstomigrateuplandassealevel rises. ShallowWaterHabitats ShallowwaterhabitatswithintheHudsonRiverestuaryaredefinedasareascontinuously submerged(ornearlyso)andsixfeetdeeporlessatlowtide.Submergedaquatic vegetation(SAV)communitiesareexclusivelyfoundinlowerintertidalandshallowwater habitats,primarilyinthefreshwaterandslightlybrackishportionsoftheestuary.Hudson RiverSAVbedsaredominatedbywatercelery(Vallisneriaamericana),arooted, freshwaternativeplant. 16 RecentinventoriesofSAV(1997,2002and2007)identified morethan5,000acresofSAVintheestuary(approximately40%ofavailableshallow waterarea).SAVbedsplayavitalroleinimprovingwaterqualitybyincreasingoxygenin thewater 17 andproducingfoodenergyfortheecosystem.Theyalsoserveasessential feedingandrefugehabitatformanyspeciesandlifestagesoffish,birds,turtlesand invertebrateanimals. 18 Inaddition,theyplayanimportantroleinsupportingthe biodiversityandhighdensitiesofinvertebratesintheHudsonRiverestuary, 19 suchas wormsandinsects,andarethoughttobetherichestfeedinggroundsintheestuaryfor manyfish. 20 Forreasonsnotyetunderstood,insomeyears,SAVbedsdisappear,returning infutureyears. StressesonShallowWater Habitats Stressesonshallowwater habitatsaresimilartothoseon intertidalhabitatsabove. Constructionofthenavigation channeldestroyedanddegraded shallowhabitatsintheupper estuaryonamassivescale.As themainchannelwasdeepened, Submergedaquaticvegetation(SAV)isvitaltothehealthofthe thedredgematerialwasusedto estuary.Itprovideshabitatforahostofsmallinvertebratesand fillnearbyshallows,intertidal smallfishwhichinturnprovideforageopportunitiesforlarger areasandsidechannels.Asa predators.Theplantsalsoplayanimportantroleinproviding result,theupperestuaryfrom oxygentoestuarywaters.(Photo:SAVMappingProject) HudsontoTroy,NYwas transformedfromashallow, braidedriverchannelwithmanyislandsandbackwaterstoariverdominatedbyadeep channelwithfarfewervegetatedshallows. 21
16Reschke,1990.

17Findlay,etal.,2006,CaracoandCole,2002. 19StrayerandMalcom,2007. 20Findlay,etal.,2006.

18Findlay,etal.,2006,KorschgenandGreen,1988.

21Miller,etal.2006A,CollinsandMiller,2011.

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DRAFT Comparisonofhistoricmapsandcurrentconditionsshowthatnearly4,000acresof shallowwaterandintertidalareaswerelostintheupperthirdoftheestuaryalone(Catskill toTroy).Additionalfillingofmanyhundredsofacresthroughouttherestoftheestuary alsooccurred,especiallyalongmoreurbanizedsectionsofthelowerestuary,where industrialandtransportationinfrastructurewasbuilttotakeadvantageofnavigation opportunities.


12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 Historic (acres) Current (acres) 4,075 4,904 4,711 2,600

1,285 1,879

Intertidal Marsh Shallow Water (<6 feet) Deep Water (>6 feet)

Figure3:Thechartaboveshowsthehistoricandcurrentamountsofintertidal,shallowanddeepwater habitatsintheupperHudsonRiverestuary(rivermiles110to152).Thisportionoftheriver,whichis importantspawningandrefugehabitatforfishandforagehabitatforotherspecies,wasconvertedfroma riverdominatedbyshallowandintertidalareastoonethatisdominatedbydeepwater.

Inthe1940s,theHudsonRiverwasinvadedbywaterchestnut(Trapanatans),aprolific nonnativeplantspeciesthatquicklyovertookshallowsinprotectedorsemiprotected areas.Waterchestnutisarootedannualwithlongstemstosupportrosettesofleavesand flowersthatfloatonthewatersurfaceandshadeplantsbelow.Waterchestnutreplaced nativeplantsinprotectedshallowsandtodayoccupiesalmost2,000acresofHudsonRiver shallowsfromHastingstoTroy(rivermiles33to152). 22 Unlikenativevegetation,it reducesoxygeninthesurroundingareaandprovidesfarlessbenefittothefoodweb. Currentandfuturestressesonshallowhabitatsincludeclimatechangeandaccelerated sealevelrise.Risingsealevelwilllikelycauseshallowwaterareastodeepen,andreduce theamountoflightthatreachessubmergedplantcommunities,intimecausingtheplants todieoff.Projectedincreasesintheseverityofstormsandfloodingwillalsomobilize sediments,reducingtheamountoflightpenetrationtothebeds,physicallydamagingor uprootingplantsandburyingsomebedswithsediment.Preservationofintertidalareas

22CornellIRIS,2011.

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DRAFT thatwillbecomeshallowwaterhabitatassealevelriseswillhelpallowsubmergedaquatic vegetationtopersistintothefuture. Shorelines ShorelinesalongtheHudsonRiverestuaryarediverse.Abouthalfoftheshorelinesfrom TroytotheTappanZeeBridgearenatural,rangingfromsteeprocktoshallowslopes. Someareunvegetated,whileotherssupportamixofwoodyorgrassycommunitieson mud,sand,cobblesorbedrock.Theother halfoftheshorelinehasbeenengineered withavarietyofstructuresdesignedto protectpropertyorsupporttransportation, recreationorindustrialactivities.Common engineeredshorelinesincluderevetment, bulkhead,cribbingandriprap. Manynaturalshorelinesarevegetatedwith nativeornonnativeplantspecies. Vegetationfunctionstostabilizeshoreline, Developedshorelines,likethisonenearTroy, reducewaveenergyandprovidehabitat NY,provideaccesstolargeboatsandcanprotect forfish,invertebrates,birdsand propertyandimportantinfrastructure,butthey areoftenpoorhabitatforfishandwildlife. amphibians.Naturalshorelineswitha (Photo:CarlAlderson,NOAA) gradualslopealsoenableavarietyof animalstomigratebetweentheriparian zone(banksandshores)andtheestuary.Studieshavefoundthatnaturalsandyvegetated shorelinesintheHudsonsupporthighabundanceofsmallfishspecies,whilerockyshores supportahighdiversitybut fewerlargefish.The accumulationofwrack (naturaldebris)on shorelineswithgradual 41% slopesprovidesstructurefor Engineered, avarietyoforganisms, HardShoreline includingshelterforsmall Natural animalsandperchingsites 58% forbirds.Verticalshores, particularlyseawallsand bulkheads,supportfewer plantsandanimals. 23 Figure4:Theimageaboveshowstherelativeproportionofnatural StressesonShorelineHabitats andengineeredshorelineontheHudsonRiverbetweentheTappan ZeeBridgeandTroy,NY.Nearlyhalfoftheshorelineisengineered, Asignificantamountof mostofwhichisassociatedwithrailroadlines.(Source:NYSDEC) naturalshorelinehasbeen eliminatedoralteredover
23StrayerandFindlay2010,Strayer,etal.,2012.

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DRAFT thepast200years.Comparisonsofmodernandhistoricmapshaveestimatedthat71miles ofshoreline,intheupperestuary,waseliminatedwhenshallowsandbackwaterswere filledduringconstructionofthefederalnavigationchannel. 24 Inaddition,manyshorelines intheHudsonhavebeenstraightenedandhardenedtoprotectpropertyfromerosionorto createplatformsforindustry,transportationorculturaluses.Aninventoryofshoreline typesbyNYSDECfoundthatnearlyhalfoftheshorelinefromtheTappanZeeBridgetothe Troydamisengineeredshore,meaningithasbeenalteredbybulkheads,rip,dikes,or otherstructures.Mostoftheengineeredshoreisassociatedwithrailroadlines,dikesbuilt intheupperestuaryduringthelate19thandearly20thcentury,anddevelopmentofdocks orshorelineerosioncontrolsforriverfrontcommunitiesandproperties. Currentandfuturestressesonshorelinehabitatsincludecontinueddevelopment pressures,directimpactsofclimatechangeandsealevelriseandhumanresponseto climatechange.Risingsealevelandhighwatereventsassociatedwithseverestorms threatentoalterorsubmergeexistingshorelinehabitats.Theyalsothreatencommunities andinfrastructurenearoradjacenttotheriver.Communitiesmayrespondtotherisks posedbysealevelriseandsevereweatherbyconstructingadditionalheavilyengineered shorelinestructuresdesignedtostabilizetheshoreortoprotectadjacentcommunitiesand infrastructurefromflooding.Althoughtheyprovideprotectionforproperty,some engineeredsolutionsmayseverelydegradehabitat.Landowners,regulatorsandpolicy makersshouldconsiderusingacombinationofshorelinestabilizationtechniques, includingecologicallyenhancedshorelinetreatmentsandstrategiesdesignedtominimize floodinganderosionriskswhileprotectingorenhancinghabitat. TributaryStreamHabitats Tributariesareimportant habitatsforadiverse communityoffishandwildlife throughouttheHudsonRiver estuarywatershed.They deliverwaterandtransport nutrientsandsedimentfrom thesurroundinglandscapeto theestuarywhileproviding habitatsforresidentand migratoryfish,including: alewives(Alosa pseudoharengus)and occasionallybluebackherring (Alosaaestivalis)andAmerican ThesefallsarenearthemouthoftheSawKill,atributarytothe HudsonRiverinnorthwestDutchessCounty. shad(Alosasapidissima).

24Miller,etal.2006A,CollinsandMiller.2011.

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DRAFT Americanshadandbluebackherringtypicallymigratetoandspawninthemainchannels oftheHudsonandMohawkrivers.However,amajorityofalewivesmigrateupstreamand spawnintheHudsonstributarystreams. 25 Allthreespecieshavehistoricallysupported importantcommercialfisheriesintheHudson,althoughrecentdeclinesduetoanumberof factors,includinghabitatloss,ecosystemchangeandoverfishing,haveresultedinfishery restrictionsorclosure.Herringandshadalsohistoricallysupportedrobustcodfisherieson theAtlanticcoast,becausecodfeedonthem. AsaresultoftheHudsonRiver Valleyssteeptopography,the historicrangeofmigratoryriver herringintributariestothe Hudsonislimited,asarethe numberofdamsthatblockriver herringpassage.However, Americaneel(Anguillarostrata) haveagreaterrangeupstreamin tributariesduetotheir remarkableabilitytoclimbsteep gradientstreams.Afterhatchingin thecentralAtlanticOceannear Bermuda,youngeelsmigrateto Damscreatebarrierstofishmigration,includingriver coastalestuaries,includingthe herringandAmericaneel.Theyalsofragmenthabitatsfor HudsonRiver.Eelscontinuetheir residentspecies,degradewaterqualityandinterrupt downstreamsedimenttransport. migrationuptheHudsons tributaries,wheretheyfindfertile andproductivehabitats throughouttheestuarywatershed andmatureforupto20years beforereturningtothemid AtlanticOceantospawn. StressesonTributaryHabitats Manyhabitatshistoricallyusedby herringandeelsarenolonger accessibleduetoconstructionof hundredsofdamsdesignedto providehydropowertomillsor providewatersupplyfor agriculturalpurposes.Accessto habitatforAmericaneelshasbeen Culvertsareusedtopassstreamsandtributariesunderroads orotherdevelopedproperties.Ifnotproperlydesignedand greatlyreducedbythe installed,theycandisruptfishandwildlifemovementand constructionofdamsinNewYork washoutduringfloods.(Photo:CarlAlderson,NOAA)
25Werner,1986.

