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A synchronous generator operating at a lagging power factor has a fairly large positive voltage regulation. A synchronous generator operating at a unity power factor has a small positive voltage regulation. A synchronous generator operating at a leading power factor often has a negative voltage regulation. Normally, a constant terminal voltage supplied by a generator is desired. Since the armature reactance cannot be controlled, an obvious approach to adjust the terminal voltage is by controlling the internal generated voltage Eo = K. This may be done by changing flux in the machine while varying the value of the field resistance RF, which is summarized: 1. 2. 3. 4. Decreasing the field resistance increases the field current in the generator. An increase in the field current increases the flux in the machine. An increased flux leads to the increase in the internal generated voltage. An increase in the internal generated voltage increases the terminal voltage of the generator.

All generators are driven by a prime mover, such as a steam, gas, water, wind turbines, diesel engines, etc. Regardless the power source, most of prime movers tend to slow down with increasing the load. This decrease in speed is usually nonlinear but governor mechanisms of some type may be included to linearize this dependence. A typical speed vs. power plot A typical frequency vs. power plot A similar relationship can be derived for the reactive power Q and terminal voltage VT. When adding a lagging load to a synchronous generator, its terminal voltage decreases. When adding a leading load to a synchronous generator, its terminal voltage increases.

Summarize

When a generator is operating alone supplying the load: 1. The real and reactive powers are the amounts demanded by the load. 2. The governor of the prime mover controls the operating frequency of the system. 3. The field current controls the terminal voltage of the power system.

There are several major advantages to operate generators in parallel: Several generators can supply a bigger load than one machine by itself. Having many generators increases the reliability of the power system. It allows one or more generators to be removed for shutdown or preventive maintenance. A single generator not operating at near full load might be quite inefficient. While having several generators in parallel, it is possible to turn off some of them when operating the rest at near full-load condition

Synchronization

A diagram shows that Generator 2 (oncoming generator) will be connected in parallel when the switch S1 is closed. However, closing the switch at an arbitrary moment can severely damage both generators! Before connecting a generator in parallel with another generator, it must be synchronized. A generator is said to be synchronized when it meets all the following conditions:

The rms line voltages of the two generators must be equal. The two generators must have the same phase sequence. The phase angles of the two a phases must be equal. The oncoming generator frequency is equal to the running system frequency.

If voltages are not exactly the same in both lines (i.e. in a and a, b and b etc.), a very large current will flow when the switch is closed. Therefore, to avoid this, voltages coming from both generators must be exactly the same.

If the phase sequences are different, then even if one pair of voltages (phases a) are in phase, the other two pairs will be 1200 out of phase creating huge currents in these phases.

If the frequencies of the generators are different, a large power transient may occur until the generators stabilize at a common frequency. The frequencies of two machines must be very close to each other but not exactly equal. If frequencies differ by a small amount, the phase angles of the oncoming generator will change slowly with respect to the phase angles of the running system.

If the angles between the voltages can be observed, it is possible to close the switch S1 when the machines are in phase.

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