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World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 54 2011

Investigation of Corrosion under Insulation (CUI) and Prevent it by Nano-Composite Coating
M. Goodarzi, E. Noveiri
Abstract—Corrosion healthy in equipment of big industries such as oil industries as well as the quality of its transmission is an important and basic problem which disregarding of this phenomenon causes to stop production and consequently cost repairing. In this paper a kind of nano-composite coating is used to prevent atmospheric corrosion and under insulation corrosion. This coating that consist of 30 percent of acrylic resin water based and 70 percent of nano-composite as well as the nanometer tunnel (the thickness of tunnels is only a few nano meters) covers the surface completely, so that there is not any microscopic space for air penetration (percolation). In addition to the hydrophobic properties will remove the moisture from the insulation surface. Thus this nano-coating insulation prevents from reaching moisture oil and gas transfer pipeline, also this type of insulation is semi-transparent. In the other hands, its space beneath is visible each time. In order to test this nano-coating, GM9540P test this has been approved as environmental corrosion test was used. After the first stage of test, the surface without coverage was corroded entirely, but the coated part was tested successfully without any effect of corrosion after 24 stages. Although there are numerous ways and materials to create resistance against corrosion, but insulation and anti corrosion properties aren’t considered synchronous; the coverage used in this test includes both properties. Keywords—Nano coating, under insulation corrosion, Transmission pipe Also, transmission of oil and gas production from domestic sources and central Asia's oil resources to refineries and also transmission of petroleum products to country's provinces’ are done by 14 kilometers of pipeline. As was stated aloof, atmospheric corrosion and under. Insulation corrosion are two major reasons of corrosion problems in different industries especially oil, gas and petrochemical industries. [1]. II. CORROSION UNDER INSULATION For Corrosion under insulation is considered one of the largest and the most the most expensive problems for various industries. Annually, it costs many factories and industries a f fortune to build new systems. Corrosion under insulation occurs in the contact area between the metal and insulation. Because this type of corrosion is difficult to detect, it can be very dangerous compared to other types of corrosions. Because the insulation must be removed for inspection of metal surface under insulation, Detection of corrosion under insulation is very difficult and costly. Corrosion of pipes, tanks and equipments that occurs under the insulation, in most cases is due to the type of insulation used. Now we should find the root of problem.Corrosion under insulation is occurred in presence of oxygen and water. When water & oxygen are present in the metal surface, corrosion occurs due to the metal dissolution (an odic effect). This chemical process is balanced by reduction of oxygen. The rate of corrosion under insulation depends on type of insulation, the availability of oxygen, the impurities of water, temperature and heat, transfer properties of metal surface and the condition of metal surface of being dry or wet. {2}In absence of oxygen, corrosion is neglect able {3}Although carbon and low alloy steels typically have the lowest corrosion rates in alkaline environment, but Ned chloride ions (-cl) under the cover causes a local hole localized pitting.If the sulfur and nitrogen oxides, which are acidic, penetrate through the impurities inside the water or air inside the insulation, or if the water is acidic General Corrosion occurs. Some times impurities of water or air, specially nitrate ions No3 cause external stress corrosion crack SCC under the cover in carbon or low alloy steels. Mentioned phenomena, especially when the processes of being alternatively dry and humid environments increase the concentration of impurities, is more significant {3}.The problem comes from this fact that due to the conditions of the insulation, pipes , tanks and the other equipments suffers from corrosion under insulation. Understanding this problem is simple. Difference in Temperature is always observed between the insulation and its field, where the insulation is applied. Regardless of how tightly the insulation wrapped




N Iran, according to our climate and climate variability, there are many corrosive areas. It's interesting to know the Persian Gulf and Omen sea waters are one of the most corrosive waters in the world. Equipments in the water work, including fixed facilities such as jetties and the oil platforms & mobile devices such as tankers, naval frigates and forest's are put under severe corrosion. Iran’s central dessert, and industrial environment North's rainy atmosphere. And south's entremets heat and dust conditions provide suitable field of corrosion for facilities. There's no doubt corrosion costs are high in the industry. For example and based on statistics, cost of corrosion in oil and gas sector in Iran was estimated about 511.7 million dollars in 1979. Iran annually spends 1.5 to 2 million dollars on replacement of corroded pants in this industry. Mean while, pipe is extremely important and special attention must be exposed due to its high potential corrosion. Existence of 17 thousands of kilometers of high pressure gas transmission lines and 79 thousands of kilometers of gas pipeline network clarifies the importance of this discussion.