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DRAFT State,possiblycontributingtorecentdeclinesineelpopulations. 26 Inadditiontodams, hundredsofculvertshavebeeninstalledwherestreamsandwaterwayscrossunderroads orotherinfrastructure.Culvertsimproperlysizedorperchedabovethenatural streambedcanbeimpassabletomigratoryandresidentspecies.Replacingthemwith properlysizedandpositionedculvertsandbridgesisimportant. Damsalsodisruptthenaturalflowofwater,sedimentandnutrientsdownstream.Asa result,watertemperatureincreasesandavailableoxygendecreases,impactingthefishand invertebratecommunitiesthatliveinastream.Impoundmentscreatedbydamstrap sediment,disruptingthesupplytoshallowareasandwetlandsdownstream. 27 Torestore fishpassage,removalofdamswhereverpossibleispreferredoverinstallingfishladders becauseoftheadditionalbenefitsofrestoringinstreamhabitats,sedimentandnutrient transportprocessesandwaterquality. ImpactsofExoticandInvasiveSpecies Inadditiontothephysicalalterationsanddestructiondescribedabove,nearlyallhabitats intheHudsonRiverestuaryecosystemhavebeenaffectedbytheintroductionofexoticand invasiveplantandanimalspecies.Thesespecieshavesignificantlyimpactedthefunctionof theestuaryandthenativespeciesthatinhabititinavarietyofways.Inmarshes,the invasivecommonreed(Phragmitesaustralis)iscapableofdisplacingnativevegetation communitieswithdensesinglespeciesstands,alteringnutrientcyclesandhabitatsfor marshanimals.Waterchestnut(Trapanatans)coverslargeareasofshallowsinthe freshwaterHudsonwiththickdensematsthatcanreduceoxygenandlightlevelsinthe wateranddegradehabitats. 28 Oneofthemostdramaticinvasionshasbeenthezebra mussel(Dreissenapolymorpha),startingintheearly1990s.Afterintroduction,thesmall mollusksquicklyspreadthroughoutthefreshwaterportionoftheestuary,attachingto hardsurfacessuchasrocks,pilings,boathullsandwaterintakes.Zebramusselsfeedon microscopicplantsandanimals(plankton)andothersmallparticlesbyfilteringa tremendousamountofriverwater.Attheheightoftheirpopulation,zebramussels reducedtheamountofphytoplanktonintheriverby80percentandtheamountoffood availabletofishby50percent. 29 Thiscausedshiftsinfishcommunitiesandlikely contributedtothedeclineofsomespecies.Lossofphytoplanktonasasourceofenergyfor theecosystemhasmadeothersourcesofenergymoreimportant.Becauseofthezebra musselinvasion,submergedaquaticvegetationfoundinshallowareasoftheHudsonplays anincreasinglyimportantroleinmaintainingwaterqualityandoxygenproductionandas fishhabitat. 30 TheHudsonRiverwasthesiteoftheearliestrecordedintroductionofcommoncarp (Cyprinuscarpio)toNorthAmerica.In1831,severalcarpweresweptintotheHudsonfrom pondsbetweenNewburghandNewWindsorwhendamsandfloodgatesfailedduringa
26Busch,etal.,1998,Machut,etal.,2007. 27Ligon,etal.,1995. 28CaracoandCole,2002,HummelandFindlay,2006. 29Strayer,D.L.,2009. 30Strayer,D.L.,2009

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DRAFT heavyfreshet(rainsandsnowmelt). 31 Thefishestablishedabreedingpopulationandare nowfoundthroughoutthefreshwaterportionoftheriver,wheretheyuprootsubmerged aquaticvegetationanddecreasewaterclarityastheyrootthroughsedimentsinsearchof food. Onceintroducedandestablished,exoticandinvasivespeciescanbeextremelydifficultto controloreradicate.Therefore,earlydetectionofnewlyintroducedspeciesbeforethey becomeestablishedandconcertedeffortstopreventnewintroductionsareessential. Wherefeasibleandecologicallyjustified,effortstocontrolspeciesalreadyintroducedto theecosystemcanbeanimportantpartofhabitatrestoration.

REGIONALRESTORATIONPRIORITIES

Regionaldifferencesinthenaturallandscapeandhistoryofhumandevelopmentarefound alongthelengthoftheestuaryshoreline.Thesefactorsresultindifferentrestoration opportunitieswithindifferentregionsoftheHudson.Restorationactionsdescribedlaterin thisplanmaynotapplyequallytoallregionsoftheestuary.Forexample,freshwatertidal andshallowhabitatrestorationwillbeapriorityintheupperregionsoftheestuary,where thesehabitatshistoricallyoccurredinlargeproportiontodeepwaterandwerelostwhen thenavigationchannelwasconstructed.Figure5showstypicalrestorationopportunities byregionwithintheestuary.

31Lever,1996.

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DRAFT Figure5.RegionalHumanInfluencesonHudsonRiverHabitatsandProposedRestoration Actions

Upper Estuary Actions Resulting in Habitat Loss Navigation channel construction (dredging and filling of shallows) Dam construction in tributaries Introduction of invasive species Municipal landfills Restoration Actions Preserve shallows and low-lying upland buffers Restore side channels Enhance shorelines Mitigate dams in tributaries Control invasive species Habitats Restored

Vegetated shallows, shorelines, intertidal marshes and tributaries

Germantown to Tappan Zee Bridge Actions Resulting in Habitat Loss Shoreline engineering Railroad construction Dam construction Introduction of invasive species Municipal landfills Restoration Actions Preserve shallows and low-lying upland buffers Enhance shorelines Mitigate dams in tributaries Control invasive species Habitats Restored Vegetated shallows, shoreline, intertidal marshes and tributaries

New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary Comprehensive Restoration Plan

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DRAFT

IV.RESTORATIONVISIONANDACTIONS

ENVISIONINGAMORERESILIENTANDHEALTHYHUDSONRIVERESTUARY
ThisrestorationplanenvisionsthefutureoftheHudsonRiverestuaryasaresilient ecosystemthatprovidesawiderangeofbenefitstothefish,wildlifeandresidentsof theregionthroughincreasesintheamountandvalueofintertidal,shallowand shorelinehabitats,improvedaccessibilitytotributarystreamhabitatsformigratory fishandecologicalenhancementstotheHudsonsengineeredshorelines.

DEFINITIONOFRESTORATION

TheSocietyforEcologicalRestoration(SER)isanonprofitmembershiporganization dedicatedtopromotingecologicalrestorationtosustainthediversityoflifeonEarthand reestablishanecologicallyhealthyrelationshipbetweennatureandculture.SERserves thegrowingfieldofrestorationbypromotingandsupportingtheworkofresearchersand practitioners;disseminatingguidanceandbestpractices;increasingawarenessof,and publicsupportfor,restoration;andcontributingtopolicydiscussionsatthenationaland internationallevel.SERdefinesrestorationinthefollowingway: Ecologicalrestorationistheprocessofassistingtherecoveryofanecosystemthathas beendegraded,damagedordestroyed. 32 Habitatsandecosystemsareconstantlyevolvingandchangingovertime.Thegoalof restorationisnottorecreateasingleunchangingsetofdesirableconditionsforahabitat. Rather,thegoalofrestorationistoremovethestressesthatinhibitahabitatfrom functioningandevolvingonanaturalpathortrajectory.Thiscanincludeawiderangeof activities,frompreservingexistinghabitatstofosteringnaturalrecoveryoractively removingormitigatingastressorthatispreventinganecosystemorhabitatfromreaching itsfullhealthandpotential.Therestorationactionslistedinthenextsectionwillpromote therecoveryofpriorityhabitatsbyeliminatingormitigatingstressesthathavebeenplaced ontheecosystemoverthepast200years.Thisplanalsorecognizesmanyopportunitiesfor takingactionstoreducetheimpactoforhelpoffsetfuturestressesontheestuary.Central amongtheseistheprotectionofinriverhabitatsandtheshorelineandestuaryfloodplain, allvitaltomaintainingandrestoringtheHudsonRiverestuarysresiliencyasclimate changesandweexperiencemorestorms,highertemperaturesandacceleratedsealevel rise.Onamoreregionalscale,conservationofnaturalresourcesinthewatershedisalso important. DespitethepervasiveimpactofhumanactivitiesthroughouttheHudsonRiverestuary, manyopportunitiesforrestorationremain.Estuariesandfreshwatersystemsbynatureare dynamic.Plantsandanimalsinthesesystemshaveadaptedtoliveinanenvironmentwith naturalvariationinwaterquality,temperatureandotherenvironmentalconditions. Becauseofthisresilience,estuarineandfreshwatersystemsarepredisposedtorestoration
32SocietyforEcologicalRestoration,2004.

RESTORATIONACTIONS

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DRAFT andenhancementofdegradedhabitats.Inmanycases,restorationrequiresremovalofthe mechanism(s)orstressesdegradingordestroyingahabitat.Restorationmayinclude reestablishingnaturalwaterflowsbyremovingadamorfill,alteringnutrientinputsor restoringwetlandelevations. Severalfactorsdeterminereadinesstoimplementrestorationactionsandrestorehabitats describedinthisdocument,includingavailabilityofrestorationsites,technicalfeasibility, currentstateofknowledge,cost,regulatoryissuesandpublicsupport.Insomecases, restorationactionswillfocusonasinglehabitattype,suchastributaryhabitat(e.g.,dam removal).Somerestorationopportunitieswillrestoreseveralhabitattypeswithasingle action.Forexample,restoringsidechannelstotheupperestuarywillresultinrestoration ofnaturalshoreline,intertidalmarshandvegetatedshallows.Thesetypesofprojects shouldbeseenashighvaluebecauseofthemultiplebenefitsthatcouldresultfromasingle action.Table1showsproposedrestorationactionsandtheirpotentialbenefitstohabitat. Table1:HudsonRiverEstuaryRestorationActionsandBenefitstoPriorityHabitats PriorityHabitatsforRestoration RestorationActions Intertidal Shallow Shorelines Tributary
Habitats Habitats Habitats Preserveexistingestuaryhabitats Restoresidechannels Promoteandimplementfishpassage(FP), damremoval(DR)andculvertrightsizing (CRS) Promoteandimplementuseofecologically enhancedshorelinetreatments Implementprogramstocontrolinvasive plantspecies

X X
DR,CRS

X X
DR

X X

X
DR,FP, CRS

X X

X X

X X

PreserveExistingEstuaryHabitats Preservationofexistinghabitatsandtheirenvironmentalfunctionisessentialtothe successofthisrestorationplan.Ecosystemsthathaveevolvedoverlongperiodsare complexandonlypartiallyunderstoodbynaturalresourcemanagers.Itisreasonableto presumethatrestorationofahabitat,nomatterhowsuccessful,willnotachievethelevel ofecosystemhealthandfunctionpresentinsimilar,naturallyoccurringprotectedhabitats. Inaddition,thecostofrestoringadegradedhabitatcangreatlyexceedthecostof preservationofasimilarhabitatcurrentlyingoodcondition. Therearemanywaystopreserveexistinghabitats.Federal,stateandlocallawsand regulationsareimportanttoolsusedbyregulatoryagenciestopreserveandprotect habitats.EnvironmentalConservationLawNYECLPart608,UseandProtectionof Watersregulatesactivitiesthatalterordisturbstreamsandnavigablewaterswithinthe state.Articles24and25establishpermitprogramsintendedtoregulateandprotect freshwaterandtidalwetlands,includingthoseintheHudsonRiverestuary.Severalrecent mappingeffortshaveidentifiedthecurrentextentofthesehabitatsintheestuary.

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DRAFT Enforcementofexistinglawsdesignedtoprotecttheseshabitatsisessentialto preservationeffortsand,therefore,thesuccessofthisplan. Preservationofexistinghabitatscanalsobeachievedthroughpurchaseofdevelopment rights,conservationeasementsandadoptionoflocallanduselawsthatidentifyand preserveimportantandsensitiveenvironmentalareas. Nearshoreaquaticareasanduplands adjacenttoshorelinesarekeyto healthyriverineandestuarine systems.Manynutrientcyclingand chemicalprocessesthatmaintain waterqualityandhabitatvalueinthe riveroccurattheselocationsaswell asinthelargerwatershed.The shorelineisalsoaplacewhere developmentpressurecanbeintense. Accesstotheriverhasbeenan importantpartoftheeconomic developmentofmanymunicipalities PreservationofexistinghabitatssuchasHallenbeck andisalsoanimportantrecreational CreekinColumbiaCountyistheleastexpensive, andscenicresource.Theeconomic mostreliableformofrestoration. andsocialneedsofshoreline communitiesmustbebalancedwiththeimportantenvironmentalfunctionstheseareas provide.Additionally,risingsealevelsassociatedwithclimatechangewillcauselowlying areasadjacenttotheestuarytobecomevulnerabletoinundation.Protectinglowlying uplandsandencouragingdevelopmentathigherelevationswilleliminatethepossibilityof futureeconomiclossbecauseofdamagetoinfrastructureandpropertyduetosealevelrise orintensestorms,suchasIreneandLeein2011andSandyin2012.Preservationof naturalshorelinesandlowlyingareasadjacenttotheriverwillalsokeeplandsavailable wherewetlandscanmigrate,allowingthesenaturalcommunitiestopersistintothefuture. Conservingnaturalareasinthewatershedisimportantaswell. RestoreSideChannels RestorationofsidechannelsintheupperHudsonRiverestuarywillbeachallengingtask, requiringremovalofdredgematerial,establishmentofnativevegetationandcreationof conditionsthatsupporthighbiodiversityandproductivityofnativeplantsandanimals. Sidechannelrestorationwillincreasetheamountofforage,refugeandreproductive habitatsforresidentandmigratoryfish,birds,invertebratesandotherestuarinelife.Those evaluatingopportunitiestodosomustconsidereffectsonuplandhabitats,property ownership,sedimentbudgets,probabilityofsuccessandcost. Theconstructionofsidechannelstorestorepriorityhabitatsidentifiedinthisplanhas uniqueadvantagesthatincreasepotentialbenefitandlikelihoodofprojectsuccess.The advantagesinclude: Page26

DRAFT MultipleHabitatBenefitsSide channelrestorationwill incorporaterestorationofatleast threeofthepriorityhabitats identifiedinthisplanthathave beenlostonasignificantscaledue toconstructionofthefederal navigationchannel:shallows, intertidalmarshandshorelines. Thesehabitatsareknowntobe highlyproductivespawning, nurseryandfeedinghabitatsfor residentandmigratoryspecies suchasAmericanshadandstriped bass,aswellasmanybirds, mammalsandreptiles. ImportantForageandRefuge HabitatRestoredSidechannels havebeenvirtuallyeliminated fromtheupperestuaryinaneffort toconstrictwaterflowtothemain channel.Thesebackwaterareas arelessexposedtohighenergy regimesofthemainnavigation HallenbeckCreek(onright)inColumbiaCounty,NY channelandwillactasmoderate isoneofthelastremainingsidechannelsinthe velocity,highbiodiversityrefuges upperHudsonRiverestuary.Itwillserveasa foravarietyofaquaticplantand referencesiteforrestorationoftheseimportantfish andwildlifenurseryandrefugeareas.(Photo: animalspecies,especiallyduring NYSDEC) highflowperiodsassociatedwith 33 extremeprecipitationevents. HighDegreeofDesignControlChannelwidth,capacity,locationandmorphology canallbedesignedtocreateoptimalconditionsfornativeplantandanimal communitiestothriveintherestorationsite. RestorationSiteProtectionSidechannelswillbeprotectedfromextremeenergy regimesinthemainchannel,including:highwatervelocity,icescour,largewind drivenwavesandwakescausedbycommercialandprivateboattraffic.Floating boomsinstalledatbothendsofthechannelwillkeepmotorizedboatsoutduring constructionandrecovery. PotentialOnSiteDredgeMaterialManagementDredgematerialdepositioncould occuronsite,withintheprojectboundariesadjacenttothelengthofthechannel. Thiswouldminimizeimpacttouplandresources,reducetransportationcostand minimizeregulatoryconcernswithrespecttooffsitesedimentdisposal.Depositing

33McMahonandHartman,1989;Bowen,etal.,2003.

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DRAFT materialalongthelengthofthechannelwillalsoallowforhigherelevationchannel banksandslopestoextendthelifeexpectancyofthesiteduringsealevelrise. UndevelopedSitesAvailableRestorationsitescouldincludelocationswhere historicsidechannelshavebeenfilled,orchannelscouldbeconstructedinwide areasoffilladjacenttothemainchannel.Thesesitesmaynotrepresentahistoric condition,buttheywouldrestoreahistoricstructuralelementoftheecosystemthat hasbeenlost.Manyoftheselocationsremainundevelopedandareownedbystate agencies.

ClimateChangeConsiderations TorestoreandsustaintheHudsonsestuarinehabitats,itisessentialthatrestoration plannersandpractitionersplanforchangingsealevelconditions.SealevelatNewYork Cityhasrisen12inchessince1930.Bothshorttermrestorationmethodsandlongrange conservationstrategiesmustadaptivelyfactorthesetrendsintorestoration,conservation andpreservationplanningandimplementation.Ultimately,actiontoreducecarboninthe atmospherewillslowtherateofsealevelriseandmustbeacompanionstrategy. Restoredsidechannelswillprimarilyconsistofshallowandintertidalhabitats.These habitatswillbeparticularlyvulnerabletosealevelrise.Withsufficientspaceavailable, restorationsitescouldbedesignedtoincludelowelevationareassurroundingthesitesto allowshallowandintertidalhabitatstoexpandassealevelrises. ExpectedBenefits Sidechannelsaretypicallylessdeep andhavelowerwatervelocities thanthemainchannelandcanbe importantrefugeareasforjuvenile fish. 34 LarvalandjuvenileAmerican shadmayselecteddiesand backwaterareaswherewaterflow isreduced. 35 Inadditiontoserving asrefugeforjuvenilefish,side channelscanalsoserveas overwinteringhabitatand/or providearefugefrommajorflood eventsforavarietyofaquatic TivoliNorthBay,DutchessCountyBackwatersandside species. 36 channelsarerefugeareasforfishandwildlifeand providerecreationalopportunitiesforcanoeistsand Sidechannelrestorationandthe kayakersseekingrefugefromstrongcurrents,windand resultingrestorationofshoreline, trafficthatcanoccurinthemainchannel.(Photo: NYSDEC) intertidalandshallowhabitats
34McMahonandHartman,1989;Bowen,etal.,2003. 35CreccoandSavoy,1987. 36SaldiCaromile,etal.,2004.

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DRAFT wouldrestorethehistoricfunctionalcontributionsthesehabitatsprovidedtothe ecosystem.Byrestoringlostintertidalhabitatanditsassociatedbiotaandfunctionssuchas primaryproduction,nutrientandcontaminantuptake,birdhabitat,foragefishrefuge, sedimentstabilizationandtrophicwebdynamicswillberestored.Ifrestoredonalarge enoughscale,thesefunctionswouldhavepositive,meaningfuleffectsonwaterquality,fish stocksandbirdandamphibianpopulations. Inadditiontotheirprimaryfunctions,includingprovidingrefugefromhighenergy environmentsforfishandwildlife,sidechannelsandbackwaterscouldprovidesimilar refugeforpeopleenjoyingtheriverexperience.IfsidechannelsarerestoredintheHudson River,regulatoryagenciesshouldconsidermaintainingthemasnomotorzone,important environmentalareas.Kayakersandcanoeistscouldusetheseareasasrefugefromthe naturalwindsandcurrentsofthemainchannel.Restoredsidechannelswouldalsoprovide asafeandenhancednaturalexperience,awayfromcommercialshippingandrecreational powerboattraffic,forangling,birding,naturestudyandotherpassiverecreational activities.RestoredsidechannelsoftheupperHudsonRiverestuarycouldbecomeaneco tourismdestinationthathighlightstheStateofNewYorkscommitmenttoenvironmental stewardshipwhilesupportingtheregionstourismindustry. PromoteandImplementFishPassage,DamRemovalandCulvertRightSizing Restorationoftributaryhabitatswillfocusonhumanmadebarriersthatblockmigratory fishfromreachinghistoricallyaccessiblehabitat,disruptnaturalstreamprocessesand degradewaterquality.Theenvironmentalimpactofdamsandculvertsvariesgreatly, dependingonsize,designandlocation.Eachrestorationaction,includingremovingdams, installingfishladdersandculvertrightsizing,hasauniquesetofenvironmentalbenefits andlimitations.Descriptionsofeachactionanditspotentialbenefitsarebelow. RemovingDams Damremovalprovidesmorecomprehensiverestorationbenefitsthaninstallingafish ladder.RemovingderelictlowheaduplanddamsintributariestotheHudsonwould improvewaterquality,defragmenthabitat,allowforresidentandmigratoryfish movement, 37 andrestoresedimenttransportregimesthatsupporttidalwetlandcreation andaccretionintheestuary. Intertidalmarshesandshallowsareoftenfoundatthemouthsoftributarieswherethey meettheHudson.Itislikelythatsomeofthesedimentfortheseshallowsissuppliedbythe tributaryenteringtheHudson,muchlikearivercreatesadeltawhereitreachesabay. Removalofdamsandrestoringdownstreamsedimenttransportregimescouldrestore sedimentsupplyforbuildingandmaintainingshallowhabitatswheretributariesmeetthe river.However,insomecases,sedimentsthathaveaccumulatedbehinddamscould containcontaminants.Identificationandmanagementofcontaminatedsedimentsmustbe consideredonasitebysitebasis.Additionalresearchisneededtodeterminetheroleof damsinsedimenttransportintributariestotheHudson.
37

Ligon, et al., 1995; Stanley and Doyle, 2003.

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DRAFT InstallingFishLadders Atlocationswheredamsarebarrierstomigratory fish(riverherringoreels)anddamremovalisnota viableoption,afishladdercanbeusedtorestore fishmigrationtohistoricallyaccessiblehabitats. Damsactivelymanagedforwatersupply,power generationorfloodcontrol,orthathavehistoric significancemaybecandidatesforinstallationoffish ladders. Experimentaleelladdershavebeensuccessfully installedintheSawKillandCrumElbowCreekin DutchessCountyandinFurnaceBrookinPutnam County.Theselowcost,lowmaintenanceeelpassage devicesareeffectiveincapturingsmalleelsatthe baseofdams,wheretheycanbepassedtoupstream watersbylocalprojectpartners,including communityandschoolgroupsorlocalactivists. BecauseofthebiologyofAmericaneels,providing passagewouldnotrestorespawninghabitat.Instead, Volunteersremoveeelsfromaneel itrestoresaccesstohabitatsusedwhiletheeelsgrow ladderatthebaseofadamonCrum andmature.Restoringaccesstothesehabitatswill ElbowCreekinHydePark,NY. helpincreasetheproductionofmatureindividuals (Photo:NYSDEC) leavingtheHudsonastheymigratetotheAtlantic Oceantospawn,supportingthefutureofthestock. CulvertRightSizing Opportunitiestorestorehabitatconnectivityandaccessformigratoryfisharenotlimited todams.Manystreamscontainnumerousculverts,wheretheyintersectwithbuilt infrastructuresuchasroads,bridgesandcauseways.Perchedculvertsdischargewater abovethenaturalstreambed,creatingasmalldroporstepthatcanbeimpassableto migratoryandresidentspecies.Inadditiontotheriskoffailureandbeingdisplacedduring highflowevents,undersizedculvertscancreatevelocitybarrierstofishpassage(water flowsthataretoofastandwithoutrestareasforfishtoswimupstream).Resizingand properreinstallationofculvertscanrestorehabitatconnectivityinmanystreamsinthe watershed. Culvertrightsizingandremovalofotherhumanmadeflowrestrictionscanalsobeusedto increasetidalflushinginimpoundedtidalfreshwaterwetlands,resultinginimproved waterquality,controlofinvasivespeciesandincreasedinteractionwiththemainriver channel. Page30

DRAFT ClimateChangeConsiderations Risingsealevelassociatedwithclimatechangewillrequireshallowandintertidalhabitats tobuildupwithadditionalsedimentstomaintaintheirpositioninthewatercolumnand toinsuretheircontinuedexistence.Removalofdamsandrestoringdownstreamsediment transportregimescouldsupplyaportionoftheadditionalsedimentsneededtoenable someoftheseimportanthabitatstopersistduringacceleratedsealevelrise.Inadditionto therestorationbenefits,removalofderelictdamswillhaveapositiveeffectbyeliminating existingenvironmentalhazards.Continuedaginganddegradingofdamsinthewatershed, coupledwiththelikelihoodofincreasedandmoreintenseprecipitationeventsassociated withclimatechange,suggestthattherateofdamfailureswillincreaseinthefuture. Already,threecandidatedamremovalsiteshavebreachedduringrecentstorms. 38 Controlledremovalofdamsismoredesirablethanuncontrolledbreaching.Safety concerns,includingdownstreamfloodingandsuddenuncontrolledreleaseofsediments (possiblycontaminated),canbeaddressedduringcontrolledremovalprojects. ExpectedBenefits Thebenefitsofdamremovalincluderestoredaccesstomigratoryfishspawninghabitats, suchasforriverherring,restoredaccesstohabitatforAmericaneels,improvedwater quality,restoredstreamcommunities,restoredsedimenttransportregimesand eliminationofpropertyandnaturalresourcehazards. PromoteandImplementUseofEcologicallyEnhancedShorelineTreatments TheHudsonRiverestuarypresents someuniquechallengestosoft shorelineengineering.Shorelinealong theupperportionoftheestuaryis subjecttointensescouringproduced byfastcurrentsduringstorms,large icefloesdrivenintwodirectionsby incomingandoutgoingtidesand wakesfromrecreationalboatsand oceangoingships.Creatingshoreline thatisresistanttoerosionandis habitatfriendlymaybedifficultin someareas.Inareaswherethehard shorelinenolongerservesan Anecologicallyenhanced,engineeredshorelinewas economicpurpose,restorationofa builtinCoxsackie,NY.Theshoreincludedaseriesof naturallydynamicshorelinemaybe terracesmadeofstoneandplantings.Theshoreline anoption.Inareaswhereshoreline wasdesignedtoprotectapublicparkinglotwhile enhancingshorelineandriverhabitats. stabilizationisnecessarytoprotect waterfrontsorretaindredgematerial, shorelineenhancementthroughdevelopingecologicallyenhanced,engineeredshoreline structuresshouldbeexplored.
38ClaverackCreek,MoodnaCreek,QuassiackCreek