M. Goodarzi, E. Noveiri are with Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Ahvaz, Iran (e-mail:


[11.{4} water can be funded from eternal recourses such as rain or liquids resulted from condensation. corrosion problems are likely to see less. gas and petro chemical are facing. Insulation and coating of pipes and vessels is done to prevent corrosion. enabled the manufacturers to overcome the problems of first generation of water – based litters. current and rate have decreased exponentially. When the warm air quickly cools in contact with the insulation.Water –based coatings reduce the amount of volatile organic compounds. single and multi.Also 40 to 60 percent of maintenance costs related to the corrosion of pipelines is because of corrosion under the insulation. and then reach the maximum density and continuity using the brush and the process of spontaneous formation of electrostatic. temperature increasing. easier cleaning fewer workers exposed to reports of organic components’ . V. [5. Also.based coatings cause reduced risk of fire . Engineering and Technology 54 2011 around pipes or imposed on it . zirconium. silica and carbon. 12] thermal insulation coatings. etc) with very low volume fractions of about 0. water. {5} the main effect of coating in this type of corrosion. Since pipeline plays a vital role in these industries. Of course progress made in recent years in order to prepare polymers based on water. could prepare the initial condition for creating stress Corrosion Cracking and Pitting corrosion {1}. eliminating the corrosive environment. mechanical properties and molecular prevention. on the order of Europe Federation of corrosion in September 2003 shows that the most significant factor of extension of holes in refineries and chemical inductions due to the corrosion process. corrosion test results obtained from the nano composite (poly anoxic Aniline) clay. But in open systems.In a nano composite product. cycles of becoming dry and wet continuously. because in this part high temperature suddenly placed in contact with the lower one. too.World Academy of Science.5 to 5 percent . is not general but is due to the corrosion under the insulation. could also jeopardize the safety of personal and facilities. in to the fields of polymer (epoxy closed systems. situ polymerization and melt interaction or for med in situ. 449 . on top of causing costs resulted from repairs and stopping production. protection and control of this structure are vital. Corrosions under insulation. and thus by emergence of moisture and oxygen in the air. Corrosion in underground pipelines in the major problem which the strategic industries of oil. dibenzophenes. and finally reducing the costs of overall coating process. is providing adequate circular space for assembly and remaining the water or dust phenomenon in the southern oil region in Iron .Traditional insulation contain chloride . also reduce the risk of firing. It occurs due to water evaporation under insulation and water concentrations associated with impurities . Run the correct coatings. The most basic rule in beat transfer is that the heat transfers to the cold region.scale dimension. Covering material cam absorb water. thus decreases corrosion rate. EFFECT OF COATING TEMPERATURE Metal surface temperature plays an important dual role in corrosion under insulation. in creasing the corrosion rate . polystyrene. Fraction or defect in steel and other coated metals which is known as under the insulation corrosion. 11. And some times they’re used by a field to figurehead in nano. the heat transfer rate is reduced and moisture is released or in other words.In addition of reducing emission levels of volatile organic compounds darning application. nylon. When this kind of coatings were marketed for the first time. Stability. Type of insulation just affects the speed and quality of the corrosion. Surface covered with traditional insulation such as fiberglass and rock wool traps moisture and prevents the evaporation. III. rust and corrosion occurs. Insulation on the metal surface prevents moisture evaporation and in this case insulation acts as a carrier and more the moisture accumulated in one area to other areas and causes the corrosion formed in a region to be moved elsewhere. is very important in this industry. However. causing accelerated corrosion. Most corrosion resistance studies have been done on composite thin film coatings which have very good thermal stability. 12]These materials include organic silica gel nano particles. can play a role as an electrolyte. condensation occurs. In addition. Research conducted by Exxon Mobil Chemical co. Corrosion under insulation occurs when the moisture becomes in the vicinity. plymyd. high temperature. Reduces useful life of protective coatings. Chemical composition and coating's properties are involving in corrosion. EFFECTS OF COATING Corrosion under all types of insulation is possible. and brings them special properties . makes suitable condition for electro chemical reactions. point formula makers and manufactures could hardly accept how it is possible that point containing water can protect steel . Nano structured layers is formed using the spray . IV. Amino Benzoic acid and inorganic clay particles.layer insulation. and if this exposed to the moisture . accelerates the rate of electrochemical reactions. this causes and accelerates corrosion process. Controlling the corrosion under warm coatings is much more difficult than under cold ones. the chemical compounds such as chloride and sulfate inside the coating. Also if coating doesn't have appropriate overlap and dust particles pass through it. the chloride with the moisture can be appear on the surface of metals such as oil and gas pipeline and due to corrosion. showed that corrosion potential. temperature increasing can cause evaporation. can be a solid layout for protection of background material . For example. keep the temp. Nano coatings sometimes are put on very ting particles for special reason. make the working conditions safer for users and also were able to reduce the costs of all types of coating for manufacturers and users. NANO COATINGS The Nano coatings are a type of thin layers which either their dimensions are in nano level or have a field in which fine particles are dispersed in nano level . in can be creates holes or cracks on the surface. Thus condensation is achieved. there's high temperature difference. process stability and make optimum energy consumption. Warm air holds more moisture than the cold one. polymers and nano particles using dissolution. in the space between the two . are synthesized. but polarization resistance as a function of amount of clay has increased.