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DRAFT Ecologicallyenhanced,engineeredshorelinesaredesignedtoprotectpropertybutalso havedesigncomponentsthatprovidehabitatandecosystemfunctionssimilartonatural shorelines.Theyareoftencalledlivingshorelinesbecausemanyincorporatevegetation thatprovidesstructuralstabilityandhabitatvaluetotheengineeredstructure.Several methodshavebeenusedinavarietyofcoastalandstreamsystems.NYSDECsHudson RiverNationalEstuarineResearchReservehasbeenleadingtheHudsonRiverSustainable ShorelinesProjectacollaborative,sciencebasedefforttoidentifyshorelinetreatments thatprotectpropertywhileprovidinghabitatforfish,birdsandinvertebratesthatlivein naturalshorelinehabitats.Theeffortaccountsforshortandlongtermcosts,humanneeds, habitatvalueandstructuralstabilityduringcurrentconditionsandpredictedconditions associatedwithclimatechangeandsealevelrise. SeveralalternativesforsoftshorelinepracticesthatmaybeapplicabletoHudsonRiver estuaryshorelineshavebeenidentified.Sitebysiteevaluationisneededtodetermine whichalternativeisappropriateforanindividualsite.Evaluationshouldincludestructural needstoprotectproperty,opportunitiestoenhanceandprotecthabitat,communityneeds, andtheeffectsofsealevelriseontheshorelineandnearshoreareas.Formore informationsee: http://www.hrnerr.org/hudsonriversustainableshorelines/ ExpectedBenefits ShorelinesareimportanttothehealthoftheestuaryandthepeopleoftheHudsonRiver Valley.Protectionofexistingpropertyandinfrastructureandredevelopmentofhistoric industrialshorelinescreateopportunitiestoenhancehumanuseoftheriverandtoprotect andrestorehabitat.Usingecologicallyenhanced,engineeredshorelinepracticescan resultinmunicipalshorelinesthatincorporatedesignfeaturesthatservemultiple communityneeds(e.g.,riveraccess,protectionofproperty)whileprotectingorenhancing habitat. Alternativeshorelinetreatmentsthatstabilizeshorelinebutretainorenhancehabitat qualityforfish,invertebratesandaquaticplantswillminimizetheimpactsofdevelopment andnecessaryshorelineprotectionprojects.Anatural,softshorelinevegetatedwithnative uplandandintertidalplantswillreducewaveenergyandprovidestablehabitatforfish, invertebrates,birdsandamphibians.Anaturalshorelinealsofacilitatesinteraction betweenuplandhabitatsandtheestuary,allowinglandanimalstointeractwiththe estuary.Additionally,softorlivingshorelinesalsoareselfmaintaining,oftencostinglessto maintaininthelongtermthanhardshorelines. 39 ImplementProgramstoControlInvasivePlantSpecies Invasivespeciescanbeharmfultonativeplantandanimalcommunities.Whenintroduced, theyoftendisplacenativespecies,alterhabitatanddisruptnaturalecologicalprocesses.
39Caulk,etal.,2000.

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DRAFT InvasiveplantandanimalspeciesarefoundthroughouttheHudsonRiverestuary watershed.Whiletheycanbefoundinrelativelypristineareas,habitatsthathavebeen alteredordisturbedinsomewayareparticularlyvulnerable.Therefore,restorationof conditionsthatsupportnativespeciesoverinvasivesshouldbeconsideredwhere appropriateasanothermethodofinvasivespeciesmanagement.Whererestorationof historicconditionsisnotpractical,eradicationmethods,includingmechanicalremoval, biocontrolandapplicationofherbicidesareconsidered.Determiningthebeststrategyor combinationofstrategiestomanageinvasivespeciesshouldbeevaluatedonacasebycase basis. Strategiesusedtomanageinvasivespeciesinclude: Preventionofnewintroductions Earlydetectionandcontrol,beforeinvasivesbecomeestablishedandwidespread Longtermcontainment,controlanderadicationofestablishedinvasives Manipulation(restoration)ofenvironmentalconditionsfavoringnativeover invasivespecies PreventionandEarlyDetectionofInvasiveSpecies Manyexoticandinvasivespecieshavebeenintroducedandhavebecomeapermanentpart oftheHudsonRiverestuaryecosystem,oftentothedemiseofnativespecies. 40 Controlor eradicationofalienorinvasivespeciescanbedifficult,costlyandunreliable. 41 Therefore, preventingtheintroductionofanexoticandknowninvasivespeciesisoftenthebestand onlywaytoprotectanecosystemfrompotentialundesirableeffects. Creatingahealthyandresilient futurefortheHudsonRiverestuary dependsonsuccessful implementationoftheactionsin thisplan.However,additional effortsoutsidethescopeofthis plan,includingidentifyingand preventingintroductionsofnew invasiveandexoticspecies,are equallyimportanttoachieving thatgoal.Regulatoryagencies andallHudsonRiverestuary stakeholdersshouldpartnerto takeactionstopreventknown AnareainTivoliNorthBay,DutchessCountywas previouslydominatedbyinvasivePhragmites.In2006,this invasivethreats,suchas areawastreatedwithherbicides.Threeyearslater,cattails introducingAsiancarpandother andothernativemarshplantcommunitieshaverecovered. invasivesfrombecoming
40 41

Strayer, et al., 2005. Strayer, et al., 2005.

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DRAFT establishedintheHudsonRiver. ControlofInvasiveStrainsofCommonReed(Phragmitesaustralis) UsingherbicidestocontrolPhragmitesintidalmarsheshasbeenunderwayattheTivoli BaysWildlifeManagementAreainDutchessCounty,StockportCreekWildlifeManagement AreainColumbiaCounty,RamshornMarshinGreenCountyandattheIonaIslandState ParkinRocklandCounty,NY.Herbicidescontainingglyphosatehavebeenusedateachsite tokillPhragmitesandallownativevegetationtorecover.Recoveryofnativevegetationis beingmonitoredatallsites. AdditionalexperimentalcontrolofPhragmiteshasbeenimplementedbymanagersof ConstitutionMarshnearColdSpring,NY.SmallPhragmitesstandswerecutdown,and blackplasticwasusedtocovertheareainanattempttokillanyremaininglivingplant material.Aswithallinvasivecontrolmethods,includingapplicationofherbicides,annual monitoringandmaintenanceisrequiredforseveralyearsbeforeprojectsuccesscanbe determined. ControlofWaterChestnut(Trapa natans) Controlofwaterchestnutwillbea componentofsomesidechannel restorationprojects.Lowenergy contiguousbackwatershavebeen identifiedascandidatesidechannel restorationsites.Intheirexisting condition,thesesitesaredominated bywaterchestnutduringthesummer growingseason.Restoration/creation ofsidechannelconditionsatthese siteswillneedtoaltertheflow Waterchestnut(Trapanatans)coversshallow,low regimestoencouragethereductionof flowareasoftheHudsonRiver.Thewaterssurfacein waterchestnutandthereturnof TivoliSouthBayisnotvisiblethroughtheinvasive nativesubmergedaquaticvegetation. plantinlatesummer. ClimateChangeConsiderations Climatechangeandanticipatedsealevelrisewillaltertherolesofmanyplantspeciesin theHudsonRiverestuaryecosystem.Theroleofplantcommunities,includinginvasive species,inbuildingupmarshesassealevelrisesmayaffectinvasivespeciesmanagement goals.Forexample,Phragmitesisknowntobuildupmarshesmorequicklythannative vegetation.Therefore,theexistenceofPhragmitesmaycontributetopreservationof HudsonRivertidalmarshes,requiringtheneedtoreevaluatePhragmitesmanagement goals.Atthesametime,thismustbebalancedwiththegoalofmaintainingnative biodiversity,whichmaybelostasaresultofPhragmitesinvasion. Page34

DRAFT ExpectedBenefits Benefitsfrominvasivespeciescontrolincludemaintainedorincreasedbiodiversity, increasedproductivityandrestorationofnativecommunities.Inthecaseofeliminating waterchestnutinsidechannelsites,waterqualityimprovementswillimprovefishhabitat, provideforageopportunitiesforpredatoryfishandbirdsandprovideopenwaterrefuge forwaterfowl.

V.IMPLEMENTINGRESTORATIONPROJECTS
RESTORATIONPRINCIPLES

Restorationprojectscanbecomplexandchallenging.RestoreAmericasEstuaries(RAE),a nongovernmentalorganizationthatsupportsestuarinerestorationeffortsthroughoutthe coastalUnitedStateshaspublishedPrinciplesofEstuarineHabitatRestoration,containing 14principlesintendedasaguideforalltypesofrestorationactivities,includinglargescale andcommunitybasedrestorationprojects.Theprinciplesfocusonsciencebaseddecision making,publicinvolvementandprojectgoalsettingandsuccessevaluation.Theprinciples canbefoundat: http://www.estuaries.org/principlesofestuarinehabitatrestoration.html ThisHudsonRiverEstuaryHabitatRestorationPlanalsoadoptsbyreferencethemore detailedguidanceontherestorationprocessdevelopedbytheSocietyforEcological Restoration(SER),foundinthefollowingtwopublications: TheSERPrimeronEcologicalRestoration(2004) GuidelinesforDevelopingandManagingEcologicalRestorationProjects(2005) TheSERPrimeronEcologicalRestorationdefinesrestoration,theroleofrestorationin naturalresourcemanagementandthemanytermsassociatedwiththerestorationprocess. TheGuidelinespublicationprovidesapractical51stepprocessintendedtoguide restorationpractitionersandmanagersthroughindividualrestorationprojects,consistent withTheSERPrimeronEcologicalRestoration. Bothpublicationsandotherresourcesforimplementingecologicalrestorationcanbe foundat:https://www.ser.org/

THERESTORATIONPROCESSANDADAPTIVEMANAGEMENT

Thegoalofrestorationistoimprovetheecologicalconditionsofarestorationsiteor ecosystem.Thisplanproposestodothatbyfocusingonremovingormitigatingstresses placedonpriorityhabitatsintheHudsonRiverestuaryecosystem.Tounderstandthe relationshipsbetweenrestorationdesignsandresultsandtodeterminewhethera restorationissuccessful,projectmanagersmusthaveanindepthunderstandingofthe habitatsbefore,duringandafterrestoration.Inadditiontoevaluatingprojectsuccess,an Page35

DRAFT equallyimportantgoaloftherestorationprocessistolearnasmuchaspossiblefromeach projectandthenapplythoselessonstoimprovefuturerestorationattempts.Theprocessof continuouslyrefiningmanagementtechniquesbasedonlessonslearnedfrompreviousand ongoingactionsisknownasadaptivemanagement.TheUnitedStatesGeologicSurvey identifiesadaptivemanagementas: asystematicapproachforimprovingnaturalresourcemanagement,withanemphasis onlearningaboutmanagementoutcomesandincorporatingwhatislearnedintoongoing management. 42 Therestorationprocessincludesseveralstepsthatidentifybaselineconditions,develop andimplementmanagementactions,thenevaluatesuccessandapplylessonslearnedto modifyexistingorfuturerestorationactions.Therefore,therestorationprocessoutlined belowisaframeworkforincorporatingadaptivemanagementintorestorationprojects. Thediagrambelowshowsfourgeneralstepsintherestorationprocess: 1. BaselineDataandProjectDesignProjectmanagerscollectenvironmentaldata fromtherestorationsiteandareferencesitetoidentifyprojectgoals,design appropriateandfeasibleactionsformeetinggoalsanddevelopamonitoringsystem formeasuringsuccess.Collectionofbaselinedataisessentialtotheprocessof understanding theresultsofrestorationactionsandimprovingthereliabilityof futureefforts. 2. ConstructionProjectmanagersimplementprojectdesigns. 3. ProjectMonitoringPhysicalandbiologicalresponseismonitoredandcompared withreferenceandbaselineconditionstodetermineprojectsuccess. 4. LessonsLearnedandAdaptiveManagementInformationandexperiencegainedis publishedandmadeavailabletoimprovethequalityandreliabilityofongoingand futurerestorationprojects.

42

http://www.usgs.gov/sdc/adaptive_mgmt.html

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DRAFT Figure6:TheRestorationProcess
3rdProjectMonitoring 4th LessonsLearnedand AdaptiveManagement

Project 1
1st BaselineDataand ProjectDesign

ModifyExistingand FutureProjects

2ndConstruction

VI.COORDINATINGRESTORATIONPARTNERSHIPS, FUNDINGANDDECISIONMAKING

Themanyresourcesnecessarytofullyimplementthisplancannotbeprovidedbyasingle agency,municipalityornongovernmentalorganization.Smaller,individualprojects,such asinstallinganeelladder,arerelativelyinexpensiveandeasytoimplementbyasingle group.However,otherlargerscaleprojectssuchassidechannelrestorationormajordam removalsarelikelytorequiregreaterfinancialresourcesandinvolveseveralregulatory agencies.Implementingtheselargescaleandcomplexrestorationprojectswillrequire partnershipsbetweenstateandfederalagencies,alongwithlocalandregional municipalitiesandnongovernmentalorganizations. Furthermore,tounderstandandachieveregionalandecosystemscalegoals,largeand smallindividualprojectsshouldbecoordinatedintoasingle,effectiveandefficient restorationeffort.Coordinationofthemanystakeholders,resourcesandactivitiesinvolved inrestoringtheHudsonintoasingleecosystemscaleeffortcouldbeoneofthegreatest challengestoimplementingthisplan.However,arecentexampleofsuchacoordinating effortistheHudsonRaritanEstuaryComprehensiveRestorationPlan(HRECRP),which hassuccessfullyidentifiedrestorationprioritiesforthelowerHudsonRiversouthofthe TappanZeeBridgeandfortheNewYorkNewJerseyharborareaandhasfacilitated collaborationrestorationprojectsonalargescale. 43

COLLABORATIVEDECISIONANDPOLICYMAKING

Aconsistentandcoordinateddecisionmakingprocessisneededtoestablishandpreserve theintegrityofrestorationeffortsontheHudson.Onewaytoachievethiscoordination wouldbetocreatearestorationadvisorycommittee.Committeememberswouldinclude stakeholderrepresentativesregulatoryagencies,localmunicipalities,nongovernmental


43http://www.nan.usace.army.mil/harbor/index.php?crp

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DRAFT organizationsanduserandadvocacygroupsandcommercialtransportationinterests theAmtrak,CSXandMetroNorthrailroads.Thecommitteewouldoverseeimplementation oftherestorationactionsidentifiedintheHudsonRiverEstuaryHabitatRestorationPlan, consistentwithbestpracticesandwithguidanceprovidedbynationalrestoration organizationssuchasRestoreAmericasEstuaries(RAE)andtheSocietyforEcological Restoration(SER).Thecommitteealsowouldworkwithregulatoryagenciestoidentify ecosystemwidegoals,identifyanddirectresearchneeds,andestablishprioritiesand standardsfordesigningandimplementingproposedrestorationprojects. Duringdevelopmentofthisplan(HudsonRiverEstuaryHabitatRestorationPlan),agroup ofnongovernmentalorganizationsbeganapartnershiptosupportimplementationof federallysupportedrestorationactivitiesintheHudsonRiverestuarythroughanexisting agreementbetweentheUnitedStatesArmyCorpsofEngineers(USACOE),theNewYork StateDepartmentofEnvironmentalConservation(NYSDEC)andtheNewYorkState DepartmentofState(NYSDOS).ThepartnershipwilldevelopaHudsonRiverestuary comprehensiverestorationplan(CRP)toaddressawiderangeofmanagementissuesthat includeimprovingwaterqualityandriveraccessandpreservingandrestoringthe Hudsonsscenery.TheHudsonRiverEstuaryHabitatRestorationPlanandtheHudson RiverEstuaryProgramsActionAgendawillbecomethefoundationoftheCRP,allowing themtoreceivefederalmatchingfundsforlocallysponsoredprojects.DevelopingtheCRP willrequirecollaborativedecisionandpolicymakingbyagencyandnonagencypartners, ensuringbroadcommunityandstakeholdersupport. Inadditiontoguidingrestorationdecisionmaking,anadvisorycommitteecould coordinatemanypotentialfundingresourcesthatwillcontributetorestorationofthe Hudson.SourcesincludingNaturalResourceDamageClaims(NRD),mitigationfunding, federal(NationalOceanographicandAtmosphericAdministrationandtheUnitedStates FishandWildlifeService)andstatecoastalhabitatrestorationprograms,coastalresiliency programsandNGOgrantprogramsallhavethepotentialtocontributesignificantfunding toimplementthisplan.Ideally,allfundingsourcessupportingrestorationeffortsonthe Hudsonshouldbecoordinatedthroughasinglesetofrestorationfundingguidelines,with thegoalofensuringthatrestorationeffortsarecomplementarytoeachotherand consistentwiththeplanandoverallrestorationgoalsandstandards.

COORDINATINGRESTORATIONFUNDING

Fundingforlargerpartnershipprojects,particularlysidechannelrestorationintheupper river,maybeavailablethroughtheUnitedStateArmyCorpsofEngineersSection206 AquaticEcosystemRestorationandSection1135EnvironmentalImprovementprograms. Thesefederalprogramsprovidesignificantfunding,witha35percentnonfederalmatchto restoreorimproveaquaticresources(206)ortomodifyexistingcorpsprojectstorestore aquaticresources(1135).

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DRAFT

INFORMATIONANDPROJECTCOORDINATION

VII.RESTORATIONSCIENCENEEDSINTHEHUDSON RIVERESTUARY
CURRENTSTATEOFKNOWLEDGE

Everyrestorationprojectoffersanopportunitytofurtherunderstandandrefine restorationtechniquesforongoingandfutureprojects.Itisimperativethatinformation collectedduringtherestorationprocessbeconsolidatedanddisseminatedtoallow individualprojectstocontributetothebodyofknowledgeofrestorationscienceinthe HudsonRiverestuary.Awelladministeredregionalrestorationprogramwillcontinually integrateexperienceatindividualsitestoproducemorereliableandpredictableprojects. 44 ThiscanbeenhancedbycreationofadatabaseofrestorationactivitieswithintheHudson Riverestuary.Thisdatabasewouldincludeallrelevantprojectinformation,including delineationsofsiteboundariesandallecologicalandbiologicaldatacollectedonsiteandat referencesitesduringtherestorationprocess.Informationfrommultiplesiteswillthenbe availableforprogrammanagerstoassessrestorationonasystemwidescaleandfor managersanddesignersoffutureprojects.

UnderstandingoftheHudsonRiverestuaryhasadvancedsubstantiallyinthelast20years, especiallyknowledgeofhabitatlocations,functionsandpatternsofchange.NYSDECs HudsonRiverEstuaryProgram(EstuaryProgram)hassupportedhighresolutionmapping ofthebottomoftheHudsontobetterunderstandtheshapeandcompositionofthese habitats. 45 TheEstuaryProgram,inpartnershipwithotherstate,federalandnon governmentalorganizations,hasalsosupportedmappingandmonitoringofvegetation communitiestotracktheirdistributionovertime.Thesepartnershavealsostudiedsome ofthemanychemicalandbiologicalprocessesinawiderangeofimportanthabitats,from deepmuddychannelstowrackcoveredshorelines.Researchonfishmovementinthe estuaryandoffishcommunitiesinspecifichabitatshashelpedidentifyspawningand feedingareas,andlongtermmonitoringofwaterchemistryhasincreasedunderstanding ofchangingenvironmentalconditionsoverlongperiods,aswellasduringextremeweather eventssuchasdroughtorheavyrainfall.Monitoringandtrackingstudiesoffish,including Atlanticandshortnosesturgeon(federallyendangered),Americanshad,riverherringand stripedbass,haveledtoregulatoryprotectionsand,insomecases,recoveryofmigratory fishpopulations. Muchofthepastandpresentresearchexistsintheformofpublishedandgreyliterature, maps,geographicdatabasesanddatasets.Whilenotcomprehensive,AppendixAprovides alistofessentialinformationparticularlyrelevanttounderstandingHudsonRiverhabitats andtheircontextintheestuary,andtoplanningandevaluatinghabitatrestoration projects.
44Hackney,2000. 45

Bell, et al., 2006; Strayer, et al., 2006; Nitsche, et al., 2010.

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DRAFT

RESTORATIONSCIENCENEEDS

Habitatrestorationisacomplexundertakingthatinvolvesmanipulatingenvironmental conditionswiththeintentofimprovinghabitatandecosystemhealth.Restoringthe habitatsidentifiedinthisplanwillrelyheavilyonpastandcurrentresearchefforts.Itwill alsorequireadditionalresearchtoprovidevitalunderstandingfordesigningand implementingindividualprojects,aswellasimprovingourunderstandingofecosystem healthandrestorationprioritiesastheplanisimplementedandconditionschange.Itis importanttomaintainsupportforrestorationresearchthroughoutimplementationofthis plan.IncreasingourunderstandingofhowtheHudsonshabitatsworkandtheoutcomesof ouractions(restorationefforts)willincreasethelikelihoodofrestorationsuccess. ResearcheffortsontheHudsonRiverestuaryoverthepastseveraldecadeshavebeen implementedbymanyorganizations,includingstateandfederalagencies,collegesand universities,notforprofitresearchinstitutesandconservationorganizations.Continued collaborationandcoordinationbetweentheseorganizationswillhelptosatisfytheongoing researchneedsassociatedwithimplementationofthisplan.Belowarecurrentpriorities foradvancingrestorationscienceontheHudson.Nodoubtotherneedswillemergeinthe futureasthescienceandunderstandingoftheHudsonRiverevolves. ResearchNeedsRelatedtoRestorationActionsProposedinthisPlan Anindepthunderstandingofhabitatstoberestoredisessentialtotherestorationprocess (Figure6).Monitoringofreferencesitesexistingexamplesofhabitatsthatrepresentthe intendedoutcomeofrestorationactionsisneededtosetappropriateandtechnically feasibleprojectgoals,informprojectdesignanddeterminesuccess.Foreachrestoration project,baselineandpostconstructionmonitoringoftherestorationsiteisalsoneededto evaluateprojectsuccess. Inadditiontoprojectspecific and reference-site monitoring,researchisneededtoincrease understandingoftheestuaryandpriorityhabitatslistedinthisplan.Currentresearch needsforeachpriorityhabitataredescribedbelow. ResearchNeedsforIntertidalandShallowHabitatRestoration AsidentifiedaboveandinAppendixA,severalresearcheffortshavealreadycontributedto understandingthephysical,chemicalandbiologicalcharacteristicsoftidalwetlandand shallowwatercommunitiesintheHudson,includingidentifyingandassessingreference wetlandsusingamodifiedhydrogeomorphicmethod. 46 Preliminaryresearchneedshave beenidentifiedfordiscreethabitattypes,whichwillimproveoursuccessindesigning effectiverestoration.Withtime,thislistofresearchneedswillberefined. Researchonsidechannelrestorationisneededtobetterunderstandthebiological communitiesaswellasthephysical characteristics ofthesehabitats.Thisworkwillincrease thelikelihoodofsuccessandenableprojectmanagerstoestablishappropriateand technicallyfeasibleprojectgoals.Additionalsidechannelresearcheffortsinclude:
46

Findlay, et al., 2002; Mihocko,etal.,2003

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DRAFT StudyofsedimenttransportintheupperandlowerHudsonRiverestuaryandin tributariestotheHudson: o Howwillsedimenttransportregimesintheestuaryandintributariestothe Hudsonaffectthedesignofrestoredsidechannels? o Howwillsidechannelrestorationaffectmaintenanceofthefederal navigationchannel? Studyofthehabitatrequirementsoffishandwildlifethatwilluserestoredhabitats: o Whataretheoptimalhabitatconditionsforfish,birdsandinvertebratesthat willusesidechannelsforreproduction,refugeandforageduringmultiplelife stages,seasonsandextremeweatherevents(highdischarge)? Studyandidentificationofphysicalconditionsinsidechannelsrequiredfor restorationofpriorityhabitats: o Whatphysicalconditionsinsidechannelsareneededtosupportpersistent, highfunctioningfreshwatertidalwetlands,tidalmarsh,shorelinesand vegetatedshallowhabitats? Studyofeffectsofclimatechangeandsealevelriseonprojectdesigns,longevity andbenefits: o Howwillsealevelriseaffectrestoredhabitats? o Whatarethedesignoptionsformaintainingrestoredhabitatsduringsea levelrise?