{Diagram 2} In the 3rd case of coatings. so that the created coating can act as a three – dimensional protective film on the surface and reduces corrosion. the oil pipe to the desalination plant -1. which are applied on background surface using methods of plasma spraying . corrosion effects have been seen 72 hours after.140 microns). zro2. the sample. hafnium oxide and other protective oxides.Another benefit of coating is its transparent. And as we know the main factor to create rust on the metals is humidity (property of a substance to repel water is said Hydrophobic). the piece was about 987. Two – layer designed coating is placed on the surface in 50 to 80 microns (an average of about 120.017 W/ MK. Recovery and removal cost of insulation systems is very high and traditional insulation create proper environment to absorb moisture and corrosive agent which are effective in corrosion. coated in third mad compared with the bare pipe. Corroded (almost fully) of red rust {diagram 1} In second case coating of 60 microns thickness. CASE STUDY Currently in most industries. Removing used insulation enter irreparable losses to the environment.Maroon with the standard API 5LX GRB was studied. Initially a layer of coating with a thickness of 30 microns was placed on surface of a piece of pipe with referred standard. ASTM 117 on three samples. has water. VII. (Figures 1. and each time for thickness of 100 microns.component system Zinc ethyl silicate. gas and petrochemical) to kill the insulation. respectively. 2. As it's shown on the image. for corrosion protection of painted and metal surfaces . this coating layers are made of diamonds like carbon (DLS). transport equipment and power plants. [Figure 3] next two layers of 30 microns (thickness 60 microns) were placed on the surface. VI. Corrosion resistance and erosion of materials used in gas turbine. the following results were obtained: In this experiment. corrosive effects was started 168 hours after test has begun . the coating got the property of visual inspection. According to the standard ISO 9227. No solvent and no special add –on. In corrosive areas such as south of the country. V2O5. TinAl2O3 . and after 500 hours. This coating completely covers the surface and binds and this means there's no microscopic air (oxygen) penetration which is the main factor of corrosion. With choosing shades translucent color as transparent. First layer’s material type doesn’t differ with the second one. Name composite coatings are bared on standard of ASTM C-518 a very low coefficient of heat transfer and about 0. In addition to preventing corrosion problem. VIII. This coating has hydrophobic properties and prevents moisture to reach the surface of metals.World Academy of Science. so the nano. of coating with thickness of 30 microns.composite coating which was suggested was designed. and dissolution rates in the lower level. This coating. salt concentration 5% and salt spray pressure 2 bar. third mode of approximately 140 microns. vessels or other equipments. the moisture is considered about 50% . [Figure 4] and in the third stage. and temp . Nano technology defines an easy way for corrosion inspection with out the need to remove insulation.In most cases we are forced to Keck the surface of pipes or vessels (especially in oil. This coating is entirely single components and requires. Nano – composites which form coating thin film thickness are Hydrophobic.In corrosion protection of painted and metal surfaces. 7 are 8 show electron microscopy images of second case 60 thickness.based resin and has no contamination on the environment and the staff. due to the superior of it's technology in resins manufacturing. and in mode of a pipe without coating. three. Engineering and Technology 54 2011 Coatings specially increase high temp. not to be any corrosion or rust developed there. in this case the final coating thickness is 375 microns. Surface morphology studies using SEM figures 6. is it's possible to check under the insulation at any time without removing the insulation. includes compact and regular grains with low porosity. jet engines. Tio2 . {diagram3} It can be said certainly .based acrylic resin and 70 percent of SiO2 composite. using 140 microns coating. [Figure 5] After the salt test. This property is very important. CONCLUSION 1.It’s why these coating compare to current systems of corrosion and dust protection. 35 $ c +2. In this study the coating thickness effect was studied too. Pipes were under thermal insulation after a simply epoxy insulation and had internal 220 PSI pressure and 50 C of fluid temperature. TiB2 . which 1 450 . have stronger standards. means it was possible at any time to see under the insulation not to be any corrosion and dust on it . After the inspection it has been determined that the pipes had external corrosion (atmospheric) and corrosion under insulation. 2) the major factor of corrosion is determined to be moisture and dust. Sic. two layers of 60 microns was placed which there was no difference between the maternal of first and the second layer. It's an ideal coating to protect metal surfaces against corrosion because it spend 1000 hours of ASTM B-117 standard test of corrosion successfully with out any corrosion or rust . using 140 microns coating. surface that is insulated by a designed cover includes 30 percent of water. This coating due to its special conditions and insulation directly sticks to the material and protect it. epoxy and polyurethane phenol 275 microns in thickness is used. This thin coating can also prevent corrosive species of entering in to the surface. laser CVD and PVD. can act as an insulator. PROPOSED DESIGNED COVER In this paper anew method is provided to save the problem of corrosion. there was no corrosion up to 1000 hours. On the first case. pipes. because in many insulators we're not able to check the space under them and this is dangerous able to check the space under them and this is dangerous when corrosion occurs under the insulation. and after 500 hours was about 43% invisible rust . so that for the solution of this problem an insulation has been offered which either has a thin layer not to absorb the dust and corrosion – cause microorganisms and either b e thermal $ insulation and in term of inspection be good condition. the layer of epoxy phenol should be applied twice. In this study. this method due to low thermal conductivity.