ResearchNeedsforTidalWetlandRestoration Opportunitiestorestoretidalwetlandsotherthansidechannelsarefoundthroughoutthe estuary.Invasiveplantcontrolisidentifiedasarestorationactionforthesehabitatsinthis plan.However,fillremovalandrestorationofhydrologicconnectionsbetweentheriver andisolatedwetlandsarealsopotentialrestorationactionsthatcanbeimplementedunder thisplan.SeveralcurrentresearchprojectsidentifiedinAppendixA.arerelevanttodesign, implementationandevaluationofthesetypesofrestorationprojects.Additionalresearch needsinclude: Studyofsedimentaccretionpatternsintidalmarshes: o HowrapidlydoessedimentaccumulateinHudsonRivertidalmarshes,and howdoesitvarywithplantcommunities? o Howwillchangingclimateconditionsaffectsedimentaccumulationand marshelevationrelativetosealevelinHudsonRivertidalmarshes? (ResearchaddressingthisquestioniscurrentlyunderwayattheHudson RiverNationalEstuarineResearchReserveandCaryInstituteforEcosystem Studies.) Studyoffeasibilityofincreasinghydrologicconnectionsbetweenthemainstemof theHudsonRiverandmarshesimpoundedbyconstructionofrailroadlines: o Whatistheengineeringfeasibilityandcostofincreasingthetidalexchange betweenimpoundedmarshesandtheHudsonRiver? o Whataretheecologicalbenefitsofsuchanaction?

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DRAFT o Howwouldthedecisiontoimplementsuchaprojectbeaffectedbysealevel rise?

ResearchNeedsforSubmergedAquaticVegetationRestoration Submergedaquaticvegetation(SAV)ontheHudsonhasbeenstudiedfordecades.Its importantroleinproductionoffood,maintainingwaterqualityandprovidinghabitathas beenwelldocumented. 47 InventoriesofallSAVintheestuaryhaveshownthatsomeSAV bedswillexpandandcontractfromyeartoyear. 48 Duringthesummerof2012,almostno SAVwasfoundintheriver.ItispossiblethatthelossofSAVwascausedbyinriver conditionsresultingfromtropicalstormsIreneandLeeinfall2011. RestorationofSAVisanimportantcomponentofthesuccessoftheshallowwater restorationproposedinthisplan.Designofshallowwaterhabitatsassociatedwithside channelsorotherlocationsshouldincludeconditionsthatsupportSAVgrowth.However, successfulrestorationofSAVhasprovendifficultinlocationswhereithasbeenattempted. ItisalsoimportantthatattemptstorestoreSAVdonotleadtoincreasesintheinvasive waterchestnut.AdditionalresearchneedsforSAVrestorationinclude: StudyoftheenvironmentalconditionsthatsupportSAVgrowthntheHudsonRiver: o WhathydrologicconditionsaremostsupportiveofSAVgrowth? o Howdothoseconditionsrelatetoconditionspreferredbywaterchestnut? o AretherehydrologicconditionsthatwillsupportSAVgrowthwhileresisting waterchestnutinvasion? Experimentalstudiestodevelopandrefinemethodsforestablishingnativeaquatic plantcommunities: o Whatarethebestmethods,timingandconditionsformaximizing transplantedSAVinarestoredshallowwaterhabitat? o WillSAVcolonizerestoredshallowwaterhabitatswithoutadditional planting? ResearchNeedsforShorelineRestoration NYSDECsSustainableShorelinesProjectissupportingseveralstudiestodetermine shorelinemanagementoptionsappropriateforwhenshorelineprotectionfromerosion andprolongedfloodingisnecessary.Thesuiteofresearchincludesclimatechangeandsea levelrisemodeling,engineeringanalysisofalternativeshorelinetreatments,modelingand analysisofshorelineenergyregimesintheestuary,inventoriesofengineeredandnatural shorelines,highresolutionmappingofuplandsadjacenttotheshore,habitatvalueof naturalandengineeredshorelinesandeconomicandsocialanalysis.Alistofthemany informationalproductsandpublicationsresultingfromtheongoingprojectarelistedin AppendixA.
47

Korschgen and Green, 1998; Wigand, et al., 2001; Strayer, et al., 2003; Findlay, et al., 2006; Strayer and Malcolm, 2007. 48 Nieder, et al., 2009.

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DRAFT Whereprotectionofshorelinefromerosionorinundationisnotrequired,protectionof adjacentlowlyinglandsisproposedtoallowintertidalandshallowwaterhabitatsto migrateinlandassealevelrises.Researchquantifyingtheamountofuplandavailablefor thisprocessiscurrentlyunderway.However,continuedresearchonhowuplandhabitats willtransitiontointertidalhabitatsandhowthatprocesscanbeenhancedisneeded. Opportunitiestoremoveengineeredshorelines,therebyremovingbarrierstowetland migration,mayalsoexistatlocationswhereengineeredshorelineisnotprovidingahuman benefit,suchasenhancedaccesstotheriverorprotectionofpropertyorinfrastructure. Theengineeringfeasibility,ecologicalbenefitsandimplicationsforfederalnavigation channelmaintenancemustbestudied. ResearchNeedsforTributaryRestoration(fishpassageanddamremoval) Thisplanidentifiesremovalofderelictdamsasawaytorestorehabitatformigratoryfish andrestoresedimenttransportprocesses.Severaleffortshavebeenmadebyresearchers andnaturalresourceagenciestoinventoryalldamsintheHudsonRiverestuarywatershed andtoprioritizethemforremovalorinstallationoffishpassage. 49 Oneknownbenefitof damremovalistherestorationofsedimenttransportdownstream.However,therelative roleofdownstreamsedimenttransportinbuildingshallowsandtidalwetlandsatthe mouthsoftributariescomparedtosedimentsuppliedbytheHudsonRiverisunknownand likelyvariesbetweensites.Whilethebenefitsofdamremovaloninstreamhabitatsiswell established, 50 researchonthepotentialbenefitsofrestoredsedimenttransportin tributariesonshallowwaterandintertidalhabitatsoftheHudsonisneeded. AdditionalResearchNeeds Theresearchneedsforrestorationidentifiedinthisplanareintendedtoinform restorationdesigntoincreasethesuccessandreliabilityofhabitatrestorationprojectsin theHudson.Theseneedsfocusonunderstandingthephysical,chemicalandecological processandcharacteristicsofspecifichabitattypes.However,additionalresearchis neededtoincreaseunderstandingofhowhabitatsareusedbyspecificspeciesoffishand wildlife.SeveralstudiessupportedbyNYSDEChavebeencompletedorarecurrently underwaytomaphabitats(SAV,tidalwetlandsandbenthicmapping).NYSDECisalso supportingstudiesoffishandwildlifeuseofmappedhabitats,includingtaggingand trackingstudiesofAtlanticsturgeon,shortnosesturgeon,Americanshadandriverherring (alewivesandbluebackherring).Informationfromtrackingstudiesisbeingusedto identifyhabitatpreferencesfortheseadultfishforfeedingandspawningactivities. However,itislikelythatlarvalandjuvenilelifestagesoftheseandotherfishhavedifferent habitatneeds,whichcouldalsovaryasriverconditionschange.Studyofhowlarval Americanshadusebackwaterandshallowhabitatshasbegun.Additionalstudiesthat characterizehow,whereandwhenfishspeciesusedifferenthabitatsisneeded.Aresearch agendacontainingseveralproposedstudiessupportingAmericanshadrecoverycanbe

49 50

Schmidt and Cooper, 1996; Halavik and Orvis, 1998. Ligon, et al., 1995; Stanley and Doyle, 2003.

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DRAFT foundinthedocument,2010HudsonRiverAmericanShad:AnEcosystemBasedPlanfor Recovery. 51

VIII.CONCLUSION

Forcenturies,theHudsonRiverestuaryhasbeenacenterpieceoftheculturaland economicdevelopmentofNewYorkandthenation.Theriverwascriticaltotheeconomy andcultureofNativeAmericansbeforetheColonialera.AfterEuropeanarrival, transportationontheHudsonsupportedmanytradesandindustries,fromthefurtradeof the1600stoindustrialproductiontoday.Townsandcitieswithtransportationconnections alongthebanksoftheriverflourished.Thebountyofitswaterscontinuestosupport robusteconomicandrecreationalopportunities.ThescenicbeautyoftheHudsonhas inspiredgenerationsofartistsandcontinuestodaytoattractandinspireitscitizens,new residentsandtouristsfromaroundtheworld. However,manyyearsofdevelopmentandneglectledtoaslowbutsignificantdeclinein environmentalqualityintheriver.Developmentofriverfronts,wharfs,improvementof thenavigationchannelandconstructionofrailroadsdestroyedoreliminatedimportant habitatsthatsupportedtheriversfishandwildlife.Theriverwasusedtodisposeof industrialwastes,invasivespecieswereintroduced,andfisheryresourceswereover harvestedincoastalwaters.RecognizingthehealthoftheHudsonRiverisvitaltothe healthoftheregionanditspeople,localcitizensalongwithstateandfederalagencies beganworktoreversethetrendandimprovethehealthoftheHudson.Today,therivers recoveryisreflectedinimprovedwaterqualityandreducedpollution.However,many challengesremain.FishpopulationsdependentontheHudsonremainatalltimelows. Importanthabitatsthatsustainproductivityandbiodiversityremainlostordegradedand aneverexpandinghumanpopulation,alongwithclimatechangeandsealevelrise,are creatingnewstressestodayandwillintothefuture. Thishabitatrestorationplanidentifiesopportunitiestocontinuerecoveryofthehealthof theHudsonRiverestuary,whileplanningforandadaptingtoanticipatedclimatechange andsealevelrise.Restorationofhabitatsthroughactionsinthisplanwillpreserveand restorehabitatsimportanttotherecoveryoffishandwildlifepopulationsandtothemany humanbenefitsnatureprovides.Thesesameactionsarealsopracticalstrategiesfor protectingshorelinecommunitiesfromlossesduetosealevelriseandintensestorm eventsandcanhelpguidelocalwaterfrontrevitalizationefforts.Actionsdescribedinthis planwillrestorenaturalsystemsthatwillimprovetheproductivityandbiodiversityofthe HudsonRiverestuarywhilestrengtheningtheecologicalandeconomicresiliencyofthe river,itscommunitiesandNewYorkState.

51

Hattala, 2010

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DRAFT Kelly,JohnR.,andM.A.Harwell.1990.Indicatorsofecosystemrecovery.Environmental Management.Vol.14,pp.527545. Kiviat,Erik.2010.PhragmitesmanagementsourcebookforthetidalHudsonRiverand northeasternstates.HudsoniaLtd.Annandale,NewYork. Korschgen,CarlE.andWilliamL.Green.1988.Americanwildcelery(Vallisneriaamericana): Ecologicalconsiderationsforrestoration.U.S.FishandWildlifeService,Fishand WildlifeTechnicalReport19.Jamestown,ND:NorthernPrairieWildlifeResearch CenterHomePage.http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/literatr/wildcel.htm (Version16JUL97) Lever,Christopher.1996.Naturalizedfishesoftheworld.Pages105106.AcademicPress. ISBN0124447457.SanDiego. Levinton,JeffreyS.,M.Doal,A.StarkeandS.Kuhn.2011.Restorationofoysterstothe TappanZeeHaverstrawBayRegion.FinalreporttotheNewYorkStateDepartmentof EnvironmentalConservation.MOUno.AM06800. Ligon,FranklinK.,WilliamE.Dietrich,andWilliamJ.Trush.1995.Downstreamecological effectsofdams.BioScience.March,Vol.45,No.3,pp.183192. Machut,LeonardS.,KarinE.Limburg,RobertE.Schmidt,andDawnDittman.2007. AnthropogenicimpactsonAmericaneeldemographicsinHudsonRivertributaries, NewYork.TransactionsoftheAmericanFisheriesSociety163:19991713. McMahon,T.E.,andG.F.Hartman.1989.Influenceofcovercomplexityandcurrentvelocity onwinterhabitatusebycohosalmon(Oncorhynchuskisutch).CanadianJournalof FisheriesandAquaticSciences46:15511557. Mihocko,G.,E.Kiviat,R.E.Schmidt,S.E.G.Findlay,W.C.NiederandE.Blair.2003.Assessing ecologicalfunctionsofHudsonRiverfreshtidalmarshes:referencedataandamodified hydrogeomorphic(HGM)approach.ReporttotheNewYorkStateDepartmentof EnvironmentalConservation,HudsonRiverEstuaryProgram.HudsoniaLtd., Annandale,NewYork. Miller,Daniel,J.Ladd,andW.Nieder.2006A.ChannelMorphologyintheHudsonRiver Estuary:HistoricalChangesandOpportunitiesforRestoration.InHudsonRiver FishesandTheirEnvironment,ed.J.R.Waldman,K.E.Limburg,andD.L.Strayer,29 38.Bethesda,Maryland:AmericanFisheriesSociety,Symposium51. Miller,Daniel,C.Bowser,andJ.Eckerlin.2006B.ShorelineClassificationintheHudson RiverEstuary,unpublished,NYSDECHudsonRiverNationalEstuarineResearch Reserve.GeospatialDataavailableatNYSGISClearinghouseHudsonRiverEstuary ShorelineTypehttp://gis.ny.gov/gisdata/inventories/details.cfm?DSID=1136. Page47

DRAFT Neckles,H.A.,M.Dionne,D.M.Burdick,C.T.Roman,R.BuchsbaumandE.Hutchins.2002.A monitoringprotocoltoassesstidalrstorationofsaltmarshesonlocalandregional scales.RestorationEcology.Vol.10No.3,pp.556563. NewYorkStateSeaLevelRiseTaskForce.ReporttotheNewYorkStateLegislature, December31,2010. Nieder,WilliamC.,S.Hoskins,S.D.Smith,andS.E.G.Findlay.2009.Distributionandspatial changeofHudsonRiverestuarysubmergedaquaticvegetation:implicationsfor coastalmanagementandnaturalresourceprotection.In:RemoteSensingand GeospatialTechnologiesforCoastalEcosystemAssessmentandManagement.Xiaojun Yang(ed.)SpringerVerlag.pp259278. Nitsche,F.O.,T.C.Kenna,andM.Haberman.2010.Quantifying20thcenturydepositionin complexestuarineenvironment:AnexamplefromtheHudsonRiver.Estuarine, CoastalandShelfScience,Vol.89,pp.163174. NYSERDAClimAIDTeam.2010.IntegratedAssessmentforEffectiveClimatechange AdaptationStrategiesinNewYorkState.C.Rosenzweig,W.Solecki,A.DeGaetano,M. OGrady,S.Hassol,P.Grabhorn,Eds.NewYorkStateEnergyResearchand DevelopmentAuthority,17ColumbiaCircle,Albany,NY12203. Pace,M.L.,S.E.G.Findlay,andD.Fischer.1998.Effectsofaninvasivebivalveon thezooplanktoncommunityoftheHudsonRiver.FreshwaterBiology 39:103116. Reschke,C.1990.EcologicalCommunitiesofNewYorkState.NewYorkNaturalHeritage Program,Latham,NewYork. RestoreAmericasEstuaries(RAE).2002.Anationalstrategytorestorecoastaland estuarinehabitat.http://www.estuaries.org/images/stories/docs/policy legislation/nationalstrategy.pdf. SaldiCaromile,K.,K.Bates,P.Skidmore,J.Barenti,andD.Pineo.2004.StreamHabitat RestorationGuidelines:FinalDraft.CopublishedbytheWashingtonDepartmentsof FishandWildlifeandEcologyandtheU.S.FishandWildlifeService.Olympia, Washington. Schmidt,R.E.,andS.Cooper.1996.Acatalogofbarrierstoupstreammovementofmigratory fishesinHudsonRivertributaries.HudsoniaLtd.,Annandale,NewYork. SocietyforEcologicalRestorationInternationalScience&PolicyWorkingGroup.2004.The SERInternationalPrimeronEcologicalRestoration.www.ser.org&Tucson:Society forEcologicalRestorationInternational. Page48

DRAFT Stanley,E.S.andM.W.Doyle.2003.Tradingoff:ecologicaleffectsofdamremoval. FrontiersinEcologyandtheEnvironment.EcologicalSocietyofAmerica.Vol.1(1), pp.1522. Strayer,D.L.,N.F.Caraco,J.J.Cole,S.Findlay,andM.LPace.1999.Transformationof freshwaterecosystemsbybivalves:acasestudyofzebramusselsintheHudson River.BioScience49:1927. Strayer,D.L.,andL.C.Smith.2001.ThezoobenthosofthefreshwatertidalHudsonRiver anditsresponsetothezebramussel(Dreissenapolymorpha)invasion.Arch. Hydrobiol.Suppl.(MonographicStudies)131:152. Strayer,D.L.,C.Lutz,H.Malcom,K.MungerandW.H.Shaw.2003.Invertebrate communitiesassociatedwithnative(VallisneriaAmericana)andanalien(Trapa natans)macrophyteinalargeriver.FreshwaterBiology.Vol.48,pp.19381949. Strayer,D.L.,E.Blair,N.F.Caraco,J.J.Cole,S.Findlay,W.C.NiederandM.Pace.2005. Interactionsbetweenalienspeciesandrestorationoflargeriverecosystems.Arch. Hydrobiol.Suppl.Vol.155,pp.133145. Strayer,D.L.,M.M.Malcolm,R.E.Bell,S.M.Carbotte,andF.O.Nitsche.2006.Using geophysicalinformationtodefinebenthichabitatsinalargeriver.Freshwater BiologyVol.51,pp.2538. Strayer,D.L.andH.Malcom.2007.Submersedvegetationashabitatforinvertebratesin theHudsonRiverestuary.EstuariesandCoasts.Vol.30,No.2,pp.253264. Strayer,D.L.2009.Twentyyearsofzebramussels:lessonsfromthemolluskthatmade headlines.FrontiersinEcologyandtheEnvironment7:135141. Strayer,D.L.andS.E.G.Findlay.2010.Ecologyoffreshwatershorezones.Aquatic Sciences.Vol.72,pp.127163. Strayer,D.L.,S.E.G.Findlay,D.E.Miller,H.M.Malcom,D.T.Fischer,andT.Coote.2012. BiodiversityinHudsonRivershorezones:influenceofshorelinetypeandphysical structure.AquaticSciences.DOI10.1007/s0002701202529. Swaney,D.P.,K.E.Limburg,andK.Stainbrook.2006.Somehistoricalchangesinthe patternsofpopulationandlanduseintheHudsonRiverwatershed.Pages75112 inJ.R.Waldman,K.E.Limburg,andD.Strayer,editors.HudsonRiverfishesandtheir environment.AmericanFisheriesSociety,Symposium51,Bethesda,Maryland. Thayer,GordonW.,TeresaA.McTigue,RonaldJ.Salz,DavidH.Merkey,FelicityM.Burrows, andPerryF.Gayaldo,(eds.).2005.Sciencebasedmonitoringofcoastalhabitats, Page49

DRAFT volumetwo:toolsformonitoringcoastalhabitats.NOAACoastalOceanProgram DecisionAnalysisSeriesNo.23.NOAANationalCentersforCoastalOceanScience, SilverSpring,MD.628pp.plusappendices. UnitedStatesArmyCorpsofEngineers.1995.HudsonRiverhabitatrestoration,Hudson Riverbasin:reconnaissancereport.UnitedStatesArmyCorpsofEngineers,NewYork District. Werner,RobertG.1986.FreshwaterfishesofNewYorkState.SyracuseUniversityPress. Syracuse,NY. Wigand,Cathleen,M.Finn,S.FindlayandD.Fisher.2001.Submersedmacrophyteeffects onnutrientexchangesinriverinesediments.Estuaries.Vol.24,No.3,pp.398406. Yozzo,DavidJ.,J.Andersen,M.M.Cianciola,W.C.Nieder,D.E.Miller,S.CiparisandJ. McAvoy.2005.EcologicalprofileoftheHudsonRiverNationalEstuarineResearch Reserve.BarryA.Vittor&Associates,Inc.Kingston,NY.

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APPENDIXA
SELECTEDRESOURCESFORPLANNINGANDEVALUATINGRESTORATION PROJECTSINTHEHUDSONRIVERESTUARY Informationgatheredtodate:

TIDALWETLANDS Projects,InventoriesandDatabases: HudsonRiverNERRtidalwetlandvegetationinventories(NYSDEC,HudsonRiver ResearchNationalEstuarineReserve). Phragmitescontrolprojectsmonitoringreports(NYSDEC,HudsonRiverResearch Reserve) Sentinelsiteforclimatechangemonitoring:longtermbiological(marsh vegetation),surfaceelevationandtidegaugemonitoringinTivoliBaysWildlife ManagementArea/HudsonRiverNERR.(NYSDEC,HudsonRiverResearchReserve) SchodackIslandStateParkwetlandmitigation(NewYorkStateOfficeofParks RecreationandHistoricPreservation) RamshornMarshPhragmitesControlProject(TheNatureConservancy) Publications: Findlay,S.E.G.,E.Kiviat,W.C.Nieder,andE.A.Blair.2002.FunctionalAssessmentofa referencewetlandsetasatoolforscience,managementandrestoration. AquaticSciences.Vol.64,pp.107117. Kiviat,Erik.2010.PhragmitesmanagementsourcebookforthetidalHudsonRiverand northeasternstates.HudsoniaLtd.Annandale,NewYork. Mihocko,G.,E.Kiviat,R.E.Schmidt,S.E.G.Findlay,W.C.NiederandE.Blair.2003. AssessingecologicalfunctionsofHudsonRiverfreshtidalmarshes:referencedata andamodifiedhydrogeomorphic(HGM)approach.ReporttotheNewYorkState DepartmentofEnvironmentalConservation,HudsonRiverEstuaryProgram. HudsoniaLtd.,Annandale,NewYork. Yozzo,DavidJ.,J.Andersen,M.M.Cianciola,W.C.Nieder,D.E.Miller,S.CiparisandJ. McAvoy.2005.EcologicalprofileoftheHudsonRiverNationalEstuarineResearch Reserve.BarryA.Vittor&Associates,Inc.Kingston,NY.

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DRAFT SUBMERGEDAQUATICVEGETATION(SAV) Projects,InventoriesandDatabases: Estuarywideinventoriesandchangeanalyses(1995/97,2002,2007),(NYSDEC, HudsonRiverResearchReserve). http://gis.ny.gov/gisdata/inventories/member.cfm?organizationID=529 Publications: CornellInstituteforResourceInformationSciences(IRIS).2011.HudsonRiverestuary submergedaquaticvegetation2007:FinalreporttotheNewYorkState DepartmentofEnvironmentalConservation/HudsonRiverEstuaryProgramand theHudsonRiverNationalEstuarineResearchReserve. Findlay,Stuart,D.Strayer,M.Bain,andW.C.Nieder.2006.EcologyofHudsonRiver submergedaquaticvegetation.FinalreporttotheNewYorkStateDepartmentof EnvironmentalConservation.CornellUniversity,CollegeofAgricultureandLife SciencesandtheNewYorkStateDepartmentofEnvironmentalConservations HudsonRiverEstuaryProgram. Nieder,WilliamC.,S.Hoskins,S.D.Smith,andS.E.G.Findlay.2009.Distributionand spatialchangeofHudsonRiverestuarysubmergedaquaticvegetation: implicationsforcoastalmanagementandnaturalresourceprotection.In:Remote SensingandGeospatialTechnologiesforCoastalEcosystemAssessmentand Management.XiaojunYang(ed.)SpringerVerlag.pp259278. Strayer,D.L.,C.Lutz,H.Malcom,K.MungerandW.H.Shaw.2003.Invertebrate communitiesassociatedwithnative(VallisneriaAmericana)andanalien (Trapanatans)macrophyteinalargeriver.FreshwaterBiology.Vol.48, pp.19381949. Strayer,D.L.andH.Malcom.2007.Submersedvegetationashabitatforinvertebrates intheHudsonRiverestuary.EstuariesandCoasts.Vol.30,No.2,pp.253264. SIDECHANNELSANDHUDSONRIVERCHANNELMORPHOLOGY Publications: Delucia,MariBeth.2006.Sidechannelrestorationliteraturereview.TheNature Conservancy.http://hrnerr.org Collins,M.J.andD.Miller.2011.UpperHudsonRiverestuary(USA)floodplainchange overthe20thcentury.RiverResearchandApplications.doi:10.1002/rra.1509. Miller,Daniel,J.Ladd,andW.Nieder.2006.ChannelMorphologyintheHudsonRiver Estuary:HistoricalChangesandOpportunitiesforRestoration.InHudsonRiver Page52

DRAFT FishesandTheirEnvironment,ed.J.R.Waldman,K.E.Limburg,andD.L.Strayer, 2938.Bethesda,Maryland:AmericanFisheriesSociety,Symposium51.