G. “Drilling Engineering Workbook”. Houston.. Fig.A.2. Bihn. 1090. 3 Coating with a thickness of 30 microns was placed on surface of a piece of pipe with referred standard Fig. (1986). Cooper. Millheim.. “An Interactive Simulator for Teaching and Research”. (1996).. Baker Hughes INTEQ. tanks and other equipments. 2 corrosion under insulation in maroon desalting plants Fig. A. Engineering and Technology 54 2011 reduces significantly the costs and problems of corrosion under insulation on pipelines... 5 Third stage.World Academy of Science.. (1995). Cooper.United States of America Bourgoyne.. It can be concluded from the several performed tests that the nano – composite thin layers of coating are so compressed that the porosity is very low and corrosion causes can not penetrate the layers. “Applied Drilling Engineering”. Chenevert. (1995). 1. 1. E. This coating has very effective penetration on cavity surface group which coating operation is alone on them. M. version1. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Gulf Publishing Company. Petroleum Computer Conference. G. F. USA. SPE 30213. PTRI co Baker Hughes INTEQ. 4.. 3. Vol.TX Lyons. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] “Drilling Simulator User Manual”. 4 two layers of 30 microns (thickness 60 microns) was placed on the surface. TX 77073. K. two layers of 60 microns (140 microns) 451 .. Houston. Richardson. A. “Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering”.G. Young. [4] [5] Fig.

8.electron microscopy images (SEM) of second case 60 thickness (down) and without coating (top) Diagram 3 Comparison of three coatings model 452 . 6 Electron microscopy images (SEM) third mode of approximately 140 microns Diagram 2 second case coating of 60 microns thickness Fig.World Academy of Science. Engineering and Technology 54 2011 Diagram 1 First case coating of 30 microns thickness Fig. 7.