SHORELINES Projects,InventoriesandDatabases: MapoftheHudsonRiverbetweenTroyandHudsonCity,NewYork.1890.United StatesArmyCorpsofEngineers.Scale1/20,000 HudsonRiverImprovementCharts.1907UnitedStatesArmyCorpsofEngineers. Scale1/5000 Projects,InventoriesandDatabases: LiDARTopographicElevationPointDataforareasofcoastalNewYorkincluding LongIsland,easternWestchester,andthetidalextentsoftheHudsonRiver.Project developedbytheNationalOceanicandAtmosphericAdministration's(NOAA) CoastalServicesCenterinpartnershipwiththeNewYorkStateDepartmentof EnvironmentalConservation(NYSDEC).Metacanbefoundat: http://gis.ny.gov/elevation/metadata.htm Miller,D.,C.BowserandJ.Eckerlin.2006.ShorelineClassificationintheHudson RiverEstuary,NYSDECHudsonRiverNationalEstuarineResearchReserve. GeospatialDataavailableatNYSGISClearinghouseHudsonRiverestuaryShoreline Typehttp://gis.ny.gov/gisdata/inventories/details.cfm?DSID=1136 Publications: Allen,G.,T.Cook,E.Taft,J.Young,andD.Mosier.2006.HudsonRiverShoreline RestorationAlternativesAnalysis.PreparedbyAldenResearchLaboratory,Inc. andASAAnalysisandCommunications,Inc.fortheHudsonRiverNational EstuarineResearchReserve. http://hrnerr.thewordpressdesigner.com/files/downloads/2012/08/HUDSON-RIVERSHORELINE-RESTORATION-ANALYSIS-FINAL.pdf Blair,E.2012.ProjectOverview.InassociationwithandpublishedbytheHudson RiverSustainableShorelinesProject,Staatsburg,NY12580. http://hrnerr.thewordpressdesigner.com/files/2012/08/SUSTAINABLESHORELINES-OVERVIEW-2012-2-2.pdf Dalton,S.2012.ShorelineUseandPerceptionSurveyReport.Inassociationwithand publishedbytheHudsonRiverSustainableShorelinesProject,Staatsburg,NY 12580.http://hrnerr.thewordpressdesigner.com/files/2012/08/HRSS-ShorelineUsers-Perceptions-Survey-Report-Final.pdf Dalton,S.,Ph.D,2011.HudsonRiverSustainableShorelinesProjectReport:Decision MakingRegardingShorelineDesignandManagement.Inassociationwithand publishedbytheHudsonRiverSustainableShorelinesProject,Staatsburg,NY Page53

DRAFT 12580. http://hrnerr.thewordpressdesigner.com/files/2012/08/DaltonDecisionMaking.pdf Hauser,E.2012.TerminologyfortheHudsonRiverSustainableShorelinesProject.In associationwithandpublishedbytheHudsonRiverSustainableShorelines Project,Staatsburg,NY12580. http://hrnerr.thewordpressdesigner.com/files/2012/08/SustainableShorelineDefinitio nsTerminologyFinal.pdf LandUseLawCenteratPaceLawSchool.2011.HudsonRiverSustainableShorelines Project:LegalFrameworkAnalysis.Inassociationwithandpublishedbythe HudsonRiverSustainableShorelinesProject,Staatsburg,NY12580. http://hrnerr.thewordpressdesigner.com/files/2012/08/Sustainable_Shorelines_Legal _Framework_Pace_LULC_Final.pdf Rella,A.andJ.Miller.2012a.EngineeredApproachesforLimitingErosionalong ShelteredShorelines.InassociationwithandpublishedbyStevensInstitutethe HudsonRiverSustainableShorelinesProject,Staatsburg,NY12580. http://hrnerr.thewordpressdesigner.com/files/2012/08/RellaMiller2012a_Engineerin gLiteratureReview.pdf Rella,A.andJ.Miller.2012b.AComparativeCostAnalysisofTenShoreProtection ApproachesatThreeSitesUnderTwoSeaLevelRiseScenarios.Inassociation withandpublishedbytheHudsonRiverSustainableShorelinesProject, Staatsburg,NY12580. http://hrnerr.thewordpressdesigner.com/files/2012/08/Comparative-CostAnalysis.pdf Strayer,D.L.andS.E.G.Findlay.2010.Ecologyoffreshwatershorezones.Aquatic Sciences.Vol.72,pp.127163. http://springerlink.com/content/147526m7134jnt48/fulltext.pdf Strayer,D.L.,S.E.G.Findlay,D.E.Miller,H.M.Malcom,D.T.Fischer,andT.Coote.2012. BiodiversityinHudsonRivershorezones:influenceofshorelinetypeand physicalstructure.AquaticSciences.DOI10.1007/s0002701202529. http://www.springerlink.com/content/3743002603785389/ VanLuven,D.2011.EconomicTradeoffsbetweenShorelineTreatments:PhaseI AssessingApproaches.InassociationwithandpublishedbytheHudsonRiver SustainableShorelinesProject,Staatsburg,NY12580. http://hrnerr.thewordpressdesigner.com/files/2012/08/VanLuvenEconomicTradeoffs .pdf TRIBUTARYSTREAMSANDBARRIERMITIGATION Projects,InventoriesandDatabases: InventoryofbiologicallyimportantstreambarriersintheHudsonRiverestuary watershed.ReporttotheNYSDEC,HudsonRiverEstuaryProgram(TheNature Conservancy,indevelopment) Page54

DRAFT Publications: Halavik,Tom,andCurtOrvis.1998.ReporttotheHudsonRiver/NewYorkBight EcosystemTeam,FishPassageSubgroup,sitevisitsto11HudsonRiverTributaries. UnitedStatesFishandWildlifeService. Machut,LeonardS.,KarinE.Limburg,RobertE.Schmidt,andDawnDittman.2007. AnthropogenicimpactsonAmericaneeldemographicsinHudsonRiver tributaries,NewYork.TransactionsoftheAmericanFisheriesSociety163:1999 1713. Schmidt,R.E.,andS.Cooper.1996.Acatalogofbarrierstoupstreammovementof migratoryfishesinHudsonRivertributaries.HudsoniaLtd.,Annandale,NewYork. Schmidt, R. E., C. M. OReilly, and D. Miller. 2009. Observations of American Eel using an upland passage facility and the effects of passage on the population structure. American Journal of Fisheries Management. vol. 29. pp 715-720. ESTUARYBOTTOM Projects,InventoriesandDatabases: BenthicMappingDataNYSDECHudsonRiverEstuaryProgramandHudsonRiver NationalEstuarineResearchReserve.GeospatialdataavailableatNYSGIS Clearinghouse.http://gis.ny.gov/gisdata/inventories/details.cfm?DSID=1136 Publications: Bell,RobinE.,RogerD.Flood,SuzanneCarbotte,WilliamB.F.Ryan,CiciliaMcHugh,Milene Cormier,RoelofVersteeg,HernryBokuniewicz,VickiLynnFerrini,JoanneThissen, JohnW.LaddandElizabethA.Blair.2006,BenthichabitatmappingintheHudson Riverestuary.inJ.LevintonandJ.Waldman(editors),TheHudsonRiverEstuary, CambridgeUnivPress.,pp5164. Nitsche,F.O.,T.C.Kenna,andM.Haberman.2010.Quantifying20thcenturydeposition incomplexestuarineenvironment:AnexamplefromtheHudsonRiver. Estuarine,CoastalandShelfScience,Vol.89,pp.163174. Strayer,D.L.,M.M.Malcolm,R.E.Bell,S.M.Carbotte,andF.O.Nitsche.2006.Using geophysicalinformationtodefinebenthichabitatsinalargeriver.Freshwater BiologyVol.51,pp.2538. SEALEVELRISEANDECOSYSTEMRESILIENCY HighResolutionTopographicMaps HudsonRiverLiDARData.http://www.orthos.dhses.ny.gov/

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DRAFT FloodZones FederalEmergencyManagementAgency(FEMA)floodmaps. http://www.fema.gov/national-flood-insurance-program/map-service-center WATERQUALITYANDENVIRONMENTALDATA HudsonRiverEnvironmentalConditionsObservingSystem(HRECOS):longterm, estuarywide,waterqualitymonitoringpartnership.http://www.hrecos.org SystemWideMonitoringProgram(SWMP):longtermweatherandwaterquality monitoringatHRNERRcomponentsites.NYSDEC,HudsonRiverNationalEstuarine ResearchReserve.http://cdmo.baruch.sc.edu/ HudsonRiverSaltFrontData.UnitedStatesGeologicalSurvey. http://ny.water.usgs.gov/projects/dialer_plots/saltfront.html FISHERIESANDFISHHABITAT Projects,InventoriesandDatabases: Youngofyear(YOY)herringmonitoringdata(NYSDECHudsonRiverFisheriesUnit) Stripedbassmonitoring(NYSDECHudsonRiverFisheriesUnit) Atlanticandshortnosesturgeontracking(NYSDECHudsonRiverFisheriesUnit) Americanshadtracking(NYSDECHudsonRiverFisheriesUnit) Longriversurveys(HudsonRiverUtilities) LarvalAmericanshadhabitatuseandconditionstudy(SUNYESF) EelMonitoringProgram(NYSDEC,HudsonRiverEstuaryProgramandHRNERR) Blackbassandwalleyetracking(NYSDECFisheriesUnitsRegions3and4) Publications: Heimbuch,D.2010.DistributionofselectedfishspeciesoftheHudsonRiver.Preparedby:AKRF Inc.fortheNewYorkStateDepartmentofEnvironmentalConservation. Keller,W.T.1995.UseofCoxsackieCovebylargemouthbass(Micropterussalmoides),abrief history.NewYorkStateDepartmentofEnvironmentalConservation. RESTORATIONPLANNINGANDIMPLEMENTATIONGUIDANCE Publications: Bain,M.,J.Lodge,D.J.Suszkowski,D.Botkin,R.Diaz,K.Farley,J.S.Levinton,F.Steimle,andP. Wilber.2007.TargetecosystemcharacteristicsfortheHudsonRaritanEstuary:Technical guidancefordevelopingacomprehensiveecosystemrestorationplan.AreporttothePort AuthorityofNY/NJ.HudsonRiverFoundation,NewYork,NY.106pp. Page56

DRAFT Cairns,J.R.,P.V.McCormickandB.R.Niederlehner.1993.Aproposedframeworkfor developingindicatorsofecosystemhealth.HydrobiologiaVol263,pp.144. Kelly,JohnR.,andM.A.Harwell.1990.Indicatorsofecosystemrecovery.Environmental Management.Vol.14,pp.527545. Korschgen,CarlE.andWilliamL.Green.1988.Americanwildcelery(Vallisneriaamericana): Ecologicalconsiderationsforrestoration.U.S.FishandWildlifeService,Fishand WildlifeTechnicalReport19.Jamestown,ND:NorthernPrairieWildlifeResearch CenterHomePage.http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/literatr/wildcel.htm (Version16JUL97) Neckles,H.A.,M.Dionne,D.M.Burdick,C.T.Roman,R.BuchsbaumandE.Hutchins.2002.A monitoringprotocoltoassesstidalrstorationofsaltmarshesonlocalandregional scales.RestorationEcology.Vol.10No.3,pp.556563. RestoreAmericasEstuaries(RAE).2002.Anationalstrategytorestorecoastaland estuarinehabitat.http://www.estuaries.org/images/stories/docs/policylegislation/national-strategy.pdf. SocietyforEcologicalRestorationInternationalScience&PolicyWorkingGroup.2004.The SERInternationalPrimeronEcologicalRestoration. https://www.ser.org/resources/resources-detail-view/ser-international-primer-onecological-restoration SocietyforEcologicalRestorationInternational.2005.GuidelinesforDevelopingand ManagingEcologicalRestorationProjects.https://www.ser.org/resources/resourcesdetail-view/guidelines-for-developing-and-managing-ecological-restoration-projects Stanley,E.S.andM.W.Doyle.2003.Tradingoff:ecologicaleffectsofdamremoval. FrontiersinEcologyandtheEnvironment.EcologicalSocietyofAmerica.Vol.1(1), pp.1522. Thayer,GordonW.,TeresaA.McTigue,RonaldJ.Salz,DavidH.Merkey,FelicityM.Burrows, andPerryF.Gayaldo,(eds.).2005.Sciencebasedmonitoringofcoastalhabitats, volumetwo:toolsformonitoringcoastalhabitats.NOAACoastalOceanProgram DecisionAnalysisSeriesNo.23.NOAANationalCentersforCoastalOceanScience, SilverSpring,MD.628pp.plusappendices.

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